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Sample records for moderate blood alcohol

  1. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor;

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  2. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  3. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-07-21

    To evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0 mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7 mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6 μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0 mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0 mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Cao, Quan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Liu, Xiang-wei; Bu, Li-ping; Zou, Yun-zeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Ai-jun; Ge, Jun-bo

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the roles of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the key enzyme of ethanol metabolism, in chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption-induced heart protective effects in mice. Twenty-one male wild-type (WT) or ALDH2-knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. In each genotype, 14 animals received alcohol (2.5%, 5% and 10% in week 1-3, respectively, and 18% in week 4-7), and 7 received water for 7 weeks. After the treatments, survival rate and general characteristics of the animals were evaluated. Serum ethanol and acetaldehyde levels and blood lipids were measured. Metabolomics was used to characterize the heart and serum metabolism profiles. Chronic alcohol intake decreased the survival rate of KO mice by 50%, and significantly decreased their body weight, but did not affect those of WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum ethanol levels in both WT and KO mice, but KO mice had significantly higher serum acetaldehyde levels than WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum HDL cholesterol levels in WT mice, and did not change the serum HDL cholesterol levels in KO mice. After chronic alcohol intake, WT and KO mice showed differential heart and serum metabolism profiles, including the 3 main energy substrate types (lipids, glucose and amino acids) and three carboxylic acid cycles. Low to moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol levels and improves heart energy metabolism profile in WT mice but not in ALDH2-KO mice. Thus, preserved ALDH2 function is essential for the protective effect of low to moderate alcohol on the cardiovascular system.

  5. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    and an increasing self-reported alcohol intake. The population increase was based on an increasing proportion of light to moderate drinkers. There was no effect of a moderately increasing alcohol intake as a covariate in a multivariate analysis of population systolic BP. Conclusion: A moderately increasing...

  6. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2015-08-01

    Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); previous studies have shown a linear dose-dependent association between alcohol intake and CRC. However, some studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, similar to that seen in cardiovascular disease. Other factors may interact with alcohol and contribute additional risk for CRC. We aimed to determine the association between moderate alcohol consumption, limited to 30 g of alcohol per day, by beverage type on CRC risk and to assess the effects of other factors that interact with alcohol to influence CRC risk. The PubMed database was used to find articles published between 2008 and 2014 related to alcohol and CRC. Twenty-one relevant articles were evaluated and summarized, including 11 articles reporting on CRC risk associated with moderate intake and 10 articles focusing on genetic interactions associated with alcohol and CRC risk. The association between alcohol and increased risk for CRC was found when intakes exceeded 30 g/d alcohol. Nonsignificant results were consistently reported for intakes alcohol consumers. Some significant results suggest that the development of CRC is dependent on the interaction of gene and environment. The association between the amount of alcohol consumed and the incidence of CRC was not significant at moderate intake levels. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced CRC risk in study populations with greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet, where wine contributed substantially to the alcoholic beverage consumed. Other factors such as obesity, folate deficiency, and genetic susceptibility may contribute additional CRC risk for those consuming alcohol. To minimize CRC risk, appropriate recommendations should encourage intakes below 30 g of alcohol each day. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Differential Effect of Initiating Moderate Red Wine Consumption on 24-h Blood Pressure by Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes: Randomized Trial in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Golan, Rachel; Durst, Ronen; Shelef, Ilan; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Spitzen, Shosana; Witkow, Shula; Novack, Lena; Friger, Michael; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sefarty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benny; Wolak, Talia; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Observational studies report inconsistent associations between moderate alcohol intake and blood pressure (BP). In a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of initiating moderate red wine consumption on 24-h BP recordings and the effect of a common genetic variant of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) among patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-four type 2 diabetes, alcohol abstainers were randomized to consume 150 ml/dinner dry red wine or mineral water. Both groups were guided to adhere to a Mediterranean diet, without caloric restriction. We measured 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at baseline and after 6 months. Participants (age = 57 years; 85% men; mean 24-h BP = 129/77 mm Hg) had 92% 6-month retention. After 6 months of intervention, the average 24-h BP did not differ between the wine and water groups. A transient decrease in BP was observed in the red wine group at midnight (3-4 hours after wine intake: systolic BP: red wine = -10.6mm Hg vs. mineral water = +2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.031) and the following morning at 7-9 am (red wine: -6.2mm Hg vs. mineral water: +5.6mm Hg; P = 0.014). In a second post hoc sub-analysis among the red wine consumers, individuals who were homozygous for the gene encoding ADH1B*2 variant (Arg48His; rs1229984, TT, fast ethanol metabolizers), exhibited a reduction in mean 24-h systolic BP (-8.0mm Hg vs. +3.7 mm Hg; P = 0.002) and pulse pressure (-3.8 mm Hg vs. +1.2 mm Hg; P = 0.032) compared to heterozygotes and those homozygous for the ADH1B*1 variant (CC, slow metabolizers). Initiating moderate red wine consumption at dinner among type 2 diabetes patients does not have a discernable effect on mean 24-h BP. Yet, a modest temporal BP reduction could be documented, and a more pronounced BP-lowering effect is suggested among fast ethanol metabolizers. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00784433. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Moderate alcohol use and cardiovascular disease from Mendelian randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu Lun Au Yeung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies show moderate alcohol use negatively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, healthier attributes among moderate users compared to never users may confound the apparent association. A potentially less biased way to examine the association is Mendelian randomization, using alcohol metabolizing genes which influence alcohol use. METHODS: We used instrumental variable analysis with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotypes (AA/GA/GG as instrumental variables for alcohol use to examine the association of alcohol use (10 g ethanol/day with CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids and glucose and morbidity (self-reported IHD and CVD among men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. RESULTS: ALDH2 genotypes were a credible instrument for alcohol use (F-statistic 74.6. Alcohol was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L per alcohol unit, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.02 to 0.08 and diastolic blood pressure (1.15 mmHg, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.07 but not with systolic blood pressure (1.00 mmHg, 95% CI -0.74 to 2.74, LDL-cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.08, log transformed triglycerides (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08 or log transformed fasting glucose (0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.03, self-reported CVD (odds ratio (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27 or self-reported IHD (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.45. CONCLUSION: Low to moderate alcohol use among men had the expected effects on most CVD risk factors but not fasting glucose. Larger studies are needed to confirm the null associations with IHD, CVD and fasting glucose.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and chronic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Clowry, Catherine M; Murray, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Drinking within recommended limits is highly prevalent in much of the world, and strong epidemiological associations exist between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of several major chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. In many cases, plausible biolo...

