WorldWideScience

Sample records for moderate physical stress

  1. Parenting stress and child physical health among a low-income sample: The moderating role of child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori

    2015-11-01

    This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. The Stress-Metabolic Syndrome Relationship in Adolescents: An Examination of the Moderating Potential of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan E; Pivarnik, Jim; Pfeiffer, Karin; Maier, Kimberly S; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ewing, Martha

    2016-10-01

    The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status. Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = -.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04). Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.

  3. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcos Piva Demarzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs, and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as mindful walking and mindful movement are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one’s dispositional mindfulness (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress and have discuss potential practical ways to test these hypotheses.

  4. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891

  5. Mindfulness may both moderate and mediate the effect of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress: a speculative hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as "mindful walking" and "mindful movement" are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses.

  6. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  7. "Don't crack under pressure!"--Do leisure time physical activity and self-esteem moderate the relationship between school-based stress and psychosomatic complaints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    Stressful experiences occupy a central role in most etiological models of developmental psychopathology. Stress alone, however, insufficiently explains negative health outcomes. This raises the question why some children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the development of psychopathological symptoms than others. The primary purpose of this research was to demonstrate whether leisure time physical activity and self-esteem protect against stress-induced health problems. The findings are based on a cross-sectional study of 407 Swiss boys and girls (M=14.01 years). All variables are self-reported. Analyses of covariance were applied to test for main and moderator effects. The findings suggest that school-based stress and psychosomatic complaints are important issues during adolescence. The results show that a higher level of psychosomatic complaints accompanies stress. Surprisingly, psychosomatic complaints and physical activity were unrelated. Likewise, no association was found between physical activity and stress. In contrast, students with high self-esteem reported significantly less complaints and a lower extent of perceived stress. Finally, the results do not support the stress-moderation hypothesis. Neither physical activity nor self-esteem buffered against the detrimental effects of school-based stress on psychosomatic health. The findings lend support to previous research with German-speaking samples but are in marked contrast to Anglo-Saxon studies, which generally support the role of physical activity as a moderator of the health-illness relationship. In this investigation, developmental features and methodological limitations may have accounted for the insignificant results.

  8. The Impact of Escitalopram on Vagally Mediated Cardiovascular Function to Stress and the Moderating Effects of Vigorous Physical Activity: A Randomised Controlled Treatment Study in Healthy Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla S Hanson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20mg in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 minutes of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d=0.48. Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (heart rate decreased: Cohen’s d=0.80; heart rate variability increased: Cohen’s d=0.33. Heart rate during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers.. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease, longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment.

  9. Insulin resistance and its possible personal stress moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Motovilin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, insulin resistance (IR has been actively investigated by experts in various fields. Here we aim to study the effect of stress on the development of IR. Objective. To study the associations between IR and personal stress moderators (self-attitude, locus of control and coping strategies as well as the related performance lifestyles. Methods. The study included 63 patients (16 men; mean age, 48.2 ± 11.7 years. Of these participants, 26 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 10 with impaired glucose tolerance, 6 with impaired fasting glucose and 21 with normal glucose tolerance. The levels of HbA1c and IR ratio were determined using HOMA. Well-known psychological assessment questionnaires were used to assess the effect of personal stress moderators. Results. There was a significant relationship between IR and personal stress moderators. A positive self-attitude was associated with a lower risk of IR (p < 0.05, which can be explained by a decrease in the risk of developing stress. Assertive coping strategies were most pronounced in subjects with a low level of IR (p < 0.05. Personal characteristics also determined an individual’s lifestyle, which may have an impact on the increase in IR. There was an association between high levels of IR and unhealthy alimentary preferences (p < 0.05. Such preferences were also associated with personal characteristics, such as external locus of control, less positive self-attitude and passive coping strategies (p < 0.05. People with high IR rarely engage in a regular physical activity; there was a direct correlation between the frequency of physical activity and assertive coping strategies (p < 0.01. Married participants had high levels of IR (p < 0.05. Conclusion. There were significant relationships between IR and personal stress moderators, such as self-attitude and coping strategies. Besides the direct effects on stress levels, personality traits may also indirectly increase the

  10. Cognitive control moderates parenting stress effects on children's diurnal cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Raffington, Laurel; Schmiedek, Florian; Heim, Christine; Shing, Yee Lee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two weekend days from 53 6-to-7-year-old children. Children completed a cognitive control task and a self-report stress questionnaire with an experiment...

  11. Does intensity of physical activity moderate interrelationships among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine whether perceived intensity of training ... intensity of training and functional capacity with various measures of health. Perceived intensity of training had marginally moderating effects on physical ...

  12. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  13. PERCIVED STRESS AMONG PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS OF ISRA UNIVERSITY

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    Atiq ur Rehman memon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently increasing concern among stress is seen during health care undergraduate students but there is lack of such studies in physical therapy students in Pakistan. Higher stress levels the students in their education the effect of stress in physical therapy students throughout is well documented in western countries. This study aims at assessing the level of perceived stress among physical therapy students of Isra University. Method: It’s a Cross-sectional type of descriptive study that was conducted on hundred physical therapy students of Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, ISRA University, Hyderabad. A Convenient, non-probability technique of sampling is used. All the Physical therapy students were included. Results: Overall response rate was 100%. Moderate level of stress was found in 73% students (scored between 51-75%, severe level of stress was found in 8% students (scored >75% whereas low level of stress was found in 19% of students (scored between 25-50%. Conclusion: The current study presents the level of stress perceived by physical therapy students of Isra University, Hyderabad. The findings of the study revealed higher levels of stress in the physical therapy students. Majority of student perceived moderate stress and about 8% of students reported severe stress. Further detailed and generalized studies are needed to evaluate the causes, effects and coping approaches adapted by the students. Furthermore level of stress should also be correlated with academic performance of the students. Findings of such studies may help to initiate certain strategies that may help students overcome their stress and cope efficiently with the upcoming problems.

  14. Stress vulnerability and the effects of moderate daily stress on sleep polysomnography and subjective sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Helena; Kecklund, Göran; D'Onofrio, Paolo; Nilsson, Jens; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how sleep physiology is affected by naturally occurring high work stress and identify individual differences in the response of sleep to stress. Probable upcoming stress levels were estimated through weekly web questionnaire ratings. Based on the modified FIRST-scale (Ford insomnia response to stress) participants were grouped into high (n = 9) or low (n = 19) sensitivity to stress related sleep disturbances (Drake et al., 2004). Sleep was recorded in 28 teachers with polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphs during one high stress and one low stress condition in the participants home. EEG showed a decrease in sleep efficiency during the high stress condition. Significant interactions between group and condition were seen for REM sleep, arousals and stage transitions. The sensitive group had an increase in arousals and stage transitions during the high stress condition and a decrease in REM, whereas the opposite was seen in the resilient group. Diary ratings during the high stress condition showed higher bedtime stress and lower ratings on the awakening index (insufficient sleep and difficulties awakening). Ratings also showed lower cognitive function and preoccupation with work thoughts in the evening. KSS ratings of sleepiness increased during stress for the sensitive group. Saliva samples of cortisol showed no effect of stress. It was concluded that moderate daily stress is associated with a moderate negative effect on sleep sleep efficiency and fragmentation. A slightly stronger effect was seen in the sensitive group. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Perceived stress and dietary choices: The moderating role of stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Many college students exhibit unhealthy eating behaviors, consuming large quantities of high-fat foods and few fruits and vegetables. Perceived stress has been linked to daily dietary choices among college students; however, this work has been conducted among predominantly white, female populations. The role of perceived stress management in moderating this relationship is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress and dietary choices among a diverse sample of male and female college freshmen and assessed whether perceived ability to manage stress moderated this relationship. 613 students from a large, public university completed an online survey which assessed past week consumption of various foods and beverages (e.g. soda, fast food, fruits, vegetables), as well as perceived stress and ability to manage stress. Hierarchical linear regression examined the association between perceived stress and past week dietary choices, and the moderating effect of perceived ability to manage stress, controlling for demographic variables. Perceived stress was positively associated with past week soda, coffee, energy drink, salty snack, frozen food, and fast food consumption (pmoderated the relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption. Individuals who reported low ability to manage stress consumed greater amounts. Findings indicate greater stress is associated with poor dietary choices among college freshmen. The relationship between stress and sweet snack consumption was exacerbated among those who reported low ability to manage stress. It may be important for college nutrition education programs to focus on the relationship between stress and diet and promote effective stress management techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...

  17. Sociotropic cognition moderates stress-induced cardiovascular responsiveness in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, M D; Jorgensen, R S; Larson, C A; Frankowski, J J; Ewart, C K; White, J

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of sociotropic cognition (SC), a nondefensive need for approval, on stress-induced cardiovascular responsiveness (CVR) in women. Sixty-seven college-age females had blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitored during baseline, anticipation, story-telling (where participants were randomly assigned to a low or high threat condition), and recovery periods. SC showed a positive association with CVR only in the high interpersonal threat context during task and early stages of the recovery periods. SC was positively correlated with such variables as anxiety, ruminative style, dysphoria, and anger. This is the first report examining the moderating effects of SC on interpersonal stress-induced CVR prior to, during, and following a task, using an explicit manipulation of social evaluation. The data help define risk factors for CVR in women, which may aid in the understanding of how emotions and stress affect physical health and well-being.

  18. The influence of mastery on mother's health in middle years: Moderating role of stressful life context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Victoria; Wickrama, K A S; Klopack, Erick; Lorenz, Frederick O

    2018-06-07

    Using data from 416 middle-aged mothers gathered over the course of a decade, this study examined the influence of mastery trajectories (the initial level and change), on change in physical health. Mastery is defined as one's ability to control and influence his/her life and environment to reach a desired outcome or goal. Both the initial level and change in mastery from 1991 to 1994 were associated with decreased physical health problems over the middle years (1991-2001). Contextual moderation of this association by stressful life contexts including negative life events and work-family conflict was investigated. Moderation analysis showed that under conditions of low contextual life stressors, the level and increase in mastery significantly contributed to decreases in physical health problems in middle-aged mothers. Alternatively, conditions of high contextual life stressors inhibited the ability of mastery to influence physical health of mothers, suggesting that the positive health impact of mastery on physical health is mitigated by stressful life experiences. Implications for the need to maintain important personal resources, such as mastery, during times of stress are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Individuals underestimate moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity.

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    Karissa L Canning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the common physical activity (PA intensity descriptors used in PA guidelines worldwide align with the associated percent heart rate maximum method used for prescribing relative PA intensities consistently between sexes, ethnicities, age categories and across body mass index (BMI classifications. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine whether individuals properly select light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA using the intensity descriptions in PA guidelines and determine if there are differences in estimation across sex, ethnicity, age and BMI classifications. METHODS: 129 adults were instructed to walk/jog at a "light," "moderate" and "vigorous effort" in a randomized order. The PA intensities were categorized as being below, at or above the following %HRmax ranges of: 50-63% for light, 64-76% for moderate and 77-93% for vigorous effort. RESULTS: On average, people correctly estimated light effort as 51.5±8.3%HRmax but underestimated moderate effort as 58.7±10.7%HRmax and vigorous effort as 69.9±11.9%HRmax. Participants walked at a light intensity (57.4±10.5%HRmax when asked to walk at a pace that provided health benefits, wherein 52% of participants walked at a light effort pace, 19% walked at a moderate effort and 5% walked at a vigorous effort pace. These results did not differ by sex, ethnicity or BMI class. However, younger adults underestimated moderate and vigorous intensity more so than middle-aged adults (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: When the common PA guideline descriptors were aligned with the associated %HRmax ranges, the majority of participants underestimated the intensity of PA that is needed to obtain health benefits. Thus, new subjective descriptions for moderate and vigorous intensity may be warranted to aid individuals in correctly interpreting PA intensities.

  20. The Association between Belgian Older Adults' Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults' physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults' physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No

  1. Does Organizational and Coworker Support Moderate Diabetes Risk and Job Stress Among Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marilyn B; Gay, Jennifer L; Wilson, Mark G; DeJoy, David M; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2018-05-01

    Examine the moderating role of perceived organizational and coworker support on the relationship between job stress and type 2 diabetes risk among employees. A cross-sectional survey was administered to employees at the workplace. One national retail organization. Baseline data were obtained from 1595 employees in 21 retail stores. Self-reported organizational and coworker support to encourage and fulfill job responsibilities and job stress. Diabetes risk was calculated using age, gender, race/ethnicity, blood pressure, physical activity, weight status, and self-reported diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Multilevel multiple regression was conducted to test the interaction effect of support on the association between job stress and diabetes risk. Mean age was 37.95 years (±12.03) and body mass index was 26.72 (±4.95). Three percent of participants reported diagnosed diabetes. Organizational support was positively associated with coworker support. Both were negatively associated with job stress. Organizational support, but not coworker support, moderated the relationship of job stress with diabetes risk. Participants with greater perceived organizational support had lower diabetes risk scores compared to those with lower perceived organizational support. Organizational support may be a key factor for workplaces to reduce stress and diabetes risk. Further testing of organizations' supportive role on employee health may be helpful in developing future workplace programs.

  2. Moderate altitude but not additional endurance training increases markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.

  3. Adolescent Physical Activity: Moderation of Individual Factors by Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y

    2017-06-01

    Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Wanted: Moderators for International Masterclasses in Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The International Masterclasses in Particle Physics give high school students from around the world the opportunity to become particle physicists for a day. CERN physicists are invited to participate in next year’s Masterclass programme, to be held from 11 February to 23 March 2016.   The International Masterclasses in Particle Physics conclude with a video conference, where students from different countries connect with moderators at CERN to discuss their results.   During a Masterclass, high-school students work with recent data from the LHC experiments under the supervision of physicists. For example, students can rediscover the Z boson or the structure of the proton, reconstruct strange particles or measure the lifetime of the D0 particle. “Students get a taste of how modern physics research works by working directly with particle physicists and using real LHC data,” says Uta Bilow from TU Dresden, coordinator of the International Mas...

  5. Predictors of cognitive and physical fatigue in post-acute mild-moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiehser, Dawn M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy J; Hanson, Karen L; Sorg, Scott F; Orff, Henry; Clark, Alexandra L

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic fatigue (PTF) is a common, disabling, and often chronic symptom following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, the impact of chronic cognitive and physical fatigue and their associations with psychiatric, sleep, cognitive, and psychosocial sequelae in mild-moderate TBI remain poorly understood. Sixty Veterans with a history of mild-moderate TBI and 40 Veteran controls (VC) were administered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, a validated measure of TBI-related cognitive and physical fatigue as well as measures of neuropsychiatric, psychosocial, sleep, and objective cognitive functioning. Compared to VC, TBI Veterans endorsed significantly greater levels of cognitive and physical fatigue. In TBI, psychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbance, and post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) were associated with both cognitive and physical fatigue, while loss of consciousness (LOC) and poor attention/processing speed were related to elevations in cognitive fatigue only. In regression analyses, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and LOC significantly predicted cognitive fatigue, while only post-traumatic stress symptoms and PTA contributed to physical fatigue. Cognitive and physical fatigue are problematic symptoms following mild-moderate TBI that are differentially associated with specific injury and psychiatric sequelae. Findings provide potential symptom targets for interventions aimed at ameliorating fatigue, and further underscore the importance of assessing and treating fatigue as a multi-dimensional symptom following TBI.

  6. A numerical study of internal brick stresses in AGR moderator bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, K., E-mail: kevin.mcnally@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Fahad, M. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tan, E.; Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Hall, G.N.; Marsden, B.J. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for studying the uncertainty in internal brick stresses was developed. • A computationally efficient methodology based upon a surrogate model was utilised. • Uncertainty in material relationships, particularly those related to secondary creep was the dominant source of uncertainty. - Abstract: Physically-based models are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR). These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions, and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Material relationships are primarily based upon data obtained from inspection campaigns at operating reactors. However, the data from trepanning campaigns do not provide information on some of the key relationships and parameters that affect the internal stresses generated within the moderator bricks. In this work we explore how uncertain material property relationships affect the internal brick stresses in early- and late-life. We describe two computer experiments designed to study early- and late-life brick stresses and report the results from global sensitivity analysis of the models. The work makes use of an emulator, a surrogate for the FE model, in order to make the sensitivity analyses computationally feasible.

  7. A numerical study of internal brick stresses in AGR moderator bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, K.; Fahad, M.; Tan, E.; Warren, N.; Hall, G.N.; Marsden, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for studying the uncertainty in internal brick stresses was developed. • A computationally efficient methodology based upon a surrogate model was utilised. • Uncertainty in material relationships, particularly those related to secondary creep was the dominant source of uncertainty. - Abstract: Physically-based models are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR). These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions, and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Material relationships are primarily based upon data obtained from inspection campaigns at operating reactors. However, the data from trepanning campaigns do not provide information on some of the key relationships and parameters that affect the internal stresses generated within the moderator bricks. In this work we explore how uncertain material property relationships affect the internal brick stresses in early- and late-life. We describe two computer experiments designed to study early- and late-life brick stresses and report the results from global sensitivity analysis of the models. The work makes use of an emulator, a surrogate for the FE model, in order to make the sensitivity analyses computationally feasible.

  8. Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions (≅0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target

  9. Keep your eyes open: dispositional vigilance moderates the relationship between operational police stress and stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Jeanette; Krick, Annika; Egloff, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Vigilant coping is characterized by a deep processing of threat-related information. In many cases, vigilant coping increases stress symptoms, whereas avoidant coping decreases negative affect. However, vigilance may be beneficial when stress-eliciting situations involve a risk of injury or escalation as is usually the case in police operations. We investigated the roles of vigilance and cognitive avoidance in police operations in a cross-sectional survey. The participants were 137 students (104 men, M age  = 28.54, SD = 8.04) from the Federal University of Applied Administrative Sciences; 76 of them were already police officers (work experience: M = 12.59 years), and 61 were police officer candidates who had completed a 3- to 6-month police internship. Participants completed a paper-and-pencil survey and reported their operational stress, dispositional vigilance and cognitive avoidance in police operations, and stress symptoms. We found that vigilance was negatively associated with stress symptoms and moderated the relationship between operational stress and stress symptoms. Cognitive avoidance, on the other hand, just missed the level of statistical significance in our test of whether it was positively associated with stress symptoms. Our findings demonstrate that vigilance may protect against the negative consequences of stress in police operations.

  10. Emotional Intelligence, Physical Activity and Coping with Stress in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aziz Dawood A L S U D A N I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in physical activity seems to be connected with better coping with stress and higher level emotional intelligence. The aim of the study is to check if there are any significant correlations between emotional intelligence, physical activity and style focused on the task in coping with stress. The sample was made by 90 adolesc ents, aged from 19 - 21 from Psychology department at University of Szczecin. To check the level of emotional inteligence was used polish version of Emotional Intelligence Questionaire. To check te level of physical activity was used s hort form of Internati onal Physical Activity Questionaire. To find out what kind of style is used by adolescents with coping with stress was used Polish version of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. There were signifficant correlations between physical activity an d task oriented coping, avoidance, social diversion, emotional intelligence (p<0.05. Regression analyses showed that task oriented coping and social diversion are predictors of physical activity. Results of one way Anova showed that the task - oriented copi ng, social diversion, walking, moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity, physical actrivity (in MET/min, emotional intelligence, identifying emotions and using emotions in practice of the high PA group were significantly higher (p<0.05 than in t he low PA group.

  11. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  12. Strength through adversity: Moderate lifetime stress exposure is associated with psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-12-01

    Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps < .05). In conclusion, moderate stress exposure was associated with indicators of psychological resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Social stress, obesity, and depression among women: clarifying the role of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of stress in the association among physical activity, obesity, and depression among women. The extent to which physical activity moderated these relationships was also examined. Data from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3235) and multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the effects of chronic stress, material hardship, racial discrimination, and physical activity on obesity and depression among African American, Caribbean Black and White women. Stress was not related to body mass index (BMI) for African American or White women, but chronic stress was associated with higher BMI for Caribbean Black women. Stress was associated with depressive symptoms, but there was variation by the type of stressor under consideration. Physical activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and lower BMI, but the relationships varied by type of stressor and race/ethnicity. Physical activity moderated the effect of chronic stress on depressive symptoms and BMI, but only for African American women who reported high levels of chronic stress. Among White women, physical activity moderated the effect of racial discrimination on BMI for those who reported experiencing both high and low levels of discrimination. This study was the first to document physical activity as a moderator in the relationship among stress, depression, and obesity using a nationally representative sample of racially/ethnically diverse women. Findings provide insight into the role of stress in relation to depression and obesity while highlighting heterogeneity among Black Americans.

  14. Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Carlbring, Per; Harvey, Richard; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  15. History of sexual trauma moderates psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Neria, Yuval; Lovell, Karina; Van Meter, Page E; Petkova, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Moderators of differential psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are rare, yet have crucial clinical importance. We tested the moderating effects of trauma type for three psychotherapies in 110 unmedicated patients with chronic DSM-IV PTSD. Patients were randomized to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE, N = 38), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, N = 40), or relaxation therapy (RT, N = 32). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was the primary outcome measure. Moderator candidates were trauma type: interpersonal, sexual, physical. We fit a regression model for week 14 CAPS as a function of treatment (a three-level factor), an indicator of trauma type presence/absence, and their interactions, controlling for baseline CAPS, and evaluated potential confounds. Thirty-nine (35%) patients reported sexual, 68 (62%) physical, and 102 (93%) interpersonal trauma. Baseline CAPS scores did not differ by presence/absence of trauma types. Sexual trauma as PTSD criterion A significantly moderated treatment effect: whereas all therapies had similar efficacy among nonsexually-traumatized patients, IPT had greater efficacy among sexually traumatized patients (efficacy difference with and without sexual trauma: IPT vs. PE and IPT vs. RT P's < .05), specifically in PTSD symptom clusters B and D (P's < .05). Few studies have assessed effects of varying trauma types on effects of differing psychotherapies. In this exploratory study, sexual trauma moderated PTSD outcomes of three therapies: IPT showed greater benefit for sexually traumatized patients than PE or RT. The IPT focuses on affect to help patients determine trust in their current environments may particularly benefit patients who have suffered sexual assault. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  17. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-stress period, defined by the absence or presence of examinations, respectively. Inquiries were made regarding social support from parents, friends, and class supervisor. During both stress periods, academic stress was associated negatively with sleep quality and positively with sleep reduction. Social support increased sleep quality and lowered sleep reduction. In addition, social support moderated the effects of academic stress on sleep, thus improving sleep quality and lowering sleep reduction. Moderating effects were stronger during a period of high stress. The present study showed that adolescents can benefit from stress moderation through social support by improvements of sleep quality and sleep reduction. Such moderating effects should be taken into account when studying stress and sleep. Implications and recommendations based on these findings are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Effects of Expressive Writing on Psychological and Physical Health: The Moderating Role of Emotional Expressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltom, Kate E.; Mulvenna, Catherine M.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed main effects and moderators (including emotional expressiveness, emotional processing and ambivalence over emotional expression) of the effects of expressive writing in a sample of healthy adults. Young adult participants (N = 116) were randomly assigned to write for 20 minutes on four occasions about deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their most stressful/traumatic event in the past five years (expressive writing) or about a control topic (control). Dependent variables were indicators of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms. No significant effects of writing condition were evident on anxiety, depressive symptoms, or physical symptoms. Emotional expressiveness emerged as a significant moderator of anxiety outcomes, however. Within the expressive writing group, participants high in expressiveness evidenced a significant reduction in anxiety at three-month follow-up, and participants low in expressiveness showed a significant increase in anxiety. Expressiveness did not predict change in anxiety in the control group. These findings on anxiety are consistent with the matching hypothesis, which suggests that matching a person’s naturally elected coping approach with an assigned intervention is beneficial. These findings also suggest that expressive writing about a stressful event may be contraindicated for individuals who do not typically express emotions. PMID:23742666

  19. Teacher Stress Predicts Child Executive Function: Moderation by School Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Raver, Cybele; Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent research has explored relations between classroom quality and child executive function (EF), but little is known about how teachers' well-being, including stress, relates to child EF--a crucial component of self-regulation. We hypothesized that teacher stress is negatively or curvilinearly related to child EF and…

  20. Objective Sedentary Time, Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity, and Physical Capability in a British Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEEVIL, VICTORIA L.; COOPER, ANDREW J. M.; WIJNDAELE, KATRIEN; LUBEN, ROBERT; WAREHAM, NICHOLAS J.; BRAGE, SOREN; KHAW, KAY-TEE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Sedentariness has been proposed as an independent risk factor for poor health. However, few studies have considered associations of sedentary time (ST) with physical functional health independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Community-based men and women (n = 8623, 48–92 yr old) in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer—Norfolk study attended a health examination for objective measurement of physical capability, including grip strength (Smedley dynamometer (kg)), usual walking speed (UWS (cm·s−1)), and timed chair stand speed (TCSS (stands per minute)). Of these, 4051 participants wore an accelerometer (GT1M ActiGraph) for 7 d to estimate time spent in MVPA (MVPA, ≥1952 counts per minute) and ST (ST, 0.05). Conclusions More time spent in MVPA was associated with higher physical capability, but there were no independent ST associations. PMID:26501232

  1. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.

  2. Evaluating personality as a moderator of the association between life events stress and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; O'Riordan, Adam; McMahon, Grace; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible interaction between life events stress and personality in predicting cardiovascular stress responses. Participants (N = 184) completed psychometric measures of life event stress and personality styles and had cardiovascular responses monitored during a standardised stress testing protocol. In adjusted models, the observed blunted association between life event stress and SBP and DBP was moderated by openness; this was more evident at -1SD below the mean openness value. Further, the association between life event stress and TPR vascular resistance was found to be moderated by conscientiousness. In particular, we found conscientiousness at both the mean and 1SD above the mean buffered against the negative impact of life stress on TPR reactivity. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.

  4. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-str...

  5. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. For whom does mindfulness-based stress reduction work? : An examination of moderating effects of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general

  7. Stress and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Recurrence: Moderation or Mediation of Coping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae-Chung; Brothers, Brittany M.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose Diagnosis with breast cancer recurrence often brings high levels of stress. Successful coping to alleviate stress could improve patients' quality of life (QoL). The intervening role coping plays between stress and QoL may depend on the types of stress encountered and the types of coping strategies used. The present study investigates the longitudinal relationships between stress, coping, and mental health QoL. Methods Breast cancer patients recently diagnosed with recurrence (N=65) were assessed shortly after the diagnosis and 4 months later. Four moderation and four mediation models were tested using hierarchical multiple regressions and path analyses. In the models, either traumatic stress or symptom-related stress at recurrence diagnosis was a predictor of mental health QoL at follow-up. Both engagement and disengagement coping strategies were tested as moderators or mediators between stress and QoL. Results Engagement coping moderated the effect of symptom stress on mental health QoL, whereas disengagement coping mediated the effects of both traumatic stress and symptom stress on mental health QoL. Conclusion The findings imply that interventions teaching engagement coping strategies would be important for patients experiencing high symptom stress, while discouraging the use of disengagement coping strategies would be important for all patients. PMID:18347897

  8. [Nearby nature as a moderator of stress during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraliza, José Antonio; Collado, Silvia

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the relation between the amount of nature existing in children's daily environments and the way children deal with stressful events. Every day, children are exposed to situations that cause stress. Taking into account previous studies, it is thought that the greener the place where children spend their time, the better they cope with adversities. Thus, when comparing the stress level of children who are exposed to the same amount of adverse situations, the children who have more frequent daily contact with nature will show less stress than those who do not spend time in nature. This effect from nearby nature is called a buffering effect. The present study provides empirical evidence of the buffering effect caused by the existence of Nature in the residential and the school environment. Therefore, our results show that children who have more access to nature increase their resilience, showing a lower stress level than children whose contact with nature is less frequent.

  9. Physical particularities of nuclear reactors using heavy moderators of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, thermal neutron spectra are formed using moderators with small atomic weights. For fast reactors, inserting such moderators in the core may create problems since they efficiently decelerate the neutrons. In order to form an intermediate neutron spectrum, it is preferable to employ neutron moderators with sufficiently large atomic weights, using "2"3"3U as a fissile nuclide and "2"3"2Th and "2"3"1Pa as fertile ones. The aim of the work is to investigate the properties of heavy neutron moderators and to assess their advantages. The analysis employs the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library and the SCALE program package for simulating the variation of fuel composition caused by irradiation in the reactor. The following main results are obtained. By using heavy moderators with small neutron moderation steps, one is able to (1) increase the rate of resonance capture, so that the amount of fertile material in the fuel may be reduced while maintaining the breeding factor of the core; (2) use the vacant space for improving the fuel-element properties by adding inert, strong, and thermally conductive materials and by implementing dispersive fuel elements in which the fissile material is self-replenished and neutron multiplication remains stable during the process of fuel burnup; and (3) employ mixtures of different fertile materials with resonance capture cross sections in order to increase the resonance-lattice density and the probability of resonance neutron capture leading to formation of fissile material. The general conclusion is that, by forming an intermediate neutron spectrum with heavy neutron moderators, one can use the fuel more efficiently and improve nuclear safety.

  10. Physical particularities of nuclear reactors using heavy moderators of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru; Shmelev, A. N. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In nuclear reactors, thermal neutron spectra are formed using moderators with small atomic weights. For fast reactors, inserting such moderators in the core may create problems since they efficiently decelerate the neutrons. In order to form an intermediate neutron spectrum, it is preferable to employ neutron moderators with sufficiently large atomic weights, using {sup 233}U as a fissile nuclide and {sup 232}Th and {sup 231}Pa as fertile ones. The aim of the work is to investigate the properties of heavy neutron moderators and to assess their advantages. The analysis employs the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library and the SCALE program package for simulating the variation of fuel composition caused by irradiation in the reactor. The following main results are obtained. By using heavy moderators with small neutron moderation steps, one is able to (1) increase the rate of resonance capture, so that the amount of fertile material in the fuel may be reduced while maintaining the breeding factor of the core; (2) use the vacant space for improving the fuel-element properties by adding inert, strong, and thermally conductive materials and by implementing dispersive fuel elements in which the fissile material is self-replenished and neutron multiplication remains stable during the process of fuel burnup; and (3) employ mixtures of different fertile materials with resonance capture cross sections in order to increase the resonance-lattice density and the probability of resonance neutron capture leading to formation of fissile material. The general conclusion is that, by forming an intermediate neutron spectrum with heavy neutron moderators, one can use the fuel more efficiently and improve nuclear safety.

  11. Life Changes and Social Support: Stress and Its Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-17

    enjoy traveling to strange places, prefer the unfamiliar to the familiar, and participate in activities such as skydiving, automobile racing... automobile drivers stop. Other situations are universally salient because their overwhelming characteristics evoke similar stress reactions in large...883 6 November 1979 LIST 7 HRM Officer in Charge Human Resource Management Detachment Naval Air Station Alameda, CA 94591 Officer in Charge Human

  12. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  13. Stress and performance: do service orientation and emotional energy moderate the relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael R; Rasmussen, Jennifer L; Mills, Maura J; Wefald, Andrew J; Downey, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the moderating effect of customer service orientation and emotional energy on the stress-performance relationship for 681 U.S. casual dining restaurant employees. Customer service orientation was hypothesized to moderate the stress-performance relationship for Front-of-House (FOH) workers. Emotional energy was hypothesized to moderate stress-performance for Back-of-House (BOH) workers. Contrary to expectations, customer service orientation failed to moderate the effects of stress on performance for FOH employees, but the results supported that customer service orientation is likely a mediator of the relationship. However, the hypothesis was supported for BOH workers; emotional energy was found to moderate stress performance for these employees. This finding suggests that during times of high stress, meaningful, warm, and empathetic relationships are likely to impact BOH workers' ability to maintain performance. These findings have real-world implications in organizational practice, including highlighting the importance of developing positive and meaningful social interactions among workers and facilitating appropriate person-job fits. Doing so is likely to help in alleviating worker stress and is also likely to encourage worker performance.

  14. Physical activity buffers fatigue only under low chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M; Ditzen, Beate; Linnemann, Alexandra; Skoluda, Nadine; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported complaints in the general population. As physical activity (PA) has been shown to have beneficial effects, we hypothesized that everyday life PA improves fatigue. Thirty-three healthy students (21 women, 22.8 ± 3.3 years, 21.7 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) completed two ambulatory assessment periods. During five days at the beginning of the semester (control condition) and five days during final examination preparation (examination condition), participants repeatedly reported on general fatigue (awakening, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm and 9 pm) by means of an electronic diary, collected saliva samples for the assessment of cortisol and α-amylase immediately after providing information on fatigue and wore a triaxial accelerometer to continuously record PA. Self-perceived chronic stress was assessed as a moderator. Using hierarchical linear modeling, including PA, condition (control vs. examination), sex and chronic stress as predictors, PA level during the 15 min prior to data entry did not predict momentary fatigue level. Furthermore, there was no effect of condition. However, a significant cross-level interaction of perceived chronic stress with PA was observed. In fact, the (negative) relationship between PA and fatigue was stronger in those participants with less chronic stress. Neither cortisol nor α-amylase was significantly related to physical activity or fatigue. Our study showed an immediate short-term buffering effect of everyday life PA on general fatigue, but only when experiencing lower chronic stress. There seems to be no short-term benefit of PA in the face of higher chronic stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering chronic stress when evaluating the effectiveness of PA interventions in different target populations, in particular among chronically stressed and fatigued subjects.

  15. The Moderating Role of Physical Self-Perceptions in the Relationship between Maturity Status and Physical Self-Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E.; Cole, Amy N.; Laurson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the moderating role of physical self-perceptions in the relationship between physical maturity and physical self-worth (PSW). Method: Students in Grades 5 through 8 (N = 241; 57% females; M[subscript age] =12.30 years) completed a questionnaire assessing physical self-perceptions (i.e., perceived sport competence, conditioning,…

  16. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  17. Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo

    Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  20. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  1. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Relations among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress and coping on symptoms of depression in a sample of 713 college students. The results suggest that self-esteem may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in college students through interactions with perceived stress and coping. If an…

  2. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  3. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  4. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    Full Text Available Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113 completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.The results indicated that (i anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  5. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  6. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    -quality prospective research (≥ 7 on a 9-point scale) showed the same trend. Interestingly, some prospective studies (18.2 %) report evidence that PA was positively impacted by stress (behavioral activation). This should not be surprising as some individuals utilize exercise to cope with stress. Several other factors may moderate stress and PA relationships, such as stages of change for exercise. Habitually active individuals exercise more in the face of stress, and those in beginning stages exercise less. Consequently, stress may have a differential impact on exercise adoption, maintenance, and relapse. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining stress management programming with exercise interventions may allay stress-related reductions in PA, though rigorous testing of these techniques has yet to be produced. Overall, the majority of the literature finds that the experience of stress impairs efforts to be physically active. Future work should center on the development of a theory explaining the mechanisms underlying the multifarious influences of stress on PA behaviors.