  10. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    make out the majority of the population. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. The untreated study population was followed over 20years. Specially trained technicians using a blinded sphygmomanometer measured BP once with the subject in the sitting......The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... position. The BP measurement was fully standardised and the measurement method was unchanged throughout the observation period. A questionnaire concerning drinking habits was completed by the participants and double-checked by the technicians. The results were a decreasing population systolic BP...

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neafsey EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Neafsey, Michael A CollinsDepartment of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1 those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total and (2 those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total. The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997 was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia and to cognitive impairment (low test scores, but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores was found. Both light and moderate

  12. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate

  13. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  14. 2. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Functioning in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    2Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. ABSTRACT ... Key words: Moderate alcohol consumption, Cognitive functioning, Zambia. ... neuropsychological test performance . ... Nine trained graduate students tested the 324.

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, van A.; Fournier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the RC

  16. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate alco

  17. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Insulin Sensitivity: Observations and Possible Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies, like our analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, suggest that moderate alcohol consumption is also associated with a reduced risk of

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption--need for intervention programs in pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meberg, A; Halvorsen, B; Holter, B; Ek, I J; Askeland, A; Gaaserud, W; Steinsvåg, J

    1986-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol was investigated in two groups of pregnant women: an intervention group (n = 58) (two structured interviews during pregnancy including counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption and potential benefits to the fetus, and interview after delivery), and a control group (n = 74) (interview after delivery). Prepregnancy 80% of the women were light or moderate alcohol consumers, and 20% teetotalers. Pregnancy considerably reduced alcohol consumption in both groups. 66% abstained from alcohol during pregnancy, and use of liquor nearly ceased. The changes in alcohol consumption occurred independently to the intervention program. Strategy for reducing alcohol consumption during pregnancy should include a structured alcohol anamnesis at the first ante-natal visit, accompanied by counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption. More extensive intervention programs may be reserved for pregnancies at higher risk (high-consumers, abusers).

  19. A comparison of blood alcohol concentration using non-alcohol- and alcohol-containing skin antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, T M; Schaber, D

    1982-12-01

    We simultaneously obtained blood samples in emergency patients for ethanol content from both antecubital fossae using an alcohol prep pad on one arm and a non-alcohol-containing germicidal solution on the other. Fifty patients with ethanol concentrations greater than zero were statistically analyzed. Twenty patients surveyed had no measurable alcohol level by either technique. There was no significant difference in the blood alcohol concentration obtained by either method of skin preparation in both groups (P less than .01). Blood alcohol concentration incidentally obtained in the emergency department by routine isopropyl alcohol skin preparation is an accurate laboratory parameter.

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  1. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to two weeks. Heavy drinkers who stop suddenly risk developing severe high blood pressure for several days. If you have high blood ... and may contribute to unwanted weight gain — a risk factor for high blood pressure. Also, alcohol can interfere with the effectiveness and ...

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  3. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination. © 2013.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption and bone density among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskanich, D; Korrick, S A; Greenspan, S L; Rosen, H N; Colditz, G A

    1999-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with low bone density and high risk of fracture. However, moderate alcohol consumption may help to maintain bone density in postmenopausal women by increasing endogenous estrogens or by promoting secretion of calcitonin. We conducted a prospective study among a sample of 188 white postmenopausal women (ages 50-74) from the Nurses' Health Study who participated in a health examination between 1993 and 1995 that included bone density assessments of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Long-term alcohol intake was calculated as the average of the 1980 and 1990 measures from a food frequency questionnaire. Women who consumed 75 g or more of alcohol per week had significantly higher bone densities at the lumbar spine compared with non-drinking women (0.951 vs. 0.849 g/cm2, p = 0.002) after adjusting for age, body mass index (kg/m2), age at menopause, use of postmenopausal estrogens, and smoking status. Further adjustment for physical activity and daily intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and caffeine did not alter the results. We also observed a linear increase in spinal bone density over increasing categories of alcohol intake (p = 0.002), suggesting that alcohol intakes of less than 75 g/week may also be of benefit. This positive association was observed among both current users and never users of postmenopausal estrogens. In contrast to the lumbar spine, femoral bone density was not higher among drinkers compared with nondrinkers, although density did increase among drinkers with increasing level of alcohol consumption. Further research is needed to determine whether moderate alcohol consumption can help to protect against spinal fractures in postmenopausal women. This finding must also be evaluated within a larger scope of the risks and benefits of alcohol on heart disease, breast cancer, and hip fractures.

  5. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible...

  6. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ''bad'' and ''dangerous'' in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ''good'' and ''safe'' in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors.

  7. Does technology use moderate the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent alcohol and cigarette use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to examine the associations between technology use and alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence and to explore whether technology use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and substance use (alcohol and cigarette use). The sample included 328 14-16 year-old adolescent boys and girls. The adolescents completed a battery of self-report questionnaires which included measures that assessed their substance use, their use of technology, and their parents' alcohol use (including alcoholism). Results indicated that adolescents who had an alcoholic parent reported relatively higher levels of alcohol consumption. Heavier use of technology (particularly text messaging, e-mailing/IMing, and watching television) also was related to earlier and heavier substance use during adolescence. Moreover, these effects tended to be more pronounced in adolescents with an alcoholic parent. Results from this study suggest that high levels of technology use during adolescence may be related to an increased risk of alcohol and cigarette use, particularly for children of alcoholic parents (COAs).