  7. Moderators and Mediators of the Relationship Between Stress and Insomnia: Stressor Chronicity, Cognitive Intrusion, and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Mullins, Heather M.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess moderators, such as stressor chronicity, and mediators, including stress response in the form of cognitive intrusion and coping behavior, of the prospective association between naturalistic stress and incident insomnia. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Epidemiological. Participants: A community-based sample of good sleepers (n = 2,892) with no lifetime history of insomnia. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Participants reported the number of stressful events they had encountered at baseline, as well as the perceived severity and chronicity of each event. Similarly, volitional stress responses such as coping, as well as more involuntary responses such as cognitive intrusion were assayed for each stressor. Follow-up assessment 1 y hence revealed an insomnia incidence rate of 9.1%. Stress exposure was a significant predictor of insomnia onset, such that the odds of developing insomnia increased by 19% for every additional stressor. Chronicity significantly moderated this relationship, such that the likelihood of developing insomnia as a result of stress exposure increased as a function of chronicity. Cognitive intrusion significantly mediated the association between stress exposure and insomnia. Finally, three specific coping behaviors also acted as mediators: behavioral disengagement, distraction, and substance use. Conclusions: Most studies characterize the relationship between stress exposure and insomnia as a simple dose-response phenomenon. However, our data suggest that certain stressor characteristics significantly moderate this association. Stress response in the form of cognitive intrusion and specific maladaptive coping behaviors mediate the effects of stress exposure. These findings highlight the need for a multidimensional approach to stress assessment in future research and clinical practice. Citation: Pillai V, Roth T, Mullins HM, Drake CL. Moderators and mediators of the relationship between stress and insomnia

  8. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    to show an inverse association. 85.7 % of higher-quality prospective research (≥7 on a 9-point scale) showed the same trend. Interestingly, some prospective studies (18.2 %) report evidence that PA was positively impacted by stress (behavioral activation). This should not be surprising as some individuals utilize exercise to cope with stress. Several other factors may moderate stress and PA relationships, such as stages of change for exercise. Habitually active individuals exercise more in the face of stress, and those in beginning stages exercise less. Consequently, stress may have a differential impact on exercise adoption, maintenance, and relapse. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining stress management programming with exercise interventions may allay stress-related reductions in PA, though rigorous testing of these techniques has yet to be produced. Conclusions Overall, the majority of the literature finds that the experience of stress impairs efforts to be physically active. Future work should center on the development of a theory explaining the mechanisms underlying the multifarious influences of stress on PA behaviors. PMID:24030837

  9. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline: The moderating role of parenting stress and parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hua; Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2018-05-01

    The present study examined the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of parenting stress and parent gender in Chinese societies. Utilizing a sample of 634 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' harsh discipline were transmitted across generations and the strength of transmission varied by the severity of harsh discipline and the parent gender. For both mothers and fathers, high parenting stress intensified the intergenerational transmission of psychological aggression and corporal punishment, whereas low parenting stress weakened the transmission of psychological aggression and even disrupted the transmission of corporal punishment. Moreover, the moderating effects of parenting stress on the transmission were stronger for mothers than for fathers. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of considering how the proximal environmental factors (such as parenting stress) may influence the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress moderates the relationships between problem-gambling severity and specific psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Job Stress and Police Burnout: Moderating Roles of Gender and Marital Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle Ogungbamila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on occupational burnout among police personnel did not pay enough attention to how gender and marital status may influence the connection between job stress and occupational burnout, especially where cultural beliefs direct gender and marital issues in relation to work, such as Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which gender and marital status moderate the relationship between job stress and occupational burnout. Participants were 213 police personnel (male = 120; female = 93 selected from 10 urban and 10 semi-urban police divisions in Nigeria. Their ages ranged between 20 and 54 years (Mage=38.15 years; SD =10.0. Results revealed that job stress significantly predicted occupational burnout such that an increase in job stress led to increase in the level of occupational burnout. Gender moderated the effects of job stress on occupational burnout in such a way that job stress tended to result in higher level of occupational burnout in female than in male police personnel. Similarly, marital status moderated the relationship between job stress and occupational burnout in such a way that police personnel who were married tended to report higher level of occupational burnout in the presence of job stress than those who were single. Implications for gender sensitivity and family supportiveness were discussed.

  13. Exploring the Role of the Built and Social Neighborhood Environment in Moderating Stress and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. Purpose This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. Methods This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N=4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. Results We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress–health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies. PMID:20300905

  14. Organizational Stress as Moderator of Relationship Between Mental Health Provider Adaptability and Organizational Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Dishop, Christopher R; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-10-01

    Community mental health providers often operate within stressful work environments and are at high risk of emotional exhaustion, which can negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between organizational stress, provider adaptability, and organizational commitment. Variables were analyzed with moderated multilevel regression in a sample of 311 mental health providers from 49 community mental health programs. Stressful organizational climate, characterized by high levels of emotional exhaustion, role conflict, and role overload, was negatively related to organizational commitment. Organizational stress moderated the relationship between provider adaptability and organizational commitment, such that those who were more adaptable had greater levels of organizational commitment when organizational stress was low but were less committed than those who were less adaptable when organizational stress was high. Providers higher in adaptability may perceive their organization as a greater fit when the work environment is less stressful; however, highly adaptable providers may also exercise choice that manifests in lower commitment to staying in an overly stressful work environment. Service systems and organizational contexts are becoming increasingly demanding and stressful for direct mental health service providers. Therefore, community mental health organizations should assess and understand their organizational climate and intervene with empirically based organizational strategies when necessary to reduce stressful climates and maintain adaptable employees.

  15. Organizational Stress Moderates the Relationship between Mental Health Provider Adaptability and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E.; Dishop, Christopher; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Community mental health providers often operate within stressful work environments and are at high risk for emotional exhaustion, which can negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. This cross-sectional study examines the relationships between organizational stress, provider adaptability, and organizational commitment. Methods Variables were analyzed using moderated multi-level regression in a sample of 311 mental health providers from 49 community mental health programs. Results Stressful organizational climate, characterized by high levels of emotional exhaustion, role conflict, and role overload, was negatively related to organizational commitment. Organizational stress moderated the relationship between provider adaptability and organizational commitment, such that those who were more adaptable had greater levels of organizational commitment when organizational stress was low, but were less committed than those who were less adaptable when organizational stress was high. Conclusions In the current study, providers higher in adaptability may perceive their organization as a greater fit when characterized by lower levels of stressfulness; however, highly adaptable providers may also exercise choice that manifests in lower commitment to staying in an overly stressful work environment. Service systems and organizational contexts are becoming increasingly demanding and stressful for direct mental health service providers. Therefore, community mental health organizations should assess and understand their organizational climate and intervene with empirically based organizational strategies when necessary to reduce stressful climates and maintain desirable employees. PMID:27301760

  16. Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers: testing moderation and mediation models of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth

    2008-05-01

    The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.

  17. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichkendler, M H; Rosenkilde, M; Auerbach, P L; Agerschou, J; Nielsen, M B; Kjaer, A; Hoejgaard, L; Sjödin, A; Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B

    2014-05-01

    The dose-response effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity, metabolic risk, and quality of life were examined. Sixty-one healthy, sedentary (VO₂max: 35 ± 5 ml/kg/min), moderately overweight (BMI: 27.9 ± 1.8), young (age: 29 ± 6 years) men were randomized to sedentary living (sedentary control group; n = 18), moderate (moderate dose training group [MOD]: 300 kcal/day, n = 21), or high (high dose training group [HIGH]: 600 kcal/day, n = 22) dose physical exercise for 11 weeks. The return rate for post-intervention testing was 82-94% across groups. Weekly exercise amounted to 2,004 ± 24 and 3,774 ± 68 kcal, respectively, in MOD and HIGH. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased (P exercise groups (MOD: 32 ± 1 to 29 ± 1%; HIGH: 30 ± 1 to 27 ± 1%). Peripheral insulin sensitivity increased (P benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Deborah A; Roberts, William C; Schwab-Stone, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the relations among violence exposure, parental warmth, positive school climate, and post-traumatic stress reactions among youth in The Republic of The Gambia, Africa. A school-based survey of youth behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions was administered to 653 students at senior secondary schools in four Gambian communities. Students reported high levels of exposure to violence. Over half of students reported witnessing someone threatened with serious physical harm, beaten up or mugged, attacked or stabbed with a knife/piece of glass, or seriously wounded in an incident of violence. Nearly half of students reported being beaten up or mugged during the past year, and nearly a quarter reported being threatened with serious physical harm. There were no sex differences in levels of exposure. Traumatic stress symptoms were common, especially among females. Both violence witnessing and violent victimization significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms, and positive school climate moderated the relationship. Among youth victimized by violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at low levels of exposure. Among youth who had witnessed violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at high levels of exposure. Community-based programs that bring together parents, schools, and youth may play an important role in combating the negative effects of some types of violence exposure among Gambian youth. Youth experiencing high levels of violent victimization

  19. Family cohesion moderates the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in Japanese adolescent temporary residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D

    2014-12-01

    Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.

  20. Mediation and Moderation of the Relationship Between Combat Experiences and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marshall; Germain, Anne; Campbell, Justin S

    2017-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major health concern among the U.S. military population, affecting up to 12% to 24% of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Sleep disturbances, neuroticism, and childhood trauma have all been associated with the development of PTSD in military populations, especially in relation to combat experiences. The effects of disrupted sleep and post-traumatic stress can affect the physical well-being of soldier and sailors in the field and impact them for years after deployment. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between self-reported measures of combat experiences, PTSD symptoms, sleep, neuroticism, and childhood adversity in an active duty military population. 972 U.S. Navy Sailors serving in Afghanistan were given anonymous surveys that assess scales of combat stressors, PTSD symptoms, sleep problems, neuroticism, adverse child experiences (ACEs), and other covariates. Sleep disturbances were hypothesized as moderators, having an indirect effect on the relationship between combat experiences and PTSD symptoms. Neuroticism scores and ACEs were proposed as moderators of the combat-PTSD symptom relationship. Mediation and moderation models were developed and tested using logistic regressions. Increased number of combat experiences was found to be a significant predictor of PTSD, even when adjusting for all covariates (p moderating factor. These results indicate that the presence of nightmares may partially explain how traumatic combat experiences lead to the development of PTSD. The study also reaffirms neuroticism as risk factor for developing PTSD symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of sleep hygiene and operational stress models in combat situations and may help stress control professionals address risk factors associated with PTSD symptoms. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Correlates of physical activity among young children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaméogo, Charles W; Cichon, Bernardette; Fabiansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of physical activity among young children with moderate acute malnutrition and to identify clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and sociodemographic correlates of physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, 1609 children aged 6-23 months wore......) cpm lower activity, respectively. Elevated serum C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein were both negative correlates of physical activity, and hemoglobin was a positive correlate. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity declines with age in children with moderate acute malnutrition and is also inversely...

  2. During stress, heart rate variability moderates the impact of childhood adversity in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.

  3. Stress and skin disease quality of life: the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T

    2018-04-01

    Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that affect the association between stress and dermatological conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g. sweating, flushing) owing to perceived social consequences (e.g. rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relationship between stress and skin disease quality of life (QoL). Participants [n = 237 (161 female), mean ± SD age 34·18 ± 9·57 years] with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QoL and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Stress moderates the relationship between problematic Internet use by parents and problematic Internet use by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T; Wong, Emmy M Y

    2015-03-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of Problem Behavior and Stress Reduction theories for problematic Internet use (PIU), this study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental PIU and the PIU among adolescents taking into consideration the stress levels of young people. This was a population-based parent and adolescent dyad health survey utilizing a random sampling technique. PIU for both parents and adolescents was measured by the Internet addiction test designed by Young. The stress level of adolescents was assessed using the stress subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression modeling techniques with adjustment for potential confounding factors with analysis on the modification effect of stress levels on the relationship between parent and adolescent PIU. Of the total 1,098 parent and adolescent dyads with usable information, 263 adolescents (24.0%) and 62 parents (5.7%) could be classified as moderate and severe problematic users of the Internet. About 14% (n = 157) of adolescents could be classified with moderate-to-severe stress. Regression analysis results suggested a significant interaction between parental PIU and adolescents' stress levels on adolescent PIU. Stratified regression analyses by stress level resulted in a significant parent and adolescent PIU relationship in the low stress group (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval 1.65-6.14). However, the association between parent and adolescent PIU in the high stress group became insignificant. There was a significant parent and adolescent PIU relationship; however, this relationship is differentially affected by the stress status of the adolescent. The direct implication of the results is that parental Internet use should also be assessed and included as part of the treatment regime for adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  6. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  7. Presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity in older manual workers: a person-centred analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Black, Julie; Lindwall, Magnus; Whittaker, Anna; Balanos, George M

    2017-12-01

    This study used a person-centred approach to explore typologies of older manual workers based on presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity. Older manual workers ( n  = 217; 69.1% male; age range 50-77; M age = 57.11 years; SD = 5.62) from a range of UK-based organisations, representing different manual job roles, took part in the study. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Based on the three input variables: presenteeism, stress resilience and physical activity, four distinct profiles were identified on using Latent Profile Analysis. One group ('High sport/exercise and well-functioning'; 5.50%) engaged in high levels of sport/exercise and exhibited low levels of stress resilience and all types of presenteeism. Another profile ('Physically burdened'; 9.70%) reported high levels of work and leisure-time physical activity, low stress resilience, as well as high levels of presenteeism due to physical and time demands. A 'Moderately active and functioning' group (46.50%) exhibited moderate levels on all variables. Finally, the fourth profile ('Moderately active with high presenteeism'; 38.20%) reported engaging in moderate levels of physical activity and had relatively high levels of stress resilience, yet also high levels of presenteeism. The profiles differed on work affect and health perceptions largely in the expected directions. There were no differences between the profiles in socio-demographics. These results highlight complex within-person interactions between presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity in older manual workers. The identification of profiles of older manual workers who are at risk of poor health and functioning may inform targeted interventions to help retain them in the workforce for longer.

  8. Trait Resilience Moderates the Longitudinal Linkage between Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liuhua; Wang, Yanli; Lin, Chongde; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as the moderating role of trait resilience in that association. Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms, PTG, and trait resilience at 12, 18, and 24 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.…

  9. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  10. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? : Moderating Effects of Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the

  11. Family Roles as Moderators of the Relationship between Schedule Flexibility and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soo Jung; Zippay, Allison; Park, Rhokeun

    2012-01-01

    Employer initiatives that address the spillover of work strain onto family life include flexible work schedules. This study explored the mediating role of negative work-family spillover in the relationship between schedule flexibility and employee stress and the moderating roles of gender, family workload, and single-parent status. Data were drawn…

  12. Predictors and moderators of biopsychological social stress responses following brief self-compassion meditation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2016-07-01

    Arch et al. (2014) demonstrated that brief self-compassion meditation training (SCT) dampened sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase) and subjective anxiety responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), relative to attention and no-instruction control conditions. The present study examined baseline predictors and moderators of these SCT intervention effects. Baseline characteristics included two stress vulnerability traits (social anxiety and rumination) and two potential resiliency traits (non-attachment and self-compassion). We investigated how these traits moderated the effects of SCT on response to the TSST, relative to the control conditions. We also tested how these individual differences predicted TSST responses across conditions in order to uncover characteristics that confer increased vulnerability and resiliency to social stressors. Trait non-attachment, rumination (for sympathetic TSST response only), and social anxiety (for subjective TSST response only) interacted with training condition to moderate TSST responses such that following SCT, lower attachment and lower social anxiety predicted lower TSST stress responses, relative to those scoring higher on these traits. In contrast, trait self-compassion neither moderated nor predicted responses to the TSST. Thus, although SCT had robust effects on buffering stress across individuals with varying levels of trait self-compassion, other psychological traits enhanced or dampened the effect of SCT on TSST responses. These findings support the importance of examining the role of relevant baseline psychological traits to predict sympathetic and subjective responses to social evaluative threat, particularly in the context of resiliency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  14. Social support as moderator of the stress on unemployed people’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Guarino, Leticia Rosaria; Universidad Simón Bolívar; Sojo, Victor; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess moderating role of two indexes of social support in the relationship between the length of unemployment and the physical and mental health of Venezuelan unemployed. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that perceived social support acted as moderator in predicting better general health and lower somatization in the unemployed, acting as buffer of longer periods of unemploy...

  15. Emotional intelligence as a moderator in the stress-burnout relationship: a questionnaire study on nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens-Ekermans, Gina; Brand, Tamari

    2012-08-01

    To investigate inter-relationships between emotional intelligence (EI), work stress and burnout in a group of nurses in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The moderating effect of EI in the stress-burnout relationship and group differences (nurses working in different wards) in burnout were also investigated. Stress and subsequent burnout commonly threaten the occupational health and well-being of nurses in South Africa and elsewhere. Developing EI in nurses may increase individual stress resistance and combat burnout. A cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. Self-report data were used. Survey data were collected from 122 nurses working in different wards at four hospitals from a private hospital group. The Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test, Sources of Work Stress Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to measure EI, stress and burnout, respectively. Consistent inverse relationships between emotional control and management as dimensions of EI, and stress and burnout emerged. A differential effect of high vs. low EI on the stress-burnout relationship was evident. Workload and the work/family interface emerged as significant predictors of burnout. Respondents working in maternity, paediatric and ER wards reported more feelings of personal accomplishment than those working in general wards. Higher EI is significantly related with lower stress and burnout in a sample of South African nurses. The moderator effect of EI in the stress-burnout relationship suggests that enhanced EI may help diminish burnout development when chronic stress is experienced. EI developmental interventions, if introduced in nursing curricula, may increase emotional coping resources and enhanced social skills, which may benefit the long-term occupational health of nurses. This may be relevant in developing countries, where environmental stressors related to the organisational context (budget constraints) and wider social

  16. Stress and multiple sclerosis: A systematic review considering potential moderating and mediating factors and methods of assessing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Buixassa, Laia; Milà, Raimon; Mª Aragonès, Josep; Bufill, Enric; Olaya, Beatriz; Arrufat, Francesc Xavier

    2015-07-01

    Research about the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis has yielded contradictory results. This study aims to systematically review the evidence focusing on two possible causes: the role of stress assessment and potential moderating and mediating factors. The Web of Knowledge (MEDLINE and Web of Science), Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles published from 1900 through December 2014 using the terms "stress*" AND "multiple sclerosis." Twenty-three articles were included. Studies focused on the effect of stress on multiple sclerosis onset ( n  = 9) were mostly retrospective, and semi-structured interviews and scales yielded the most consistent associations. Studies focused on multiple sclerosis progression ( n  = 14) were mostly prospective, and self-reported diaries yielded the most consistent results. The most important modifying factors were stressor duration, severity, and frequency; cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate; and social support and escitalopram intake. Future studies should consider the use of prospective design with self-reported evaluations and the study of moderators and mediators related to amount of stress and autonomic nervous system reactivity to determine the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis.

  17. Stress and multiple sclerosis: A systematic review considering potential moderating and mediating factors and methods of assessing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Briones-Buixassa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis has yielded contradictory results. This study aims to systematically review the evidence focusing on two possible causes: the role of stress assessment and potential moderating and mediating factors. The Web of Knowledge (MEDLINE and Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles published from 1900 through December 2014 using the terms “stress*” AND “multiple sclerosis.” Twenty-three articles were included. Studies focused on the effect of stress on multiple sclerosis onset ( n  = 9 were mostly retrospective, and semi-structured interviews and scales yielded the most consistent associations. Studies focused on multiple sclerosis progression ( n  = 14 were mostly prospective, and self-reported diaries yielded the most consistent results. The most important modifying factors were stressor duration, severity, and frequency; cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate; and social support and escitalopram intake. Future studies should consider the use of prospective design with self-reported evaluations and the study of moderators and mediators related to amount of stress and autonomic nervous system reactivity to determine the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, I C; Joosten, M M; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W A A; Witkamp, R F; Hendriks, H F J

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a placebo-controlled trial. They randomly consumed 2 cans (660 mL, ∼26 g alcohol) of beer or alcohol-free beer immediately after a mental stressor (Stroop task and Trier Social Stress Test). Physiological and immunological stress response was measured by monitoring heart rate and repeated measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), white blood cells and a set of cytokines. After a mental stressor, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were 100% and 176% more reduced at 60 min (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively) and 92% and 60% more reduced at 90 min (P stress recovery period after beer consumption than after alcohol-free beer consumption (P stress response as reflected by decreasing plasma ACTH and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of stress coping strategies with Internet addiction in college students: The moderating effect of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Po; Ko, Chih-Hung; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E; Hsiao, Ray C; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Jin-Jia; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between stress-related coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression in a sample of Taiwanese college students. A total of 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. Internet addiction was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Participants' stress coping strategies and depressive symptoms were measured using the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, respectively. We used t and chi-square tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics, depression, and stress coping strategies between participants with and without Internet addiction. Significant variables were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between stress coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression on the association. Results indicated that use of restraint coping was negatively associated with Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR]=0.886, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.802-0.977), whereas denial (OR=1.177, 95% CI: 1.029-1.346) and mental disengagement (OR=2.673, 95% CI: 1.499-4.767) were positively associated with Internet addiction. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between denial and Internet addiction (OR=0.701, 95% CI: 0.530-0.927). Stress coping strategies and depression are important factors to evaluate when developing intervention programs targeting college undergraduate students with Internet addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Workplace ostracism And workplace behaviors: A moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yang Woon

    2018-05-01

    Workplace ostracism research has examined numerous underlying mechanisms to understand the link between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes. Ostracism has been suggested to be an interpersonal stressor; however, research has not investigated workplace ostracism from a stress perspective. Therefore, the study investigated the mediating effect of perceived stress for the relationships between workplace ostracism and helping behavior, voicing behavior, and task performance. The study also investigated the moderating effect of psychological empowerment for the relationships between perceived stress and behavioral outcomes. The study design was a three-wave self-reported questionnaire. The study sampled 225 full-time employees in South Korea and regression analyses with bootstrapping were conducted to test the moderated mediation models. The bootstrapped 95% CI around the indirect effects did not contain zero; therefore, perceived stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and helping behavior (-.06), voicing behavior (-.07), and task performance (-.07). Further, the moderated mediation analyses found perceived stress mediated the relationships between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes only when individuals perceived low levels of psychological empowerment. The findings suggest that workplace ostracism is a stressor and psychological empowerment can mitigate the negative effects of ostracism on behavioral outcomes.

  1. Is the Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting Stress Mediated or Moderated by Parenting Alliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Camisasca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and moderating effects of parenting alliance on the relationship between marital adjustment, as represented by the dimensions dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, and affectional expression, and maternal and paternal stress. Self-report data were gathered from 236 Italian families (236 mothers: M = 40.9; SD = 4.4 and 236 fathers: M = 42.9; SD = 4.8 of children aged 6–11 years (M = 8.6; SD = 1.7. A set of regression analyses were conducted to examine whether parenting alliance mediates or moderates the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of coparenting as a mediator but not as a moderator of the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. In the case of mothers, parenting alliance mediates the relationships between two dimensions of marital adjustment (dyadic consensus and dyadic cohesion on parenting stress; in the case of fathers, parenting alliance serves as a mediator of the relationship between the marital adjustment (in terms of dyadic satisfaction and parenting stress. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  2. The moderator role of emotion regulation ability in the link between stress and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalio eExtremera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the moderating role of a central core dimension of emotional intelligence – emotion-regulation ability – in the relationship between perceived stress and indicators of well-being (depression and subjective happiness in a sample from a community adult population. The relationships for males and females on these dimensions were also compared. Results revealed that emotion-regulation abilities moderated both the association between perceived stress and depression/happiness for the total sample. However, a gender-specific analysis showed that the moderation effect was only significant for males. In short, when males reported a high level of perceived stress, those with high scores in regulating emotions reported higher scores in subjective happiness and lower depression symptoms than those with low regulating emotions. However, no interaction effect of regulating emotions and stress for predicting subjective happiness and depression was found for females. In developing stress management programmes for reducing depression and increasing well-being, these findings suggest that training in emotional regulation may be more beneficial for males than females. Our findings are discussed in terms of the need for future research to understand the different gender associations and to consider these differences in further intervention programmes.

  3. Moderate-vigorous physical activity across body mass index in females: moderating effect of endocannabinoids and temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1 examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2 explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA.Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039 and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA levels (b = 0.16, p = .049 and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA levels (b = 0.22, p = .004, as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001 and low Harm avoidance (b = -0.16, p<.001.Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity.

  4. PENGARUH KOMITMEN ORGANISASI DAN KOMITMEN PROFESIONALTERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA AKUNTAN PUBLIK:ROLE STRESS SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ardi Agung Heriawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyzed the influence of organizational commitment, professional commitment to job satisfaction of public accountants with a role stress as moderating variable. The samples of this research are 44 public accountants that worked at public accountants office which registered in Yogyakarta and Semarang. The data were analyzed by multiple regression method with moderating variable.The result of this analysis of individual test show that role conflict is not moderated of relation by organizational commitment with job satisfaction. Also with role ambiguity which not moderated or relation by organizational commitment with job satisfaction. The main practical implication of this research is that the public accountants organizational must be attention to jobs expectation of their auditors. Because that is the factors that rising the organizational commitment and in the future it will be to give a high school satisfaction.

  5. Academic Stress and Health: Exploring the Moderating Role of Personality Hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Eid, Jarle; Laberg, Jon C.; Johnsen, Bjorn H.; Bartone, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Attending university is a pleasurable experience for many students. Yet for others it represents a highly stressful time of extensive studying and pressure to meet the requirements of academia. Academic stress is associated with a variety of negative outcomes such as physical illness and deteriorating mental health. This paper explores the…

  6. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua

    2014-12-18

    Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 2005 and 2009 (n = 12,341) were included in this study. Independent variables included work stress (job satisfaction, perceived safety, and perceived safety of possessions), self-reported perceptions towards academics and influence from parents and peers. Frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness were measured for lifetime, last 30 days and 12 months. The moderating effects of academic aspiration, parental, and peer influence were assessed on the relationship between work stress and alcohol use. Any work stress was positively associated with alcohol use over the past 12 months (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23). Stratified analysis found that peer influence significantly moderated the relationship between work stress and alcohol use over the lifetime and past 12 months. Among adolescents with work stress, odds ratios of alcohol use over the lifetime was 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for those with low negative peer influence and 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) for those with high negative peer influence. Problematic drinking patterns were more apparent among high school students who experienced stress at work. Positive peer influence, however, may buffer the adverse effect of work stress on alcohol use.

  7. Moderate Physical Activity and Its Relationship to Select Measures of a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Frank; Dunnagan, Tim; Haynes, George; Moore, Sylvia; Pelican, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In rural communities, physical activity may influence and predict nutritional behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an individual's stage of participation in moderate physical activity was related to select measures of a healthy diet. Data were collected using a mail-in survey from a random sample conducted in the…

  8. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  9. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  10. Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Activity and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Martens, Matthew P.; Murphy, James G.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Smith, Ashley E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Among college students, several studies have found a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use. The current study tested gender, Greek status, and ethnicity as potential moderators of the physical activity-alcohol use relationship. Participants: Participants were college freshmen (n = 310) endorsing alcohol/drug…

  11. Overweight, obesity, steps, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to establish cutoff points for the number of steps/day and minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity in relation to the risk of childhood overweight and obesity and their respective associations. In addition, we aim to identify the amount of steps/day needed to achieve the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children from São Caetano do Sul. METHODS In total, 494 children have used an accelerometer to monitor steps/day and the intensity of physical activity (min/day. The moderate to vigorous physical activity has been categorized according to the public health recommendation (≤ 60 versus > 60 min/day. Overweight or obesity is defined as body mass index > +1 SD, based on reference data from the World Health Organization. The data on family income, education of parents, screen time, diet pattern, and sedentary time have been collected by questionnaires. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves have been constructed. RESULTS On average, boys walked more steps/day (1,850 and performed more min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (23.1 than girls. Overall, 51.4% of the children have been classified as eutrophic and 48.6% as overweight or obese. Eutrophic boys walked 1,525 steps/day and performed 18.6 minutes/day more of moderate to vigorous physical activity than those with overweight/obesity (p 0.05. The cutoff points to prevent overweight and obesity in boys and girls were 10,500 and 8,500 steps/day and 66 and 46 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, respectively. The walking of 9,700 steps/day for boys and 9,400 steps/day for girls ensures the scope of the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity. CONCLUSIONS In boys, steps/day and moderate to vigorous physical activity have been negatively associated with body mass index, regardless of race, family income, education of parents, screen time, diet

  12. Perceived Stress Predicts Lower Physical Activity in African-American Boys, but not Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional relationships of psychological stress, stress coping, and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Amer- ican-American (AA) boys and girls. A community-based sample of 139 AA adolescents (mean age 14.7 years; SD = 1.8 years; 64.7% girls; 30% obese) from Washtenaw County, Michigan was included in this analysis. Psychological stress was assessed using the Daily Stress Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Coping strategies were evaluated using the Schoolager's Coping Strategies questionnaire. Physical activity was measured objectively via accelerometry. Compared to boys, girls participated in approximately 13 fewer minutes of MVPA (p girls reported using a greater number of coping strategies (p = .01) at a greater frequency (p = .04) compared to boys. However, perceived stress significantly predicted lower levels of MVPA (p = .03) in boys only. There are important gender differences in how AA girls perceive, experience, and cope with stress compared to AA boys. Although AA girls reported higher levels of stress and employed more coping strategies, perceived stress was associated with physical inactivity in AA boys, but not girls. Additional research is warranted to better understand the influence of stress on the choice to be physically active in AA youth.

  13. Interactions between stress and physical activity on Alzheimer's disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Yuede

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and stress are both environmental modifiers of Alzheimer's disease (AD risk. Animal studies of physical activity in AD models have largely reported positive results, however benefits are not always observed in either cognitive or pathological outcomes and inconsistencies among findings remain. Studies using forced exercise may increase stress and mitigate some of the benefit of physical activity in AD models, while voluntary exercise regimens may not achieve optimal intensity to provide robust benefit. We evaluated the findings of studies of voluntary and forced exercise regimens in AD mouse models to determine the influence of stress, or the intensity of exercise needed to outweigh the negative effects of stress on AD measures. In addition, we show that chronic physical activity in a mouse model of AD can prevent the effects of acute restraint stress on Aβ levels in the hippocampus. Stress and physical activity have many overlapping and divergent effects on the body and some of the possible mechanisms through which physical activity may protect against stress-induced risk factors for AD are discussed. While the physiological effects of acute stress and acute exercise overlap, chronic effects of physical activity appear to directly oppose the effects of chronic stress on risk factors for AD. Further study is needed to identify optimal parameters for intensity, duration and frequency of physical activity to counterbalance effects of stress on the development and progression of AD. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid, Stress, Exercise, Physical activity

  14. High-risk diagnosis, social stress, and parent-child relationships: A moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t[92]=-3.77, psocial stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cancer-Related Worry and Physical Well-Being in the Context of Perceived Stress in Young Adults with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Uncertainty associated with cancer can foster future-focused worry and ultimately diminish physical well-being, especially among young adult survivors. Stress perceptions might exacerbate the association of worry and physical well-being. Young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171) completed measures of physical well-being, perceived stress, and future cancer-related worry. Perceived stress and future worry were both negatively associated with physical well-being. Perceived stress moderated the relationship; more perceived stress was related to lower physical well-being in those with high worry. Interventions aimed at worry reduction might benefit from reducing global stress perceptions.

  16. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, M age  = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational Stress and Mental Health Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effect of Work Recovery Strategies in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T

    2017-06-12

    The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mediating and moderating effects of work-home interference upon farm stresses and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar Jo; Quirk, Frances

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated whether work-home (WHI) or home-work interference (HWI) explained or affected the strength of the relationship between farmers' stresses and reported psychological distress. Distribution of questionnaire package; included Work-Home Conflict Scale, Farm Stress Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Participants recruited via advertising in newsletters and newspapers, and distribution through businesses and meetings. The majority of farmers (N = 51, male = 45, female = 5) were recruited from the one district. Farmers were individuals who identified their occupation as a farm owner, farm manager, or farm hand. It was predicted farmers would report higher levels of WHI than HWI; time, a determinant of interference, would mediate the relationship between farmers' stresses and psychological distress; WHI and HWI would moderate farmers' stresses and their psychological distress; overall reported level of psychological distress would be in normal to mild range because of positive general economic conditions. Farmers reported significantly higher levels of WHI than HWI (M = 3.21, M = 2.76, P stresses and psychological distress, particularly anxiety. WHI, time and strain, determinants of WHI mediated personal finances and subcomponents of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression). Time-based HWI mediated personal finances and stress. No moderating effects were found for WHI (r = -0.02, P = 0.882) or HWI (r = 0.15, P = 0.306). Farmers of this specific sample presented a unique work-home interface. Limitations include the small sample size, recruitment methods, and culturally irrelevant measures as well as only assessing work-related stresses. Future research should aim to develop measures appropriate for farmers of Australia.

  19. Vigorous Physical Activity, Mental Health, Perceived Stress, and Socializing Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Nelson, Toben F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. Design A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Setting Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. Subjects A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Measures Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Analysis Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Conclusion Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions. PMID:23470187

  20. Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F

    2013-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.

  1. Cognitive Moderators of Children's Adjustment to Stressful Divorce Events: The Role of Negative Cognitive Errors and Positive Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Virdin, Lynn; Sandler, Irwin N.; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Examined whether children's cognitive biases moderated impact of stressful divorce-related events on adjustment in 9- to 12-year olds. Found that endorsing negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderated relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal-reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms for…

  2. The moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Kamody, Rebecca C; Herbozo, Sylvia; Kaufman, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are developmental periods during the life course that are sometimes associated with heightened stress and engagement in binge eating. Binge eating has been linked to psychiatric comorbidity, poorer physical health, and lower quality of life. However, less is known about protective factors that could buffer against binge eating behaviors. The current study examined the moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among emerging adult female college students. Participants were 297 young adult women aged 18-25 years (M age  = 19.22, SD = 1.51; 52% self-identifying as a racial/ethnic minority) with Body Mass Index ranging from 15 to 66 (M BMI  = 25.01, SD = 6.18). Women completed this cross-sectional study while they were attending universities in the Western or Southern United States. Participants provided demographic and height/weight information, and completed the following measures: Perceived Stress Scale, Binge Eating Scale, and Brief Resilience Scale. Higher perceived stress was significantly associated with more severe binge eating symptoms (b = 0.31; p relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms varied by resilience level (b = -0.16; p stress were more likely to engage in binge eating relative to women experiencing low stress; however, resilience attenuated this association. Resilience could be targeted to reduce the negative effects of perceived stress on eating behaviors in young women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of moderator history on physics parameters in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The magnitude of differential reactivity effects that result from spectral differences in different portions of a pressurized water (PWR) core is studied, and it is shown that these effects can be correlated very well with the local moderator history. The impact of these differences on physics parameters such as axial offset, isothermal moderator temperature coefficient, and differential control rod worth is shown to be significant for two PWRs of considerably different design

  4. Effect of perceived stress on depression of Chinese "Ant Tribe" and the moderating role of dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo

    2015-05-08

    This study examines the moderating role of dispositional optimism on the relationship between perceived stress and depression of the Chinese "Ant Tribe." A total of 427 participants from an Ant Tribe community completed the measures of perceived stress, optimism, and depression. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that dispositional optimism moderated the association between perceived stress and depression. The Ant Tribe with high perceived stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low perceived stress at low dispositional optimism level. However, the impact of perceived stress on depression was insignificant in the high dispositional optimism group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Investigating the effects of different physical and chemical stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... bacteria from extreme physical and chemical stress conditions. Additionally .... by inducing stress response genes, become more tolerant phenotypes ..... biofilm, monochloramine is more effective than free chlorine over long ...

  6. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Haddock, Christopher K; Jitnarin, Natinee; Hughey, Joseph; Berkel, LaVerne A; Poston, Walker S C

    2017-01-01

    Although few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity. This study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities. Data were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants ( N  = 582; ages 18-74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years) were more likely to be female (69.9%), Caucasian (65.6%), married (51.7%), and have some college education (72.8%). Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics. Leisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking ( p  = 0.036), moderate ( p  importance on facility quality ( p  = 0.022), variety of physical activity options offered ( p  = 0.003), and availability of special equipment and resources ( p  = 0.01). The facility characteristics of low or free cost ( p  = 0.02) and offering childcare ( p  = 0.028) were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity ( p  = 0.013). Findings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological model as well as for improving existing physical activity facilities.

  7. Relationships Between Stress, Negative Emotions, Resilience, and Smoking: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.

  8. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  9. Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: the moderating role of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.

  10. Use of e-Learning for Stress management – Multi-group moderation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Sarwar; Chitapa Ketavan; Nadeem Shafique Butt

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to find out the moderating role of type of industry and different levels of management with respect to eLearning perception, eLearning advantages and use of eLearning for Stress Management. Study tried to find out relationship between perceptions of eLearning, eLearning Advantages, perception of using eLearning for corporate training and more specifically for stress management. A cross sectional survey is conducted through structured questionnaire to collect the data...

  11. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? Moderating Effects of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints ( n  = 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neuroticism showed stronger decreases in both anxious and depressed mood (both p  moderating effects, when controlled for baseline mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findings from similar research using more traditional cognitive-behavioral interventions.

  13. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...

  14. Physical exercise and oxidative stress in muscular dystrophies: is there a good balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, L; Ricci, G; Cosci O Di Coscio, M; Simoncini, C; Siciliano, G

    2017-07-01

    The effect of oxidative stress on muscle damage inducted by physical exercise is widely debated. It is generally agreed that endurance and intense exercise can increase oxidative stress and generate changes in antioxidant power inducing muscle damage; however, regular and moderate exercise can be beneficial for the health improving the antioxidant defense mechanisms in the majority of cases. Growing evidences suggest that an increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several muscular dystrophies (MDs). Notably, physical training has been considered useful for patients with these disorders. This review will focus on the involvement of oxidative stress in MDs and on the possible effects of physical activities to decrease oxidative damage and improve motor functions in MDs patients.

  15. The impact of eurythmy therapy on stress coping strategies and health-related quality of life in healthy, moderately stressed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Jenny Lena; Pretzer, Kim; Reif, Marcus; Voss, Andreas; Brand, Ralf; Warschburger, Petra; Längler, Alfred; Henze, Günter; Seifert, Georg

    2011-10-01

    'Stress' and 'health-related quality of life' (HRQoL) are two important theoretical constructs for modern therapy evaluation with clinical relevance. Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is a mind-body-therapy derived from anthroposophic medicine with promising effects on heart rate variability (HRV), HRQoL and disease scores. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of EYT on stress coping strategies (SCS) and HRQoL in a controlled study with moderately stressed participants. 68 healthy, moderately stressed adults (mean age: 42.2; SD: 8.2) performed 10h of EYT in a group setting over a period of six weeks. A non-randomised control group of 22 healthy adults (mean age: 43.6; SD: 13.7) received no intervention and did only complete the questionnaires at the same data points. Outcomes were measured before and after the intervention (AVEM & SF-36). A significant impact on SCS was found in seven AVEM scales (MANOVA, F (1/74)=4.59; p=.04). With regard to changes in risk pattern affiliation (AVEM), 24% of the participants receiving EYT (n=55) changed over time from a risky stress coping pattern to a healthier pattern. Concerning the HRQoL four normally distributed scales of the SF-36 ('vitality', 'social functioning', 'mental health' and 'physical functioning') showed a significant group×time interaction favouring the EYT group (MANOVA, F (1/74)=17.26; phealthy individuals and possibly in patients with chronic diseases, for example. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peer victimization and changes in physical and relational aggression: The moderating role of executive functioning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult-reported aggression was re-collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form-specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross-form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross-form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Moderate physical exercise protects myenteric metabolically more active neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Neide Martins; de Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói; Dalálio, M M O; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Sant'ana, D M G; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

    2014-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes neuronal myenteric depopulation compromising intestinal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of moderate physical exercise on NADH diaphorase (NADH-d)-positive neurons in the myenteric plexus and intestinal wall of the colon in mice infected with T. cruzi. Forty 30-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into the following groups: trained infected (TI), sedentary infected (SI), trained control (TC), and sedentary control. The TC and TI groups were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing physical exercise, the TI and SI groups were intraperitoneally inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitemia was evaluated from days 4 to 61 after inoculation. On day 75 of infection, myenteric neurons in the colon were quantified (NADH-d), and inflammatory foci were counted. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels were evaluated in plasma. The results were compared using analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5 % significance level. Moderate physical exercise reduced the parasite peak on day 8 of infection (p = 0.0132) and total parasitemia (p = 0.0307). It also prevented neuronal depopulation (p  0.05). These results reinforce the therapeutic benefits of moderate physical exercise for T. cruzi infection.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of expressive writing for psychological and physical health: the moderating role of emotional expressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Haltom, Kate E Byrne; Mulvenna, Catherine M; Lieberman, Matthew D; Stanton, Annette L

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed main effects and moderators (including emotional expressiveness, emotional processing, and ambivalence over emotional expression) of the effects of expressive writing in a sample of healthy adults. Young adult participants (N=116) were randomly assigned to write for 20 minutes on four occasions about deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their most stressful/traumatic event in the past five years (expressive writing) or about a control topic (control). Dependent variables were indicators of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms. No significant effects of writing condition were evident on anxiety, depressive symptoms, or physical symptoms. Emotional expressiveness emerged as a significant moderator of anxiety outcomes, however. Within the expressive writing group, participants high in expressiveness evidenced a significant reduction in anxiety at three-month follow-up, and participants low in expressiveness showed a significant increase in anxiety. Expressiveness did not predict change in anxiety in the control group. These findings on anxiety are consistent with the matching hypothesis, which suggests that matching a person's naturally elected coping approach with an assigned intervention is beneficial. These findings also suggest that expressive writing about a stressful event may be contraindicated for individuals who do not typically express emotions.

  19. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  20. Social Support Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Quality of Life in Patients With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Martha; Russell, Stuart D; Davidson, Patricia M; Budhathoki, Chakra; Han, Hae-Ra; Grady, Kathleen L; Desai, Shashank; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl

    2018-04-20

    Living with a left ventricular assist device has significant psychosocial sequelae that affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to (1) describe psychosocial indicators of stress including perceived stress, depression, fatigue, and coping; (2) examine relationships among stress indicators by level of perceived stress; (3) examine relationships among indicators of stress and clinical outcomes; and (4) test the moderation of social support on the relationship between stress and clinical outcomes. Participants were recruited from 2 outpatient clinics in a cross-sectional study design. Standardized measures were self-administered via survey. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted. The sample (N = 62) was mostly male (78%), black (47%), and married (66%), with a mean age of 56.5 ± 13 years. The overall sample had a moderate stress profile: moderate perceived stress (mean, 11.7 ± 7), few depressive symptoms (mean, 3.2 ± 3.9), and moderate fatigue (mean, 14.3 ± 9.1). Increased perceived stress was associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maladaptive coping (P stress and fatigue were significant correlates of overall HRQOL (adj. R = 0.41, P relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL, controlling for fatigue (R = 0.49, P stress have worse depressive symptoms, fatigue, and coping. The influence of high social support to improve the relationship between stress and HRQOL underscores the importance of a comprehensive plan to address psychosocial factors.

  1. Healthy eating at different risk levels for job stress: testing a moderated mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Daniel P; Antoni, Conny H; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Burkert, Silke

    2014-04-01

    Health behavior, like fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), is affected by unfavorable job conditions. However, there is little research to date that combines job stress models and health-behavior change models. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of risk factors associated with job stress to the intention-planning-FVC relationship. In the context of the Health Action Process Approach, action planning (when-where-how plans) and coping planning (plans to overcome anticipated barriers) have been shown to be successful mediators in the translation of health-related intentions into action. Risk factors for job stress are operationalized as the interaction of job demands and job resources in line with the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Two hundred seventy-two employees (mean age 41.2 years, 73.9% female) from different jobs completed measures of intention at baseline (t1), action planning and coping planning 2 weeks later (t2), and FVC another 2 weeks later (t3). Job demands and job resources were assessed at t1 and t2. A moderated mediation analysis indicated that risk factors for job stress moderate the translation of intention into action planning (B = -0.23, p < .05) and coping planning (B = -0.14, p < .05). No moderation effect of the planning-FVC relationship by risk factors for job stress was found. However, coping planning directly predicted FVC (B = 0.36, p < .001). Findings suggest that employees intending to eat healthily use action planning and coping planning when job demands exceed job resources. For increasing FVC, coping planning appears most beneficial.

  2. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  3. Practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity and associated factors in first year undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Salvador Claumann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that occur with the beginning of university life may interfere with the practice of physical activities by students. The aim was to investigate the association between the practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities with sociodemographic factors and weight status in freshman students in the first semester of the first year of a public university in Florianopolis/SC. This study assessed198 students (86 men and 112 women. The practice of physical activities was collected with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – IPAQ, short version. Students of human and educational sciences reported higher amounts of moderate physical activity when compared to health and exact science counterparts (p< 0.05. It was verified that male students, from higher economic status, from the health sciences, and full-time students showed higher time of practice of vigorous physical activity (p< 0.05. Significant associations were also observed between study period and walking, and between gender, scientific field and vigorous physical activity. It was concluded that the variables associated with the practice of physical activity differ according to the type and intensity of physical activity.

  4. The Moderating Role of Coping Skills on the Relationship between Self-Leadership and Stress among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maykrantz, Sherry Azadi

    2017-01-01

    Stress remains the number one health concern among college students today; therefore, research on student stress is imperative, from both an organizational and an individual perspective. This research study explored the moderating role of coping skills on the relationship between self-leadership and stress among college students. Using the ALSQ,…

  5. Get 150 minutes/week of moderate physical activity: It doesn’t matter how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute have shown that people who engage in more minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity enjoy health benefits (measured here by likelihood of dying during the study period), but it does not matter how those minutes are accumulated.

  6. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  7. Moderate-and-vigorous physical activity from adolescence to adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the independent associations between mean exposure to or the change in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (PA) from adolescence to adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study among Danish boys and girls (N=277...

  8. A Functional Analysis of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tracy A.; Normand, Matthew P.; Morley, Allison J.; Miller, Bryon G.

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity increases the risks related to a number of health problems in children, most notably obesity and the corresponding range of associated health problems. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a functional analysis to investigate the effects of several consequent variables on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  9. Association of sedentary time with mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Annemarie; Caserotti, Paolo; Patel, Kushang V

    2012-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has emerged as a novel health risk factor independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Previous studies have shown self-reported sedentary time to be associated with mortality; however, no studies have investigated the effect of objectively measured sedentary t...

  10. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender Similarities and Differences in Factors Associated with Adolescent Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Janz, Kathleen F; Levy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents. PMID:19827453

  12. Assessments of the stresses and deformations in an RBMK graphite moderator brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.J.; Davies, M.A.; Marsden, B.J.; Bougaenko, S.E.; Baldin, V.D.; Demintievski, V.N.; Rodtchenkov, B.S.; Sinitsyn, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    The RBMK reactors, designed by RDIPE (Moscow), are graphite moderated and cooled by light water. Graphite dimensions and thermo-mechanical properties change significantly in a complex manner during reactor life due to fast neutron damage and these changes have implications on the safe operation of all graphite moderated reactors. A joint programme of work is being carried out between AEA Technology (UK) and RDIPE (Russia) to assess the life of the RBMK graphite stack under normal operating conditions. The programme has included the modelling of graphite dimensional changes due to irradiation through reactor life and the assessment of the implications of these changes on the stresses and deformations in the graphite stack. Calculations have been carried out to assess the deformations of a moderator brick over a period from start of life up to 30 years of operation. The assessment have also included an analysis of the stresses in the bricks so that the time to brick failure could be determined. This paper describes the RBMK core design, the data and assessment methodology used in the analysis of the RBMK core and presents some results from analyses of the Leningrad Unit 1 RBMK reactor. (author). 2 refs, 8 figs

  13. Thermomechanical Stress in Cryopreservation Via Vitrification With Nanoparticle Heating as a Stress-Moderating Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P; Bischof, John C; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on thermomechanical effects in cryopreservation associated with a novel approach of volumetric heating by means on nanoparticles in an alternating electromagnetic field. This approach is studied for the application of cryopreservation by vitrification, where the crystalline phase is completely avoided-the cornerstone of cryoinjury. Vitrification can be achieved by quickly cooling the material to cryogenic storage, where ice cannot form. Vitrification can be maintained at the end of the cryogenic protocol by quickly rewarming the material back to room temperature. The magnitude of the rewarming rates necessary to maintain vitrification is much higher than the magnitude of the cooling rates that are required to achieve it in the first place. The most common approach to achieve the required cooling and rewarming rates is by exposing the specimen's surface to a temperature-controlled environment. Due to the underlying principles of heat transfer, there is a size limit in the case of surface heating beyond which crystallization cannot be prevented at the center of the specimen. Furthermore, due to the underlying principles of solid mechanics, there is a size limit beyond which thermal expansion in the specimen can lead to structural damage and fractures. Volumetric heating during the rewarming phase of the cryogenic protocol can alleviate these size limitations. This study suggests that volumetric heating can reduce thermomechanical stress, when combined with an appropriate design of the thermal protocol. Without such design, this study suggests that the level of stress may still lead to structural damage even when volumetric heating is applied. This study proposes strategies to harness nanoparticles heating in order to reduce thermomechanical stress in cryopreservation by vitrification.

  14. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. STRESS, RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION, AND HEALTH AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION OF EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether romantic relationship satisfaction would serve as a link between early and later stressors which in turn would influence the Thyroid Function Index (TFI), an indicator of physiological stress response. Using the framework of genetic susceptibility theory combined with hypotheses derived from the vulnerability-stress-adaptation and stress-generation models, we tested whether the hypothesized mediational model would be conditioned by 5-HTTLPR genotype, with greater effects and stronger evidence of mediation among carriers of the “s” allele. In a sample of African American women in romantic relationships (n = 270), we found that 5-HTTLPR moderated each stage of the hypothesized mediational model in a “for better or for worse” manner. That is genetic polymorphisms function to exacerbate not only the detrimental impact of negative environments (i.e. “for worse effects”) but also the beneficial impact of positive environments (i.e. “for better effects”). The effect of early stress on relationship satisfaction was greater among carriers of the “short” allele than among those who did not carry the short allele, and was significantly different in both the “for better” and “for worse” direction. Likewise, the effect of relationship satisfaction on later stressors was moderated in a “for better” or “for worse” manner. Finally, impact on physiological stress, indexed using TFI level, indicated that the impact of later stressors on TFI level was greater in the presence of the short allele, and also followed a “for better” or “for worse” pattern. As expected, the proposed mediational model provided a better fit for “s” allele carriers. PMID:26376424

  16. The moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between perceived stress and diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Kozusznik, Malgorzata W

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that meaning in life may buffer the negative effects of stress. This study is the first to investigate the moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between the perception of stress and diurnal cortisol in two independent samples of healthy adults. In study 1 (n = 172, men = 82, women = 90, age range = 21-55 years, mean age = 37.58 years), the results of moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between overall perceived stress in the past month and both diurnal cortisol levels (area-under-the-curve with respect to the ground; AUCg) and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) only in individuals with low levels of meaning in life conceptualized as the degree to which one engages in activities that are personally valued and important. In study 2 (n = 259, men = 125, women = 134, age range = 18-54 years, mean age = 29.06 years), we found a non-significant interaction term between meaning in life conceptualized as having goals and a sense of excitement regarding one's future and perception of stress in a model of both adjusted AUCg and DCS. The results were independent of age, sex, body mass index, education, and race. The results shed light on the importance and the complexity of the construct of meaning in life and offer a possible explanation for why some people who face stressors may be more vulnerable than others to developing stress-related health problems.

  17. Heat stress and sudden infant death syndrome--stress gene expression after exposure to moderate heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate stress gene expression in cultured primary fibroblasts established from Achilles tendons collected during autopsies from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, and age-matched controls (infants dying in a traumatic event). Expression of 4 stress...... responsive genes, HSPA1B, HSPD1, HMOX1, and SOD2, was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of RNA purified from cells cultured under standard or various thermal stress conditions. The expression of all 4 genes was highly influenced by thermal stress in both SIDS and control cells. High...... interpersonal variance found in the SIDS group indicated that they represented a more heterogeneous group than controls. The SIDS group responded to thermal stress with a higher expression of the HSPA1B and HSPD1 genes compared to the control group, whereas no significant difference was observed...

  18. Use of e-Learning for Stress management – Multi-group moderation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Sarwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to find out the moderating role of type of industry and different levels of management with respect to eLearning perception, eLearning advantages and use of eLearning for Stress Management. Study tried to find out relationship between perceptions of eLearning, eLearning Advantages, perception of using eLearning for corporate training and more specifically for stress management. A cross sectional survey is conducted through structured questionnaire to collect the data from 686 managers working at different levels including 331 from manufacturing sector and 355 from services sector. Results of the study show positive relationship between perception of eLearning and eLearning for stress management and this relationship is significantly stronger for services industry. Positive relationship between eLearning advantages and eLearning for stress management and this relationship is significantly stronger for manufacturing industry. Study also revealed that positive relationship between eLearning perception and eLearning for stress management and this relationship is not significantly stronger for senior management than for middle management.

  19. The Moderating Effect of Perceived Social Support on Stress and Depression among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Talwar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The omnipresence of stress and depression among university students is a cause for concern, as it can have adverse consequences on all aspects of their life. Understanding the role of social support as a protective factor within this context, may well be vital to the enhancement of overall wellbeing among students. The main aim of the present study was to examine the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between stress and depression. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to garner data from 254 university students for hierarchical multiple regression and structural equation modeling analysis. Results: Firstly, the present study replicated the frequently reported positive relationship between stress and depression. Secondly, an inverse association between social support and depression was also depicted. Finally, the results also supported an interaction between perceived social support and stress in predicting depression among students. Conclusion: In sum, the results of the current study may well augment our understanding of the role of perceived social support in combating stress and depression among students, and thereby convey important implications for intervention strategies tailored to this demographic.

  20. Job stress and family social behavior: the moderating role of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L; Campos, Belinda

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of neuroticism in the associations between job stress and working adults' social behavior during the first hour after work with their spouse and school-age children. Thirty dual-earner families were videotaped in their homes on two weekday afternoons and evenings. An observational coding system was developed to assess behavioral involvement and negative emotion expression. Participants also completed self-report measures of job stressors and trait neuroticism. There were few overall associations between job stress and social behavior during the first hour adults were at home with their spouse and school-age children. However, significant moderator effects indicated that linkages between work experiences and family behavior varied for men who reported different levels of trait neuroticism, which captures a dispositional tendency toward emotional instability. Among men who reported high neuroticism, job stress was linked to more active and more negative social behavior. Conversely, for men reporting low neuroticism, job stress was related to less talking and less negative emotion. These patterns were not found for the women in the study. The findings suggest that when work is stressful, men who are higher on neuroticism (i.e., less emotionally stable) may show a negative spillover effect, whereas men who are lower on neuroticism (i.e., more emotionally stable) may withdraw from social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Lifetime physical activity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M; Bardsley, Tyler; Egger, Marlene J

    2015-07-01

    We sought to estimate whether moderate/severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in middle-aged women is associated with overall lifetime physical activity (including leisure, household, outdoor, and occupational), as well as lifetime leisure (recreational), lifetime strenuous, and strenuous activity during the teen years. Recruitment for this case-control study was conducted in primary-care-level family medicine and gynecology clinics. A total of 1538 enrolled women ages 39-65 years underwent a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination to assess vaginal support. Based on Incontinence Severity Index scores, cases had moderate/severe and controls had no/mild SUI. We excluded 349 with vaginal descent at/below the hymen (pelvic organ prolapse), 194 who did not return questionnaires, and 110 with insufficient activity data for analysis. In all, 213 cases were frequency matched 1:1 by age group to controls. Physical activity was measured using the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire, in which women recall activity from menarche to present. We created separate multivariable logistic regression models for activity measures. SUI odds increased slightly with overall lifetime activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.20 per 70 additional metabolic equivalent of task-h/wk; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.41), and were not associated with lifetime strenuous activity (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.99-1.25). In quintile analysis of lifetime leisure activity, which demonstrated a nonlinear pattern, all quintiles incurred about half the odds of SUI compared to reference (second quintile; P = .009). Greater strenuous activity in teen years modestly increased SUI odds (OR, 1.37 per 7 additional h/wk; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71); OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.66 in sensitivity analysis adjusting for measurement error. The predicted probability of SUI rose linearly in women exceeding 7.5 hours of strenuous activity/wk during teen years. Teen strenuous activity had a similar effect on SUI odds when

  2. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Heinrich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity.PurposeThis study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities.MethodsData were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 582; ages 18–74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years were more likely to be female (69.9%, Caucasian (65.6%, married (51.7%, and have some college education (72.8%. Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics.ResultsLeisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking (p = 0.036, moderate (p < 0.001, and vigorous (p < 0.001 recommendations. Vigorous exercisers were more likely to use a gym/fitness center (p = 0.006 and to place higher importance on facility quality (p = 0.022, variety of physical activity options offered (p = 0.003, and availability of special equipment and resources (p = 0.01. The facility characteristics of low or free cost (p = 0.02 and offering childcare (p = 0.028 were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.013.ConclusionFindings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological

  3. Optimism moderates psychophysiological responses to stress in older people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Perez, S; Hackett, R A; Salvador, A; Steptoe, A

    2017-04-01

    Optimism is thought to be beneficial for health, and these effects may be mediated through modifications in psychophysiological stress reactivity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiovascular responses to stress and heightened cortisol over the day. This study assessed the relationships between optimism, stress responsivity, and daily cortisol output in people with T2D. A total of 140 participants with T2D were exposed to laboratory stress. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and cortisol were measured throughout the session. Cortisol output over the day was also assessed. Optimism and self-reported health were measured using the revised Life Orientation Test and the Short Form Health Survey. Optimism was associated with heightened SBP and DBP stress reactivity (ps Optimism was not related to HR, cortisol stress responses, or the cortisol awakening response (ps > .180). Low optimism was related to poorer self-reported physical and mental health (ps Optimism could have a protective role in modulating stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine dysregulation in people with T2D. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Decision-making in Sport under Mental and Physical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri J. Hepler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful decision-making in sport requires good decisions to be made quickly, but little is understood about the decision process under stress. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare decision outcomes and the Take the First (TTF heuristic under conditions of mental, physical, and no stress.  Method:  Participants (N=112 were divided into 3 stress groups:  mental stress (mental serial subtraction, physical stress (running on treadmill at 60-70% of maximum effort, and no stress (counting backwards by 1. Participants were exposed to 30 seconds of stress and then watched a video depicting an offensive situation in basketball requiring them to decide what the player with the ball should do next. Each participant performed 10 trials of the video decision-making task.  Results: No differences were found between the 3 stress groups on decision quality, TTF frequency, number of options generated, or quality of first generated option.  However, participants in the no stress and physical stress conditions were faster in generating their first option and making their final decision as compared to the mental stress group.  Conclusion: Overall, results suggest that mental stress impairs decision speed and that TTF is an ecologically rationale heuristic in dynamic, time-pressured situations.  Keywords: Take the first, Heuristic, Pressure, Cognitive performance

  5. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  6. Psychological stress moderates the relationship between running volume and CD4+ T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, K E; Sunesara, I; Tull, M T; Marshall, G D

    2016-01-01

    Endurance-based exercise training can lead to alterations in components of the immune system, but it is unknown how psychological stress (another potent immunomodulator) may impact these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the moderating role of psychological stress on exercise-induced immune changes. Twenty-nine recreational runners were recruited for this study four weeks before completing a marathon. Each subject reported: weekly training volume (miles/wk) for the week prior to the study visit; completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ); and donated blood for assessment of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and mitogen-induced cytokine production. Participants ran an average of 30 (±13.4) miles (1 mile=1.6 km) per week. Average values (SD) for immune biomarkers were: regulatory T cells (Treg), 3.2% (±1.2%); type 1 regulatory cells (Tr1), 27.1% (±8.3%); T helper 3 (Th3), 1.8% (±0.7%); interferon gamma (IFNγ), 3.1 pg/ml (±1.0); interleukin (IL)-4, 1.4 pg/ml (±1.1); IFNγ/IL-4, 8.6 (±1.2); IL-10, 512 pg/ml (±288). There was a significant relationship between running volume and both Treg cell numbers (slope of the regression line (β)=0.05, p less than 0.001) and IL-10 production β=-10.6, p=0.002), and there was a trending relationship between running volume and Tr1 cell numbers (β=-0.2%, p=0.064). Perceived stress was a trending moderator of the running volume-Treg relationship, whereas worry was a significant moderator of the running volume-IFNγ and running volume-IFNγ/IL-4 relationships. These data indicate that various forms of psychological stress can impact endurance exercise-based changes in certain immune biomarkers. These changes may reflect an increased susceptibility to clinical risks in some individuals.

  7. Ownership type and team climate in elderly care facilities: the moderating effect of stress factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study examining the association between ownership type and perceived team climate among older people care staff. In addition, we examined whether work stress factors (time pressure, resident-related stress, role conflicts and role ambiguity) mediated or moderated the above mentioned association. There has been a trend towards contracting out in older people care facilities in Finland and the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Studies suggest that there may be differences in employee well-being and quality of care according to the ownership type of older people care. Cross-sectional survey data was collected during the autumn of 2007 from 1084 Finnish female older people care staff aged 18-69 years were used. Team Climate Inventory was used to measure team climate. Ownership type was divided into four categories: for-profit sheltered homes, not-for-profit sheltered homes, public sheltered homes and not-for-profit nursing homes. Analyses of covariance were used to examine the associations. Team climate dimensions participative safety, vision and support for innovation were higher in not-for-profit organizations (both sheltered homes and nursing homes) compared to for-profit sheltered homes and public sheltered homes. Stress factors did not account for these associations but acted as moderators in a way that in terms of task orientation and participative safety employees working in for-profit organizations seemed to be slightly more sensitive to work-related stress than others. Our results suggest that for-profit organizations and public organizations may have difficulties in maintaining their team climate. In consequence, these organizations should focus more effort on improving their team climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Leisure-time physical activity moderates the longitudinal associations between work-family spillover and physical health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; Chang, Po-Ju; Neuendorf, Claudia; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented cross-sectional associations between negative and positive work-family spillover and physical health. Using an effort-recovery model, the study tested the hypothesis that engagement in greater leisure-time physical activity would facilitate recovery processes that buffer the negative health effects of increasing work-family spillover. Employed adults (N = 1,354) completed two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated that an increase in negative work-family spillover across nine years was associated with decreased physical health and increased number of chronic conditions at Time 2. Moreover, more time spent on moderate leisure-time physical activity buffered many of the associations between increasing negative spillover and declining health. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25999602

  9. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...... in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association......TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two...

  10. Posttraumatic Stress, Family Functioning, and Externalizing in Adolescents Exposed to Violence: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Kyle; Richards, Maryse; Mozley, Michaela; Scott, Darrick; Rice, Catherine; Garbarino, James

    2016-09-02

    Exposure to community violence disproportionately impacts low-income, minority youth and is associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms and maladaptive adjustment. This study investigates whether posttraumatic stress mediates the relation between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms and the moderating role of family cohesion and daily family support in buffering these effects on later externalizing. Low-income, African American 7th-grade students (M age = 12.57 years; N = 254) from high-crime neighborhoods participated in a 2-year longitudinal study measuring the effects of community violence exposure. The students completed questionnaires administered by research staff over 5 consecutive days for each year of the study. Family cohesion and daily family support exhibited a significant buffering effect for several outcomes. Posttraumatic stress significantly mediated the effect of witnessing community violence on subsequent aggression. The strength of these indirect effects depended on level of family cohesion. The findings provide evidence in support of interventions provided at both individual and family levels. Mental health providers working with this population should be aware of the intertwined nature of exposure to community violence, posttraumatic stress, and subsequent maladaptive outcomes.

  11. Sociodemographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by sociodemographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested the moderating effects of sociodemographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-reported total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002 and 2003, adults from 9 countries (N = 10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short), perceived environment, and sociodemographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting (a) high PA levels and (b) minimum PA guidelines. Logistic models tested environment by sociodemographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction P environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA and maintain environmental sustainability.

  12. Effect of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Intervention on Improving Dementia Family Caregiver Physical Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Carol J; Etkin, Caryn D; Eisenstein, Amy; Paun, Olimpia; Rajan, Kumar B; Sweet, Cynthia M Castro; McCann, Judith J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Evans, Denis A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) affect more than five million Americans and their family caregivers. Caregiving creates challenges, may contribute to decreased caregiver health and is associated with $9.7 billion of caregiver health care costs. The purpose of this 12 month randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to examine if the Enhancing Physical Activity Intervention (EPAI), a moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) treatment group, versus the Caregiver Skill Building Intervention (CSBI) control, would have greater: (1) MVPA adherence; and (2) physical function. Methods Caregivers were randomly assigned to EPAI or CSBI (N=211). MVPA was assessed using a self-report measure; and physical function was objectively assessed using two measures. Intention-to-treat analyses used descriptive, categorical and generalized estimating equations (GEE), with an exchangeable working correlation matrix and a log link, to examine main effects and interactions in change of MVPA and physical function over time. Results At 12 months, EPAI significantly increased MVPA (p=caregiving hours and use of formal services; while CSBI increased hours of caregiving (p=caregivers had difficulties completing physical function tests. Conclusion The EPAI had a stronger 12 month effect on caregiver MVPA and physical function, as well as maintaining stability of caregiving hours and formal service use; while CSBI increased caregiving hours and use of formal services. A study limitation included greater EPAI versus CSBI attrition. Future directions are proposed for dementia family caregiver physical activity research. PMID:28752016

  13. Gene-environment interplay in depressive symptoms: moderation by age, sex, and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, A J; Beam, C R; Johnson, W; Kaprio, J; Korhonen, T; McGue, M; Neiderhiser, J M; Pedersen, N L; Reynolds, C A; Gatz, M

    2017-07-01

    Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms. Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60, there was an accelerating increase in depressive symptom scores with age, but this did not appreciably affect genetic and environmental variances. Overlap in genetic influences between physical illness and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women. Additionally, in men extent of overlap was greater with worse physical illness (the genetic correlation ranged from near 0.00 for the least physical illness to nearly 0.60 with physical illness 2 s.d. above the mean). For men and women, the same environmental factors that influenced depressive symptoms also influenced physical illness. Findings suggested that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.

  14. Multi-physical developments for safety related investigations of low moderated boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, Markus Thomas

    2014-12-19

    The main objective of this dissertation is the development and optimization of a low moderated boiling water reactor (BWR) core with improved fuel utilization to be incorporated in a Gen II BWR nuclear power plant. The assessment of the new core design is done by comparing it with a full MOX BWR core design regarding neutron physical and thermal-hydraulic design and safety criteria (e.g. inherent reactivity coefficients) and different sustainability parameters (e.g. conversion ratio).

  15. Multi-physical Developments for Safety Related Investigations of Low Moderated Boiling Water Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Markus Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is the development and optimization of a low moderated boiling water reactor (BWR) core with improved fuel utilization to be incorporated in a Gen II BWR nuclear power plant. The assessment of the new core design is done by comparing it with a full MOX BWR core design regarding neutron physical and thermal-hydraulic design and safety criteria (e.g. inherent reactivity coefficients) and different sustainability parameters (e.g. conversion ratio).

  16. Does physical activity moderate the relationship between depression symptomatology and low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübscher, Markus; Hartvigsen, Jan; Fernandez, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether depression symptomatology is associated with low back pain (LBP) in twins aged 70+ and whether this effect depends on a person's physical activity (PA) status. METHODS: This prospective cohort and nested case-control study used a nationally representative sample....... This effect is supposedly not attributable to genetic or shared environmental factors. Physical activity did not moderate the effect of depression symptomatology on LBP....... of twins. Data on depression symptomatology (modified Cambridge Mental Disorders Examination) and self-reported PA were obtained from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins using twins without LBP at baseline. Associations between depression symptomatology (highest quartile) at baseline and LBP two...

  17. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Physical and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Child Maltreatment and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, pre-lunch, and afternoon pre-departure salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp. Counselors and peers rated participants' involvement in physically and relationally aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that physical aggression was associated with heightened cortisol following morning arrival and relatively steep declines in cortisol over the day whereas relational aggression was associated with low cortisol following morning arrival and blunted diurnal change in cortisol. Moreover, maltreatment was a significant moderator of this relationship such that aggression was related to greater cortisol dysregulation among nonmaltreated than maltreated children. The findings suggest that physiological correlates of aggression may differ for physical and relational forms of aggression and among maltreated versus nonmaltreated populations. PMID:18605842

  18. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  19. Physical disability contributes to caregiver stress in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David G; Paley, Glenys A; Nichols, Pamela; Roberts, David; Underwood, Peter J; Schaper, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Previous findings of studies on the impact of physical illness on caregiver health have been inconsistent. The authors wanted to determine whether physical disability, as determined by the SF-12 survey that provides information on both physical and mental health problems, contributes to caregiver stress. The authors interviewed 91 primary caregivers (aged 38-85 years) of persons with dementia who had been referred by their family physicians for the first time for formal support services or memory evaluation. Caregivers completed the SF-12 version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey that generates Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores and reported on caregiver stress and concurrent medical conditions and medications. Most caregivers reported stress (76.9%), having medical conditions (72.4%), or taking medications (67%). The MCS but not the PCS scores were significantly lower than community norms, indicating an excess of disability due to mental health problems. Nevertheless, 40.7% had PCS scores indicating some degree of physical disability. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, PCS scores but not the presence of medical problems were independently associated with caregiver stress. Chronic disability as assessed by SF-12 PCS scores is independently associated with caregiver stress. These data suggest that caregivers of persons with dementia should be assessed for disabling physical conditions and mental health problems. In addition, reducing the impact of physical disability could ameliorate caregiver stress.

  20. Knee joint laxity does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altubasi, Ibrahim M

    2018-06-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function. One-hundred and sixty osteoarthritis patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Isometric quadriceps muscle strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Self-rated and performance-based physical function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and Get Up and Go test, respectively. Stress radiographs which were taken while applying varus and valgus loads to knee using the TELOS device. Knee joint laxity was determined by measuring the distance between joint surfaces on the medial and lateral sides. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to study the moderation effect of laxity on the strength function relationship. Two regression models were constructed for self-rated and performance-based function. After controlling for demographics, strength contributed significantly in the models. The addition of laxity and laxity-strength interaction did not add significant contributions in the regression models. Frontal plane knee joint laxity measured by stress radiographs does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mother's Childrearing History and Current Parenting: Patterns of Association and the Moderating Role of Current Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Carri; Stein, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between positive and negative aspects of childrearing history and current parenting and the moderating effect of current stress. Seventy mother-child dyads participated in this study. Mothers provided retrospective reports of childrearing histories and current reports of life stress. Parenting was assessed via…

  2. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  3. The moderating effects of aging and cognitive abilities on the association between work stress and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B

    2018-05-01

    Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.

  4. The Moderating Effect of Impulsivity on the Relationship between Stressful Life Events and Depression among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transpersonal model of stress, the purpose of the study was to investigate the moderating effect of impulsivity on the relationship between stressful life events (SLE) and depression among first year university women. Impulsivity consists of tendencies towards lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, urgency and sensation seeking.…

  5. Humor Use Moderates the Relation of Stressful Life Events With Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi L; Russek, Leslie N; Dillon, Melissa M

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal. Moreover, dispositional and aggressive humor showed stress-buffering effects. Study 3 ( N = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the September 11, 2001, attacks at 1 and 3 months postattack. At T1, affiliative humor showed a stress-buffering effect on distress. Social interaction mediated the relation of self-enhancing humor with reduced T1 distress, and mediated relations of aggressive and self-defeating humor with greater distress. Relations of T1 dispositional and self-defeating humor to changes in T2 distress were mediated by reappraisal.

  6. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Liu, Richard T.; Y.Abramson, Lyn; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52% female, 51% Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress. PMID:25911194

  7. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-11-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52 % female, 51 % Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress.

  8. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  9. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Masculinity and Bystander Attitudes: Moderating Effects of Masculine Gender Role Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Ruschelle M; Parrott, Dominic J; Swartout, Kevin M; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the bystander decision-making process as a mechanism by which men's adherence to various dimensions of traditional masculinity is associated with their confidence to intervene in sexually aggressive events. Further, this study examined the stress men experience from their attempts to adhere to traditional male gender roles as a moderator of this mediational path. Participants ( n = 252) completed measures of traditional masculinity, decisional balance (i.e., weighing the pros and cons) for intervening, masculine gender roles stress, and bystander efficacy. The belief that men must attain social status was associated with more confidence in men's ability to intervene. This effect was mediated by greater perceived positive consequences for intervention among men high, but not low, in masculine gender role stress. The belief that men should be tough and aggressive was associated with greater perceived negative consequences for intervention and less confidence to intervene. The belief that men should not act in stereotypically feminine ways was directly associated with less confidence for intervention. Findings highlight the importance of examining masculinity from a multidimensional perspective to better understand how adherence to various norms differentially influences bystander behavior. These findings may help to inform bystander intervention programming.