  8. Social anxiety and alcohol use: evaluation of the moderating and mediating effects of alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade Eggleston, A; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Schmidt, Norman B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work suggests that social anxiety is inconsistently related to alcohol use. To further explore this relationship, alcohol outcome expectancies were evaluated as potential moderator and mediators in a large sample (N=284) of college undergraduates. The expectancy variables included positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies as well as expectancies specific to social facilitation. Consistent with a self-presentation model of shyness, social anxiety was related to decreased drinking. Interestingly, social anxiety was associated with increased positive as well as increased negative expectancies. There was not support for moderator or mediator effects. Consistent with prior work, social facilitation expectancies appear to operate as a suppressor variable in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use.

  9. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breath analysis and blood alcohol concentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G. & Noordzij, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    Devices for breath analysis are intended to meet the need for a simple method for determining the blood alcohol concentration. Devices have already been developed for several purposes. For applying breath analyses a compromise has to be found between users' requirements and technical

  11. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / Spring 2014 ... For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and provides a ...

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulens, J W J; van Loon, L J C; Kok, F J; Pelsers, M; Bobbert, T; Spranger, J; Helander, A; Hendriks, H F J

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight (BMI >or=27 kg/m(2)) men consumed 100 ml whisky ( approximately 32 g alcohol) or water daily for 4 weeks in a randomised, controlled, crossover trial. After each treatment period, muscle biopsies and fasting blood samples were collected. Adiponectin concentrations increased (p < 0.001) by 12.5% after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption tended to increase HMW adiponectin by 57% (p = 0.07) and medium molecular weight adiponectin by 12.5% (p = 0.07), but not low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase and beta-3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity were not changed after moderate alcohol consumption, but an interaction between alcohol consumption and BMI was observed for cytochrome c oxidase (p = 0.072) and citrate synthase (p = 0.102) activity. Among lean men, moderate alcohol consumption tended to increase cytochrome c oxidase (p = 0.08) and citrate synthase activity (p = 0.12) by 23 and 26%, respectively, but not among overweight men. In particular, plasma HMW adiponectin correlated positively with activities of skeletal muscle citrate synthase (r = 0.64, p = 0.009), cytochrome c oxidase (p = 0.59, p = 0.009) and beta-HAD (r = 0.46, p = 0.056), while such correlation was not present for LMW adiponectin. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content were not affected by moderate alcohol consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption increases adiponectin concentrations, and in particular HMW adiponectin. Concentrations of HMW adiponectin in particular were positively associated with skeletal muscle oxidative capacity.

  13. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical we

  14. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical

  15. Blood alcohol levels for American Indian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Randall, Brad; Simanton, Edward G; Brenneman, George; Welty, Thomas K

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use.

  16. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes. PMID:24462223

  17. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes.

  18. Low-to-moderate alcohol intake and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, M; Holman, C D J

    2011-01-01

    ... in premenopausal women (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Thus, the effect of low-to-moderate alcohol intake on breast cancer risk remains contentious.Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk in Chinese women, a population that consumes alcohol at very low levels (). WHO reported that the lifetime prevalence of abstainer...

  19. Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Activity and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Martens, Matthew P.; Murphy, James G.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Smith, Ashley E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Among college students, several studies have found a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use. The current study tested gender, Greek status, and ethnicity as potential moderators of the physical activity-alcohol use relationship. Participants: Participants were college freshmen (n = 310) endorsing alcohol/drug…

  20. The Effect of Moderate Alcohol Intake on Gallblader Motility: A Milk Ultrasonographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu AC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of periodic and moderate alcohol intake on gallbladder motility. Methods: The ultrasonographic ellipsoid method was used in 21 healthy male subjects: 12 non-alcohol and 9 alcohol drinkers. The stimulus for gallbladder contraction was 165 ml of half cream milk. Gallbladder dynamics were studied for 20 minutes following the ingestion of the milk. The mean percentage change in gallbladder volume after 10 and 20 minutes gave indications of gallbladder motility. Results: Moderate and periodic alcohol intake did not stimulate rapid postprandial gallbladder emptying. Conclusion: The protective effect of alcohol against biliary cholesterol cholelithiasis could not be due to stimulation of gallbladder emptying.

  1. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use.

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort.......Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort....

  4. Personality variables as mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism: conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, F; Chassin, L; Sher, K J

    1990-07-01

    Recently there has been great interest in possible mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism. However, previous studies have failed to employ appropriate designs and data analytic strategies to identify moderators and mediators. This article uses a large data set to illustrate such analyses. In the current data, both presumed personality risk and dispositional self-awareness were found to play moderator (rather than mediator) roles. The conceptual, methodological and data analytic implications of the mediator-moderator distinction are discussed.

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurophysiological correlates of moderate alcohol consumption in older and younger social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-06-01

    Nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and older in the United States consume alcohol. Research in older adults has largely examined potential health effects of a moderate drinking lifestyle. Examination of acute effects in this population is generally lacking. To investigate alcohol-induced alteration of electrophysiological correlates of attention in this population, we employed a covert attentional task. We hypothesized that moderate alcohol administration as well as older age would reduce P3 amplitude and increase latency. We anticipated an interaction such that, relative to their age-matched controls, older adults receiving alcohol would be more affected than their younger counterparts. Participants included healthy older (aged 50 to 67; n = 20; 9 men) and younger (aged 25 to 35; n = 12; 5 men) moderate drinkers. Participants received either a moderate dose of alcohol (breath alcohol concentration ~50 mg/dl) or a placebo beverage. Following absorption, the task was administered and neurophysiological measures were obtained. P3 amplitude and latency were separately subjected to ANOVA across cue conditions using age and dose as independent variables. As predicted, P3 amplitude in older adults was significantly lower than in younger adults across cue conditions. An age by alcohol interaction was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol showed lower P3 amplitudes than any other group. An age effect for P3 latency was found, with older adults having longer latencies than their younger counterparts. A significant age by alcohol interaction for P3 latency was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol displayed delayed P3 latencies relative to older adults receiving placebo. In contrast, younger adults receiving alcohol had reduced latency compared to those receiving placebo, although this effect did not reach significance. Results suggest that older adults demonstrated alcohol-related shifts in P3 characteristics during an intentional attention