  11. Masculinity and Bystander Attitudes: Moderating Effects of Masculine Gender Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the bystander decision-making process as a mechanism by which men’s adherence to various dimensions of traditional masculinity is associated with their confidence to intervene in sexually aggressive events. Further, this study examined the stress men experience from their attempts to adhere to traditional male gender roles as a moderator of this mediational path. Method Participants (n = 252) completed measures of traditional masculinity, decisional balance (i.e., weighing the pros and cons) for intervening, masculine gender roles stress, and bystander efficacy. Results The belief that men must attain social status was associated with more confidence in men’s ability to intervene. This effect was mediated by greater perceived positive consequences for intervention among men high, but not low, in masculine gender role stress. The belief that men should be tough and aggressive was associated with greater perceived negative consequences for intervention and less confidence to intervene. The belief that men should not act in stereotypically feminine ways was directly associated with less confidence for intervention. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of examining masculinity from a multidimensional perspective to better understand how adherence to various norms differentially influences bystander behavior. These findings may help to inform bystander intervention programming. PMID:29593932

  12. Does perceived stress moderate the association between depressive symptoms and socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätsch, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    More and more students report high level of perceived stress during childhood and adolescence, which is associated with socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties. This study aims-based on the cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory-to examine perceived stress in early adolescence as a potential moderator in the association between depressive symptoms and socioemotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties from early to middle adolescence. Results of latent moderated structural equations with questionnaire data from a longitudinal study with 1,088 German students (Time 1: M age  = 13.70, SD = 0.53; Time 2: N = 845, M age  = 15.32, SD = 0.49) indicate that perceived stress functions as a moderator in the above-mentioned association and dominates the interaction if perceived strongly. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Moderating Effects of Weather-Related Factors on a Physical Activity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Whitney A; Spring, Bonnie; Phillips, Siobhan M; Siddique, Juned

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify whether weather-related factors moderate the effect of a physical activity (PA) intervention. Participants (N=204, 77% female, mean age 33 [SD=11] years, mean BMI 28.2 [SD=7.1]) from the Make Better Choices 1 trial, enrolled April 2005 to April 2008, were randomized to one of two treatment conditions: (1) increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) treatment group, or (2) decrease sedentary behavior control group. Participants wore an accelerometer for 5 weeks: a 2-week baseline assessment followed by a 3-week intervention. Accelerometer data were used to estimate minutes/day of MVPA. Average daily temperature, day length, and precipitation were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center and combined with the accelerometer data. Linear mixed effects models were used to determine whether these weather-related factors moderated the effect of the intervention on MVPA. Separate models were fit for season, daily average temperature, and day length. There was a significant moderating effect of season on MVPA such that the PA intervention, as compared with control, increased MVPA 10.4 minutes more in the summer than in the winter (95% CI=1.1, 19.6, p=0.029). There was a significant moderating effect of daily temperature such that every 10°F increase in temperature was associated with an additional 1.5 minutes/day increase in the difference in MVPA increase between the two intervention conditions (95% CI=0.1, 2.9, p=0.015). There was a significant moderating effect of day length such that every additional hour of daylight was associated with a 2.23-minute increase in the PA intervention's impact on increasing MVPA (95% CI=0.8, 3.7, p=0.002). Day length and temperature had a significant moderating effect on change in MVPA during a PA intervention such that the intervention was less effective on colder days and on shorter days, independently. These results suggest that strategies to overcome environmental barriers

  14. Analysis of high moderation full MOX BWR core physics experiments BASALA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuya; Ando, Yoshihira; Takada, Naoyuki; Kan, Taro; Sasagawa, Masaru; Kikuchi, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Toru; Kanda, Ryoji; Umano, Takuya

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has performed conceptual design studies of high moderation full MOX LWR cores that aim for increasing fissile Pu consumption rate and reducing residual Pu in discharged MOX fuel. As part of these studies, NUPEC, French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and their industrial partners implemented an experimental program BASALA following MISTRAL. They were devoted to measuring the core physics parameters of such advanced cores. The MISTRAL program consists of one reference UO 2 core, two homogeneous full MOX cores and one full MOX PWR mock-up core that have higher moderation ratio than the conventional lattice. As for MISTRAL, the analysis results have already been reported on April 2003. The BASALA program consists of two high moderation full MOX BWR mock-up cores for operating and cold stand-by conditions. NUPEC has analyzed the experimental results of BASALA with the diffusion and the transport calculations by the SRAC code system and the continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations by the MVP code with the common nuclear data file, JENDL-3.2. The calculation results well reproduce the experimental data approximately within the same range of the experimental uncertainty. The analysis results of MISTRAL and BASALA indicate that these applied analysis methods have the same accuracy for the UO 2 and MOX cores, for the different moderation MOX cores, and for the homogeneous and the mock-up MOX cores. (author)

  15. The Moderating Role of Physical Self-Perceptions in the Relationship Between Maturity Status and Physical Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E; Cole, Amy N; Laurson, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    We tested the moderating role of physical self-perceptions in the relationship between physical maturity and physical self-worth (PSW). Students in Grades 5 through 8 (N = 241; 57% females; Mage = 12.30 years) completed a questionnaire assessing physical self-perceptions (i.e., perceived sport competence, conditioning, strength, and body attractiveness), PSW, and maturity status. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test interactions between maturity and physical self-perceptions predicting PSW separately for boys and girls. For girls, maturity level and physical self-perceptions explained significant variance, F(5, 131) = 73.44, p < .001, R(2) = .74, with interactions explaining a little extra variance, ΔF = 3.42, p = .01, ΔR(2) = .03. Perceived attractiveness interacted with maturity status to predict PSW (p = .01), indicating that maturity was positively related to PSW only for girls with higher body attractiveness. Maturity status and physical self-perceptions also significantly predicted PSW in boys, F(5, 98) = 46.52, p <  .001, R(2) = .70, with interactions explaining a little extra variance, ΔF = 3.16, p = .02, ΔR(2) = .04. A statistically significant interaction between perceived strength and maturity (p <  .001) indicated that maturity related positively to PSW, but only for boys with higher perceived strength. The maturity-PSW relationship differs by gender and depends partly on physical self-perceptions. This finding reinforces previous findings that illustrate the relative importance of perceived attractiveness and strength for girls and boys, respectively. PSW is an important predictor of physical activity behavior; therefore, it is critical to understand the interplay between these key antecedents.

  16. Physical fitness in people with posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Richards, Justin; Ward, Philip B; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon

    2017-12-01

    People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical fitness is a key modifiable risk factor for CVD and associated mortality. We reviewed the evidence-base regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus from inception until May 2016 using the key words "fitness" OR "exercise" AND "posttraumatic stress disorder" OR "PTSD". In total, 5 studies involving 192 (44 female) individuals with PTSD met the inclusion criteria. Lower baseline physical fitness are associated with greater reductions in avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as with total, physical, and social symptoms of anxiety sensitivity. Rigorous data comparing physical fitness with age- and gender matched general population controls are currently lacking. The research field regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD is still in its infancy. Given the established relationships between physical fitness, morbidity and mortality in the general population and the current gaps in the PTSD literature, targets for future research include exploring: (a) whether people with PTSD are at risk of low physical fitness and therefore in need of intensified assessment, treatment and follow-up, (b) the relationships among physical fitness, overall health status, chronic disease risk reduction, disability, and mortality in individuals PTSD, (c) psychometric properties of submaximal physical fitness tests in PTSD, (d) physical fitness changes following physical activity in PTSD, and (e) optimal methods of integrating physical activity programs within current treatment models for PTSD. Implications for Rehabilitation People with PTSD should aim to achieve 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes vigorous physical activity per week while also engaging in resistance training exercises at least twice a week. Health care professionals should assist people with PTSD to

  17. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genetic variation and early stress moderates amygdala function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Christina R; Carey, Caitlin E; Michalski, Lindsay J; Corral-Frias, Nadia S; Conley, Emily Drabant; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Early life stress may precipitate psychopathology, at least in part, by influencing amygdala function. Converging evidence across species suggests that links between childhood stress and amygdala function may be dependent upon hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Using data from college-attending non-Hispanic European-Americans (n=308) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study, we examined whether early life stress (ELS) and HPA axis genetic variation interact to predict threat-related amygdala function as well as psychopathology symptoms. A biologically-informed multilocus profile score (BIMPS) captured HPA axis genetic variation (FKBP5 rs1360780, CRHR1 rs110402; NR3C2 rs5522/rs4635799) previously associated with its function (higher BIMPS are reflective of higher HPA axis activity). BOLD fMRI data were acquired while participants completed an emotional face matching task. ELS and depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the childhood trauma questionnaire and the mood and anxiety symptom questionnaire, respectively. The interaction between HPA axis BIMPS and ELS was associated with right amygdala reactivity to threat-related stimuli, after accounting for multiple testing (empirical-p=0.016). Among individuals with higher BIMPS (i.e., the upper 21.4%), ELS was positively coupled with threat-related amygdala reactivity, which was absent among those with average or low BIMPS. Further, higher BIMPS were associated with greater self-reported anxious arousal, though there was no evidence that amygdala function mediated this relationship. Polygenic variation linked to HPA axis function may moderate the effects of early life stress on threat-related amygdala function and confer risk for anxiety symptomatology. However, what, if any, neural mechanisms may mediate the relationship between HPA axis BIMPS and anxiety symptomatology remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fibromyalgia: anti-inflammatory and stress responses after acute moderate exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bote, Maria Elena; Garcia, Juan Jose; Hinchado, Maria Dolores; Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized in part by an elevated inflammatory status, and "modified exercise" is currently proposed as being a good therapeutic help for these patients. However, the mechanisms involved in the exercise-induced benefits are still poorly understood. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of moderate cycling (45 min at 55% VO2 max) on the inflammatory (serum IL-8; chemotaxis and O2 (-) production by neutrophils; and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 release by monocytes) and stress (cortisol; NA; and eHsp72) responses in women diagnosed with FM compared with an aged-matched control group of healthy women (HW). IL-8, NA, and eHsp72 were determined by ELISA. Cytokines released by monocytes were determined by Bio-Plex® system (LUMINEX). Cortisol was determined by electrochemoluminiscence, chemotaxis was evaluated in Boyden chambers and O2 (-) production by NBT reduction. In the FM patients, the exercise induced a decrease in the systemic concentration of IL-8, cortisol, NA, and eHsp72; as well as in the neutrophil's chemotaxis and O2 (-) production and in the inflammatory cytokine release by monocytes. This was contrary to the completely expected exercise-induced increase in all those biomarkers in HW. In conclusion, single sessions of moderate cycling can improve the inflammatory status in FM patients, reaching values close to the situation of aged-matched HW at their basal status. The neuroendocrine mechanism seems to be an exercise-induced decrease in the stress response of these patients.

  19. Fibromyalgia: anti-inflammatory and stress responses after acute moderate exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Bote

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized in part by an elevated inflammatory status, and "modified exercise" is currently proposed as being a good therapeutic help for these patients. However, the mechanisms involved in the exercise-induced benefits are still poorly understood. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of moderate cycling (45 min at 55% VO2 max on the inflammatory (serum IL-8; chemotaxis and O2 (- production by neutrophils; and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 release by monocytes and stress (cortisol; NA; and eHsp72 responses in women diagnosed with FM compared with an aged-matched control group of healthy women (HW. IL-8, NA, and eHsp72 were determined by ELISA. Cytokines released by monocytes were determined by Bio-Plex® system (LUMINEX. Cortisol was determined by electrochemoluminiscence, chemotaxis was evaluated in Boyden chambers and O2 (- production by NBT reduction. In the FM patients, the exercise induced a decrease in the systemic concentration of IL-8, cortisol, NA, and eHsp72; as well as in the neutrophil's chemotaxis and O2 (- production and in the inflammatory cytokine release by monocytes. This was contrary to the completely expected exercise-induced increase in all those biomarkers in HW. In conclusion, single sessions of moderate cycling can improve the inflammatory status in FM patients, reaching values close to the situation of aged-matched HW at their basal status. The neuroendocrine mechanism seems to be an exercise-induced decrease in the stress response of these patients.

  20. Enhanced Thermostability of Arabidopsis Rubisco activase improves photosynthesis and growth rates under moderate heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Itzhak; Chang, Thom Kai; Bertain, Sean M; Madrigal, Alfredo; Liu, Lu; Lassner, Michael W; Zhu, Genhai

    2007-10-01

    Plant photosynthesis declines when the temperature exceeds its optimum range. Recent evidence indicates that the reduction in photosynthesis is linked to ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) deactivation due to the inhibition of Rubisco activase (RCA) under moderately elevated temperatures. To test the hypothesis that thermostable RCA can improve photosynthesis under elevated temperatures, we used gene shuffling technology to generate several Arabidopsis thaliana RCA1 (short isoform) variants exhibiting improved thermostability. Wild-type RCA1 and selected thermostable RCA1 variants were introduced into an Arabidopsis RCA deletion (Deltarca) line. In a long-term growth test at either constant 26 degrees C or daily 4-h 30 degrees C exposure, the transgenic lines with the thermostable RCA1 variants exhibited higher photosynthetic rates, improved development patterns, higher biomass, and increased seed yields compared with the lines expressing wild-type RCA1 and a slight improvement compared with untransformed Arabidopsis plants. These results provide clear evidence that RCA is a major limiting factor in plant photosynthesis under moderately elevated temperatures and a potential target for genetic manipulation to improve crop plants productivity under heat stress conditions.

  1. Work satisfaction and posttraumatic growth 1 year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: the perceived stress as a moderating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Wu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the role of perceived stress as a possible moderating factor between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and work satisfaction. A stratified random sampling strategy was used to survey 2080 adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Job Satisfaction Index Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale were used in the assessment of the posttraumatic growth, work satisfaction and perceived stress respectively, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used for the analysis. The findings highlight work satisfaction as an important factor in both the prediction of posttraumatic growth and for its moderating effect on perceived stress. Some demographic characteristics, such as gender, education level, and housing condition were found to also affect the survivors' posttraumatic growth. This conclusion indicates that managers should pay closer attention to their employees' psychological state after a disaster and medical practitioners should consider survivors' work status and perceived stress when dispensing mental health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overweight, obesity, steps, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Victor

    2017-04-27

    The objective of this study is to establish cutoff points for the number of steps/day and minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity in relation to the risk of childhood overweight and obesity and their respective associations. In addition, we aim to identify the amount of steps/day needed to achieve the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children from São Caetano do Sul. In total, 494 children have used an accelerometer to monitor steps/day and the intensity of physical activity (min/day). The moderate to vigorous physical activity has been categorized according to the public health recommendation (≤ 60 versus > 60 min/day). Overweight or obesity is defined as body mass index > +1 SD, based on reference data from the World Health Organization. The data on family income, education of parents, screen time, diet pattern, and sedentary time have been collected by questionnaires. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves have been constructed. On average, boys walked more steps/day (1,850) and performed more min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (23.1) than girls. Overall, 51.4% of the children have been classified as eutrophic and 48.6% as overweight or obese. Eutrophic boys walked 1,525 steps/day and performed 18.6 minutes/day more of moderate to vigorous physical activity than those with overweight/obesity (p 0.05). The cutoff points to prevent overweight and obesity in boys and girls were 10,500 and 8,500 steps/day and 66 and 46 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, respectively. The walking of 9,700 steps/day for boys and 9,400 steps/day for girls ensures the scope of the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity. In boys, steps/day and moderate to vigorous physical activity have been negatively associated with body mass index, regardless of race, family income, education of parents, screen time, diet pattern, and sedentary time. We suggest, for steps/day and

  3. Conscientiousness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M H; Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, P L

    2014-01-01

    % in HIGH (P health assessed by questionnaire increased similarly in MOD (P additional health benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important...... public health implications....

  5. The different roles of perceived stress in the association between older adults' physical activity and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, Rebecca; Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E

    2012-03-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined the different roles of perceived stress in the association between older adults' physical activities and physical health. We hypothesized that physical activities would exert beneficial effects on physical health by preventing chronically high levels of perceived stress. We assessed baseline levels of physical activities and repeated measures of perceived stress and physical symptoms in 3 waves of data from a sample of 157 older adults. Among participants with high (but not low) baseline levels of perceived stress, physical activity predicted a 2-year reduction of perceived stress and a 4-year prevention of physical health symptoms. Moreover, the interaction effect on 4-year changes in physical symptoms was mediated by 2-year changes in perceived stress. Physical health benefits of physical activity are particularly pronounced among older adults who perceive high levels of stress, and this effect is mediated by a prevention of chronically high perceptions of stress.

  6. Prospectively Assessed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    combat, persistent risk, and multiple protracted deployments. Increased psychological symptom reporting has engen - dered heightened concern for the...have pointed to the mental health benefits of physical activity, and researchers have postulated a number of mechanisms by which physical activity may...PTSD. Because researchers have postulated a number of mechanisms by which physical activity may modulate mood and the stress response, it is possible

  7. Differences between weekday and weekend levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konharn, Kurusart; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Attempts to reduce the decline in physical activity (PA) in adolescence have been the focus of many public health interventions. This study aimed to (1) determine differences in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) levels between weekdays and weekends and (2) identify adolescents meeting current PA guidelines (PAG). To meet these objectives, 186 Thai adolescents aged 13 to 18 years were asked to wear an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. The results showed that MVPA levels were significantly higher in boys than girls on both weekdays (P youth. This study highlights the need to take weekend-weekday differences into account when developing PA interventions for adolescents. © 2012 APJPH.

  8. Sexual Minority Stress, Coping, and Physical Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenar, Delphia J; Tucker, Carolyn M; Williams, Jaime L

    2017-12-01

    Sexual minorities experience higher rates of several physical health problems compared to their heterosexual counterparts. The present study uses Meyer's Minority Stress Model (Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674-697, 2003) to examine physical health indicators among 250 adults who identified as sexual minorities. Study hypotheses include that sexual minority stress is predictive of two physical health indicators (i.e., engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle and number of physical health problems) and that planning (i.e., problem-focused) and social support coping will partially mediate the relationship between sexual minority stress and each physical health indicator. Results showed that as level of sexual minority stress increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle decreased and the number of physical health problems increased. Planning and social support coping did not mediate these relationships; however, as levels of coping increased, engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle increased. These findings have implications for researchers and healthcare professionals in their efforts to promote the physical health of sexual minorities.

  9. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  10. Development of safety analysis methodology for moderator system failure of CANDU-6 reactor by thermal-hydraulics/physics coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Jin, Dong Sik; Chang, Soon Heung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed new safety analysis methodology of moderator system failures for CANDU-6. • The new methodology used the TH-physics coupling concept. • Thermalhydraulic code is CATHENA, physics code is RFSP-IST. • Moderator system failure ends to the subcriticality through self-shutdown. -- Abstract: The new safety analysis methodology for the CANDU-6 nuclear power plant (NPP) moderator system failure has been developed by using the coupling technology with the thermalhydraulic code, CATHENA and reactor core physics code, RFSP-IST. This sophisticated methodology can replace the legacy methodology using the MODSTBOIL and SMOKIN-G2 in the field of the thermalhydraulics and reactor physics, respectively. The CATHENA thermalhydraulic model of the moderator system can simulate the thermalhydraulic behaviors of all the moderator systems such as the calandria tank, head tank, moderator circulating circuit and cover gas circulating circuit and can also predict the thermalhydraulic property of the moderator such as moderator density, temperature and water level in the calandria tank as the moderator system failures go on. And these calculated moderator thermalhydraulic properties are provided to the 3-dimensional neutron kinetics solution module – CERBRRS of RFSP-IST as inputs, which can predict the change of the reactor power and provide the calculated reactor power to the CATHENA. These coupling calculations are performed at every 2 s time steps, which are equivalent to the slow control of CANDU-6 reactor regulating systems (RRS). The safety analysis results using this coupling methodology reveal that the reactor operation enters into the self-shutdown mode without any engineering safety system and/or human interventions for the postulated moderator system failures of the loss of heat sink and moderator inventory, respectively

  11. Effect of burnup history by moderator density on neutron-physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovdiienko, I.; Kuchin, A.; Khalimonchuk, V.; Ieremenko, M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of assessment of burnup history effect by moderator density on neutron physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core are presented on example of stationary fuel loading with Russian design fuel assembly TWSA and AER benchmark for Khmelnitsky NPP that was proposed by TUV and SSTC NRC at nineteenth symposium. Assessment was performed by DYN3D code and cross section library sets generated by HELIOS code. Burnup history was taken into account by preparing of numerous cross section sets with different isotopic composition each of which was obtained by burning under different moderator density. For analysis of history effect 20 cross section sets were prepared for each fuel assembly corresponded to each of 20 axial layers of reactor core model for DYN3D code. Four fuel cycles were modeled both for stationary fuel loading with TWSA and AER benchmark for Khmelnitsky NPP to obtain steady value of error due to neglect of burnup history effect. Main attention of study was paid to effect of burnup history by moderator density to axial power distribution. Results of study for AER benchmark were compared with experimental values of axial power distribution for fuel assemblies of first, second, third and fourth year operation. (Authors)

  12. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  13. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  15. Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Yang, Lichuan; Fan, Xiaona; Lü, Longbao; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress and alcohol use in rural Chinese residents: A moderated mediation model examining the roles of resilience and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-10-01

    Little research has been done on alcohol use and dependence among rural residents in China, a sub-population that might be under increased stress due to the rapid modernization and urbanization processes. We aimed to assess rural residents' levels of stress, negative emotions, resilience, alcohol use/dependence and the complex relationships among them. Survey data from a large random sample (n=1145, mean age=35.9, SD=7.7, 50.7% male) of rural residents in Wuhan, China were collected using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. The sample had high prevalence of frequently perceived stress (47%) and high prevalence of ever (54.4%), past 30-day (40.4%), and binge drinking (13.8%). Approximately 11% met the criterion for intermediate to severe alcohol dependence. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between perceived stress (predictor) and alcohol dependence (outcome) was fully mediated by anxiety (indirect effect=.203, pstress and two negative emotions (mediators) was significantly modified by resilience (moderator); an integrative moderated mediation analysis indicated that the indirect effect from stress to alcohol dependence through negative emotions was also moderated by resilience. Negative emotions play a key role in bridging stress and alcohol dependence, while resilience significantly buffers the impact of stress on depression, reducing the risk of alcohol dependence. Resilience training may be an effective component for alcohol intervention in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Moderate-to-High Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A; Frederiksen, Kristian S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruite...... reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild AD, with possible additional benefits of preserved cognition in a subgroup of patients exercising with high attendance and intensity.......BACKGROUND: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...... 200 patients with mild AD to a supervised exercise group (60-min sessions three times a week for 16 weeks) or to a control group. Primary outcome was change from baseline in cognitive performance estimated by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) group. Secondary outcomes...

  18. Testing direct and moderating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal anxiety symptoms among 755 pregnant women in Chengdu. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale were used to measure stress, coping and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the direct and moderating effects of coping styles in the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms. Direct effects of negative coping (NC) styles were found. Women with higher NC scores were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Positive coping (PC) styles had moderating effects on perceived stress, whereas NC styles did not. The findings of this study highlight the direct and moderating effects of coping styles. This knowledge is important to healthcare professionals in planning health service provision. Health services should dedicate resources to teaching pregnant women how to enhance PC styles, alter NC styles and cultivate optimistic thinking to alleviate anxiety symptoms.

  19. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Remmers, T.; Kann, D. van; Gubbels, J.; Schmidt, S.; Vries, S. de; Ettema, D.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children’s physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study reported on their child’s outside play around age five years, and 1516 parents around age seven years. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to evaluate (moderating)...

  20. Cognitive moderators of children's adjustment to stressful divorce events: the role of negative cognitive errors and positive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Virdin, L; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether children's cognitive appraisal biases moderate the impact of stressful divorce-related events on psychological adjustment in 355 children ages 9 to 12, whose families had experienced divorce within the past 2 years. Multiple regression indicated that endorsement of negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderates the relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only for older children. Positive illusions buffer the effects of stressful divorce events on child-reported depression and mother-reported externalizing problems. Implications of these results for theories of stress and coping, as well as for interventions for children of divorced families, are discussed.

  1. Mediator or moderator? The role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tim Oi; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2017-11-01

    Raising a child with intellectual disability (ID) may be stressful for parents. Previous studies have suggested the mediating role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. The present study examined whether this mediating role is a result of parents' self-report bias. It also explored whether mindfulness has a moderating role instead when child behavior problems are reported by teachers. In a questionnaire survey, 271 Chinese parents of children with ID in 6 Hong Kong special schools reported their levels of stress and mindfulness, as well as their children's behavior problems. The latter was also reported by teachers. When child behavior problems were reported by parents, parental mindfulness was a mediator between child behavior problems and parental stress. In contrast, when child behavior problems were reported by teachers, parental mindfulness was a moderator between child behavior problems and parental stress. The mediation role of mindfulness maybe an artifact of measurement. The findings provide an encouraging message that parenting a child with ID and behavior problems does not necessarily mean more stress among all parents. Parents with a high level of mindfulness may experience less stress than those with a low level of mindfulness. Parents of children with intellectual disability (ID) tend to report high psychological stress. Previous self-report studies have identified mindfulness as a mediator in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. The present study differs from previous studies by including third-party's reports. It has contributed to the existing body of knowledge in two respects. First, it examined whether the mediation effect resulted from parent self-report bias. Second, it tested an alternative hypothesis of the moderation effect by using teachers' reports to measure child behavior problems. The results showed that when child behavior problems were measured by parents

  2. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  3. Step-count guidelines referenced on 60-minutes of moderate/vigorous physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Fontana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish step-count guidelines for sixth-grade students and assess the ability of step-counts to discriminate between students achieving and not achieving 60-minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily. 201 sixth-grade students completed the study. They wore a pedometer and an accelerometer at the waist level for one full day. ROC curves were used to establish step-count guidelines and determine the diagnostic accuracy of step-counts. Sixth grade students need 12,118 steps/day to reach adequate daily levels of physical activity. The AUC indicated good diagnostic accuracy of step-counts. Suggested step-count guidelines can be a useful tool for identifying children who need to increase their daily levels of physical activity. The step-count cutoff proposed in this study is adequate for discriminating between sixth grade students reaching and not reaching recommended levels of physical activity.

  4. Partner Accommodation Moderates Treatment Outcomes for Couple Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J.; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Wagner, Anne C.; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Partner accommodation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (i.e., altering one’s own behaviors to minimize patient distress and/or relationship conflict due to patients’ PTSD symptoms) has been shown to be positively associated with patient and partner psychopathology and negatively associated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction cross-sectionally. However, the prognostic value of partner accommodation in treatment outcomes is unknown. The goals of the present study were to determine if partner accommodation decreases as a function of couple therapy for PTSD and if pretreatment partner accommodation moderates the efficacy of couple therapy for PTSD. Method Thirty-nine patients with PTSD and their intimate partners (n = 39) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012) and received CBCT for PTSD immediately or after three months of waiting. Blinded assessors determined clinician-rated PTSD symptoms and patient-rated PTSD and depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction at baseline, mid-treatment/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting. Results Contrary to expectation, partner accommodation levels did not change over time for either treatment condition. However, baseline partner accommodation significantly moderated treatment outcomes. Higher levels of partner accommodation were associated with greater improvements in PTSD, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction among patients receiving CBCT for PTSD compared with waiting list. At lower levels of partner accommodation, patients in both groups improved or remained at low levels of these outcomes. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD who have more accommodating partners may be particularly well-suited for couple therapy for PTSD. PMID:26501498

  5. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence: The Role of Contextual Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Tharp, Andra T; Ennett, Susan T; Bauer, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th, and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens' peers reported more physical dating violence. Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use-related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents' aggression propensity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  7. Oxidative stress: role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carolina; Zauli, Giorgio; Martelli, Alberto M; Vitale, Marco; Sacchetti, Gianni; Gonelli, Arianna; Neri, Luca M

    2018-03-30

    Physical exercise is considered to be one of the beneficial factors of a proper lifestyle and is nowadays seen as an indispensable element for good health, able to lower the risk of disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine and osteomuscular apparatus, immune system diseases and the onset of potential neoplasms. A moderate and programmed physical exercise has often been reported to be therapeutic both in the adulthood and in aging, since capable to promote fitness. Regular exercise alleviates the negative effects caused by free radicals and offers many health benefits, including reduced risk of all-cause mortality, sarcopenia in the skeletal muscle, chronic disease, and premature death in elderly people. However, physical performance is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle fatigue. Many efforts have been carried out to identify micronutrients and natural compounds, also known as nutraceuticals, able to prevent or attenuate the exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this review is to discuss the benefits deriving from a constant physical activity and by the intake of antioxidant compounds to protect the body from oxidative stress. The attention will be focused mainly on three natural antioxidants, which are quercetin, resveratrol and curcumin. Their properties and activity will be described, as well as their benefits on physical activity and on aging, which is expected to increase through the years and can get favorable benefits from a constant exercise activity.

  8. Early trauma and increased risk for physical aggression during adulthood: the moderating role of MAOA genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Frazzetto

    Full Text Available Previous research has reported that a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA gene promoter can moderate the association between early life adversity and increased risk for violence and antisocial behavior. In this study of a combined population of psychiatric outpatients and healthy volunteers (N = 235, we tested the hypothesis that MAOA genotype moderates the association between early traumatic life events (ETLE experienced during the first 15 years of life and the display of physical aggression during adulthood, as assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire. An ANOVA model including gender, exposure to early trauma, and MAOA genotype as between-subjects factors showed significant MAOAxETLE (F(1,227 = 8.20, P = 0.005 and genderxMAOAxETLE (F(1,227 = 7.04, P = 0.009 interaction effects. Physical aggression scores were higher in men who had experienced early traumatic life events and who carried the low MAOA activity allele (MAOA-L. We repeated the analysis in the subgroup of healthy volunteers (N = 145 to exclude that the observed GxE interactions were due to the inclusion of psychiatric patients in our sample and were not generalizable to the population at large. The results for the subgroup of healthy volunteers were identical to those for the entire sample. The cumulative variance in the physical aggression score explained by the ANOVA effects involving the MAOA polymorphism was 6.6% in the entire sample and 12.1% in the sub-sample of healthy volunteers. Our results support the hypothesis that, when combined with exposure to early traumatic life events, low MAOA activity is a significant risk factor for aggressive behavior during adulthood and suggest that the use of dimensional measures focusing on behavioral aspects of aggression may increase the likelihood of detecting significant gene-by-environment interactions in studies of MAOA-related aggression.

  9. Associations of social support and stress with postpartum maternal mental health symptoms: Main effects, moderation, and mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato

    2017-07-01

    Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.

  10. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A., E-mail: david.lawrence@health.ny.gov

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2 h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2–3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. - Highlights: • Cold-restraint (physical/psychological stress) induces early oxidative stress. • The oxidative stress relates to catecholamine signaling beta-adrenoceptors. • Physical/psychological stress combines infection enhancing inflammation. • Endoplasmic reticulum

  11. The Moderating Role of Perceived Social Support on the Relationship between Physical Functional Impairment and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Nursing Home Elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Y. C. L. Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the stress-buffering model, this study aimed to examine the moderating role of perceived social support (including institutional peer support and family support on the relationship between physical functional impairment, as a source of stress, and depressive symptoms among Chinese nursing home elderly in Hong Kong. The study used a cross-sectional survey method and convenience sampling. The subjects were recruited from two private nursing homes. A total of 187 elderly (54 males and 133 females participated in the survey. Interviews were conducted by experienced research assistants. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms of each participant. Pearson correlational analyses showed that females reported more depressive symptoms than their male counterparts, and a positive relationship was found between education level and depressive symptoms. Perceived institutional peer support was negatively correlated, while physical functional impairment was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. However, there was no significant correlation between perceived family support and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that physical functional impairment and perceived institutional peer support were significant predictors of elderly depressive symptoms, while perceived family support was not a significant predictor, after statistically controlling for the influence of gender and education level. Perceived institutional peer support, but not perceived family support, was found to moderate the negative impact of physical functional impairment on elderly depressive symptoms. The theoretical and practical implications of this study were then discussed.

  12. Transcriptome analysis provides insights into hepatic responses to moderate heat stress in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjuan; Huang, Jinqiang; Liu, Zhe; Zhou, Yanjing; Xia, Binpeng; Wang, Yongjie; Kang, Yujun; Wang, Jianfu

    2017-07-01

    The rainbow trout is an economically important fish in the world. The limited stress tolerance of this species to high summer-like temperatures usually leads to mass mortality and great economic loss. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms underlying moderate heat responses in the liver of the rainbow trout. Here, we performed transcriptome profiling of rainbow trout liver under moderate heat stress by using the Hiseq™ 4000 sequencing platform. More than 277 million clean reads were obtained from 6 libraries and aligned against the rainbow trout genome. A total of 128 unique transcripts were differentially expressed in the liver under heat-stress and control conditions, many heat shock protein genes for thermoregulation and some novel genes involved in heat stress were identified. Nine of the differently expressed genes were further validated by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that several pathways, including those for protein metabolism, energy metabolism, and immune system, were influenced by heat stress. Moreover, an important protein-processing pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was identified, and the key role of ER-associated degradation and function of calpain as an upstream regulator of apoptosis were confirmed under heat stress. The results of this study provide a comprehensive overview of heat stress-induced transcriptional patterns in rainbow trout liver and would be particularly useful for further studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying responses to heat stress in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Josefa; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Matías; Feriche, Belén; Iglesias, Xavier; Chaverri, Diego; Rodréguez, Ferran A

    2018-03-24

    Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction. At the end of the intervention, nitrites levels were similar in all altitude groups but higher than in the Lo-Lo controls (P = .02). Hi-HiLo had greater GPx activity than Hi-Hi and Hi-Hi3 during most of the intervention (P ≤ .001). GRd activity was higher in Lo-Lo than in Hi-Hi at the end of the training camp (P ≤ .001). All groups showed increased levels of LPO, except Lo-Lo, and carbonyls at the end of the study (P ≤ .001). Training at altitude for 3 or 4 weeks drives oxidative stress leading to cellular damage mainly by worsening the antioxidant capacities. The GSSG/GSH ratio appears to be related to perceived exertion and fatigue. The stronger antioxidant defence showed by the Hi-HiLo group suggests an inverse relationship between redox alterations and performance. Further studies are required to investigate the role of oxidative stress in acclimatization, performance, and health.

  14. Vicarious social defeat stress: Bridging the gap between physical and emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Omar K; Warren, Brandon L; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2016-01-30

    Animal models capable of differentiating the neurobiological intricacies between physical and emotional stress are scarce. Current models rely primarily on physical stressors (e.g., chronic unpredictable or mild stress, social defeat, learned helplessness), and neglect the impact of psychological stress alone. This is surprising given extensive evidence that a traumatic event needs not be directly experienced to produce enduring perturbations on an individual's health and psychological well-being. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by intense fear of trauma-related stimuli, often occurs in individuals that have only witnessed a traumatic event. By modifying the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm to include a witness component (witnessing the social defeat of another mouse), we demonstrate a novel behavioral paradigm capable of inducing a robust behavioral syndrome reminiscent of PTSD in emotionally stressed adult mice. We describe the vicarious social defeat stress (VSDS) model that is capable of inducing a host of behavioral deficits that include social avoidance and other depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in adult male mice. VSDS exposure induces weight loss and spike in serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. A month after stress, these mice retain the social avoidant phenotype and have an increased CORT response when exposed to subsequent stress. The VSDS is a novel paradigm capable of inducing emotional stress by isolating physical stress/confrontation in mice. The VSDS model can be used to study the short- and long-term neurobiological consequences of exposure to emotional stress in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Specificity in mediated pathways by anxiety symptoms linking adolescent stress profiles to depressive symptoms: Results of a moderated mediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Bizumic, Boris; Hjemdal, Odin

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). Independent samples t-test, multivariate analysis of covariance with follow-up tests and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Evidences were found for specificity in the associations between dimensions of adolescent stressors and depressive symptoms independent of transient anxiety. Transient anxiety partly accounted for the indirect effects of eight stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Except stress of school attendance and school/leisure conflict, resilience moderated the indirect effects of specific stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Results suggested differences in how Ghanaian adolescents view the various stress dimensions, and mediated pathways associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Use of cross-sectional data does not show causal process and temporal changes over time. Findings support and clarify the specificity in the interrelations and mediated pathways among dimensions of adolescent stress, transient anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Conditional process analyses shows that resilience does not only buffer direct, but also indirect psychological adversities. Interventions for good mental health may focus on low resilience subgroups in specific stress dimensions while minimizing transient anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  17. Coping Self-Efficacy and Academic Stress among Hispanic First-Year College Students: The Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.; Watson, April A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the role that emotional intelligence plays in moderating the relationship between academic stress and coping self-efficacy among a sample of 125 Hispanic 1st-year college students enrolled at a medium-size, southern Hispanic-serving institution. Results of a 2-stage hierarchical multiple regression analysis…

  18. Financial Stress, Parenting Quality, and the Moderating Effect of Co-Parenting Alliance within the Marital Dissolution Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dung Minh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the perception of financial stress (measured by income inadequacy), parenting quality (measured by positive parenting, consistent discipline, and good supervision), and the moderating effect that cooperative co-parenting (measured by co-parenting alliance) were investigated within a sample of parents who…

  19. Self-reported Cognitive Biases Moderate the Associations Between Social Stress and Paranoid Ideation in a Virtual Reality Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual

  20. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  1. Age As Moderator of Emotional Stroop Task Performance in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Bielecki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Stroop task (EST has been extensively used to investigate attentional processes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Even though aging significantly changes the dynamics of emotion-cognition interactions, very little is known about its role in shaping EST performance in PTSD patients. In the present study we tested a uniquely large sample of motor vehicle accident victims. Data of 194 participants (75.3% female; mean age = 36.64 years, SD = 12.3 were included in the analysis, out of which 136 (70.1% were diagnosed with PTSD. Prior to the psychiatric assessment, participants completed the pictorial version of EST (neutral, positive, negative, and accidents photos were presented. Comparison of the PTSD and control groups revealed a specific increase in reaction times (RTs related to the exposure of trauma-related material. At the same time, previously unreported, moderating effects of age were also discovered. Older participants, in contrast to the younger group, showed no increase in RTs and interference scores in trials where accident photos were presented. Our study points to the key role of age as a previously understudied factor modifying EST performance in PTSD patients.