  7. Metacognition, emotion, and alcohol dependence in college students: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneta, Giovanni B

    2011-07-01

    Based on Wells and Matthews' (1994) theory of psychological dysfunction and prior empirical studies, it was hypothesized that negative emotion would mediate the relationship between maladaptive metacognition and alcohol dependence, and maladaptive metacognition would moderate the relationship between negative emotion and alcohol dependence. A sample of 300 British college students completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30. Metacognitive traits, emotions, and alcohol dependence were positively intercorrelated. Moderated mediation modeling indicated that metacognition fosters emotion and moderates the relationship between emotion and alcohol dependence in such a way that emotion and dependence are positively associated for high metacognition and are negatively associated for low metacognition. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Expectancies and evaluations of alcohol effects among college students: self-determination as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E

    2003-03-01

    This research examined individual differences in self-determination as moderators of both alcohol expectancies and of subjective evaluations of alcohol effects in college students. Previous work has shown lower levels of self-determination to be linked with drinking for more extrinsic reasons and as a means of regulating affect and social approval. We proposed that alcohol expectancies and subjective evaluations of alcohol effects would be more strongly linked to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among students who were more controlled and/or less autonomous. Self-reported alcohol expectancies and subjective evaluations of alcohol effects and self-determination were assessed among 560 (347 women) college students, along with self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. Alcohol expectancies and subjective evaluation of alcohol effects were examined separately. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that positive alcohol expectancies were more strongly associated with greater alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among students who were lower in autonomy orientation, and among male students who were higher in controlled orientation. Similarly, more favorable evaluations of positive alcohol effects were associated with greater alcohol consumption among students who were lower in autonomy orientation and students, particularly men, who were higher in controlled orientation. Expectancy theories implicitly assume that individuals who believe alcohol has positive effects and who evaluate alcohol effects favorably are more likely to engage in problematic drinking. This research reveals this assumption is more appropriate among individuals who are generally less self-determined. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  9. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  10. Alcohol expectancies mediate and moderate the associations between Big Five personality traits and adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediation and moderation effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the Five-Factor Model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, alcohol use during the week and at the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive alcohol expectancies mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and alcohol expectancies to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consu

  12. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  13. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males)

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  16. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Cees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or co

  17. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  20. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease due to an improved the lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol medi...

  1. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  2. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) rang

  3. Alcohol Sensitivity Moderates the Indirect Associations between Impulsive Traits, Impaired Control over Drinking, and Drinking Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine impaired control over drinking behavior as a mediator of unique pathways from impulsive traits to alcohol outcomes in young adults and to investigate the moderating influence of self-reported sensitivity to alcohol on these pathways. Method Young adult heavy drinkers (N=172; n=82 women) recruited from the community completed self-report measures of impulsive traits (positive urgency, negative urgency, sensation seeking), alcohol sensitivity (Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol scale), impaired control over drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Multiple-groups path analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Path coefficients between urgency and impaired control were larger for individuals with lower versus higher self-reported sensitivity to alcohol. The same was true for the association between impaired control and alcohol problems. For participants lower on alcohol sensitivity, significant indirect paths were observed from both positive and negative urgency to all alcohol outcomes (quantity, frequency, and problems) mediated via impaired control. For participants higher on alcohol sensitivity, only the paths from negative urgency (but not positive urgency) to the three alcohol outcomes via impaired control were statistically significant. Sensation seeking was not uniquely associated with impaired control. Conclusions The findings indicate that relatively low sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of alcohol may exacerbate the association of urgency – especially positive urgency – with impaired control, supporting the notion that personality and level of response to alcohol may interact to increase risk for impaired control over drinking. PMID:25785803

  4. 32 CFR 634.34 - Blood alcohol concentration standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Blood alcohol concentration standards. 634.34 Section 634.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... alcohol concentration standards. (a) Administrative revocation of driving privileges and other enforcement...

  5. The need for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) legislation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    and ignorance, coupled with the absence of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) threshold to act as a legal .... self-regulation. An established BAC .... subnormal body temperature; incontinence; impairment of circulation and respiration ...

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer in women: from epidemiology to mechanisms and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.

  7. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  8. Moderate ingestion of alcohol is associated with acute ethanol-induced suppression of circulating CTX in a PTH-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Mander, Adrian; Davidson, Sarah L; Thompson, Richard Ph; Powell, Jonathan J

    2009-08-01

    The "J shape" curve linking the risk of poor bone health to alcohol intake is now well recognized from epidemiological studies. Ethanol and nonethanol components of alcoholic beverages could influence bone remodeling. However, in the absence of a solid underlying mechanism, the positive association between moderate alcoholic intake and BMD remains questionable because of confounding associated social factors. The objective of this work was to characterize the short-term effects of moderate alcohol consumption on circulating bone markers, especially those involved in bone resorption. Two sequential blood-sampling studies were undertaken in fasted healthy volunteers (age, 20-47 yr) over a 6-h period using beer of different alcohol levels (2% ethanol; p 6 h). The early effect on bone resorption is well described after the intake of energy, mediated by glucagon-like peptide-2, but the late effect of moderate alcohol ingestion is novel, seems to be ethanol specific, and is mediated in a non-calcitonin- and a non-PTH-dependent fashion, thus providing a mechanism for the positive association between moderate alcohol ingestion and BMD.

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  11. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  12. Work organisation conditions, alcohol misuse: the moderating role of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Sabine L; Marchand, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of personality traits between work organization conditions and alcohol misuse by Canadian workers was examined. Longitudinal data came from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Data had a hierarchical structure and were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. The multilevel analyis revealed that skill utilisation at work increased by 7% the risk of being part of an alcohol misuse group. Similarly, psychological demands at work, and being confronted with an irregular work schedule increased alcohol misuse respectively by 69 and 611%. Inversely, workers confronted with a job insecurity and those benefitting from social support at work had a respective 12 and 5% lower risk of being part of an alcohol misuse group. As for personnality traits, self-esteem increased by 17% the risk of alcohol misuse, while sense of coherence decreased the risk by 1%. Finally, self-esteem moderated by 3% the impact of physical demands at work on workers'alcohol misuse. This study builds upon previous research, since no prior study was able to identify the moderating role that self-esteem plays between physical demands at work, and worker's alcohol misuse.

  13. Cognitive control moderates the association between emotional instability and alcohol dependence symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Brittany L; Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas J; Spaeth, Destini T

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has linked emotional instability with problematic alcohol use. This may be a function of increased "hot" information processing (which is relatively automatic in nature and highly influenced by emotional states) for individuals with more emotional instability. According to dual-process models, cognitive control may attenuate the impact of emotional instability by preventing an overreliance on hot information processing. It was hypothesized that emotional instability would be positively associated with alcohol-related consequences, but that cognitive control would moderate this association. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 80) who endorsed drinking at moderate levels. Participants completed laboratory assessments of emotional instability, alcohol use and its consequences, and cognitive control. An observed variable path model examined the association between emotional instability and alcohol problems. Consistent with hypotheses, emotional instability was positively associated with alcohol consequences, and this relationship was moderated by cognitive control, at least for dependence symptoms. At low levels of cognitive control, there was a positive association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms (β = 0.514, p Emotional instability may promote alcohol dependence via an overreliance on hot information processing. Consistent with dual-process theory, this relationship is diminished among individuals with more cognitive control. Interventions focusing on increasing cognitive control may be effective in reducing alcohol pathology associated with emotional instability. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Drinking norms, readiness to change, and gender as moderators of a combined alcohol intervention for first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbard, Joel R; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Geisner, Irene Markman; Atkins, David; Ray, Anne E; Kilmer, Jason R; Mallett, Kimberly; Larimer, Mary E; Turrisi, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol interventions targeting college students and their parents have been shown to be efficacious. Little research has examined moderators of intervention efficacy to help tailor interventions for subgroups of students. This study is a secondary data analysis of readiness to change, drinking norms, and gender as moderators of an efficacious peer- and parent-based intervention (Turrisi et al., 2009). Students (n=680) were randomized to the combined peer and parent intervention (n=342) or assessment-only control (n=338). The combined intervention reduced peak blood alcohol content (BAC) compared to control. Gender and norms did not moderate the relationship between the intervention and drinking. Significant interactions were found between gender, precontemplation, and intervention. Students in the combined condition with higher precontemplation had lower weekly drinking compared to those with lower precontemplation. This pattern was also found among men for peak BAC and alcohol-related consequences but not among women, indicating a three-way interaction. Interventions may need to consider readiness to change and gender to optimize effectiveness. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Alcohol prevention on college campuses: the moderating effect of the alcohol environment on the effectiveness of social norms marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-03-01

    Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.

  16. Alcohol Prevention on College Campuses: The Moderating Effect of the Alcohol Environment on the Effectiveness of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596

  17. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  18. The effects of dehydration, moderate alcohol consumption, and rehydration on cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Leveritt, Michael; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of mild-moderate dehydration on alcohol-induced deteriorations in cognitive functions. Sixteen healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study involving 4 experimental trials (separated by ≥7 d). In each trial, participants were dehydrated by 2.5% body mass through exercise. After 1 h recovery in a thermo-neutral environment (22 ± 2 °C, 60-70% relative humidity) 4 tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to the participants (test 1). In two of the trials, participants were provided with water equivalent to either 50% or 150% body mass loss and given salt (NaCl) capsules (50 mmol/L). A set volume of alcohol or placebo was then consumed in each trial, incorporating the conditions: dehydration-placebo (DP), dehydration-alcohol (DA), partial rehydration-alcohol (PA), and full rehydration-alcohol (FA). The same 4 CANTAB tasks were then re-administered (test 2). Subjective ratings of mood and estimates of alcohol intoxication and driving impairment were also recorded in each trial. Alcohol consumption caused deterioration on 3 of the 4 CANTAB measures (viz., choice reaction time, executive function and response inhibition). This reduction in performance was exacerbated when participants were dehydrated compared to trials where full rehydration occurred. Subjective ratings of impairment and intoxication were not significantly different between any of the trials where alcohol was consumed; however ratings for alcohol trials were significantly higher than in the placebo trial. These findings suggest that rehydration after exercise that causes fluid loss can attenuate alcohol-related deterioration of cognitive functions. This may pose implications for post match fluid replacement if a moderate amount of alcohol is also consumed.

  19. Differential Susceptibility: The Genetic Moderation of Peer Pressure on Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Amanda M.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Although peer pressure can influence adolescents’ alcohol use, individual susceptibility to these pressures varies across individuals. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence adolescents’ susceptibility to their peer environment due to the role dopamine plays in reward sensation during social interaction. We hypothesized that DRD4 genotype status would moderate the impact of 7th-grade antisocial peer pressure on 12th-grade lifetime alcohol use (n ...

  20. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  1. Potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: current perspectives in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, E; Baccan, G C; Veses, A; Zapatera, B; Marcos, A

    2012-05-01

    The benefits of moderate amounts of alcohol for a better health and longer life expectancy compared with abstinence have been suggested by the findings of numerous studies. However, controversies have emerged regarding the influence of confounding factors and the systematic errors that might have been inadvertently disregarded in the early studies. This review includes a description of the findings of those research studies published in the last 5 years on the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on all-cause mortality, CVD and inflammation, the immune system, insulin sensitivity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer. Promising evidences exist from both animal studies and human clinical trials regarding intermediate end-points of CHD and insulin sensitivity, such as HDL, adiponectin or fibrinogen. However, controversies and inconsistent findings exist regarding many of these diseases and related functions and biomarkers. Further research and human randomised-controlled trials with adequate standardisation of the study conditions are necessary in order to draw a comparison between studies, establish the causal effect of moderate alcohol intake on disease protection and reach consensus on the circumstances that allow the recommendation of moderate alcohol habitual intakes as a strategy for health maintenance.