  2. Age As Moderator of Emotional Stroop Task Performance in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Maksymilian; Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Emotional Stroop task (EST) has been extensively used to investigate attentional processes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Even though aging significantly changes the dynamics of emotion-cognition interactions, very little is known about its role in shaping EST performance in PTSD patients. In the present study we tested a uniquely large sample of motor vehicle accident victims. Data of 194 participants (75.3% female; mean age = 36.64 years, SD = 12.3) were included in the analysis, out of which 136 (70.1%) were diagnosed with PTSD. Prior to the psychiatric assessment, participants completed the pictorial version of EST (neutral, positive, negative, and accidents photos were presented). Comparison of the PTSD and control groups revealed a specific increase in reaction times (RTs) related to the exposure of trauma-related material. At the same time, previously unreported, moderating effects of age were also discovered. Older participants, in contrast to the younger group, showed no increase in RTs and interference scores in trials where accident photos were presented. Our study points to the key role of age as a previously understudied factor modifying EST performance in PTSD patients.

  3. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual's personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants' history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants' personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment.

  4. Do psychosocial factors moderate the association between neighborhood walkability and adolescents' physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Femke; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2013-03-01

    Ecological models emphasize the interaction between individuals and their environment. Furthermore, they posit that environmental variables influence physical activity (PA) not only directly but also indirectly through their interaction with other factors. This study explored if the association between neighborhood walkability and adolescents' PA is moderated by psychosocial factors using data from the Belgian Environmental PA Study in Youth (BEPAS-Y). BEPAS-Y recruited adolescents from 32 neighborhoods differing in objectively determined neighborhood walkability and income. Between 2008 and 2009, 637 adolescents (13-15 years; 49.4% boys) completed a survey measuring socio-demographic and psychosocial factors and wore an accelerometer for seven days. Multilevel-regression analyses revealed that for adolescents living in low-income neighborhoods, the association between neighborhood walkability and PA is moderated by perceived barriers and perceived benefits toward PA. Neighborhood walkability was positively associated with PA among adolescents, living in low-income neighborhoods, who perceived many barriers and few benefits, while for adolescents who perceived few barriers and many benefits, the PA level was high, irrespective of neighborhood walkability. For adolescents, living in high-income neighborhoods, none of the psychosocial attributes moderated the association between neighborhood walkability and PA. These findings provide some support for the predicted interactions posited by ecological models. Improving neighborhood walkability might increase PA-levels of adolescents living in low-income neighborhoods, with less positive psychosocial profiles, or in other words; those who are most difficult to reach through PA interventions. However, in order to increase PA in large populations, interventions focusing solely on improving neighborhood walkability may not have the desired effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Could occupational physical activity mitigate the link between moderate kidney dysfunction and coronary heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquirol, Yolande; Tully, Mark; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Fogarty, Damian; Ferrieres, Jean; Quinn, Michael; Hughes, Maria; Kee, Frank

    2014-12-20

    Chronic kidney disease is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of occupational or non-occupational physical activity (PA) on moderate decreases of renal function is uncertain. We aimed to identify the potential association of PA (occupational and leisure-time) on early decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine the potential mediating effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease. From the PRIME study analyses were conducted in 1058 employed men. Energy expended during leisure, work and commuting was calculated. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the link between types of PA and moderate decrements of eGFR determined with the KDIGO guideline at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to explore the potential effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease, ascertained during follow-up over 10 years. For these employed men, and after adjustment for known confounders of GFR change, more time spent sitting at work was associated with increased risk of moderate decline in kidney function, while carrying objects or being active at work was associated with decreased risk. In contrast, no significant link with leisure PA was apparent. No potential mediating effect of occupational PA was found for the relationship between eGFR and coronary heart disease. Occupational PA (potential modifiable factors) could provide a dual role on early impairment of renal function, without influence on the relationship between early decrease of e-GFR and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morningness, Eveningness And Stress Perception In Physical Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Thais de Carvalho Messora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  to identify the stress levels and sleeping habits of students from the Physical Education college during the diurnal and nocturnal periods. Method: this is an exploratory and descriptive study with 103 subjects. Data were collected through the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory and the Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Identification Questionnaire, and sociodemographic data. Results: The stress indexes showed 53.40% of students without stress and 46.6% with stress. When comparing gender and stress using the chi-square test, one obtained (p=0.0411, indicating that women are more stressed than men. There were 61.1% of students classified with indifferent chronotype. Among the students, 80.4% from the diurnal period were not suitable for the chronotype, as well as 74.5% of the students from the nocturnal period were not either. Conclusion: the majority of the students did not present the chronotype adequate for the study schedule and they presented stress, being more frequent in the female group.

  7. The Effect of Short Moderate Stress on the Midbrain CRF System in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Reddy, Arubala P; Cameron, Judy L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of moderate stress on CRF components in the serotonergic midbrain region in a monkey model of FHA. Design After characterization of stress sensitivity, monkeys were moved to a novel room and given 20% less chow for 5 days prior to euthanasia. Setting University of Pittsburgh nonhuman primate facility. Animals Female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR, n=5), medium stress resilient (MSR, N=4) or stress sensitive (SS, n=4). Intervention 5 days of diet in a novel room with unfamiliar conspecifics. Main Outcome Measures Density of CRF axons in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus; the number of UCN1 cells; the density of UCN1 axons; the expression of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Results CRF innervation was higher in HSR than SS animals; UCN1 cell number was higher in HSR than SS animals and UCN1 axon bouton density was not different, all opposite of non-stressed animals. CRF-R1 was not different between the sensitivity groups, but CRF-R2 was higher in HSR than SS animals. The relative expression of CRF-R1 and R2 was similar to non-stressed animals. Conclusions HSR animals respond to stress with an increase in CRF delivery to serotonin neurons. With stress, UCN1 transport decreases in HSR animals. CRF receptor expression was similar with or without stress. These changes may contribute to resilience in HSR animals. PMID:23849846

  8. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Singh, Abanish; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2013-04-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004) and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  10. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, J.E.; van der Velden, P.G.; Grievink, Linda; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physicianrecorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  11. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Velden, P.G. van der; Grievink, L.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physician-recorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n = 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  12. Relations of Physical Activity and Stress Vulnerability in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Furong; Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose; Schmidlein, Robert

    2018-01-01

    There are increased concerns about depression and anxiety among college students. Thus in need of actions to find proper intervention strategies to target this issue. The purpose of this study was to examine association between leisure-time physical activity and stress vulnerability among college students. A modified survey including physical…

  13. Associations between Maternal Physical Discipline and Peer Victimization among Hong Kong Chinese Children: The Moderating Role of Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M.; Tom, Shelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression…

  14. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, T.; Kann, D. van; Gubbels, J.; Schmidt, S.; Vries, S. de; Ettema, D.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children's physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from the KOALA

  15. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children : the KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Dave Van Kann (2); Stef P.J. Kremers (3); Dick Ettema (6); Swantje Schmidt (1); Teun Remmers (1); Jessica Gubbels (3); Carel Thijs (1)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children’s physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from

  16. Impact of parental cancer on IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness in young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen R

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruoqing Chen,1 Katja Fall,1,2 Kamila Czene,1 Beatrice Kennedy,2 Unnur Valdimarsdóttir,1,3,4 Fang Fang1 1Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Centre of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; 4Department of Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: A parental cancer diagnosis is a stressful life event, potentially leading to increased risks of mental and physical problems among children. This study aimed to investigate the associations of parental cancer with IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the affected men during early adulthood. Materials and methods: In this Swedish population-based study, we included 465,249 men born during 1973–1983 who underwent the military conscription examination around the age of 18 years. We identified cancer diagnoses among the parents of these men from the Cancer Register. IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the men were assessed at the time of conscription and categorized into three levels: low, moderate, and high (reference category. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the studied associations. Results: Overall, parental cancer was associated with higher risks of low stress resilience (relative risk ratio [RRR]: 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.15] and low physical fitness (RRR: 1.12 [95% CI 1.05–1.19]. Stronger associations were observed for parental cancer with a poor expected prognosis (low stress resilience: RRR: 1.59 [95% CI 1.31–1.94]; low physical fitness: RRR: 1.45 [95% CI 1.14–1.85] and for parental death after cancer diagnosis (low stress resilience: RRR: 1.29 [95% CI 1.16–1.43]; low physical fitness: RRR: 1.40 [95% CI 1.23–1.59]. Although there was no overall association between parental

  17. Accelerometer-Measured Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Incidence Rates of Falls in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, David M; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Di, Chongzhi; LaMonte, Michael J; Marshall, Stephen W; Hunt, Julie; Zhang, Yuzheng; Rosenberg, Dori E; Lee, I-Min; Evenson, Kelly R; Herring, Amy H; Lewis, Cora E; Stefanick, Marcia L; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-11-01

    To examine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured using accelerometry is associated with incident falls and whether associations differ according to physical function or history of falls. Prospective study with baseline data collection from 2012 to 2014 and 1 year of follow-up. Women's Health Initiative participants living in the United States. Ambulatory women aged 63 to 99 (N = 5,545). Minutes of MVPA per day measured using an accelerometer, functional status measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), fall risk factors assessed using a questionnaire, fall injuries assessed in a telephone interview, incident falls ascertained from fall calendars. Incident rate ratios (IRRs) revealed greater fall risk in women in the lowest quartile of MVPA compared to those in the highest (IRR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.38), adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, and fall risk factors. Fall rates were not significantly associated with MVPA in women with high SPPB scores (9-12) or one or fewer falls in the previous year, but in women with low SPPB scores (≤ 8) or a history of frequent falls, fall rates were higher in women with lower MVPA levels than in those with higher levels (interaction P Falls in women with MVPA above the median were less likely to involve injuries requiring medical treatment (9.9%) than falls in women with lower MVPA levels (13.0%) (P falls are not more common or injurious in older women who engage in higher levels of MVPA. These findings support encouraging women to engage in the amounts and types of MVPA that they prefer. Older women with low physical function or frequent falls with low levels of MVPA are a high-risk group for whom vigilance about falls prevention is warranted. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Cardiovascular fitness moderates the relations between estimates of obesity and physical self-perceptions in rural elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nathanael G; Moore, Justin B; Bibeau, Wendy S; Rudasill, Kathleen M

    2012-02-01

    Levels of physical activity decline throughout childhood. Children's physical self-perceptions have been found to relate to their physical activity. Understanding the relationships among physical self-perceptions, obesity, and physical activity could have important implications for interventions in children. The current study investigated the moderating effect of cardiovascular fitness (CVF, heart rate recovery from a 3-minute step test) on the relationship between obesity (BMI, waist circumference) and physical self-perceptions (athletic competence, physical appearance) in 104 fourth- and fifth-grade children from a small rural community. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that CVF moderated the relations between BMI and waist circumference on athletic competence. For children with lower fitness, higher waist circumference was associated with lower athletic competence, while for children with higher fitness levels, higher BMI was associated with higher athletic competence. Results also indicated that both BMI and waist circumference were negatively related to physical appearance. CVF moderated these relations such that only children with lower fitness, greater BMI and waist circumference was associated with poorer physical appearance scores. Implications include the need for support of fitness programs to promote psychological well-being and to investigate the relationship between obesity and physical self-perceptions within the context of fitness.

  19. Physical stress, mass, and energy for non-relativistic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.

    2017-06-01

    For theories of relativistic matter fields there exist two possible definitions of the stress-energy tensor, one defined by a variation of the action with the coframes at fixed connection, and the other at fixed torsion. These two stress-energy tensors do not necessarily coincide and it is the latter that corresponds to the Cauchy stress measured in the lab. In this note we discuss the corresponding issue for non-relativistic matter theories. We point out that while the physical non-relativistic stress, momentum, and mass currents are defined by a variation of the action at fixed torsion, the energy current does not admit such a description and is naturally defined at fixed connection. Any attempt to define an energy current at fixed torsion results in an ambiguity which cannot be resolved from the background spacetime data or conservation laws. We also provide computations of these quantities for some simple non-relativistic actions.

  20. Physical activity and stress coping in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Andréa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the value of a physical activity program on stress coping of the elderly. Methods: Intervention study with a group of 18 elderly people referred by the Geriatric Service of Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo, who attended a supervised exercise program, evaluated by the human activity profile and the coping questionnaire. Results: In the coping and functional performance scales, increased stress coping capacity and improvement of daily activities were found after exposure to a physical activity program. Conclusions: The practice of supervised and regular physical activity, combining aerobic, resistance, stretching, and respiratory exercises, yields positive effects in the coping capacity and in the accomplishment of the daily activities.

  1. Accelerometer-determined physical activity and the cardiovascular response to mental stress in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartano, Nicole L; Heffernan, Kevin S; Dumas, Amy K; Gump, Brooks B

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular reactivity has been associated with future hypertension and cardiovascular mortality. Higher physical activity (PA) has been associated with lower cardiovascular reactivity in adults, but little data is available in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PA and cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in children. Cross-sectional study. This study sample included children from the Oswego Lead Study (n=79, 46% female, 9-11 years old). Impedance cardiography was performed while children participated in a stress response protocol. Children were also asked to wear Actigraph accelerometers on their wrists for 3 days to measure intensity and duration of PA and sedentary time. In multivariable models, moderate to vigorous (MV) PA was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) percentile and lower total peripheral resistance (TPR) response to stress (beta=-0.025, p=0.02; beta=-0.009, p=0.05). After additional adjustment for BMI, MVPA was also associated with lower diastolic blood pressure response to stress (beta=-0.01, p=0.03). Total PA and sedentary time were not associated with BMI or cardiovascular responses to stress. A modest, inverse relation of PA to vascular reactivity to mental stress was observed in children. These data provide confirmatory evidence that the promotion of PA recommendations for children are important for cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Sleep Extension on Sleep, Performance, Immunity and Physical Stress in Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbourne, Richard; Miller, Joanna; Smart, Daniel; Dulson, Deborah K; Gill, Nicholas

    2018-05-10

    (1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i) characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during a pre-season training programme; (ii) evaluate the efficacy of a sleep extension intervention in improving sleep, markers of physical stress, immune function and performance. (2) Methods: Twenty five highly trained athletes from a professional rugby team (age (mean ± SD) 25 ± 2.7 years; height 1.87 ± 0.07 m; weight 105 ± 12.1 kg) participated in a six week pre-post control-trial intervention study. Variables of sleep, immune function, sympathetic nervous activity, physiological stress and reaction times were measured. (3) Results: Sleep extension resulted in a moderate improvement in sleep quality scores ([mean; ± 90% confidence limits] −24.8%; ± 54.1%) and small to moderate increases in total sleep time (6.3%; ± 6.3%) and time in bed (7.3%; ± 3.6%). In addition, a small decrease in cortisol (−18.7%; ± 26.4%) and mean reaction times (−4.3%; ± 3.1%) was observed following the intervention, compared to the control. (4) Conclusions: Professional rugby players are at risk of poor sleep during pre-season training, with concomitant rises in physical stress. Implementing a sleep extension programme among professional athletes is recommended to improve sleep, with beneficial changes in stress hormone expression and reaction time performance.

  3. The Effects of Sleep Extension on Sleep, Performance, Immunity and Physical Stress in Rugby Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Swinbourne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during a pre-season training programme; (ii evaluate the efficacy of a sleep extension intervention in improving sleep, markers of physical stress, immune function and performance. (2 Methods: Twenty five highly trained athletes from a professional rugby team (age (mean ± SD 25 ± 2.7 years; height 1.87 ± 0.07 m; weight 105 ± 12.1 kg participated in a six week pre-post control-trial intervention study. Variables of sleep, immune function, sympathetic nervous activity, physiological stress and reaction times were measured. (3 Results: Sleep extension resulted in a moderate improvement in sleep quality scores ([mean; ± 90% confidence limits] −24.8%; ± 54.1% and small to moderate increases in total sleep time (6.3%; ± 6.3% and time in bed (7.3%; ± 3.6%. In addition, a small decrease in cortisol (−18.7%; ± 26.4% and mean reaction times (−4.3%; ± 3.1% was observed following the intervention, compared to the control. (4 Conclusions: Professional rugby players are at risk of poor sleep during pre-season training, with concomitant rises in physical stress. Implementing a sleep extension programme among professional athletes is recommended to improve sleep, with beneficial changes in stress hormone expression and reaction time performance.

  4. Gopher FITStep Pro accuracy when measuring steps and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Gopher FITStep Pro (GFSP is a commercially available objective physical activity monitor that records steps taken and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the GFSP for measuring steps taken in a guided walking condition and MVPA during planned fitness activities. Method: University-aged participants (N = 35, Mage = 20 wore two GFSP (right and left side pedometers and one ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer during both conditions. Results: Paired samples t-tests determined that self-step counts in the guided walking condition were not significantly different than the right side GFSP (p = .084 but were significantly different from the left side GFSP (p = .006. Mean absolute percent error (MAPE was less than 3% between self-step counts with the left (1.9% and right side GFPS (1.7%. However, MVPA estimates were significantly different between the GT3X+ accelerometer and the left side and right side GFSP (p < .001. High MAPE occurred between the GT3X+ accelerometer with the left (51% and right side GFSP (41% in the planned fitness activity condition. Conclusion: The GFSP may be an appropriate instrument for estimating steps, however users should be cautious when consuming MVPA estimates for educational, research, or health-related purposes.

  5. Male aging symptoms: the positive influence of moderate and total physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p460   The aim of the research was to analyze the association of physical activity (PA intensity and duration with male aging symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study of probabilistic sample involving 416 men from two cities in southern Brazil. Data collection used a questionnaire divided into six parts: sample characteristics; anthropometric measurements; economic level by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short-version; Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS and Male Aging Symptoms Scale (AMS. The sample was divided into two groups: with and without male aging symptoms, making use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The presence of male aging symptoms was identified in 61.6% of men, especially somatic and psychological symptoms. Most were considered sufficiently active (60.1%, highlighting men without male aging symptoms (p = 0.026, with a possible effect of moderate and total PA on low-intensity symptoms (p = 0.027; p = 0.015. This study identified relationships between PA duration and intensity and intensity of male aging symptoms. PA practice with specific intensity and duration is suggested in order to obtain health benefits related to male aging symptoms.

  6. The influence of moderate-intensity physical effort on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander-Szymanowicz, P; Marchewka, A; Dabrowski, Z; Teleglow, A; Bac, A; Glodzik, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a six-week aerobic training on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome. Fifteen men with Down syndrome (average age 22.4 years ± 0.91) with moderate or severe intellectual disability took part in the study. Patients underwent a training program three times a week for six weeks. Venous blood samples of 10 ml were collected from every examined patient, 24 hours before and after the exercise. The blood samples were submitted to hematological examination (hematocrit, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) number, RBC indicators: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)), reduced glutathione (GSH) level and number of macrocytes, polikilocytrometric examination of RBC and rheological blood examination (elongation index (EI), aggregation index (AI), syllectogram amplitude (AMP), aggregation half time (t1/2)) was made by LORCA. Amoderate six-week physical training performed on a cycloergometer resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the MCV value, hematocrit and plasma viscosity. The six-week cycloergometer training caused a statistically significant increase in the GSH level and erythrocyte pliability at a shear stress of 0.58 Pa.

  7. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Reed, Jennifer L; Nerenberg, Kara A; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A; Hiremath, Swapnil; Adamo, Kristi B; Tulloch, Heather E; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Fodor, J George; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D

    2014-11-04

    The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18-65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a

  8. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-03-03

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health.

  9. Posttraumatic stress and worry as mediators and moderators between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether the symptoms of posttraumatic stress mediate or moderate the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children. It was hypothesized that (a) posttraumatic stress and worry mediate the effect of political stressors on behavioral and emotional disorders and (b) the relationship between political stressors and behavioral and emotional disorders should be attenuated for children with low levels of worry and posttraumatic stress and strengthened for children with high levels of worry and posttraumatic stress. The total sample was 1267 school age children of both sexes with a mean age of 11.97 years. Interviews were conducted with children at school. As hypothesized, the results indicated that posttraumatic stress and worry mediated and moderated the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in children. Cognitive-behavioral therapy may be used to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress and decrease self-reported worry, somatic symptoms, general anxiety, and depression among children exposed to political trauma. Cognitive-behavioral treatment that exclusively targets excessive worry can lead to clinical change in the other interacting subsystems at the cognitive, physiological, affective and behavioral levels.

  10. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual’s personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants’ history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants’ personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment. PMID:29329352

  11. Race/ethnicity moderates the relationship between chronic life stress and quality of life in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Chaplin, William; Levy, Natalie; Odedosu, Taiye; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Spruill, Tanya M

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether chronic life stress is differentially associated with quality of life (QoL) for Blacks vs. Hispanics with type 2 diabetes. We assessed self-reported chronic stress and QoL in 125 patients with type 2 diabetes who self-identified as either non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic. Separate cross-sectional two-way interaction models (stress × race/ethnicity) with physical and mental health as outcomes were examined. The two-way interaction predicted mental (b=3.12, P=.04) but not physical health. Simple slopes analyses indicated that under conditions of high stress, Blacks (b=-4.4, Pstress × race/ethnicity × social support) with physical and mental health as outcomes. Results indicated the three-way interaction predicted mental (b=.62, P=.01) but not physical health. Simple slopes analyses indicated that under conditions of high stress, high levels of social support improved mental health for Hispanics (b=1.2, Pstress. Social support buffers effects of stress on mental health in Hispanics but not Blacks, which suggests differences in the use and/or quality of social support between Hispanics and Blacks. Longitudinal investigations that examine race/ethnicity, stress, social support, and QoL should help clarify the processes that underlie these observed relations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon I. Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001. Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05, with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  13. Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H

    2011-03-01

    Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.

  14. The moderating effect of psychosocial factors in the relation between neighborhood walkability and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Gheysen, Freja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2016-12-09

    The study aimed to investigate if psychosocial factors moderate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity (PA). A second aim of the study was to investigate the direct associations between psychosocial factors and children's PA. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children (BEPAS-child). In total, data from 494 children and one of their parents were included in the study. Children wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and together with one of their parents, they completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning their child's psychosocial factors toward PA (i.e. parental attitude toward their child's PA, parental social norm toward their child's PA, parental support, friend support, children's self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers toward sports and PA). Neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems (GIS). Multilevel cross-classified analyses were conducted. Of the 42 investigated interactions between neighborhood walkability and psychosocial factors in relation to PA among children, only 7 significant interactions were found of which 3 were only significant among children from low-income neighborhoods. Parental support and self-efficacy were positive correlates of children's PA in high- and low-income neighborhoods independent of the level of walkability, but effect sizes were small. The hypothesis that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles could not be confirmed and in general, psychosocial factors and objective walkability did not interact in relation to children's PA. Focusing on parental support and self

  15. Cognitive reserve and self-efficacy as moderators of the relationship between stress exposure and executive functioning among spousal dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, M M; Hannigan, C; Brennan, S; Robertson, I H; Lawlor, B A

    2017-04-01

    A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship. We examined (1) whether greater psychological stress mediated a relationship between caregiver stress exposure and executive functioning and (2) whether greater self-efficacy and cognitive reserve (CR) moderated this relationship. Spousal dementia caregivers (n = 253) completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (stress exposure), the Perceived Stress Scale, the National Adult Reading Test (CR), the Fortinsky dementia-specific caregiver self-efficacy scale, and the Color Trails Test (executive functioning). Moderated mediation was tested using the PROCESS macro. Age, gender, and dementia risk factors were included as covariates. Greater stress exposure indirectly predicted executive functioning through psychological stress. Stronger relationships between greater psychological stress and poorer executive functioning were observed among caregivers with lower CR; there was no evidence that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between stress exposure and psychological stress. Our findings are in line with the idea that greater psychological stress in response to challenges associated with dementia care predicts poorer caregiver executive functioning, particularly among caregivers with low CR. However, these findings are cross sectional; it is also possible that poorer executive functioning contributes to greater caregiver stress.

  16. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR), and ...

  17. Association between Children's Physical Activity and Parental Practices Enhancing Children's Physical Activity: The Moderating Effects of Children's BMI z-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parental practices that aim at increasing children's physical activity were found to be related to children's physical activity. So far, however, the association between these two sets of variables was studied without considering the moderating role of children's BMI z-score, which may determine the effectiveness of parental practices. The present study aims at filling this void.Design: Longitudinal data were collected among 879 dyads of children (6–11 years old and their parents. Seven parental physical activity practices were assessed at baseline. Physical activity, body mass, and height (measured among children were assessed twice (at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Body mass and height were measured objectively. Seven moderation analyses were conducted.Results: Six parental practices emerged to predict physical activity of children: collaborative social control, overall support, stimulation to be active, general encouragement for physical activity, positive social control, and modeling. Children's BMI z-score moderated three associations. The relationships between parental positive social control, overall parental support, and general parental encouragement for physical activity (at baseline, and children's physical activity (at follow-up were significant only among children with low and medium BMI z-score. In turn, collaborative social control and modeling predicted children's physical activity at the follow-up regardless child's BMI z-score.Conclusions: Parental positive social control or overall parental support may be ineffective in children with higher body mass who are in need to increase their physical activity.

  18. Mediated moderation of the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: role of adolescent physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    To examine the mediating effect of family functioning on the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms and determine whether the magnitude of the mediating effect is different for adolescents with and without chronic physical health conditions. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. A representative survey of 11,813 adolescents and their mothers was included. Maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Multilevel multiple-group path analysis was used to examine potential mediating and moderating effects. Family functioning measured when adolescents were 14-15 years mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms (measured at 10-13 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured at 16-19 years) for both adolescents with [αβ = 0.02 (0.02, 0.03)] and without chronic health conditions [αβ = 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)]. These findings provided evidence to suggest mediated moderation, Δαβ = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03), that is, the mediating effect of family functioning was significantly larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. The mediating effect of family functioning in the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms is larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. Within the framework of family-centered care, maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning are suitable targets for preventive intervention for adolescents with chronic health conditions.

  19. Long lasting effect of physical stress on the LVEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewinski, W.; Stefaniak, B.; Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E.; Tarkowska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have shown that exercise can deteriorate myocardial contractile function. The aim of this study was to examine whether the decrease of LVEF measured with gated SPECT lasts as long as 3 hours after exercise. 46 patients with CAD and a control group comprising 10 healthy subjects were studied. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion gated SPECT with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin at rest and during stress. SPECT was started 1 hour p.i. at rest and twice - 1 hour and 3 hours after injection at stress. LVEF values were calculated by the method of Germano, using QGS software. LVEF values measured at all time points were significantly lower in CAD patients than in control group. In normals mean LVEF values 1 h after rest injection were similar to those obtained 1 and 3 hours after stress injection (59.0 ± 4.1 v. 60.0 ± 5.9 v. 58.0 ± 4.6, respectively; p > 0.05). One hour post exercise a decrease of LVEF was observed in 2 patients and 3 hours after injection also in 2 patients. CAD subjects showed slightly lower LVEF values determined 1h after stress than 1 hour after rest injection (50.8 ± 13.6 v. 49.3 ± 12.8; p < 0.05). More expressed reduction of LVEF was observed 3 hours after stress injection as compared to both rest and stress study (50.8 ± 13.6 v. 46.0 ± 12.2; p < 0.001 and 49.3 ± 12.8 v. 6.0 ± 12.2; p < 0.001, respectively). One hour post exercise, a decrease of LVEF values was observed in 18 patients and 3 hours after injection in 36 patients out of 46. In the majority of patients with CAD physical stress applied for the purposes of myocardial perfusion SPECT study results in an impairment of the LV function. The impairment of the LVEF caused by physical stress is observed 1 hour after exercise, but it increases markedly in frequency and grows stronger during the next 2 hours. Patients with CAD who underwent cardiac examination connected with physical stress should remain under observation for several hours after termination of

  20. Heart rate biofeedback fails to enhance children's ability to identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Marguerite M; Gastin, Paul B; Brown, Helen; Shaw, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity recommendations for children in several countries advise that all young people should accumulate at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Perceiving physical activity intensity, however, can be a difficult task for children and it is not clear whether children can identify their levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accordance with the recommended guidelines. This study aimed to (1) explore whether children can identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity; and (2) investigate whether heart rate biofeedback would improve children's ability to estimate time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thirty seven children (15 boys and 22 girls, mean age 12.6 years) wore data recording Polar E600 heart rate monitors during eight physical education lessons. At the end of each lesson children's estimated time in zone was compared to their actual time in zone. During a six lesson Intervention phase, one class was assigned to a biofeedback group whilst the other class acted as the control group and received no heart rate biofeedback. Post-Intervention, students in the biofeedback group were no better than the control group at estimating time spent in zone (mean relative error of estimation biofeedback group: Pre-Intervention 41±32% to Post-Intervention 28±26%; control group: Pre-Intervention 40±39% to Post-Intervention 31±37%). Thus it seems that identifying time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity remains a complex task for children aged 11-13 even with the help of heart rate biofeedback. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preschoolers’ Genetic, Physiological, and Behavioral Sensitivity Factors Moderate Links Between Parenting Stress and Child Internalizing, Externalizing, and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263

  2. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  3. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on drinking behavior in college students of African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Williams, Carla; Armeli, Stephen; Taylor, Robert E; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Covault, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Covault et al. [Covault et al. (2007); Biol Psychiatry 61(5): 609-616] reported that the common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene moderated the association between past-year stressful events and daily reports of drinking in a sample of European-American (EA) college students. We examined this effect in college students of African descent. Students recruited at a Historically Black University (n = 564) completed web-based measures of past-year stressful life experiences and daily reports of drinking and heavy drinking over a 30-day period. Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and dichotomized as low-activity S' allele carriers or high-activity L' homozygotes. Generalized linear models were used to examine the effects of life stress, genotype, and their interaction on the two drinking measures. In students who completed 15 or more daily surveys (n = 393), there was a significant interaction of past-year stressful events, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and gender on the number of drinking days (P = 0.002). Similar findings were obtained in relation to heavy drinking days (P = 0.007). Men showed a main effect of past-year stressful events on both drinking outcomes (P's life stressors on the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking days (P's stressful events were associated with more frequent drinking and heavy drinking, an effect that was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. However, in contrast to the findings in EA students, in the current sample, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association only among women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chronic workplace stress and insufficient physical activity: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Väänänen, Ari K P; Heponiemi, Tarja; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether exposure to workplace stressors predicts changes in physical activity and the risk of insufficient physical activity. Prospective data from the Finnish Public Sector Study. Repeated exposure to low job control, high job demands, low effort, low rewards and compositions of these (job strain and effort-reward imbalance) were assessed at Time 1 (2000-2002) and Time 2 (2004). Insufficient physical activity (workplace stressors on change in physical activity was examined using fixed-effects (within-subject) logistic regression models (N=6665). In addition, logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the associations between repeated exposure to workplace stressors and insufficient physical activity (N=13 976). In these analyses, coworker assessed workplace stressor scores were used in addition to individual level scores. The proportion of participants with insufficient physical activity was 24% at baseline and 26% at follow-up. 19% of the participants who were sufficiently active at baseline became insufficiently active at follow-up. In the fixed-effect analysis, an increase in workplace stress was weakly related to an increase in physical inactivity within an individual. In between-subjects analysis, employees with repeated exposure to low job control and low rewards were more likely to be insufficiently active at follow-up than those with no reports of these stressors; fully adjusted ORs ranged from 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) to 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.39). Workplace stress is associated with a slightly increased risk of physical inactivity.

  5. Motivation-focused thinking: Buffering against stress-related physical symptoms and depressive symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jeremy M; Perry, Raymond P; Chipperfield, Judith G; Stewart, Tara L; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Developmental transitions are experienced throughout the life course and necessitate adapting to consequential and unpredictable changes that can undermine health. Our six-month study (n = 239) explored whether selective secondary control striving (motivation-focused thinking) protects against the elevated levels of stress and depressive symptoms increasingly common to young adults navigating the challenging school-to-university transition. Path analyses supplemented with tests of moderated mediation revealed that, for young adults who face challenging obstacles to goal attainment, selective secondary control indirectly reduced long-term stress-related physical and depressive symptoms through selective primary control and previously unexamined measures of discrete emotions. Results advance the existing literature by demonstrating that (a) selective secondary control has health benefits for vulnerable young adults and (b) these benefits are largely a consequence of the process variables proposed in Heckhausen et al.'s (2010) theory.

  6. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  7. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and 12-month course of geriatric depression: direct effects and moderation by the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Chrousos, George P; Taylor, Warren D

    2012-07-01

    Although the relation between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk of major depressive disorder is well established, important questions remain about the effects of stress on the course of geriatric depression. Our objectives were (1) to examine how baseline stress and change in stress is associated with course of geriatric depression and (2) to test whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) genes moderate this relation. Two-hundred and sixteen depressed subjects aged 60 years or older were categorized by remission status (Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale≤6) at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, greater baseline numbers of self-reported negative and total SLEs and greater baseline perceived stress severity were associated with lower odds of remission. At 12 months, only baseline perceived stress predicted remission. When we examined change in stress, 12-month decrease in negative SLEs and level of perceived stress were associated with improved odds of 12-month remission. When genotype data were included, COMT Val158Met genotype did not influence these relations. However, when compared with 5-HTTLPR L/L homozygotes, S allele carriers with greater baseline numbers of negative SLEs and with greater decrease in negative SLEs were more likely to remit at 12 months. This study demonstrates that baseline SLEs and perceived stress severity may influence the 12-month course of geriatric depression. Moreover, changes in these stress measures over time correlate with depression outcomes. 5-HTTLPR S carriers appear to be more susceptible to both the effects of enduring stress and the benefit of interval stress reduction.

  8. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  9. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during interventions

  10. Psychological stress and musculoskeletal pain: the moderating effect of childhood and adulthood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, April

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of widespread musculoskeletal pain is complex. Psychological stress is a robust predictor of symptom onset and persistence but not everyone who experiences stress goes on to develop widespread pain. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to ascertain whether individuals with a history of trauma have an increased susceptibility to widespread pain when they experience psychological stress; to identify psychosocial mediators of the stress pain relationship, and ascerta...

  11. PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF THE STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE IN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Stojiljković

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents various methods of the physical treatment used in healing women with the stress urinary incontinence. It is emphasized that the exercises for strengthening the pelvic floor are effective in curing the stress incontinence but the most efficient exercise program has not been determined yet. Likewise, it is pointed out that the biofeedback application, along with the exercise, is no more efficient than the application of the exercises only but, still, much better results are achieved by applying the biofeedback at the beginning of the treatment. In order to evaluate the effects of the vaginal coni, electric and magnetic simulations in treating women with the stress urinary incontinence further explorations are necessary.

  12. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Depression amongst Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: An Evaluation of a Stress Moderation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Catalina S. M.; Hurry, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Stress has an established association with depression. However, not all adolescents experiencing stressors become depressed and it is helpful to identify potential resilience factors. The current study tests a theoretical extension of a stress-diathesis model of depression in a Chinese context, with stress, coping, family relationships, and…

  14. Moderators of Coronary Vasomotion during Mental Stress in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Stress Reactivity, Serum Lipoproteins, and Severity of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Robert H

    1996-01-01

    Impaired coronary artery vasomotion in response to behavioral triggers such as mental stress may be an important pathophysiological process involved in acute manifestations of coronary artery disease...