  2. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  3. Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic blood alcohol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2012-04-01

    For many reasons, forensic toxicologists are being asked to determine and report their measurement uncertainty in blood alcohol analysis. While understood conceptually, the elements and computations involved in determining measurement uncertainty are generally foreign to most forensic toxicologists. Several established and well-documented methods are available to determine and report the uncertainty in blood alcohol measurement. A straightforward bottom-up approach is presented that includes: (1) specifying the measurand, (2) identifying the major components of uncertainty, (3) quantifying the components, (4) statistically combining the components and (5) reporting the results. A hypothetical example is presented that employs reasonable estimates for forensic blood alcohol analysis assuming headspace gas chromatography. These computations are easily employed in spreadsheet programs as well. Determining and reporting measurement uncertainty is an important element in establishing fitness-for-purpose. Indeed, the demand for such computations and information from the forensic toxicologist will continue to increase.

  4. Do neighborhood attributes moderate the relationship between alcohol establishment density and crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Lenk, Kathleen M; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous studies have found a positive association between the density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, MN with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as the total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. The presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with the presence of a college attenuating the association between the density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes, except for presence of a college, suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood, regardless of its other attributes, could result in an increase in a wide range of crime.

  5. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Karen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.

  6. Mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the proposed study was fourfold: (i) to examine the effects of parental alcoholism on adult offspring's self-esteem; (ii) to identify and test possible mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring; (iii) to examine the utility and relevance of attachment theory (Bowlby J. (1969) Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books) in explaining parental alcoholism effects on self-esteem and (iv) to address some of the methodological limitations identified in past research on adult children of alcoholics (ACOA). Participants (N = 515) completed retrospective reports of parental alcoholism, family stressors, family communication patterns, parental attachment and a current measure of self-esteem. The results showed support for the detrimental effects of parental alcoholism on offspring self-esteem and offered partial support for family stressors as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on parental attachment and parental attachment as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem, respectively. Finally, support was found for family communication patterns as a moderator of the effects of family stressors on attachment. The study findings offer preliminary support for the utility of attachment theory in explicating parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring. Findings from the present study make salient the need to consider factors beyond the identification of parental alcohol abuse when explicating individual differences in offspring self-esteem in adulthood. The identification of protective and risk factors can contribute to the development of optimal intervention strategies to help ACOAs better than simply the knowledge of family drinking patterns.

  7. Angiotensin-receptor blockers as therapy for mildto- moderate hypertension-associated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugen Florin Georgescu; Reanina Ionescu; Mihaela Niculescu; Laurentiu Mogoanta; Liliana Vancica

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate insulin resistance, cytolysis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) score (NAS) using the Kleiner and Brunt criteria in 54 patients with NASH and mild-to-moderate hypertension, treated with telmisartan vs valsartan for 20 mo. METHODS: All patients met the NCEP-ATP Ⅲ criteria for metabolic syndrome. Histology confirmed steatohepatitis, defined as a NAS greater than five up to 3 wk prior inclusion, using the current criteria. Patients with viral hepatitis, chronic alcohol intake, drug abuse or other significant immune or metabolic hepatic pathology were excluded. Subjects were randomly as -signed either to the valsartan (V) group (standard dose 80 mg o.d., n = 26), or to the telmisartan (T) group (standard dose 20 mg o.d., n = 28). Treatment had to be taken daily at the same hour with no concomitant medication or alcohol consumption allowed. Neither the patient nor the medical staff was aware of treatment group allocation. Paired liver biopsies obtained at inclusion (visit 1) and end of treatment (EOT) were assessed by a single blinded pathologist, not aware of patient or treatment group. Blood pressure, BMI, ALT, AST, HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were evaluated at inclusion and every 4 mo until EOT (visit 6). RESULTS: At EOT we noticed a significant decrease in ALT levels vs inclusion in all patients and this decrease did not differ significantly in group T vs group V. HOMA-IR significantly decreased at EOT vs inclusion in all patients but in group T, the mean HOMA-IR decrease per month was higher than in group V. NAS significantly diminished at EOT in all patients with a higher decrease in group T vs group V. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be efficient in hypertension-associated NASH. Telmisartan showed a higher efficacy regarding insulin resistance and histology, perhaps because of its specific PPAR-gamma ligand effect.

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  9. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  10. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua

    2014-12-18

    Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 2005 and 2009 (n = 12,341) were included in this study. Independent variables included work stress (job satisfaction, perceived safety, and perceived safety of possessions), self-reported perceptions towards academics and influence from parents and peers. Frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness were measured for lifetime, last 30 days and 12 months. The moderating effects of academic aspiration, parental, and peer influence were assessed on the relationship between work stress and alcohol use. Any work stress was positively associated with alcohol use over the past 12 months (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23). Stratified analysis found that peer influence significantly moderated the relationship between work stress and alcohol use over the lifetime and past 12 months. Among adolescents with work stress, odds ratios of alcohol use over the lifetime was 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for those with low negative peer influence and 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) for those with high negative peer influence. Problematic drinking patterns were more apparent among high school students who experienced stress at work. Positive peer influence, however, may buffer the adverse effect of work stress on alcohol use.

  11. A Moderate Dose of Alcohol Does Not Influence Experience of Social Ostracism in Hazardous Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Joseph; Moss, Abigail; Gyure, Krisztina; Ralph, Neil; Hindocha, Chandni; Lawn, Will; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, "Cyberball." In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i) social inclusion and (ii) social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users.

  12. A moderate dose of alcohol does not influence experience of social ostracism in hazardous drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph OL Buckingham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4g/kg or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, Cyberball. In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i social inclusion and (ii social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users.