  15. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  16. Distance from public transportation and physical activity in Japanese older adults: The moderating role of driving status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Anan, Yuya; Harada, Kenji; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    Although previous studies have shown that good access to public transportation is positively related with physical activity, the moderators of this relationship have not been explored sufficiently in older adults. It is possible that driving status could moderate this relationship. The present study examined whether the objectively measured distance between public transportation and the home was associated with physical activity levels, and whether this association was moderated by driving status among Japanese older adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants (n = 2,878) completed questionnaires and wore accelerometers for at least 7 days, to measure their average daily step counts and minutes spent engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Road network distances between the home and the nearest bus stop or train station were measured using geographic information systems. Driving status was assessed using questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses stratified by driving status revealed that, among nondrivers, living further away from public transportation was associated with higher step counts (β = 0.08, p public transportation was significantly associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (β = -0.05, p = .042). Despite the small effect sizes, the direction of the association between distance from public transportation and physical activity was different for current drivers and nondrivers. These findings imply that good access to public transportation does not positively relate with greater engagement in physical activity among nondriving older adults. Shorter distances to public transportation might reduce opportunities for engaging in physical activity for them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The observed and perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity among urban-dwelling adults: The moderating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orstad, Stephanie L; McDonough, Meghan H; Klenosky, David B; Mattson, Marifran; Troped, Philip J

    2017-10-01

    Physical environmental features of neighborhoods are associated with physical activity, but the influence of mental health factors, such as depression, on these associations is poorly understood. We examined whether the perceived neighborhood environment mediated associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity, and whether these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms. Data consisted of systematic social observations of 343 neighborhoods and resident surveys. Participants' (N = 2969) mean age was 41.9 ± 16.2 years, 60.2% were female, and 67.9% were non-White. We conducted multiple linear regression and tests for mediation and moderated mediation. Observed recreation facilities, commercial destinations, physical disorder, and physical deterioration were indirectly associated with walking via perceived neighborhood environment variables. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and positively associated with leisure-time physical activity via perceived park access, and indirectly and inversely associated with walking and leisure-time physical activity via perceived traffic danger, but only among participants with low depressive symptom scores. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and inversely associated, and observed physical disorder and physical deterioration were indirectly and positively associated with walking via perceived disorder, but only among participants with high depressive symptom scores. Depressive symptoms affected the strength and direction of associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity via residents' perceptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. V2676 Oph: Estimating Physical Parameters of a Moderately Fast Nova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, A.; Pavana, M.; Kamath, U. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Walter, F. M.

    2018-03-01

    Using our previously reported observations, we derive some physical parameters of the moderately fast nova V2676 Oph 2012 #1. The best-fit Cloudy model of the nebular spectrum obtained on 2015 May 8 shows a hot white dwarf source with TBB≍1.0×105 K having a luminosity of 1.0×1038 erg/s. Our abundance analysis shows that the ejecta are significantly enhanced relative to solar, He/H=2.14, O/H=2.37, S/H=6.62 and Ar/H=3.25. The ejecta mass is estimated to be 1.42×10-5 M⊙. The nova showed a pronounced dust formation phase after 90 d from discovery. The J-H and H-K colors were very large as compared to other molecule- and dust-forming novae in recent years. The dust temperature and mass at two epochs have been estimated from spectral energy distribution fits to infrared photometry.

  19. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Leite, Neiva; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Martins, Raul A; Mascarenhas, Luis P G; Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Padez, Cristina; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with lifestyle behaviors in youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk and encourage interventions. This study evaluates the associations among the clustering of metabolic risk factors and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth. The sample comprised 522 girls and 402 boys (N = 924) aged 11 to 17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressures were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test. MVPA was estimated with a 3-day diary. Outcome variables were statistically normalized and expressed as z scores. A clustered metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of z scores. Multiple linear regression was used to test associations between metabolic risk and MVPA by sex, adjusted for age, WC, and CRF. After adjustment for potential confounders, MVPA was inversely associated with the clustering of metabolic risk factors in girls, but not in boys; in addition, after adjusting for WC, the statistical model of that relationship was substantially improved in girls. MVPA was independently associated with increased risk of MetS in girls. Additional efforts are needed to encourage research with different analytical approach and standardization of criteria for MetS in youth.

  20. Association of sedentary time with mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Koster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior has emerged as a novel health risk factor independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Previous studies have shown self-reported sedentary time to be associated with mortality; however, no studies have investigated the effect of objectively measured sedentary time on mortality independent of MVPA. The objective our study was to examine the association between objectively measured sedentary time and all-cause mortality. METHODS: 7-day accelerometry data of 1906 participants aged 50 and over from the U.S. nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004 were analyzed. All-cause mortality was assessed from the date of examination through December 31, 2006. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 2.8 years, there were 145 deaths reported. In a model adjusted for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, multiple morbidities, mobility limitation, and MVPA, participants in third quartile (hazard ratio (HR:4.05; 95%CI:1.55-10.60 and fourth quartile (HR:5.94; 95%CI: 2.49-14.15 of having higher percent sedentary time had a significantly increased risk of death compared to those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for mortality independent of MVPA. Further investigation, including studies with longer follow-up, is needed to address the health consequences of sedentary behavior.

  1. A process-oriented measure of habit strength for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J Robert; Zillich, Irja; Medic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Habitual action is an important aspect of health behaviour, but the relevance of various habit strength indicators continues to be debated. This study focused specifically on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and evaluated the construct validity of a framework emphasizing patterned action, stimulus-response bonding, automaticity, and negative consequences for nonperformance as indicators of habit strength for this form of exercise. Methods : Upper-level undergraduates ( N  = 124) provided demographic information and responded to questionnaire items assessing historical MVPA involvement, current MVPA involvement, and the four proposed habit strength dimensions. Factor analyses were used to examine the latent structure of the habit strength indicators, and the model's construct validity was evaluated via an examination of relationships with repetition history and current behaviour. Results : At a measurement level, findings indicated that the proposed four-component model possessed psychometric integrity as a coherent set of factors. Criterion-related validity was also demonstrated via significant changes in three of the four factors as a function of past involvement in MVPA and significant correlations with the frequency, duration, and intensity of current MVPA. Conclusions : These findings support the construct validity of this exercise habit strength model and suggest that it could provide a template for future research on how MVPA habits are developed and maintained.

  2. Stress-related clinical pain and mood in women with chronic pain: moderating effects of depression and positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary C; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain with comorbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. This study aims to compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N = 110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression × mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions.

  3. Transactional Associations between Youths' Responses to Peer Stress and Depression: The Moderating Roles of Sex and Stress Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined transactional associations between responses to peer stress and depression in youth. Specifically, it tested the hypotheses that (a) depression would predict fewer effortful responses and more involuntary, dysregulated responses to peer stress over time; and (b) fewer adaptive and more maladaptive responses would predict…

  4. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E Cooke

    Full Text Available Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment.

  5. Reactor physics measurements with 19-element ThOsub(2)-sup(235)UOsub(2) cluster fuel in heavy water moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, P.M.

    1985-02-01

    Low power lattice physics measurements have been performed with a single rod of 19-element thorium oxide fuel enriched with 1.45 wt. percent sub(235)UOsub(2) (93 percent enriched) in a simulated heavy water moderated and cooled power reactor core. The experiments were designed to provide data relevant to a power reactor irradiation and to obtain some basic information on the physics of uranium-thorium fuel material. Some theoretical flux calculations are summarized and show reasonable agreement with experiment

  6. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of differ...

  7. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Social support and mastery influence the association between stress and poor physical health in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Joanne; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To date, much of the research linking the stress of caring for children with developmental disabilities (e.g. Autism & Down syndrome) with parental health outcomes have tended to concentrate on mental health with less attention paid to the physical health consequences. Thus, this study sought to explore the psychosocial predictors of poor physical health in these caring parents. One hundred and sixty-seven parents (109 caregivers and 58 control parents) completed measures of stress, child problem behaviours, social support, mastery and physical health. Parents of children with developmental disabilities had poorer physical health compared to control parents. Stress and mastery, but not social support and problem behaviours, were significant predictors of poor physical health within caring parents for children with developmental disabilities. However, the association between mastery and physical health was mediated by perceived stress such that those parents who were higher on mastery reported less stress and better physical health; furthermore, the association between stress and physical health was moderated by social support; those parents high on social support and low in stress had better physical health. These results indicate that the paths between psychosocial factors and poor physical health in the caring parents are working synergistically rather than in isolation. They also underscore the importance of providing multi-component interventions that offer a variety of psychosocial resources to meet the precise needs of the parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnic identification, discrimination, and mental and physical health among Syrian refugees : The moderating role of identity needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelebi, Elif; Verkuyten, Maykel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073378542; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem

    2017-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework and motivated identity construction theory, we investigated the moderating role of identity needs in the association between social identification and perceived discrimination with mental and physical health among a sample of Syrian refugees (N = 361) in Turkey.

  10. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  11. Is the association between screen-based behaviour and health complaints among adolescents moderated by physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Klein, Daniel; Hamrik, Zdenek; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between screen-based (SB) behaviour and selected health complaints in adolescents and whether physical activity (PA) moderates this association. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study

  12. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  13. Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J. F.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    To examine the prospective association between objectively measured time spent sedentary and insulin resistance and whether this association is independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and other relevant confounders. This was a population-based study (Medical Research

  14. Predictors of Emotional Eating during Adolescents' Transition to College: Does Body Mass Index Moderate the Association between Stress and Emotional Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shana M.; Darling, Katherine E.; Fahrenkamp, Amy J.; D'Auria, Alexandra L.; Sato, Amy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to (1) examine perceived stress and resources to cope with stress as predictors of emotional eating during the transition to college and (2) determine whether body mass index (BMI) moderated the emotional eating-stress relationship. Participants: Participants were 97 college freshmen (73% female; BMI: M = 25.3…

  15. Dispositional Affect Moderates the Stress-Buffering Effect of Social Support on Risk for Developing the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (M age  = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Two 3-way interactions emerged-Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress-buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support-based interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ethnicity moderates the relationship between perceived stress and benefit finding in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Julia S; Fekete, Erin M; Antoni, Michael H; Ironson, Gail; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Schneiderman, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies conducted within the USA demonstrate higher levels of benefit finding in ethnic minority individuals compared to nonminority individuals living with chronic disease. As benefit finding may be a salient buffer for the effects of stress, the current study examined the association between perceived stress and benefit finding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the southeast USA and investigated whether ethnicity was a moderator of this relationship. We hypothesized that benefit finding would be greater in ethnic minority MSM than in white MSM and that ethnic minority MSM with high levels of stress would experience greater benefit finding than their white MSM counterparts. The current study utilized baseline (T1) and 3-month follow-up (T2) data drawn from a previous trial of a psychosocial intervention in HIV+ MSM. Participants were 130 HIV+ MSM; 52 % were white and 48 % belonged to minority ethnic groups (African-American, Caribbean-American, Hispanic). Analyses revealed that benefit finding was greater in ethnic minority MSM at baseline; however, this difference became nonsignificant when age, education level, highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence, and CD4 count were added to the model. Moderated regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between T1 perceived stress and ethnicity in predicting T2 benefit finding, such that higher levels of T1 perceived stress predicted lower levels of T2 benefit finding in ethnic minority MSM only. This association was independent of intervention group assignment. The current study's results highlight potential differences in the relationship between stress and benefit finding processes in white and ethnic minority HIV+ MSM.

  17. Relationship between Sedentariness and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth: A Multivariate Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to jointly analyse moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentariness, and their correlates, in children within their school contexts, using a multivariate multilevel approach. The sample comprises 499 Portuguese children (284 girls from 23 schools. MVPA and sedentary time were estimated by accelerometer. A set of predictor variables from both child and school levels was tested. Overall, schools explained a small amount of the total variance in both MVPA (5.6% and sedentariness (3.2%, and a correlation coefficient of −0.45 (p < 0.05 was found between MVPA and sedentariness at the child level. Number of siblings and socioeconomic status (SES were significantly associated with both sedentariness (SES: β = 2.372 ± 1.183; siblings: β = −8.127 ± 2.759 and MPVA (SES: β = −1.535 ± 0.421; siblings: β = 2.822 ± 0.977, but with opposite signs. Body Mass Index (BMI (β = −4.804 ± 1.898 and sex (male (β = 21.561 ± 3.496 were only associated with MVPA. None of the school correlates were statistically significant in their joint effects to simultaneously explain sedentariness and MVPA. These results suggest that although MVPA and sedentariness may be different constructs, they are correlated and this should be taken into account when designing strategies to reduce children’s sedentariness and increase their MVPA. In addition, the small effect of the school context on this relationship highlights the important roles of child and family characteristics.

  18. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on

  19. Does race/ethnicity moderate the association between job strain and leisure time physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Avrunin, Jill S; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Emmons, Karen M

    2006-08-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities report myriad barriers to regular leisure time physical activity (LTPA), including the stress and fatigue resulting from their occupational activities. We sought to investigate whether an association exists between job strain and LTPA, and whether it is modified by race or ethnicity. Data were collected from 1,740 adults employed in 26 small manufacturing businesses in eastern Massachusetts. LTPA and job strain data were self-reported. Adjusted mean hours of LTPA per week are reported. In age and gender adjusted analyses, reports of job strain were associated with LTPA. There was a significant interaction between job strain and race or ethnicity (p = .04). Whites experiencing job strain reported 1 less hr of LTPA per week compared to Whites not reporting job strain. Collectively, racial/ethnic minorities reporting job strain exhibited comparatively higher levels of LTPA compared to their counterparts with no job strain, although patterns for individual groups did not significantly differ. Job strain was associated with LTPA in a lower income, multiethnic population of healthy adult men and women. The association between job strain and LTPA was modified by race or ethnicity, highlighting the importance of investigating the differential effects of psychosocial occupational factors on LTPA levels by race or ethnicity.

  20. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  2. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  5. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  6. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  7. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  8. Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Bryce; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance coping (AVC) is common in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given that PTSD and AUD commonly co-occur, AVC may represent a risk factor for the development of comorbid post-traumatic stress and alcohol use. In this study, the relationship between AVC and PTSD symptoms (PTSS) was examined in individuals with versus without AUDs. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims were assessed 6-weeks post accident for AUD histo...

  9. Hierarchy stability moderates the effect of status on stress and performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erik L; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-01-03

    High social status reduces stress responses in numerous species, but the stress-buffering effect of status may dissipate or even reverse during times of hierarchical instability. In an experimental test of this hypothesis, 118 participants (57.3% female) were randomly assigned to a high- or low-status position in a stable or unstable hierarchy and were then exposed to a social-evaluative stressor (a mock job interview). High status in a stable hierarchy buffered stress responses and improved interview performance, but high status in an unstable hierarchy boosted stress responses and did not lead to better performance. This general pattern of effects was observed across endocrine (cortisol and testosterone), psychological (feeling in control), and behavioral (competence, dominance, and warmth) responses to the stressor. The joint influence of status and hierarchy stability on interview performance was explained by feelings of control and testosterone reactivity. Greater feelings of control predicted enhanced interview performance, whereas increased testosterone reactivity predicted worse performance. These results provide direct causal evidence that high status confers adaptive benefits for stress reduction and performance only when the social hierarchy is stable. When the hierarchy is unstable, high status actually exacerbates stress responses.

  10. Number of recent stressful life events and incident cardiovascular disease: Moderation by lifetime depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntson, Jessica; Patel, Jay S; Stewart, Jesse C

    2017-08-01

    We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews. There were 1069 cases of incident CVD. Each additional stressful life event was associated with a 15% increased odds of incident CVD [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.11, 1.19]. As hypothesized, a stressful life events by lifetime depressive disorder interaction was detected (P=0.003). Stratified analyses indicated that stressful life events had a stronger association with incident CVD among adults with (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27, n=4908) versus without (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14, n=23,675) a lifetime depressive disorder. Our findings suggest that a greater number of recent stressful life events elevate the risk of new-onset CVD and that this risk is potentiated in adults with a history of clinical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Support as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Life Satisfaction Among the Chinese Parents of Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan

    2018-04-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are critical indicators of life satisfaction and can serve as basic intervention strategies that promote life satisfaction among Chinese parents of children with ASD.

  12. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2014-12-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to psychosocial stress than L-allele homozygotes. This study aimed to investigate whether 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the effects of stress on ADHD in a multisite prospective ADHD cohort study. 5-HTTLPR genotype, as well as the number of stressful life events in the past 5 years and ongoing long-term difficulties, was determined in 671 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, their siblings, and healthy controls (57.4% male, average age 17.3 years). Linear mixed models, accounting for family relatedness, were applied to investigate the effects of genotype, experienced stress, and their interaction on ADHD severity at time point T2, while controlling for ADHD severity at T1 (mean follow-up time 5.9 years) and for comorbid internalizing problems at T2. The interaction between genotype and stress significantly predicted ADHD severity at T2 (p = .006), which was driven by the effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity (p = .004). Probing of the interaction effect made clear that S-allele carriers had a significantly more positive correlation between stress and ADHD severity than L-allele homozygotes. The results show that the interaction between 5-HTTLPR and stress is a mechanism involved particularly in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension of ADHD, and that this is independent of comorbid internalizing problems. Further research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this interaction effect is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation, emotional social support, and physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lawman, Hannah G; Van Horn, M Lee

    2013-05-01

    This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change.

  14. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker responses after a moderate-intensity soccer training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Rodrigo; Mello, Ricardo; Gomes, Diego; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Nasser, Igor; Miranda, Humberto; Salerno, Verônica P

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a moderate-intensity soccer training session on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity in athletes along with the biomarkers creatine kinase and transaminases for lesions in muscle and liver cells. Twenty-two male soccer players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5 min before and after a moderate-intensity game simulation. The results showed a decrease in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) from an elevation in the production of ROS that maintained the redox homeostasis. Although the session promoted an elevated energy demand, observed by an increase in lactate and glucose levels, damage to muscle and/or liver cells was only suggested by a significant elevation in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT). Of the two biomarkers analysed, the results suggest that measurements of the ALT levels could be adopted as a method to monitor recovery in athletes.

  15. Daily family stress and HPA axis functioning during adolescence: The moderating role of sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J.; Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Bower, Julienne E.; Almeida, David M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of sleep in the association between family demands and conflict and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents (n = 316). Adolescents completed daily diary reports of family demands and conflict for 15 days, and wore actigraph watches during the first 8 nights to assess sleep. Participants also provided five saliva samples for 3 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol rhythms. Regression analyses indicated that sleep latency and efficiency moderated the link between family demands and the cortisol awakening response. Specifically, family demands were related to a smaller cortisol awakening response only among adolescents with longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. These results suggest that certain aspects of HPA axis functioning may be sensitive to family demands primarily in the context of longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. PMID:27235639

  16. Does political ideology moderate stress: the special case of soldiers conducting forced evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Leadership styles and occupational stress among college athletic directors: the moderating effect of program goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, Todd A

    2002-03-01

    The interaction between an individual's abilities and the perceived demands of the workplace appears to make a unique contribution to job-related stress above and beyond that of dispositional or situational factors alone (R. S. Lazarus, 1990). In the present study, the author evaluated this contention among 245 male intercollegiate athletic directors by assessing the combined influence of leadership style and program goals on occupational stress. Regression analyses revealed the presence of both significant main effects and interaction effects of leadership style and program goals in the prediction of emotional exhaustion, daily job stress, and personal accomplishment. Findings are discussed in terms of person-environment fit theory (J. R. P. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the notion of perceived control within the occupational setting.

  19. Adiposity moderates links from early adversity and depressive symptoms to inflammatory reactivity to acute stress during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Taylor, Shelley E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    Both early adversity and depression are associated with heightened inflammation. However, few studies have focused on inflammatory reactivity to psychosocial stress and examined adiposity as a potential moderator. Yet, repeated heightened inflammatory reactivity over time is thought to contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and adipose tissue is a key source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether early adversity and depressive symptoms were related to stress-induced inflammation and whether these associations varied by total body and abdominal adiposity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a sample of late adolescents. Participants reported on their early family environment and current depressive symptoms, had their height, weight, and WC assessed for adiposity markers, and provided blood samples for IL-6 assessment before and after a standardized laboratory stress task. No main effect of early adversity on IL-6 reactivity to acute stress was observed. However, significant interactions between early adversity and BMI and WC emerged. Greater exposure to early adversity was associated with greater IL-6 responses only among adolescents with higher BMI or WC. The same pattern of findings was observed for depressive symptoms. Additionally, moderated mediation analyses indicated that among adolescents with greater adiposity, early adversity indirectly influenced IL-6 reactivity via current depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to our understanding of vulnerability factors that may amplify the associations between early adversity and depressive symptoms and inflammation during relatively early stages of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived stress and life satisfaction: social network service use as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qikun; Liu, Yihao; Sheng, Zitong; He, Yue; Shao, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Social Network Service (SNS) has become a buzzword in recent media coverage with the development of the second generation of Web-based communities. In China, SNS has played an increasingly important role in its users' daily lives, especially among students. With a sample of 471 college students, we tested the direct relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction using a regression analysis. Moreover, we found SNS use could buffer the negative effect of perceived stress. This study has practical implications on Internet users' SNS use.

  1. Finding benefits from acculturative stress among Asian Americans: Self-reflection moderating the mediating effects of ethnocultural empathy on positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Li, Chun-I; Wang, Cixin; Ko, Stacy Y

    2016-11-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model to see whether self-reflection moderated (a) the association between acculturative stress and ethnocultural empathy and (b) the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes (i.e., bicultural competence and making positive sense of adversity) through ethnocultural empathy. A total of 330 Asian American college students from a West coast university participated in an online survey. Results from PROCESS supported hypotheses. First, self-reflection significantly moderated the effects of acculturative stress on ethnocultural empathy. Specifically, the effect of acculturative stress on ethnocultural empathy was significantly positive for those with lower self-reflection. Conversely, this effect was not significant for those with higher self-reflection, but ethnocultural empathy was consistently high across all levels of acculturative stress for those with higher self-reflection. Post hoc exploratory analyses examined the moderated mediation model using each of the 5 domains of acculturative stress as predictors; results supported the moderated mediation hypotheses for 2 domains, discrimination and cultural isolation. Second, self-reflection significantly moderated the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes through ethnocultural empathy. Results from conditional indirect effects suggested that the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes through ethnocultural empathy were significantly positive for those with lower self-reflection. Conversely, the indirect effects were not significant for those with higher self-reflection, but the 2 positive outcomes stayed high at all levels of acculturative stress. Post hoc analyses found that 5 of 6 components of bicultural competence used as outcome variables supported the moderation mediation hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Moderated Online Social Therapy: A Model for Reducing Stress in Carers of Young People Diagnosed with Mental Health Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, John; Lederman, Reeva; Koval, Peter; Wadley, Greg; Bendall, Sarah; Cotton, Sue; Herrman, Helen; Crisp, Kingsley; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Family members caring for a young person diagnosed with the onset of mental health problems face heightened stress, depression, and social isolation. Despite evidence for the effectiveness of family based interventions, sustaining access to specialist family interventions is a major challenge. The availability of the Internet provides possibilities to expand and sustain access to evidence-based psychoeducation and personal support for family members. In this paper we describe the therapeutic model and the components of our purpose-built moderated online social therapy (MOST) program for families. We outline the background to its development, beginning with our face-to-face EPISODE II family intervention, which informed our selection of therapeutic content, and the integration of recent developments in positive psychology. Our online interventions for carers integrate online therapy, online social networking, peer and expert support, and online social problem solving which has been designed to reduce stress in carers. The initial version of our application entitled Meridian was shown to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in a feasibility study of carers of youth diagnosed with depression and anxiety. There was a significant reduction in self-reported levels of stress in caregivers and change in stress was significantly correlated with use of the system. We have subsequently launched a cluster RCT for caregivers with a relative diagnosed with first-episode psychosis. Our intervention has the potential to improve access to effective specialist support for families facing the onset of serious mental health problems in their young relative.

  3. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Temperament Moderates Associations between Exposure to Stress and Children's Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a temperament profile (four groups determined by high vs. low resistance to control [unmanageability] and unadaptability [novelty distress]) and family stress in predicting externalizing problems at school in children followed from kindergarten through eighth grade (ages 5-13) was investigated. The sample consisted of 556…

  5. Reward dependence moderates smoking-cue- and stress-induced cigarette cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p'scues (pcues (pcues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family-Level Coparenting Processes and Child Gender as Moderators of Family Stress and Toddler Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this multi-method study was to examine how child gender and coparenting processes influence associations between family stress and toddlers' social adjustment. The participants, 104 dual-earner couples and their 2-year-old children, were videotaped in their home during a freeplay activity. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires…

  7. 5-HTTLPR X Stress in Adolescent Depression: Moderation by MAOA and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2013-01-01

    Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated…

  8. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity : The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it

  9. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  10. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  11. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation...... was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with60min...

  12. ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND INTENSIVITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING FREE PLAY IN CHILDREN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED SPORT CONFIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lochbaum Marc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine the moderating role of sport confidence and resultant the achievement goal profile with physical activity intensity during free play. Material: participants were 28 children participating in an after-school program. The 28 children completed measures of task and ego goal orientations and sport confidence two weeks prior to having their heart rate monitored during a free play session. Results: indicated that children with high sport confidence were characterized ( p 1.10 by higher task and ego orientations and average heart rate over the course of the free play session when compared to the low sport confidence children. The moderate sport confidence children were not significantly different than the other groups expect for ego orientation though effect sizes indicated this group tended towards being more similar to the high sport confidence group. The results were confounded as all children in the low sport confidence condition were girls. Conclusions: Sport confidence moderates physical activity intensity during free play in children and is characterized by a higher ego orientation and generally higher task orientation. But given all of the low confident children were females, intervention work is needed at early ages with girls to build sport confidence and motivations for both goal orientations to hopefully increase physical activity intensity during free play.

  13. Maternal low-protein diet-induced delayed reflex ontogeny is attenuated by moderate physical training during gestation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão-Tebas, Filippe; Bento-Santos, Adriano; Fidalgo, Marco Antônio; de Almeida, Marcelus Brito; dos Santos, José Antônio; Lopes de Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of moderate- to low-intensity physical training during gestation on reflex ontogeny in neonate rats whose mothers were undernourished. Virgin female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: untrained (NT, n 7); trained (T, n 7); untrained with a low-protein diet (NT+LP, n 7); trained with a low-protein diet (T+LP, n 4). Trained rats were subjected to a protocol of moderate physical training on a treadmill over a period of 4 weeks (5 d/week and 60 min/d, at 65 % of VO₂max). After confirming the pregnancy, the intensity and duration of the exercise were reduced. Low-protein groups were provided with an 8 % casein diet, and controls were provided with a 17 % casein diet. Their respective offspring were evaluated (during the 10th-17th days of postnatal life) in terms of physical feature maturation, somatic growth and reflex ontogeny. Pups born to mothers provided with the low-protein diet during gestation and lactation showed delayed physical feature and reflex maturation and a deficit in somatic growth when compared with controls. However, most of these deficiencies were attenuated in pups of undernourished mothers undergoing training. In conclusion, physical training during gestation attenuates the effects of perinatal undernutrition on some patterns of maturation in the central nervous system during development.

  14. Physical Symptoms of Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Sandra L.; Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Examined depression among 97 adolescents with and without psychosomatic stress symptoms and explored relationship between psychosomatic stress symptoms and preoccupation with suicide. Found that occurrence of minor physical symptoms of stress, but not major psychosomatic disorders, was associated with depression. Physical symptoms were not…

  15. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal mind-mindedness and toddler behavior problems: The moderating role of maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Crossman, Molly K; Caruso, Alessandra; Raskin, Maryna; Miranda-Julian, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness (MM) reflects a caregiver's tendency to view a child as an individual with an independent mind. Research has linked higher MM with more favorable parenting and child adaptation. The aim of this study was to examine whether MM was associated with toddlers' behavior problems and competence, and the moderating role of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample (N = 212) of adolescent mothers and their toddlers. MM was coded from maternal utterances during free play; mothers completed the University of California at Los Angeles Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index and reported on children's behavior problems and competence using the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. The majority of mothers (84%) experienced trauma; 45% of these mothers met criteria for partial or full PTSD. Trauma was related to greater behavior problems, and PTSD moderated MM-child functioning relations. When mothers experienced full PTSD, there was no relation between MM and behavior problems. With child competence, when compared to children of mothers with no trauma exposure, children of mothers experiencing partial PTSD symptoms were more likely to have delays in competence when mothers made more MM comments. Results are discussed in light of how MM, in the context of trauma and PTSD, may affect parenting.

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder as a moderator of the association between negative affect and bulimic symptoms: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Trisha M; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential moderating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the emotion-behavior relationship in individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN). A total of 119 women with BN were involved in the study. Participants were divided into 2 groups: those with BN and PTSD (n = 20) and those with BN only (n = 99). Ecological momentary assessment procedures were used for the examination of affect, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and the relationship of affect and bulimic behavior over time. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I Disorders was conducted for the diagnosis of BN, PTSD, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders functioned as covariates in all analyses. Statistical models showed that those in the PTSD group reported a greater daily mean level of negative affect (NA) and a greater daily frequency of bulimic behaviors than those in the BN-only group. Moderation was found for the association between NA and time in that the PTSD group showed a faster acceleration in NA before purging and faster deceleration in NA after purging. The association between positive affect and time was also moderated by group, indicating that the PTSD group had a faster acceleration in positive affect after purging than the BN-only group. These findings highlight the importance of recognizing PTSD when interpreting the emotion-behavior relationship in individuals with BN. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Perceived causal relations between anxiety, posttraumatic stress and depression: extension to moderation, mediation, and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A; Schmittmann, Verena D; Bringmann, Laura F; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame are frequently co-occurring problems that may be causally related. The present study utilized Perceived Causal Relations (PCR) scaling in order to assess participants' own attributions concerning whether and to what degree these co-occurring problems may be causally interrelated. 288 young adults rated the frequency and respective PCR scores associating their symptoms of posttraumatic reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame. PCR scores were found to moderate associations between the frequency of posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame. Network analyses showed that the number of feedback loops between PCR scores was positively associated with symptom frequencies. Results tentatively support the interpretation of PCR scores as moderators of the association between different psychological problems, and lend support to the hypothesis that increased symptom frequencies are observed in the presence of an increased number of causal feedback loops between symptoms. Additionally, a perceived causal role for the reexperiencing of traumatic memories in exacerbating emotional disturbance was identified.

  19. Perceived causal relations between anxiety, posttraumatic stress and depression: extension to moderation, mediation, and network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research demonstrates that posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame are frequently co-occurring problems that may be causally related. Objectives: The present study utilized Perceived Causal Relations (PCR scaling in order to assess participants’ own attributions concerning whether and to what degree these co-occurring problems may be causally interrelated. Methods: 288 young adults rated the frequency and respective PCR scores associating their symptoms of posttraumatic reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame. Results: PCR scores were found to moderate associations between the frequency of posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame. Network analyses showed that the number of feedback loops between PCR scores was positively associated with symptom frequencies. Conclusion: Results tentatively support the interpretation of PCR scores as moderators of the association between different psychological problems, and lend support to the hypothesis that increased symptom frequencies are observed in the presence of an increased number of causal feedback loops between symptoms. Additionally, a perceived causal role for the reexperiencing of traumatic memories in exacerbating emotional disturbance was identified.

  20. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  1. Stress and nurses' horizontal mobbing: moderating effects of group identity and group support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender and School-Level Differences in Students' Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Levels When Taught Basketball through the Tactical Games Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Megan L.; Song, Yang; Robertson, David; Brown, Renee; Smith, Lindsey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA).…

  3. Age As Moderator of Emotional Stroop Task Performance in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Bielecki, Maksymilian; Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Emotional Stroop task (EST) has been extensively used to investigate attentional processes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Even though aging significantly changes the dynamics of emotion-cognition interactions, very little is known about its role in shaping EST performance in PTSD patients. In the present study we tested a uniquely large sample of motor vehicle accident victims. Data of 194 participants (75.3% female; mean age = 36.64 years, SD = 12.3) were included in the analysis, ...

  4. A Review of Potential Moderating Factors in the Stress-Performance Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    is .85 and the scale correlated .59 with the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Although the scale is brief, it is thorough in its assessment of self...acceptance (Robinson & Shaver, 1973). The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory ( Coopersmith , 1967) measures individuals’ self-evaluative attitudes...Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310- 357. Coopersmith , S. (1967). The

  5. Effects of Stress on Students' Physical and Mental Health and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…

  6. Neighborhood walkability moderates the association between low back pain and physical activity: A co-twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadro, J R; Shirley, D; Pinheiro, M B; Bauman, A; Duncan, G E; Ferreira, P H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood walkability moderates the association between low back pain (LBP) and physical activity (PA), using a co-twin design to control for genetics and shared environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 10,228 twins from the Washington State Twin Registry with available data on LBP from recruitment surveys between 2009 and 2013. LBP within the past 3months was our exposure variable. Our outcome variables were sufficient moderate or vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA, defined as at least 75min of vigorous-intensity PA, or 150min of moderate-intensity PA per week), and walking (≥150min per week). Neighborhood walkability, estimated using the commercially available Walk Score®, was our moderator variable. After controlling for the influence of genetics and shared environment, individuals reporting LBP were significantly less likely to engage in sufficient MVPA if they lived in a neighborhood with high walkability (OR=0.59, 95%CI: 0.36-0.96). There was no association between LBP and sufficient MVPA for individuals living in a neighborhood with low walkability (OR=1.27, 95%CI: 0.93-1.72), demonstrating that walkability is a significant moderator of the association between LBP and PA (interaction p=0.013). These findings were similar for the association between LBP and walking (high walkability OR=0.42, 95%CI: 0.22-0.78; low walkability OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.46-1.12), although the interaction was not significant (p=0.700). Neighborhood walkability moderates the association between LBP and PA. Our results highlight the importance of targeting interventions promoting PA towards individuals with LBP living in a neighborhood with good walkable access to amenities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Going outdoors and cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults: Moderating role of physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors of cognitive impairment is essential for implementing effective prevention strategies for dementia. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of going outdoors is inversely associated with cognitive decline. Little research has examined whether the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive decline varies with physical functioning in older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive function in older adults with and without physical function limitations. The present study analyzed the data of 4450 individuals (aged 65 years or older) who participated in the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. The measures were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), going outdoors (at least once a week or not), self-reported physical function limitations (with or without), and demographic and health-related factors as potential confounders. Analysis of covariance and post-hoc comparisons showed that although going outdoors at least once a week was associated with higher MMSE scores among older adults with limited physical function, it was not significantly associated with the MMSE scores among older adults without limited physical function. Similarly, logistic regression analyses, stratified by physical function, showed a significant association between going outdoors and MMSE (older adults with limited physical function. The results show that going outdoors less than once a week is associated with decreased cognitive function among older adults with limited physical function, but it is not associated with cognitive function among older adults without limited physical function. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID

  9. Dispositional Mindfulness Moderates the Effects of Stress among Adolescents: Rumination as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Reilly, Laura C.; Dickson, Kelsey S.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Updegraff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with greater psychological and physical health. However, the majority of this research has been conducted with adults; research is only beginning to examine the effects of mindfulness among adolescents. Further, research into adolescent mindfulness has typically…

  10. Effect of moderate to vigorous physical activity on long-term clinical outcomes and pain severity in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleth, Anthony S; Saha, Chandan K; Jensen, Mark P; Slaven, James E; Ang, Dennis C

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between long-term maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and clinical outcomes in fibromyalgia (FM). Patients with FM (n = 170) received individualized exercise prescriptions and completed baseline and followup physical activity assessments using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire at weeks 12, 24, and 36. The primary outcome was the change in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Physical Impairment (FIQ-PI) score. The secondary outcomes included improvements in overall well-being (FIQ total score), pain severity ratings, and depression. Using a threshold increase in MVPA of ≥10 metabolic equivalent hours/week above usual activities, 27 subjects (15.9%) increased and sustained (SUS-PA), 68 (40%) increased but then declined (UNSUS-PA), and 75 (44.1%) did not achieve (LO-PA) this benchmark. Compared to LO-PA subjects, both SUS-PA and UNSUS-PA subjects reported greater improvement in FIQ-PI (P physical function and overall well-being in patients with FM. Although sustained physical activity was not associated with greater clinical benefit compared with unsustained physical activity, these findings also suggest that performing greater volumes of physical activity is not associated with worsening pain in FM. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between sustained MVPA participation and subsequent improvement in patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Höög, Martina; Willis, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during...... altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers. METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20...... and the WVO2max decreased 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively (P0.05). In contrast, the average power output (322±87W) during the “all out” test increased 3.4±2.7% 10 days after the altitude training (P

  12. Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: moderating influence of psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Ravaja, N; Räikkönen, K; Hautanen, A; Adlercreutz, H

    1998-12-01

    We examined whether the relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones (corticotropin [ACTH) and cortisol), insulin, and glucose differ as a function of psychosocial stress defined in terms of vital exhaustion (VE) and depressive behavior (DB). The participants were 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive (BH) middle-aged men whose work is stressful. Hormonal and metabolic variables were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the cortisol response to dexamethasone (DXM) suppression and intravenous ACTH stimulation was also measured. We found that the basal ACTH level during the OGTT was positively associated with the cortisol response to ACTH at 60 minutes, the fasting insulin level, and the insulin to glucose ratio among exhausted and high DB men, while the reverse was true for nonexhausted and low DB men. Also, a high cortisol response to ACTH, a low cortisol level during the OGTT, and a high ratio of these cortisol determinations (cortisol ratio) were associated with high fasting insulin and glucose levels, the summed insulin values, and the insulin to glucose ratio only among nonexhausted and low DB men; among exhausted and high DB men, these associations were less pronounced, absent, or in the opposite direction. The findings suggest that VE and DB have a moderating influence on the relationships among the hormonal and metabolic parameters studied. Psychosocial stress may affect the pituitary-adrenocortical system in complex ways, contributing thereby to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.