  13. Alcohol Doesn't Always Compromise Cognitive Function: Exploring Moderate Doses in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laurena; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify inconsistent findings regarding the acute cognitive effects of subintoxicating alcohol doses (i.e., alcohol concentration on select cognitive functions in 94 individuals (49 men) between 25 and 35 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: target peak breath alcohol concentration of 0 mg/dl (placebo), 40 mg/dl (low), or 65 mg/dl (moderate). After beverage consumption, they completed tasks assessing psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory ability. Analyses revealed no significant effect of dose for any cognitive domain. A trend-level effect of dose on psychomotor performance was observed, with the low-dose group performing somewhat better than the moderate-dose and placebo groups. No sex main effects or interactions were revealed. Consistent with our previous studies, these data suggest that low and moderate doses of alcohol may not compromise cognitive ability in non-problem drinkers under certain task conditions. Given the outcomes, sex differences cannot be meaningfully addressed. Future consideration of potentially influential variables and assessment of similarly well-defined cohorts might yield a clearer interpretation of alcohol's behavioral consequences.

  14. Inhibition conflict and alcohol expectancy as moderators of alcohol's relationship to condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermen, K H; Cooper, M L

    2000-05-01

    Inhibition conflict theory predicts that alcohol will decrease condom use only among individuals who are highly conflicted about using a condom, whereas expectancy theory predicts such an effect only among individuals who hold strong beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual risk taking. In Study 1, the first of these two theories was tested using a newly developed measure of conflict. Data from 308 college students who reported on the first time they had sexual intercourse with their most recent partner (FMRP) supported the utility of this measure and showed that quantity of alcohol consumed was negatively associated with condom use only among high-conflict individuals. In Study 2, 17- to 25-year-old respondents reported on their first sexual intercourse, FMRP, and last intercourse (ns = 465, 1136, and 984, respectively). In a simultaneous test of both inhibition conflict theory and expectancy theory, amount of alcohol consumed was found to be negatively associated with condom use at first intercourse among individuals high in both conflict and expectancy, at FMRP among high-expectancy individuals, and at last intercourse among high-conflict individuals. These results lend partial support to both theories of alcohol's effects and suggest that an integration of these two perspectives will ultimately be required if researchers are to model adequately alcohol's effects on human social behavior.

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Berg, R. van den; Kok, F.J.; Helander, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims: To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and whether these effects are modified by BMI. Methods and results: Eleven lean (BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m2) and 9 overweight (BMI

  16. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels we

  17. Popularity as a Moderator of Peer Selection and Socialization of Adolescent Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathys, C.; Burk, W.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined prospective associations between late adolescents' friendships and substance use (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco) using a stochastic actor-based modeling approach and the moderating role of popularity. Participants were 450 adolescents (53% female, M age = 15.5 years) who completed

  18. Popularity as a Moderator of Peer Selection and Socialization of Adolescent Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathys, C.; Burk, W.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined prospective associations between late adolescents' friendships and substance use (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco) using a stochastic actor-based modeling approach and the moderating role of popularity. Participants were 450 adolescents (53% female, M age = 15.5 years) who completed

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Berg, van den R.; Kok, F.J.; Helander, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and whether these effects are modified by BMI. Methods and results Eleven lean (BMI: 18.5¿25 kg/m2) and 9 overweight (BMI &g

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: A randomised, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Kersten, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: To determine whether 6 weeks of daily, moderate alcohol consumption increases expression of the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and plasma levels of the protein, and improves insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial conduc

  1. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution and adipocytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Beers, R.M. van; Stolk, R.P.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution, adipose tissue secreted proteins (adiponectin and resistin), and insulin sensitivity in healthy middle-aged men with abdominal obesity. Research Methods and Procedures: Thirty-four healthy men between 35 and 70

  2. Changes in postprandial lipoproteins of low and high density caused by moderate alcohol consumption with dinner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, A. van; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Gent, T. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the effects of consumption of moderate amounts of beer, wine or spirits with evening dinner on plasma LDL and HDL levels as well as composition in 11 healthy middle-aged men. Forty grams of alcohol were consumed daily with dinner for a period of 3 weeks. Mineral water was used as a

  3. Changes in postprandial lipoproteins of low and high density caused by moderate alcohol consumption with dinner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, A. van; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Gent, T. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the effects of consumption of moderate amounts of beer, wine or spirits with evening dinner on plasma LDL and HDL levels as well as composition in 11 healthy middle-aged men. Forty grams of alcohol were consumed daily with dinner for a period of 3 weeks. Mineral water was used as a negat

  4. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Patel, H.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Heine, R.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin sens

  5. Differential Susceptibility: The Genetic Moderation of Peer Pressure on Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda M; Cleveland, H Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Although peer pressure can influence adolescents' alcohol use, individual susceptibility to these pressures varies across individuals. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence adolescents' susceptibility to their peer environment due to the role dopamine plays in reward sensation during social interaction. We hypothesized that DRD4 genotype status would moderate the impact of 7th-grade antisocial peer pressure on 12th-grade lifetime alcohol use (n = 414; 58.7% female; 92.8% White). The results revealed significant main effects for antisocial peer pressure, but no main effects for DRD4 genotype on lifetime alcohol use. Adolescent DRD4 genotype moderated the association between peer pressure and lifetime alcohol use. For individuals who carried at least one copy of the DRD4 7-repeat allele (7+), antisocial peer pressure was associated with increased lifetime alcohol use. These findings indicate that genetic sensitivity to peer pressure confers increased alcohol use in late adolescence.