  13. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Background Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descript...

  14. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  15. Psychological and physical stress among experienced and inexperienced surgeons during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    : Surgical procedures are mentally and physically demanding, and stress during surgery may compromise patient safety. We investigated the impact of surgical experience on surgeons' stress levels and how perioperative sleep quality may influence surgical performance.......: Surgical procedures are mentally and physically demanding, and stress during surgery may compromise patient safety. We investigated the impact of surgical experience on surgeons' stress levels and how perioperative sleep quality may influence surgical performance....

  16. Participation of physical activities during free time and the relation of the secundary traumatic stress in firefigther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Fernando Rojas-Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to analyze the relationship between the participation of physical activity (PA and the psychological processes of Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS on firefighters. Levels of participation in PA during free time and prevalence of STS were measured in a convenience sample of 56 firefighters using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Questionnaire and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings show that 80.3% of the firefighters report moderate and vigorous free time-PA levels, investing an average of 2662.86 MET-min/week. Free time-PA levels show positive and significant correlations with the Secondary Trauma/Symptoms subscale of STS (r=.324, sig. .015, which is the factor with higher prevalence (32.1%, followed by Shattered Assumptions with 17.9%. In conclusion, firefighters with higher levels of free time-PA tend to report higher scores of ETS, specifically regarding to Secondary Trauma/Symptoms.

  17. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses’ Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, pstress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p valuestress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  18. Discrepancy between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity: a cross-sectional study in patients with mild to moderate COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastenau, Annemieke; van Schayck, Onno C P; Gosselink, Rik; Aretz, Karin C P M; Muris, Jean W M

    2013-12-01

    In patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the six-minute walk distance reflects the functional exercise level for daily physical activity. It is unknown if this also applies to patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. To assess the relationship between functional exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 51 patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. Functional exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walk test and physical activity was measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor. Functional exercise capacity was close to normal values. However, the daily physical activity of the patients could be classified as 'sedentary' and 'low active'. No significant correlations were observed between six-minute walk distance (% predicted) and any of the physical activity variables (steps per day, movement intensity during walking, total active time, total walking time, physical activity level, and time spent in moderate physical activity). A discrepancy was found between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD recruited and assessed in primary care. We conclude that these variables represent two different concepts. Our results reinforce the importance of measuring daily physical activity in order to fine-tune treatment (i.e. focusing on enhancement of exercise capacity or behavioural change, or both).

  19. Android Adiposity and Lack of Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Are Associated With Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark D; Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Rexach, José A; Burant, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be interdependent "lifestyle" factors and thus, many older adults are at exaggerated risk for preventable diseases. The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of discordance between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity among adults older than 50 years, and to determine the extent to which direct measures of adiposity, and objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) or diabetes. A population representative sample of 2,816 individuals, aged 50-85 years, was included from the combined 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and android adiposity as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, objectively measured SB and PA, established markers of cardiometabolic risk, IR, and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Approximately 50% of the men and 64% of the women who were normal weight according to BMI had excessive %BF. Adults with the least SB and greatest moderate and vigorous PA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest activity had highest risk. Greater android adiposity stores were robustly associated with IR or diabetes in all adults, independent of SB and activity. Among men, less moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IR or diabetes; whereas among women, less lifestyle moderate activity was associated with IR or diabetes. Android adiposity and low moderate and vigorous PA are the strongest predictors of IR or diabetes among aging adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Reversal of the signs and symptoms of moderately severe idiopathic scoliosis in response to physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Martha C; Brooks, William J

    2002-01-01

    This report describes improved signs and symptoms of previously untreated symptomatic spinal deformity in an adult female diagnosed with moderately severe thoracic scoliosis at the age of .7 years. Current treatment initiated at the age of forty included massage therapy, manual traction, ischemic pressure, and comprehensive manipulative medicine (CMM). A left-right chest circumference inequity was reduced by >10 cm, in correlation with improved appearance of the ribcage deformity and a 40% reduction in magnitude of Cobb angle, which had been stable for 30 years. The changes occurred gradually over an eight-year period, with the most rapid improvement occurring during two periods when CMM was employed.

  1. The moderating effect of trait emotional intelligence on mood deterioration following laboratory-induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moïra Mikolajczak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Una grand cantidad de investigación ha demostrado una asociación entre el rasgo de inteligencia emocional (IE y salud mental. Varias vías pueden contribuir a esta relación. Primero, es posible que la asociación entre el rasgo de IE y la salud mental sea un mero artefacto de los métodos y medidas utilizadas (vía sesgos de respuesta. Segundo, el rasgo de IE puede reducir la susceptibilidad a trastornos mentales mediante la sucesión de mecanismos biológicos (vía neuroendocrina. Tercero, el rasgo de IE puede reducir la susceptibilidad a trastornos minimizando las alteraciones del estado de ánimo en diferentes circunstancias (vía de afecto. Este estudio experimental tiene como objetivo documentar la tercera vía. Presenta tres estudios experimentales sobre el rol moderador del rasgo de inteligencia emocional (IE rasgo en el deterioro del estado de ánimo después del estrés inducido en el laboratorio. La validez incremental del rasgo de IE para predecir los cambios del estado de ánimo más la deseabilidad social, alexitimia, resiliencia y el modelo de personalidad de los cinco factores también fue estudiada. Regresiones múltiples sobre las tres muestras y también sobre la muestra combinada (N = 196, demostraron que a la IE rasgo moderó significativamente el impacto del estresor experimental en el subsecuente deterioro del estado de ánimo, b el efecto se mantuvo después de haber controlado la deseabilidad social y c la IE rasgo tuvo una validez incremental para predecir el deterioro del estado de ánimo sobre otros predictores.

  2. Oxidative stress, telomere shortening, and DNA methylation in relation to low-to-moderate occupational exposure to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Wojdacz, Tomasz; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Lindh, Christian H; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to welding fumes is a risk factor for lung cancer. We examined relationships between low-to-moderate occupational exposure to particles from welding fumes and cancer-related biomarkers for oxidative stress, changes in telomere length, and alterations in DNA methylation. We enrolled 101 welders and 127 controls (all currently nonsmoking men) from southern Sweden. We performed personal sampling of respirable dust and measured 8-oxodG concentrations in urine using a simplified liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Telomere length in peripheral blood was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methylation status of 10 tumor suppressor genes was determined by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, previous smoking, passive smoking, current residence, and wood burning stove/boiler at home. Welders were exposed to respirable dust at 1.2 mg/m(3) (standard deviation, 3.3 mg/m(3); range, 0.1-19.3), whereas control exposures did not exceed 0.1 mg/m(3) (P < 0.001). Welders and controls did not differ in 8-oxodG levels (β = 1.2, P = 0.17) or relative telomere length (β = -0.053, P = 0.083) in adjusted models. Welders showed higher probability of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) methylation in the unadjusted model (odds ratio = 14, P = 0.014), but this was not significant in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.052). Every working year as a welder was associated with 0.0066 units shorter telomeres (95% confidence interval -0.013 to -0.00053, P = 0.033). Although there were no clear associations between concentrations of respirable dust and the biomarkers, there were modest signs of associations between oxidative stress, telomere alterations, DNA methylation, and occupational exposure to low-to-moderate levels of particles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and fear extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L; Zuj, Daniel V; Hsu, Ken Chia Ming; Nicholson, Emma; Palmer, Matthew A; Stuart, Kimberley; Vickers, James C; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A

    2018-05-01

    The low expression Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with impaired fear extinction in healthy controls, and poorer response to exposure therapy in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Given that fear extinction underlies exposure therapy, this raises the question of the impact of BDNFVal66Met polymorphism on fear extinction in PTSD, yet this question has not yet been examined. One hundred and six participants (22 PTSD, 46 trauma-exposed controls (TC) and 38 non-trauma exposed controls (NTC)) completed a fear conditioning and extinction task and saliva samples were taken for DNA extraction and genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Moderation analyses using PROCESS examined whether BDNF genotype (Val-Val vs Met carriers) moderated the relationship between PTSD symptom severity (and diagnostic status) and skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude during fear extinction. The PTSD group displayed significantly slower fear extinction learning compared to TC and NTC in the early extinction phase. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderated the relationship between PTSD and fear extinction learning, such that poorer fear extinction learning was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity (and PTSD diagnostic status) in individuals with the low-expression Met allele, but no relationship was demonstrated in individuals with the Val-Val allele. This study reveals that impaired fear extinction learning is particularly evident in individuals with PTSD who carry the low-expression BDNF Met allele and importantly not in those with the Val-Val allele. This provides novel evidence of a link between BDNF and impaired fear extinction learning in PTSD, which may contribute to poorer response to exposure therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced Thermostability of Arabidopsis Rubisco Activase Improves Photosynthesis and Growth Rates under Moderate Heat Stress[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Itzhak; Chang, Thom Kai; Bertain, Sean M.; Madrigal, Alfredo; Liu, Lu; Lassner, Michael W.; Zhu, Genhai

    2007-01-01

    Plant photosynthesis declines when the temperature exceeds its optimum range. Recent evidence indicates that the reduction in photosynthesis is linked to ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) deactivation due to the inhibition of Rubisco activase (RCA) under moderately elevated temperatures. To test the hypothesis that thermostable RCA can improve photosynthesis under elevated temperatures, we used gene shuffling technology to generate several Arabidopsis thaliana RCA1 (short isoform) variants exhibiting improved thermostability. Wild-type RCA1 and selected thermostable RCA1 variants were introduced into an Arabidopsis RCA deletion (Δrca) line. In a long-term growth test at either constant 26°C or daily 4-h 30°C exposure, the transgenic lines with the thermostable RCA1 variants exhibited higher photosynthetic rates, improved development patterns, higher biomass, and increased seed yields compared with the lines expressing wild-type RCA1 and a slight improvement compared with untransformed Arabidopsis plants. These results provide clear evidence that RCA is a major limiting factor in plant photosynthesis under moderately elevated temperatures and a potential target for genetic manipulation to improve crop plants productivity under heat stress conditions. PMID:17933901

  5. Race moderates the association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and posttraumatic stress disorder in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Scheeringa, Michael S; Drury, Stacy S

    2014-10-01

    The present study sought to replicate previous findings of an association between the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptomatology in a novel age group, preschool children. COMT genotype was determined in a sample of 171 3-6-year-old trauma-exposed children. PTSD was assessed with a semistructured interview. Accounting for sex, trauma type, and age, genotype was examined in relation to categorical and continuous measures of PTSD both controlling for race and within the two largest racial categories (African American [AA] and European American [EA]). Race significantly moderated the association between genotype and PTSD. Specifically, the genotype associated with increased PTSD symptoms in one racial group had the opposite association in the other racial group. For AA children the met/met genotype was associated with more PTSD symptoms. However, for EA children, val allele carriers had more PTSD symptoms. Whereas every AA child with the met/met genotype met criteria for PTSD, none of the EA children with the met/met genotype did. This genetic association with COMT genotype, in both races but in opposite directions, was most associated with increased arousal symptoms. These findings replicate previous findings in participants of African descent, highlight the moderating effect of race on the association between COMT genotype and PTSD, and provide direct evidence that consideration of population stratification within gene-by-environment studies is valuable to prevent false negative findings.

  6. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulf; Arvidsson, Daniel; Gebel, Klaus; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-10-05

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations between the walkability

  7. Adjusting membrane lipids under salt stress: the case of the moderate halophilic organism Halobacillus halophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Patrizia; Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Köcher, Saskia; Thompson, Melanie; Müller, Volker; Corcelli, Angela

    2013-04-01

    The lipid composition of Halobacillus halophilus was investigated by combined thin-layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of the total lipid extract. Main polar lipids were found to be sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, while cardiolipin was a minor lipid together with phosphatidic acid, alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol and two not yet fully identified lipid components. In addition the analyses of residual lipids, associated with denatured proteins after the lipid extraction, revealed the presence of significant amounts of cardiolipin, indicating that it is a not readily extractable phospholipid. Post decay source mass spectrometry analyses allowed the determination of acyl chains of main lipid components. On increasing the culture medium salinity, an increase in the shorter chains and the presence of chain unsaturations were observed. These changes in the lipid core structures might compensate for the increase in packing and rigidity of phospholipid and sulfoglycolipid polar heads in high-salt medium, therefore contributing to the homeostasis of membrane fluidity and permeability in salt stress conditions. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  9. PHIT for Duty, a Mobile Application for Stress Reduction, Sleep Improvement, and Alcohol Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizakevich, Paul N; Eckhoff, Randall; Brown, Janice; Tueller, Stephen J; Weimer, Belinda; Bell, Stacey; Weeks, Adam; Hourani, Laurel L; Spira, James L; King, Laurel A

    2018-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress and other problems often occur after combat, deployment, and other military operations. Because techniques such as mindfulness meditation show efficacy in improving mental health, our team developed a mobile application (app) for individuals in the armed forces with subclinical psychological problems as secondary prevention of more significant disease. Based on the Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT), a mobile app framework for personalized health intervention studies, PHIT for Duty integrates mindfulness-based relaxation, behavioral education in sleep quality and alcohol use, and psychometric and psychophysiological data capture. We evaluated PHIT for Duty in usability and health assessment studies to establish app quality for use in health research. Participants (N = 31) rated usability on a 1 (very hard) to 5 (very easy) scale and also completed the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire (N = 9). Results were (mean ± SD) overall (4.5 ± 0.6), self-report instruments (4.5 ± 0.7), pulse sensor (3.7 ± 1.2), sleep monitor (4.4 ± 0.7), sleep monitor comfort (3.7 ± 1.1), and wrist actigraphy comfort (2.7 ± 0.9). The average SUS score was 85 ± 12, indicating a rank of 95%. A comparison of PHIT-based assessments to traditional paper forms demonstrated a high overall correlation (r = 0.87). These evaluations of usability, health assessment accuracy, physiological sensing, system acceptability, and overall functionality have shown positive results and affirmation for using the PHIT framework and PHIT for Duty application in mobile health research.

  10. The social context moderates the relationships between neighborhood safety and adolescents’ physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Previous studies of neighborhood safety and physical (in)activity have typically neglected to consider the youth’s peer context as a modifier of these relationships. Objective. Test the independent and interactive effects of perceived neighborhood safety and time spent with friends and p...

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  12. Goal conflict and the moderating effects of intention stability in intention-behavior relations: physical activity among Hong Kong chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Chan, Darius K S

    2008-02-01

    This study examined how goal conflict influences the pattern of the moderating effects of intention stability on the intention-behavior relations in the context of physical activity participation. A longitudinal study of 136 young adult students with three waves of data collection (a 2-week interval between waves) was conducted. Results showed a significant three-way interaction among intention, goal conflict,& intention stability in explaining vigorous-intensity physical activity (Beta = -.25, p goal conflict was low, the intention-behavior relations were stronger with stable intentions and weaker with unstable intentions. However, when the level of goal conflict was high, the intention-behavior relations were weaker with stable intentions and stronger with unstable intentions. Possible underlying processes of goal conflict and intention stability on the intention-behavior relations are discussed.

  13. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  14. Intimate Partner Violence, Physical Health, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Latinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly, Ursula

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purposes of this exploratory study were to a describe physical health symptoms and diagnoses in abused immigrant Latinas, b explore the relationships between the women’s physical health and their experiences of intimate partner violence, their history of childhood trauma, and their immigration status, and c explore the correlations between their physical health, health related quality of life (HRQOL, and mental health, specifically symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD.Methods: The convenience sample (n=33 for this cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of Latino women who were receiving emergency shelter and community-based services at a domestic violence services agency in the northeastern U.S. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between physical health variables and IPV type and severity, childhood and adulthood sexual abuse, and HRQOL.Results: All of the women experienced threatened abuse. More than two-thirds of the women experienced moderate to severe psychological abuse, moderate to severe physical abuse, and/or sexual abuse. Twenty women experienced all three types. Women endorsed one or more items in neuromuscular (69.7%, gastrointestinal (63.6%, and genitourinary/gynecologic (45.5% groupings. Pain was the most reported symptom: bodily pain in previous month (60%, repeated neck or back pain (54.5%, severe/frequent headaches (54.5%, and pelvic pain (21.2%. Eighty-one percent of women endorsed at least one pain item (mean=2.56 and the same number reported difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. Pain and sleeping difficulty, the two most frequently reported symptoms, were consistently and highly correlated with PTSD and MDD diagnoses and symptom severity and HRQOL. Childhood sexual abuse was significantly correlated with total pain symptoms (r=0.606; p=0.000 and difficulty sleeping (from the PTSD scale (r=0.349; p=0

  15. Chronic and episodic stress predict physical symptom bother following breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren N; Bauer, Margaret R; Wiley, Joshua F; Hammen, Constance; Krull, Jennifer L; Crespi, Catherine M; Weihs, Karen L; Stanton, Annette L

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer patients often experience adverse physical side effects of medical treatments. According to the biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease, life stress during diagnosis and treatment may negatively influence the trajectory of women's physical health-related adjustment to breast cancer. This longitudinal study examined chronic and episodic stress as predictors of bothersome physical symptoms during the year after breast cancer diagnosis. Women diagnosed with breast cancer in the previous 4 months (N = 460) completed a life stress interview for contextual assessment of chronic and episodic stress severity at study entry and 9 months later. Physical symptom bother (e.g., pain, fatigue) was measured at study entry, every 6 weeks through 6 months, and at nine and 12 months. In multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) analyses, both chronic stress and episodic stress occurring shortly after diagnosis predicted greater physical symptom bother over the study period. Episodic stress reported to have occurred prior to diagnosis did not predict symptom bother in MSEM analyses, and the interaction between chronic and episodic stress on symptom bother was not significant. Results suggest that ongoing chronic stress and episodic stress occurring shortly after breast cancer diagnosis are important predictors of bothersome symptoms during and after cancer treatment. Screening for chronic stress and recent stressful life events in the months following diagnosis may help to identify breast cancer patients at risk for persistent and bothersome physical symptoms. Interventions to prevent or ameliorate treatment-related physical symptoms may confer added benefit by addressing ongoing non-cancer-related stress in women's lives.

  16. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Christopher Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n=13 or moderate/low functioning (n=17 groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks.

  17. Do Guyanese mothers' levels of warmth moderate the association between harshness and justness of physical punishment and preschoolers' prosocial behaviours and anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Jin, Bora; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the moderating role of Indo-Guyanese mothers' warmth and affection on the associations between harshness and justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours and anger in preschoolers. One hundred and thirty-nine rural Indo-Guyanese mothers filled out Rohner's Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PARQ) and Physical Punishment Questionnaires (PPQ). Teachers provided assessments of children's prosocial behaviours and anger in preschool settings. Maternal warmth did not moderate the relationship between harshness of physical punishment and children's prosocial behaviours and anger, but it did moderate the relationship between justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours for sons as well as the association between justness of physical punishment and anger for daughters. In Caribbean societies where harsh punishment is normative, maternal warmth may work more effectively with justness, and not with harshness of physical punishment, to lower negative childhood behavioural outcomes. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Motivational Outcomes and Predictors of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Sedentary Time for Adolescents in the Sigue La Huella Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Pardo, Berta; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Julián Clemente, José Antonio; Generelo Lanaspa, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the multicomponent Sigue la Huella intervention on selected motivational outcomes and whether any of these outcomes, in addition to relevant socio-demographic, biological, and behavioral factors, served as predictors of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time among participants through the intervention. This quasi-experimental, cohort study took place in four secondary schools in Huesca (Spain) during three academic years (students aged 12-15 years). Two schools were assigned to the experimental condition (n = 368) and two schools to the control condition (n = 314). Outcome variables were assessed objectively. A total of 553 participants met study inclusion criteria. Compared to the control group, participants in the experimental group reported greater enjoyment of physical activity, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in physical education, perceived autonomy in physical education, perceived competence in physical education, and perceived importance of physical education over time. Participants in this group reported also lower amotivation in physical education over time. In subsequent analyses, gender, organized physical activity out of school, sedentary time, and perceived importance of physical education predicted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Type of school (public vs. private), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and perceived autonomy in physical education emerged as predictors of sedentary time. Sigue la Huella had a positive effect on motivational outcomes relevant to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time, and, particularly, student engagement in physical education. The analyses identified shared and unique determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, suggesting that specific intervention strategies may be required to address each outcome.

  19. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vezzoli

    Full Text Available Beneficial systemic effects of regular physical exercise have been demonstrated to reduce risks of a number of age-related disorders. Antioxidant capacity adaptations are amongst these fundamental changes in response to exercise training. However, it has been claimed that acute physical exercise performed at high intensity (>60% of maximal oxygen uptake may result in oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species being generated excessively by enhanced oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT, characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on oxidative damage. Twenty long-distance masters runners (age 47.8 ± 7.8 yr on the basis of the individual values of gas exchange threshold were assigned to a different 8-weeks training program: continuous moderate-intensity training (MOD, n = 10 or HIDT (n = 10. In both groups before (PRE and after (POST training we examined the following oxidative damage markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyls (PC as marker of protein oxidation; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG as a biomarker of DNA base modifications; and total antioxidant capacity (TAC as indicator of the overall antioxidant system. Training induced a significant (p<0.05 decrease in resting plasma TBARS concentration in both MOD (7.53 ± 0.30 and 6.46 ± 0.27 µM, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (7.21 ± 0.32 and 5.85 ± 0.46 µM, PRE and POST respectively. Resting urinary 8-OH-dG levels were significantly decreased in both MOD (5.50 ± 0.66 and 4.16 ± 0.40 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (4.52 ± 0.50 and 3.18 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively. Training both in MOD and HIDT did not significantly modify plasma levels of PC. Resting plasma TAC was reduced in MOD while no significant changes were observed in HIDT. In conclusion

  20. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-12

    Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descriptive statistics were reported for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics, level of work stress, coping strategies, and job performance. Regression analysis was conducted to test the interaction between work stress and coping strategies on job performance. Three subscales of work stress were negatively related to job performance. Positive coping strategies moderated Patient Care and job performance while negative coping strategies moderated Workload and Time and performance, and between Working Environment and Resources and performance. Positive coping strategies reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress on job performance and negative coping strategies increased the negative effects.

  1. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load : risk factors, consequences, and preventive action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Grinten, M.P. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Poel, E.G.T. van der

    1998-01-01

    Objectives - Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks,

  2. [The effects of moderate physical exercise on cognition in adults over 60 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, J L; Calvo-Arenillas, J I; Sanchez-Rodriguez, J L

    2018-04-01

    Clinical evidence gathered in recent years indicates that elderly individuals more frequently display cognitive changes. These age-related changes refer, above all, to memory functions and to the speed of thinking and reasoning. A number of studies have shown that physical activity can be used as an important mechanism for protecting the cognitive functions. To test the hypothesis that physical exercise is able to bring about changes in the cognitive functions of healthy elderly adults without cognitive impairment, thereby improving their quality of life. The study population included participants in the University of Salamanca geriatric revitalisation programme. The sample initially consisted of a total of 44 subjects of both sexes, with a mean age of 74.93 years. The neuropsychological evaluation of the subjects included a series of validated neuropsychological tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Test and Trail Making Test. The results show that more physical activity is related to better performance in the cognitive functions of the subjects included in this study, after applying the geriatric revitalisation programme. The geriatric revitalisation programme can be a valuable tool for improving cognition in adults over 60 years of age, resulting in enhanced well-being in their quality of life.

  3. The Relationship of Stress and the Physical Wellness of Illinois Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Curtis R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of stress and the physical wellness of Illinois superintendents. Studies have shown that stress has one of the most debilitating impacts on an individual's health and job performance. This study focused on the stress levels, factors influencing the superintendency, and superintendents'…

  4. High intensity intermittent games-based activity and adolescents' cognition: moderating effect of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Morris, John G; Sunderland, Caroline; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2018-05-08

    An acute bout of exercise elicits a beneficial effect on subsequent cognitive function in adolescents. The effect of games-based activity, an ecologically valid and attractive exercise model for young people, remains unknown; as does the moderating effect of fitness on the acute exercise-cognition relationship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of games-based activity on subsequent cognition in adolescents, and the moderating effect of fitness on this relationship. Following ethical approval, 39 adolescents (12.3 ± 0.7 year) completed an exercise and resting trial in a counterbalanced, randomised crossover design. During familiarisation, participants completed a multi-stage fitness test to predict VO 2 peak. The exercise trial consisted of 60-min games-based activity (basketball), during which heart rate was 158 ± 11 beats∙min - 1 . A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, trail making and d2 tests) were completed 30-min before, immediately following and 45-min following the basketball. Response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were enhanced both immediately (p = 0.021) and 45-min (p = 0.035) post-exercise, and response times on the five item level of the Sternberg paradigm were enhanced immediately post-exercise (p = 0.023). There were no effects on the time taken to complete the trail making test or any outcome of the d2 test. In particular, response times were enhanced in the fitter adolescents 45-min post-exercise on both levels of the Stroop test (simple, p = 0.005; complex, p = 0.040) and on the three item level of the Sternberg paradigm immediately (p = 0.017) and 45-min (p = 0.008) post-exercise. Games-based activity enhanced executive function and working memory scanning speed in adolescents, an effect particularly evident in fitter adolescents, whilst the high intensity intermittent nature of games-based activity may be too demanding for

  5. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  6. Does timing and sequencing of transitions to adulthood make a difference? Stress, smoking, and physical activity among young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sandra; Lee, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The major changes of the transition to adulthood are argued to be stressful, and health-related behaviors such as smoking and physical activity may be adopted, consolidated, or abandoned at this time. On the other hand, research has suggested that the normative transitions of emerging adulthood, although involving considerable change, may be associated with low stress because they are perceived as both positive and normal at this life stage. This article examines relations between the timing and sequencing of life transitions and stress and health-related behaviors, focusing on the transition to young adulthood among Australian women. A total of 853 women aged 22 to 27 provided information about the timing and sequencing of 6 life transitions: moving out of home, stopping full-time education, starting full-time work, having the first live-in relationship, marriage, and motherhood-and stress, smoking, and physical activity. Most had moved out of home, stopped full-time education, and started full-time work, but only 14% had undertaken all 6 transitions. Overall, 70% of participants had made transitions "in order." Overall, the findings suggest that the relations between timing and sequencing of transitions, and indicators of health, are moderate for smoking, but small for stress and for physical activity. These effects remained after controlling for socioeconomic status of the participants' families of origin. Matching current social norms for the timing and sequencing of life changes may be of less importance for women's well-being than is commonly believed. Although the significant relations between early or "out of order" transitions and smoking are of concern, the smaller relations with stress and with sedentariness suggest that such transitions may have limited negative consequences, and support the view that individuals are active in choosing the life path that is appropriate for them and their circumstances.

  7. The effect of various physical exercise modes on perceived psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes Das Neves, M K; Loots, J M; van Niekerk, R L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is an integral part of daily living, but chronic activation of the stress response without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading of the physiological and psychological systems OBJECTIVE: To decrease perceived stress by means of one known and/or one relatively unknown physical activity, namely aerobic exercise and somatic awareness exercise METHODS: This investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative, experimental research design over an ...

  8. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Lafoux

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age. An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  9. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  10. Genetic Moderators of the Impact of Physical Activity on Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, V M; Hsu, F C; Langaee, T Y; McDonough, C W; King, A C; Cohen, R A; Newman, A B; Kritchevsky, S B; Myers, V; Manini, T M; Pahor, M

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for both clinical depression and sub-threshold depressive symptoms; however, findings are not always consistent. These mixed results might reflect heterogeneity in response to physical activity, with some subgroups of individuals responding positively, but not others. 1) To examine the impact of genetic variation and sex on changes in depressive symptoms in older adults after a physical activity (PA) intervention, and 2) to determine if PA differentially improves particular symptom dimensions of depression. Randomized controlled trial. Four field centers (Cooper Institute, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh, and Wake Forest University). 396 community-dwelling adults aged 70-89 years who participated in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P). 12-month PA intervention compared to an education control. Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes; 12-month change in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale total score, as well as scores on the depressed affect, somatic symptoms, and lack of positive affect subscales. Men randomized to the PA arm showed the greatest decreases in somatic symptoms, with a preferential benefit in male carriers of the BDNF Met allele. Symptoms of lack of positive affect decreased more in men compared to women, particularly in those possessing the 5-HTT L allele, but the effect did not differ by intervention arm. APOE status did not affect change in depressive symptoms. Results of this study suggest that the impact of PA on depressive symptoms varies by genotype and sex, and that PA may mitigate somatic symptoms of depression more than other symptoms. The results suggest that a targeted approach to recommending PA therapy for treatment of depression is viable.

  11. Effects of Chronic Interpersonal Stress Exposure on Depressive Symptoms are Moderated by Genetic Variation at IL6 and IL1β in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartter, Margaret; Hammen, Constance; Bower, Julienne E.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Aims Close to one third of patients with major depression show increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are in turn associated with risk for inflammatory disease. Genetic variants that enhance immune reactivity may thus enhance inflammatory and depressive reactions to stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate a trio of functional SNPs in the promoter regions of IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795), IL1β (-511C>T, rs16944), and TNF (-308G>A, rs1800629) as moderators of the relationship between chronic stress exposure and elevations in depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 444 Australian youth (mean age = 20.12) whose exposure to chronic stress in the past 6 months was assessed using the semi-structured UCLA Life Stress Interview, and who completed the Beck Depression Inventory II at ages 15 and 20. Between ages 22 and 25, all participants in the selected sample provided blood samples for genotyping. Results In line with a hypothesized moderation effect, -174G allele carriers at IL6 had fewer depressive symptoms following interpersonal stress, relative to C/C homozygotes with equal interpersonal stress exposure. However, IL6 genotype did not moderate the effects of non-interpersonal stress exposure (i.e., financial, work and health-related difficulties) on depression. Also in line with hypotheses, the -511C allele in IL1β, previously associated with higher IL-1β expression, was associated with more severe depression following chronic interpersonal stress exposure, relative to T/T homozygotes. Again, the moderating effect was specific to interpersonal stressors and did not generalize to non-interpersonal stress. TNF was not a moderator of the effects of either interpersonal or non-interpersonal stress on later depression outcomes. Conclusion Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory genetic variation increases the risk of stress-induced depression. The present results provide evidence of a genetic mechanism contributing to

  12. Does neighbourhood walkability moderate the effects of mass media communication strategies to promote regular physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R; Giles-Corti, B; Bauman, A; Rosenberg, M; Bull, F C; Leavy, J E

    2013-02-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used in Australia and elsewhere to promote physical activity among adults. Neighbourhood walkability is consistently shown to be associated with walking and total activity. Campaigns may have different effects on individuals living in high and low walkable neighbourhoods. The purpose of this study is to compare pre- and post-campaign cognitive and behavioural impacts of the Heart Foundation's Find Thirty every day® campaign, in respondents living in high and lower walkable neighbourhoods. Pre- and post-campaign cross-sectional survey data were linked with objectively measured neighbourhood walkability. Cognitive and behavioural impacts were assessed using logistic regression stratified by walkability. Cognitive impacts were significantly higher post-campaign and consistently higher in respondents in high compared with lower walkable neighbourhoods. Post campaign sufficient activity was significantly higher and transport walking significantly lower, but only in residents of lower walkable areas. Cognitive impacts of mass media physical activity campaigns may be enhanced by living in a more walkable neighbourhood.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in secondary school physical education lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Jenna L; Sutherland, Rachel; Williams, Amanda J; Campbell, Elizabeth; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-04-24

    Schools play an important role in physical activity promotion for adolescents. The systematic review aimed to determine the proportion of secondary (middle and high) school physical education (PE) lesson time that students spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to assess if MVPA was moderated by school level (middle and high school), type of physical activity measurement and type of PE activities. A systematic search of nine electronic databases was conducted (PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009649). Studies were eligible if they were published between 2005 and 2014; written in English; assessed MVPA in PE lessons of secondary (middle and high) school students; and used a quantitative MVPA measure (i.e., accelerometry, heart rate monitoring, pedometers or observational measures). Two reviewers examined the retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the percent of PE lesson time spent in MVPA and to assess moderator effects where data allowed. The search yielded 5,132 potentially relevant articles; 28 articles representing 25 studies (7 middle and 18 high school) from seven countries were included. Twelve studies measured MVPA through observational measures, seven used accelerometers, five used heart rate monitors and four used pedometers (including three studies using a mix of measures). Meta-analysis of 15 studies found that overall, students spent a mean (95% CI) of 40.5% (34.8-46.2%) of PE in MVPA. Middle school students spent 48.6% (41.3-55.9%) of the lesson in MVPA (n = 5 studies) and high school students 35.9% (28.3-43.6%) (n = 10 studies). Studies measuring MVPA using accelerometers (n = 5) showed that students spent 34.7% (25.1-44.4%) of the lesson in MVPA, while 44.4% (38.3-50.5%) was found for lessons assessed via observation (n = 9), 43.1% (24.3-61.9%) of the lesson for a heart rate based study, and 35.9% (31.0-40.8%) for a

  14. The Mediating and Moderating Effect of Volunteering on Pain and Depression, Life Purpose, Well-Being, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Segerstrom, Suzanne

    2017-08-01

    To improve function and quality of life in patients with chronic pain, a prevalent and costly condition, an understanding of the relationships among well-being, physical activity, depression, and life purpose with pain is needed. Because of the role loss experienced by people with chronic pain, activities such as volunteering could have an important role in improving health and well-being. In one study, chronic pain patients who participated in volunteer activities reported both decreased pain and "a sense of purpose." The aim of this study is to test the relationships among pain and well-being, physical activity, depression, and life purpose and then to determine if volunteering activities mediated or moderated these relationships. This observational study was conducted in a large university setting in Kentucky and used a sample of 200 women older than age 50. We found that people with higher pain were more depressed and had lower life purpose and well-being. People who volunteered less had more pain, lower perceived life purpose, more depressive symptoms, and decreased physical activity. Volunteer activities did have a significant mediating effect on the relationship between pain and depression; approximately 9% of the relationship between pain and depression can be accounted for by volunteering. Moderation by volunteering was found between pain and life purpose. We identified important relationships among pain, volunteering, and health outcomes and found that volunteering has a role in improving depressive symptoms and life purpose in women with pain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Stress as a mediator between work-family conflict and psychological health among the nursing staff: Moderating role of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Dhar, Rajib Lochan; Tyagi, Akansha

    2016-05-01

    The study examined the extent to which work-family conflicts cause stress among nursing staff and its subsequent impact on their psychological health. It also examined if the emotional intelligence level of the nursing staff acted as a moderator between their level of stress and psychological health. A survey was carried out on 693 nursing staff associated with 33 healthcare institutions in Uttarakhand, India. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was carried out to understand the relationships shared by independent (work-family conflicts) and dependent (psychological health) constructs with the mediator (stress) as well as the moderator (emotional intelligence). The results revealed that stress acted as a mediator between work-family conflict of the nursing staff and their psychological health. However, their emotional intelligence level acted as a moderator between their stress level and psychological health. To conclude, the crucial roles of emotional intelligence in controlling the impact of stress on psychological health along with the practical as well as theoretical implications are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Young Children's Energy Expenditure and Moderate-to-vigorous Physical Activity on Weekdays and Weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Stodden, David F; Gao, Zan

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have examined young children's leisure- and school-based energy expenditure (EE) and moderateto-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this study was to explore children's estimated EE rates and time spent in MVPA in 3 time segments: at-school, after-school, and weekends. A total of 187 second and third grade children from 2 elementary schools participated in the study. Accelerometers were used to assess children's 5-day EE and MVPA. Multiple 2 (Grade) × 2 (Gender) ANOVAs with repeated measures (Time) were conducted to examine the differences in the outcome variables. Significant time effects on EE and MVPA were revealed. Children's EE rate and minutes in MVPA per day were higher during after school and weekends than at school. Although children were more active outside of school, their MVPA during weekdays and weekends still fell far short of the recommended level of 60 minutes/day.

  18. Adverse life events, area socio-economic disadvantage, and adolescent psychopathology: The role of closeness to grandparents in moderating the effect of contextual stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Tan, Jo-Pei; Griggs, Julia; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2010-09-01

    The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth.

  19. Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: an exploratory cross-sectional study with swiss university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to compare four types of exercise activities in Swiss university students. A sample of 201 medical students (136 women, 65 men; M age = 23.2 yr., SD = 2.4) and 250 exercise and health sciences students (144 women, 106 men; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 2.2) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Scale, and the Office in Motion Questionnaire. Interaction effects between stress and exercise activities were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and academic discipline. Frequent participation in ball sports and dancing were associated with decreased depressive symptoms among students with elevated perceived stress, whereas no such relationship existed among their peers with lower perceived stress. No stress-moderating effect was found for aerobic exercise. Weight lifting was only associated with lower depressive symptoms among students with low perceived stress. The present findings suggest that, among Swiss university students, certain exercises may have better potential to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms than others. Future research could analyze whether personalized exercise programs created to satisfy participants' individual needs are more beneficial for stress management.

  20. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda

    2017-01-01

    where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension......-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons...... well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition...

  1. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  2. Distress intolerance moderation of motivated attention to cannabis and negative stimuli after induced stress among cannabis users: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatee, Richard J; Okey, Sarah A; Albanese, Brian J; Schmidt, Norman B; Cougle, Jesse R

    2018-05-07

    Prevalence of cannabis use is increasing, but many regular users do not develop cannabis use disorder (CUD); thus, CUD risk identification among current users is vital for targeted intervention development. Existing data suggest that high distress intolerance (DI), an individual difference reflective of the ability to tolerate negative affect, may be linked to CUD, but no studies have tested possible neurophysiological mechanisms. Increased motivated attentional processing of cannabis and negative emotional stimuli as indexed by neurophysiology [i.e. the late positive potential (LPP)], particularly during acute stress, may contribute to CUD among high DI users. Frequent cannabis users with high (n = 61) and low DI (n = 44) viewed cannabis, negative, and matched neutral images during electroencephalography (EEG) recording before and after a laboratory stressor. Cannabis cue-elicited modulation of the 1000- to 3000-milliseconds LPP was larger in high DI users at post-stressor only, although the effect was only robust in the 1000- to 2000-milliseconds window. Further, modulation magnitude in the high DI group covaried with stress-relief craving and some CUD indices in the 400- to 1000-milliseconds and 1000- to 3000-milliseconds windows, respectively. No significant effects of DI on negative stimuli-elicited LPP modulation were found, although inverse associations with some CUD indices were observed. Finally, exploratory analyses revealed some evidence for DI moderation of the relation between subjective stressor reactivity and negative stimuli-elicited LPP modulation such that greater stressor reactivity was associated with blunted versus enhanced modulation in the high and low DI groups, respectively. Negative and cannabis stimuli-elicited LPP modulation appear to index distinct, CUD-relevant neural processes in high DI cannabis users. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Childhood Emotional Abuse Moderates Associations Among Corticomotor White Matter Structure and Stress Neuromodulators in Women With and Without Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton P. Frost

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity. Participants included 74 women who exhibited a wide range of depression severity and/or childhood emotional abuse (EA. Participants attended two experimental sessions during which they were administered 20 mg cortisol (CORT or placebo and after 90 min, viewed emotionally laden pictures while undergoing MRI scanning. Immediately after emotional picture-viewing, we collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA to index SNS activation. We tested whether EA moderated the relation between fractional anisotropy (FA, a measure of white matter fiber structure, and sAA. In the placebo condition, for participants with minimal history of EA, higher FA in corticomotor projections was negatively correlated with sAA, whereas in participants with severe EA, the correlation was trending in the opposite direction. Following CORT administration, FA and sAA were not related, suggesting that SNS tone during acute cortisol elevation may depend on neural pathways other than corticomotor projections. The results suggest that at baseline—though not during cortisol elevation—increased FA in these tracts is associated with lower levels of SNS activity in women with minimal EA, but not in women with severe EA. These findings provide evidence that corticomotor projections may be a key component of altered neural circuitry in adults with history of maltreatment, and may be

  4. Time perspective and the theory of planned behavior: moderate predictors of physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how well time perspective and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicted physical activity among adolescents residing in the central Appalachian region of the United States. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The setting was a rural high school in central Appalachia. The sample included 185 students in grades 9 through 12. Data were collected in school. Variables included components of the TPB, time perspective, and various levels of exercise. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The TPB was a moderate predictor of exercise frequency among central Appalachian adolescents, accounting for 42% of the variance. Time perspective did not add to the predictive ability of the TPB to predict exercise frequency in this sample. This study provides support for the TPB for predicting frequency of exercise among central Appalachian adolescents. By understanding the role of the TPB in predicting physical activity among adolescents, nurse practitioners will be able to adapt intervention strategies to improve the physical activity behaviors of this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Child Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress on Parent-Child Conflict among Low-Income Families: The Moderating Role of Maternal Nativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aileen S.; Ren, Lixin; Esteraich, Jan M.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether parenting stress and child behavioral problems are significant predictors of parent-child conflict in the context of low-income families and how these relations are moderated by maternal nativity. The authors conducted multiple regression analyses to examine relations between teachers' report of…

  6. Genetic moderation of the association between adolescent romantic involvement and depression: Contributions of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, chronic stress, and family discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance

    2016-05-01

    Studies support a link between adolescent romantic involvement and depression. Adolescent romantic relationships may increase depression risk by introducing chronic stress, and genetic vulnerability to stress reactivity/emotion dysregulation may moderate these associations. We tested genetic moderation of longitudinal associations between adolescent romantic involvement and later depressive symptoms by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) and examined contributory roles of chronic stress and family discord. Three hundred eighty-one youth participated at ages 15 and 20. The results indicated that 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between age 15 romantic involvement and age 20 depressive symptoms, with strongest effects for short homozygotes. Conditional process analysis revealed that chronic stress functioned as a moderated mediator of this association, fully accounting for the romantic involvement-depression link among short/short genotypes. Also, romantic involvement predicted later depressive symptoms most strongly among short-allele carriers with high family discord. The results have important implications for understanding the romantic involvement-depression link and the behavioral and emotional correlates of the 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  7. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  8. Social Support as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Parenting Stress and Life Satisfaction among the Chinese Parents of Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  9. Stressful Life Events: Moderators of the Relationships of Gender and Gender Roles to Self-Reported Depression and Suicidality among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelde, Lynn C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by stressful life events. Results with 290 female and 247 male undergraduates support the androgyny model of adjustment and a self-schema model of depression. (SLD)

  10. Dose-response association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with cardiovascular biomarkers and all-cause mortality: Considerations by individual sports, exercise and recreational physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    Previous research demonstrates that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with reduced all-cause mortality risk. Our understanding of whether individual physical activities are associated with all-cause mortality is less understood. Data from the 1999-2006 NHANES were employed, with follow-up through 2011. 48 different individual physical activities (e.g., swimming, running, bicycling) were assessed, and total MVPA MET-min-month was calculated based on their responses to these 48 individual physical activities. Greater engagement in MVPA was associated with more favorable cardiovascular biomarkers, particularly for men. Even after adjustment for total MVPA, different individual physical activities were associated with cardiovascular biomarkers across gender. When compared to those not meeting guidelines (0-1999 MVPA MET-min-month), a dose-response association between MVPA and mortality was observed, with those engaging in 5 times the guideline level having the lowest risk of all-cause mortality (45% reduced risk). There was no evidence of a harmful effect of very high MVPA (e.g., 20,000+ MVPA MET-min-month). Engaging in MVPA even below the minimum recommendation was associated with survival benefits, and the greatest survival effects occurred at a dose of approximately 5 times the minimum recommendation. Although very high levels (e.g., 10 times the minimum recommendation) of self-reported MVPA did not demonstrate the greatest survival effects, high levels of physical activity did not appear to have harmful effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Secular trends of physical growth and abdominal adiposity of school children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2017-02-01

    Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to age and sex. Positive trends for weight were identified for both males and females at all ages (p  .05) occurred in height for females between the ages of 6 and 8 years. However, commencing at age 9 until 12 years, females showed positive and significant increases (p Peru. These changes may be associated with the rapid economic development in the country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A plan of reactor physics experiments for reduced-moderation water reactors with MOX fuel in TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoichiro; Akie, Hiroshi; Suzaki, Takenori; Okubo, Tutomu; Usui, Shuji; Shirakawa, Toshihisa; Iwamura, Takamiti; Kugo, Teruhiko; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki

    2000-06-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is one of the next generation water-cooled reactors which aim at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up, long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. For verification of the feasibility, negative void reactivity coefficient and conversion ratio more than 1.0 must be confirmed. Critical Experiments performed so far in Eualope and Japan were reviewed, and no useful data are available for RMWR development. Critical experiments using TCA (Tank Type Critical Assembly) in JAERI are planned. MOX fuel rods should be prepared for the experiments and some modifications of the equipment are needed for use of MOX fuel rods. This report describes the preliminary plan of physics experiments. The number of MOX fuel rods used in the experiments are obtained by calculations and the modification of the equipment for the experiments are shown. (author)

  13. The physical postures of yoga practices may protect against depressive symptoms, even as life stressors increase: a moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Rebecca A; Butler, Michael P; Bentley, Jacob A

    2018-08-01

    Yoga contains sub-components related to its physical postures (asana), breathing methods (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). To test the hypothesis that specific yoga practices are associated with reduced psychological distress, 186 adults completed questionnaires assessing life stressors, symptom severity, and experience with each of these aspects of yoga. Each yoga sub-component was found to be negatively correlated with psychological distress indices. However, differing patterns of relationship to psychological distress symptoms were found for each yoga sub-component. Experience with asana was negatively correlated with global psychological distress (r = -.21, p moderated the predictive relationship between amount of asana experience and depressive symptoms. Asana was not related to depressive symptoms at low levels of life stressors, but became associated at mean (t[182] = -2.73, p research is needed to differentiate whether asana has an effect on psychological distress, and to better understand potential psychophysiological mechanisms of action.

  14. The role of action and coping planning in the relationship between intention and physical activity: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudroit, Johan; Boiché, Julie; Stephan, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Using a moderated mediation model, the present study investigated whether the mediation of intention into physical activity (PA) behaviour via action planning depends on the level of coping planning. A four-month prospective study was conducted among 157 French adults, who were recruited through a web-based survey. They were administrated measures of behavioural intention and sociodemographic variables at baseline and action and coping planning and PA four months later. Action planning partially mediated the contribution of intention on PA level. However, this indirect effect was conditional on the level of coping planning, insofar as action planning acted as a mediator of the intention-PA relationship only for individuals with high level of coping planning. The results highlight the complexity of the relationship between intention and behaviour and provide evidence for the distinct role of both forms of planning.

  15. Simulation study for the influences of fluid physical properties on void fraction of moderator cell of cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming; Feng Quanke; Bi Qincheng; Chen Tingkuan; Du Shejiao

    2004-01-01

    The void fraction at different heights in the annular channel of moderator cell mockup was measured with a differential pressure transducer. The tests proved that the ratio of surface tension to density of liquid phase is the main factor that determines the physical properties on void fraction. The larger the ratio, the smaller the void fraction. The ratio of surface tension to density of Freon 113 is lower than that of liquid hydrogen. Therefore, Freon 113 can be used as working fluid to study the void fraction in the hydrogen two-phase thermo-siphon loop in the cold neutron source (CNS) of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), and the results are conservative

  16. Facial attractiveness as a moderator of the association between social and physical aggression and popularity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, aggression, and popularity in adolescence to determine whether facial attractiveness would buffer against the negative effects of aggression on popularity. We collected ratings of facial attractiveness from standardized photographs, and teachers provided information on adolescents' social aggression, physical aggression, and popularity for 143 seventh graders (70 girls). Regression analyses indicated that facial attractiveness moderated the relations between both types of aggression and popularity. Aggression was associated with a reduction in popularity for adolescents low on facial attractiveness. However, popularity did not decrease as a function of aggression for adolescents high on facial attractiveness. Aggressors with high facial attractiveness may experience fewer negative consequences to their social standing, thus contributing to higher overall rates of aggression in school settings. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  18. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B.

    2013-01-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  19. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  20. Associations between mother's and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinKyoung Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which mothers' and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary time (ST are associated across different settings (i.e., at home versus outside of the home, on weekdays versus weekends is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to: (Strong et al., 2005 describe associations between mothers' and children's levels of MVPA and ST, and (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 determine how setting and mothers' and children's characteristics moderate the associations. We used baseline data from the University of Michigan Healthy Families baseline data (2013–2015 from 55 mothers who have children in two age groups (3–5.99years [n=25] and 10–12.99years [n=30] for the analysis. MVPA and ST data were collected using accelerometry over a seven day period. Proportion of time spent in MVPA and ST between 08:00am and 08:59pm was calculated. Mixed-effects models were used to examine associations. After controlling for selected mother and child characteristics and setting variables, MVPA and ST levels were positively associated in mothers and their children (P<0.001. The mother-child associations for MVPA and ST were 1.7 times (β=0.365 versus β=0.216 and 2.2 times (β=0.255 versus β=0.117 stronger, respectively, when both were at home together. The association did not differ by day of the week. The variations by setting underline the importance of developing home-based, family-centered interventions to increase PA and decrease ST. Keywords: Physical activity, Sedentary time, Home environment

  1. Feasibility and Reliability of Tests Measuring Health-Related Physical Fitness in Children with Moderate to Severe Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Marieke; van der Zanden, Anna M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important marker for health. In this study we investigated the feasibility and reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in children with moderate to severe levels of intellectual disability. Thirty-nine children (2-18 yrs) performed tests for muscular strength and endurance, the modified 6-minute walk test (6mwt)…

  2. Alteration of Neurokinin B Gene Expression and Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Gonadal Axis in Response to One-month Regular Moderate Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Khajehnasiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The advantageous effects of the regular moderate physical activity (Exercise on reproduction is widely accepted, but until now, the alterations of the expression of hypothalamic arcuate nuclei gene affecting on reproduction axis in response to this type of physical activity are not clear. Therefore, the goal of the present investigation was to study the effect of one –month regular moderate physical activity on neurokinin B gene expression and reproductive axis hormonal changes. Materials and Methods: In the experimental study, fourteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and one- month regular moderate exercise groups. After one - month physical activity (20m/min, the arcuate nucleus was isolated from brain and stored in -80 refrigerators for neurokinin B gene expression assay by Real-time PCR method. In addition, serum samples were taken to assess the corticosterone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels by ELISA method. Data were analyzed by Independent t-test in SPSS. Results: Neurokinin-B gene expression level was lower in the group which received physical activity than the control group(p<0.05. Also, corticosterone serum concentration was decreased in the physical activity group(p<0.05. By contrast, the physical activity induced luteinizing hormone and Testosterone serum levels evaluation in exersice group compared with control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Regular moderate physical activity may improve male reproductive performance by reducing the corticosterone hormone level and decreasing neurokinin B expression.

  3. Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being among Hong Kong Chinese Older Adults: Exploring the Moderating Role of Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Fung, Helene H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and psychological well-being--self-esteem and relatedness satisfaction--among 102 Hong Kong Chinese older adults. It also tested whether independent-interdependent self-construal moderated the association. Physical activity, self esteem, relatedness satisfaction, and self-construal…

  4. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  5. Physical therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parezanović-Ilić Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is an involuntary release of urine through the urethra during the increase of abdominal pressure in the absence of m. detrusor contraction. The exercise of pelvic floor muscles is recommended as the first line of cure. It is the least invasive and the only method without any undesirable side effects, which leads to either improvement or complete cure of SUI in 80-85% of cases. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish whether the strengthening of pelvic floor muscles using proprioceptive neural facilitation (PNF spiral dynamic technique was more efficient in comparison to classical Kegel exercise. Methods. The research was carried out at the Centre for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Centre Kragujevac. Sixty-six female patients with the symptoms of SUI were monitored in the period of two years. Thirty-four patients did pelvic floor muscle exercises twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, with 15-20 contractions. Thirty-two patients used PNF spiral dynamic technique for strengthening pelvic floor muscles. The patients who used the spiral dynamic technique also did some exercises from the program; they exercised twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, following the prescribed schedule. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring the pelvic floor muscles by a vaginal dynamometer. Results. The values of the pelvic floor muscle force that were measured using the vaginal dynamometer in both examined groups (PNF spiral dynamic technique or Kegel exercise were statistically significantly higher after the implemented exercise program (t-test; p=0.000. No statistically significant difference in pelvic floor muscle values was found between the patients who applied PNF spiral dynamic technique and those who did Kegel exercise either before or after the exercise (two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements, factor of exercise type; p=0.899. Conclusion

  6. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diabetes-Specific and General Life Stress and Glycemic Outcomes in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Is Race/Ethnicity a Moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M; Weller, Bridget E; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Anderson, Barbara; Pihoker, Catherine; Hilliard, Marisa E

    2017-10-01

    This study examines whether race/ethnicity moderates relationships of (a) diabetes stress and general life stressors with (b) diabetes outcomes of glycemic control and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among emerging adults (aged 18-25 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Using a T1D Exchange Registry sample of non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic emerging adults (N = 3,440), multiple group analyses were used to determine whether race/ethnicity moderates the relationships between stress and diabetes outcomes. The relationships between the two stress types and glycemic control did not differ between African American and non-Hispanic Whites. However, as compared with non-Hispanic Whites, the association between higher diabetes-specific stress and poorer glycemic control was significantly stronger for Hispanics, and Hispanics had poorer glycemic control when they experienced a relatively fewer number of general life stressors than non-Hispanic Whites. The relationships between the type of stress (diabetes-specific and general stress) and DKA did not differ across racial/ethnic groups. Future research should evaluate possible mechanisms that contribute to the different relationships of stress with glycemic control among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Immigration Stress and Alcohol Use Severity Among Recently Immigrated Hispanic Adults: Examining Moderating Effects of Gender, Immigration Status, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Mariana; Trepka, Mary Jo; Dillon, Frank R; Sheehan, Diana M; Rojas, Patria; Kanamori, Mariano J; Huang, Hui; Auf, Rehab; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic immigrants is an increasingly significant public health concern. Although prior research has examined associations of cultural stressors with alcohol use among Hispanics, few studies have tested these associations among recent adult immigrants. As such, this study aimed to examine (a) the association of immigration stress on alcohol use severity among recently immigrated Hispanic adults (≤ 1 year in the United States) and (b) the moderating effects of gender, immigration status, and social support. A hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses were conducted on a sample of 527 participants in South Florida. Results indicated that, after controlling for demographic variables, preimmigration drinking behavior, and dimensions of social support, the association of higher immigration stress with higher alcohol use severity was statistically significant. Moderation analyses indicated that immigration stress had a statistically significant association with alcohol use severity among men, but not women. Also, dimensions of social support consistently reduced the deleterious effect of immigration stress on alcohol use severity. This study adds to the scarce literature on cultural stressors and alcohol use among recent Hispanic immigrants. Findings suggest that it may be important to design gender-specific interventions and that increasing levels of social support may offset the effects of immigration stress on alcohol use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An examination of psychosocial variables moderating the relationship between life stress and injury time-loss among athletes of a high standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, I W; Eklund, R C; Gordon, S

    2000-05-01

    Based on Williams and Andersen's model of stress and athletic injury, six psychosocial variables were assessed as possible moderators of the relationship between life stress and injury among 121 athletes (65 males, 56 females) competing in a variety of sports at state, national or international level. No significant effects of the sex of the participants were evident. Correlational analyses revealed moderator effects of several variables. Specifically, dispositional optimism and hardiness were related to decreased injury time-loss in athletes when positive life change increased, and global self-esteem was associated with decreased injury time-loss when both negative life change and total life change increased. The results indicate that athletes with more optimism, hardiness or global self-esteem may cope more effectively with life change stress, resulting in reduced injury vulnerability and recovery rates.

  10. Avoidant coping moderates the relationship between paternal involvement in the child's type 1 diabetes (T1D) care and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Ashley; Limbers, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Fathers may experience greater parenting stress and anxiety when they are more involved in their child's type 1 diabetes (T1D) care. The present study evaluated whether seeking social support and avoidant coping strategies moderate the relationship between paternal involvement in the child's T1D care and parenting stress in an international sample. Two hundred forty-nine fathers of young children with T1D completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), Dads' Active Disease Support scale (DADS), COPE Inventory, Self-Care Inventory (SCI-R), and a demographic questionnaire online. Pearson's product moment correlations were computed, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with three separate models in which the PSI Child Domain, PIP Frequency, and PIP Difficulty scores represented different parenting stress outcomes. The interaction between use of denial coping and DADS Involvement was significantly correlated with general parenting stress ( p diabetes treatment regimen ( p management.

  11. Cognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Sauter, Julia; Rimmele, Ulrike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-05

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of psychological stress to cognitive performance and its interplay with key life course markers of cognitive reserve and social capital in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (verbal abilities and processing speed) and psychological stress in 2,812 older adults. The Participants reported information on education, occupation, leisure activities, family, and close friends. Greater psychological stress was significantly related to lower performance in verbal abilities and processing speed. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of psychological stress to cognitive performance were reduced in individuals with higher education, a higher cognitive level of the first profession practiced after education, a larger number of midlife leisure activities, a larger number of significant family members, and a larger number of close friends. Cognitive reserve and social capital accrued in early and midlife may reduce the detrimental influences of psychological stress on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Stress from daily hassles in couples: its effects on intradyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  13. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S

    2012-01-01

    African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.

  14. Effectiveness of a Blended Multidisciplinary Intervention for Patients with Moderate Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (PARASOL): Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westrienen, Paula Elisabeth; Pisters, Martijn F; Toonders, Suze Aj; Gerrits, Marloes; Veenhof, Cindy; de Wit, Niek J

    2018-05-08

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms are an important health problem in primary care, with a spectrum from mild to chronic. The burden of chronic medically unexplained physical symptoms is substantial for patients, health care professionals, and society. Therefore, early identification of patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms is needed in order to prevent chronicity. The preventive screening of medically unexplained physical symptoms (PRESUME) screening method was developed using data from the electronic medical record of the patients' general practitioner and demonstrated its prognostic accuracy to identify patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms. In the next step, we developed a proactive blended and integrated mental health and physical therapy intervention program (PARASOL) to reduce complaints of moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms, stimulate self-management, and prevent chronicity. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the blended PARASOL intervention on the impact of symptoms and quality of life in patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms compared with usual care. Secondary objectives are to study the effect on severity of physical and psychosocial symptoms, general health, physical behavior, illness perception, and self-efficacy in patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms as well as to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. This paper presents the study protocol of a multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial. Adult patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms will be identified from electronic medical record data using the PRESUME screening method and proactively recruited for participation in the study. Cluster randomization will be performed at the level of the participating health care centers. In total 248 patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms (124

  15. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Wobmann, Marion; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Borloz, Sylvie; Balz, Alexandra; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Borghini, Ayala; Puder, Jardena J

    2015-02-19

    Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure), food intake, and choice in the setting of acute social stress in normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children as well as the impact of psychological risk factors. After receiving written consent from their parents, 26 NW (BMI foods (6 sweet/6 salty; each of low/high caloric density). Energy balance, food intake/choice and obesity-related psychological risk factors were assessed. Lower overall energy balance (p = 0.019) and a decreased choice of low density salty foods (p foods (104 kcal (34 to 173), p = 0.004) following stress. They scored higher on impulsive behavior (p = 0.005), restrained eating (p stress-induced food intake/choice. Positive parenting tended to be related to lower intake of sweet high density food (-132 kcal, -277 to 2, p = 0.054). In the setting of stress, acute moderate physical activity can address energy balance in children, a benefit which is especially pronounced in the OW/OB. Positive parenting may act as a protective factor preventing stress-induced eating of comfort food. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01693926 The study was a pilot study of a project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (CRSII3_147673).

  16. The physical interpretation of the threshold-stress intensity range during fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marci, G.; Bazant, E.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the experimental results, the threshold-stress intensity range is given the physical interpretation that it characterizes a range of effective tensile stresses which need to be exceeded during a loading cycle for stage II fatigue crack growth to occur. The threshold stress intensity range is independent from its relative position in the range of effective tensile stress, has always the same magnitude and, furthermore, is independent of the Ksub(Imax) which produced the active plastic zone. The experimental results available from previous threshold stress intensity determinations are in good agreement with the concept developed. (orig.) [de

  17. All-cause mortality risk as a function of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    Emerging work demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on mortality risk. Limited research has evaluated all three of these parameters in a model when considering mortality risk, and their potential additive association on mortality risk has not been fully evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,295 adults 20-85 yrs), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory estimated from a prediction equation taking into consideration participant demographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics. Using the median values, a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score was created that ranged from 0-3, indicating the number of these three positive characteristics. Those with below median sedentary behavior did not have a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34-1.04; P = 0.07), but those with above median MVPA (HR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82; P = 0.02) and above median CRF did (HR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.43; P sedentary behavior, were independently associated with reduced mortality risk. Adults with all three characteristics (below median sedentary and above median MVPA and CRF), however, had the lowest mortality risk.

  18. Stress-induced and cue-induced craving for alcohol in heavy drinkers: Preliminary evidence of genetic moderation by the OPRM1 and CRH-BP genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A

    2011-01-01

    Neurobiological theories of addiction have highlighted disruption in stress pathways as a central feature of addictive disorders, and pharmacological treatments targeting stress mechanisms hold great promise. This study examines genetic determinants of stress-induced and cue-induced craving in heavy drinkers by testing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene. This study combines guided imagery stress exposure and in vivo alcohol cue exposure in a sample of 64 (23 women) non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Analyses, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, revealed that a tag SNP of the CRH-BP gene (rs10055255) moderated stress-induced craving in this sample. The same SNP predicted greater affective responses to the stress manipulation, including greater levels of subjective tension and negative mood. The Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 was associated with greater cue-induced alcohol craving following the neutral imagery condition. These initial results extend recent preclinical and clinical findings implicating the CRH-BP in stress-related alcoholism and confirm the role of the Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 gene in reward-driven alcohol phenotypes. Human laboratory models of stress and cue-induced craving may be useful in pharmacotherapy development targeting dysregulation of stress systems. Larger studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings, which should also be extended to clinical samples. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Moderating factors in the path from physical abuse to attempted suicide in adolescents: application of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced self-esteem. Involvement in youth programs moderated the direct effect. Community service moderated the indirect effect. Results indicate 2 hours per week of involvement in youth programs and 2 hours per week of community service mitigated suicide attempt risk associated with abuse. Providing avenues for youth experiencing abuse to increase their community service and involvement is recommended. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Results Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations

  1. The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect on the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Stress in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çivitci, Asim

    2015-01-01

    During college years, which are known as a stressful time, students may often face stress personally, socially, academically, economically, and so forth in various areas of life. One of the important sources that students use to cope with stress is social support. Students can cope with stress easier via the support they receive from their friends…

  2. Cardiovascular Responsivity, Physical and Psychosocial Job Stress, and the Risk of Preterm Delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatch, MauMaureen

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this grant is to examine the effects of physical and psychological stress as risk factors for preterm delivery among an ethnically diverse population of 1 000 active duty military...

  3. Sense of coherence does not moderate the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Silke; Sevenants, Lien; Budts, Werner; Luyckx, Koen; Moons, Philip

    2016-12-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease seem to be more distressed than their healthy counterparts, which might render them even more susceptible to developing detrimental health outcomes. Previous research has confirmed the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health. However, it remains unknown whether sense of coherence, a person's capacity to cope with stressors, moderates this relationship. This cross-sectional study aims to explore: the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics, sense of coherence, and the perceived impact of stress on health; the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health; and the moderating effect of sense of coherence in a sample of adults with congenital heart disease. Patients were recruited from the database of congenital and structural cardiology of a university hospital. The analytic sample included 255 patients (median age 35 years; 50% men). Data were obtained using self-report questionnaires and through medical record view. Univariate analyses and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The perceived impact of stress on health was negatively associated with sense of coherence (Pstress on health and self-rated health were negatively associated (Prelationship. Our findings support the need for further research on the perceived impact of stress on health. Such insights can be valuable for developing interventions aimed at reducing the negative health consequences of stress in patients with congenital heart disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  4. The Migration, Mental Stress, and Tobacco use of Internal Migrants in China: The Moderating Effect of the Social Context of the Host Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shenghua

    2017-11-10

    Previous studies on the relationship between mental stress and the tobacco use of internal migrants have not fully considered the social context of the host society. This study aims to examine how mental stress influences cigarette smoking in internal migrants in China by considering the social context of the host society. We used the RUMiC data that were collected in 15 cities distributed throughout 9 provinces of China. A total of 8,446 and 5,426 migrant workers were interviewed in 2008 and 2009, respectively. We selected individuals based on the criteria of age, salary, and hukou status. A total of 8,880 observations are valid for this study. This research used the logistic regression method to test the association between mental stress and the tobacco use of internal migrants. The results show that mental stress is not necessarily associated with the tobacco use of internal migrants. However, the effects of mental stress on tobacco use are moderated by the social context of the host society. This article calls for more attention to be paid to the moderate effect of social context in the host society on the association between mental stress and cigarette smoking of internal migrants. Moreover, this article underscores the importance of factors related to local societies in making and enacting tobacco control policies for migrants in developing countries.

  5. Hypocaloric diet and regular moderate aerobic exercise is an effective strategy to reduce anthropometric parameters and oxidative stress in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Lopez, Liliana; Garcia-Sanchez, Jose Ruben; Rincon-Viquez, Maria de Jesus; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Sierra-Vargas, Martha P; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that diet and exercise are important in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether additional regular moderate aerobic exercise during a treatment with hypocaloric diet has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress and molecular damage in the obese patient. Oxidative stress of 16 normal-weight (NW) and 32 obese 1 (O1) subjects (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m(2)) were established by biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma. Recombinant human insulin was incubated with blood from NW or O1 subjects, and the molecular damage to the hormone was analyzed. Two groups of treatment, hypocaloric diet (HD) and hypocaloric diet plus regular moderate aerobic exercise (HDMAE), were formed, and their effects in obese subjects were analyzed. The data showed the presence of oxidative stress in O1 subjects. Molecular damage and polymerization of insulin was observed more frequently in the blood from O1 subjects. The treatment of O1 subjects with HD decreased the anthropometric parameters as well as oxidative stress and molecular damage, which was more effectively prevented by the treatment with HDMAE. HD and HDMAE treatments decreased anthropometric parameters, oxidative stress, and molecular damage in O1 subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Does substance use moderate the association of neighborhood disadvantage with perceived stress and safety in the activity spaces of urban youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Way, Thomas; Zahakaris, Nikola; Flay, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the association of activity space-based exposure to neighborhood disadvantage with momentary perceived stress and safety, and the moderation of substance use on those associations, among a sample of 139 urban, primarily African American, adolescents. Geospatial technologies are integrated with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to capture exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and perceived stress and safety in the activity space. A relative neighborhood disadvantage measure for each subject is calculated by conditioning the neighborhood disadvantage observed at the EMA location on that of the home neighborhood. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are used to model the effect of relative neighborhood disadvantage on momentary perceived stress and safety, and the extent to which substance use moderates those associations. Relative neighborhood disadvantage is significantly associated with higher perceived stress, lower perceived safety, and greater substance use involvement. The association of relative neighborhood disadvantage with stress is significantly stronger among those with greater substance use involvement. This research highlights the value of integrating geospatial technologies with EMA and developing personalized measures of environmental exposure for investigating neighborhood effects on substance use, and suggests substance use intervention strategies aimed at neighborhood conditions. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal pathways of influence and selection that relate neighborhood environment, stress, and substance use, while also accounting for the role of gender and family and peer social contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between physical function and depression in nursing home residents with mild and moderate dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvæl, Linda Aimée Hartford; Bergland, Astrid; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken

    2017-07-20

    The primary aim of this study is to describe depression and physical function in nursing home residents with dementia, as well as to examine the associations between depression and balance function, lower limb muscle strength, mobility and activities of daily living. The secondary aim is to examine the differences in physical function between the groups classified as depressed and not depressed. The study has a cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 18 nursing homes in, and around, Oslo, Norway, participated. We included 170 nursing home residents aged 60-100 years with mild or moderate degree of dementia defined by a score of 1 or 2 on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Assessments used were Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 'the 6-metre walking test' (walking speed), 30 s Chair Stand Test (CST) and the Barthel Index (BI). Nursing home residents with dementia are a heterogeneous group in terms of physical function and depression. By applying the recommended cut-off of ≥8 on CSDD, 23.5% of the participants were classified as being depressed. The results revealed significant associations between higher scores on CSDD (indicating more symptoms of depression) and lower scores on BBS (95% CI -0.12 to -0.02, p=0.006), 30 s CST (95% CI -0.54 to -0.07, p=0.001) as well as maximum walking speed (95% CI -4.56 to -0.20, p=0.003) (indicating lower level of physical function). Better muscle strength, balance and higher walking speed were significantly associated with less depressive symptoms. The potential interaction of dementia with poor physical function and depression indicates an area to explore in future epidemiological studies with a prospective design. NCT02262104. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The effect of acute moderate psychological stress on working memory-related neural activity is modulated by a genetic variation in catecholaminergic function in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozheng eQin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress has an important impact on higher-order cognitive functions supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC such as working memory (WM. In rodents, such effects are mediated by stress-induced alterations in catecholaminergic signaling, but human data in support of this notion is lacking. A common variation in the gene encoding Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is known to affect basal catecholaminergic availability and PFC functions. Here, we investigated whether this genetic variation (Val158Met modulates effects of stress on WM-related prefrontal activity in humans. In a counterbalanced crossover design, 41 healthy young men underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI while performing a numerical N-back WM task embedded in a stressful or neutral context. Moderate psychological stress was induced by a well-controlled procedure involving viewing strongly aversive (versus emotionally neutral movie material in combination with a self-referencing instruction. Acute stress resulted in genotype-dependent effects on WM performance and WM-related activation in the dorsolateral PFC, with a relatively negative impact of stress in COMT Met-homozygotes as opposed to a relatively positive effect in Val-carriers. A parallel interaction was found for WM-related deactivation in the anterior medial temporal lobe. Our findings suggest that individuals with higher baseline catecholaminergic availability (COMT Met-homozygotes appear to reach a supraoptimal state under moderate levels of stress. In contrast, individuals with lower baselines (Val-carriers may reach an optimal state. Thus, our data show that effects of acute stress on higher-order cognitive functions vary depending on catecholaminergic availability at baseline, and thereby corroborate animal models of catecholaminergic signaling that propose a non-linear relationship between catecholaminergic activity and prefrontal functions.

  9. The effect of somatic awareness exercise on the chronic physical manifestations of the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Phil. (Biokinetics) Stress is an integral part of daily living and supports the ability to adapt. However, chronic activation without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading the physiological and psychological systems. Since urban South Africans are sedentary and experience high levels of stress, they are developing stress related chronic conditions and hypokinetic diseases (obesity, hypertension, depression). This study is aimed at decreasing the chronic phys...

  10. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    , and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings......The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part...

  11. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  12. Stress Management in Physical Education Class: An Experiential Approach to Improve Coping Skills and Reduce Stress Perceptions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christin; Feldmeth, Anna Karina; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In most physical education (PE) syllabuses, promoting life skills constitutes an important educational objective. The aim of this study was to implement a coping training program (EPHECT) within regular PE and to evaluate its effects on coping and stress among vocational students. Eight classes from a vocational school were selected for study;…