  6. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wurmb-Schwark, N; Ringleb, A; Schwark, T; Broese, T; Weirich, S; Schlaefke, D; Wegener, R; Oehmichen, M

    2008-01-01

    The 4977bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate with increasing age in post mitotic tissues. Recently, studies came out detecting this specific alteration also in fast replicating cells, e.g. in blood or skin tissue, often in correlation to specific diseases or -- specifically in skin -- external stressors such as UV radiation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial mutagenesis in 69 patients with a chronic alcoholic disease and 46 age matched controls with a moderate drinking behavior. Two different fragments, specific for total and for deleted mtDNA (dmtDNA) were amplified in a duplex-PCR. A subsequent fragment analysis was performed and for relative quantification, the quotient of the peak areas of amplification products specific for deleted and total mtDNA was determined. Additionally, a real time PCR was performed to quantify mtDNA copy number. The relative amount of 4977bp deleted mtDNA in alcoholics was significantly increased compared to controls. On the other hand, no difference regarding the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio in both investigated groups was detected. Additionally, no age dependence could be found nor in alcoholics, neither in the control group. These findings indicate that mtDNA mutagenesis in blood can be influenced by stressors such as alcohol. Ethanol seems to be a significant factor to alter mitochondrial DNA in blood and might be an additional contributor for the cellular aging process.

  7. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurmb-Schwark, N. von [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)], E-mail: nvonwurmb@rechtsmedizin.uni-kiel.de; Ringleb, A.; Schwark, T. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Broese, T.; Weirich, S.; Schlaefke, D. [Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, Rostock (Germany); Wegener, R. [Institute of Legal Medicine, St-Georg-Str. 108, University of Rostock, 18055 Rostock (Germany); Oehmichen, M. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-01-01

    The 4977 bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate with increasing age in post mitotic tissues. Recently, studies came out detecting this specific alteration also in fast replicating cells, e.g. in blood or skin tissue, often in correlation to specific diseases or - specifically in skin - external stressors such as UV radiation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial mutagenesis in 69 patients with a chronic alcoholic disease and 46 age matched controls with a moderate drinking behavior. Two different fragments, specific for total and for deleted mtDNA (dmtDNA) were amplified in a duplex-PCR. A subsequent fragment analysis was performed and for relative quantification, the quotient of the peak areas of amplification products specific for deleted and total mtDNA was determined. Additionally, a real time PCR was performed to quantify mtDNA copy number. The relative amount of 4977 bp deleted mtDNA in alcoholics was significantly increased compared to controls. On the other hand, no difference regarding the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio in both investigated groups was detected. Additionally, no age dependence could be found nor in alcoholics, neither in the control group. These findings indicate that mtDNA mutagenesis in blood can be influenced by stressors such as alcohol. Ethanol seems to be a significant factor to alter mitochondrial DNA in blood and might be an additional contributor for the cellular aging process.

  8. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  9. Changes in blood alcohol concentration and driving ability after alcohol intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 张岫竹; 赵新才; 朱秉忠; 周继红; 王正国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the amount of consumed alcohol, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and driving ability among a part of the population in Southwest China and to provide reference for the formulation of the legal limits for safe driving. Methods: Seventy-six randomly selected volunteer drivers each had three times of alcohol intake ( 100 fl each time). After each drank, BAC was measured with gas chromatograph and driving ability was evaluated.The drivers were grouped according to age, weight, alcohol tolerance and driving experience respectively and changes in BAC and driving ability were analyzed. Results: Average BAC and the percentage of drivers showing impaired driving ability in the groups increased after each intake of 100 ml alcohol. BAC in Group≤60 kg was more susceptible to alcohol than that in Group > 60 kg. When each drank, alcohol had greater influence on drivers who had comparatively shorter driving experience. Conclusion: Volume of consumed alcohol, BAC and driving ability have direct associations among one another and are all under the influence of various factors including individual conditions. To set an appropriate legal BAC limit for safe driving should take an overall consideration of all factors.

  10. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: A diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, E.C.de; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27

  11. Moderately nonlinear ultrasound propagation in blood-mimicking fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Nikolay A; Vince, D Geoffrey

    2004-04-01

    In medical diagnostic ultrasound (US), higher than-in-water nonlinearity of body fluids and tissue usually does not produce strong nonlinearly distorted waves because of the high absorption. The relative influence of absorption and nonlinearity can be characterized by the Gol'dberg number Gamma. There are two limiting cases in nonlinear acoustics: weak waves (Gamma 1). However, at diagnostic frequencies in tissue and body fluids, the nonlinear effects and effects of absorption more likely are comparable (Gol'dberg number Gamma approximately 1). The aim of this work was to study the nonlinear propagation of a moderately nonlinear US second harmonic signal in a blood-mimicking fluid. Quasilinear solutions to the KZK equation are presented, assuming radiation from a flat and geometrically focused circular Gaussian source. The solutions are expressed in a new simplified closed form and are in very good agreement with those of previous studies measuring and modeling Gaussian beams. The solutions also show good agreement with the measurements of the beams produced by commercially available transducers, even without special Gaussian shading.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with better endothelial function: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tullio Marco R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moderate alcohol consumption is protective against coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The effects of alcohol consumption on endothelial function may be relevant to these cardiovascular outcomes, but very few studies have examined the effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery in humans. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of lifetime alcohol intake and brachial artery FMD during reactive hyperemia using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images among 884 stroke-free participants (mean age 66.8 years, women 56.6%, Hispanic 67.4%, black 17.4%, and white 15.2%. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.7% and the median was 5.5%. Compared to non-drinkers, those who drank >1 drink/month to 2 drinks/day were more likely to have FMD above the median FMD (5.5% (unadjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4, p = 0.005. In multivariate analysis, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and FMD remained significant after adjusting for multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including sex, race-ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Framingham risk score, medication use (adjusted OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–3.0, p = 0.03. No beneficial effect on FMD was seen for those who drank more than 2 drinks/day. Conclusion In conclusion, consumption of up to 2 alcoholic beverages per day was independently associated with better FMD compared to no alcohol consumption in this multiethnic population. This effect on FMD may represent an important mechanism in explaining the protective effect of alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease.

  13. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  14. DRD4 polymorphism moderates the effect of alcohol consumption on social bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey G Creswell

    Full Text Available Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition ×2 (genotype design (N = 422 to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.

  15. DRD4 polymorphism moderates the effect of alcohol consumption on social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Manuck, Stephen B; Ferrell, Robert E; Hill, Shirley Y; Dimoff, John D

    2012-01-01

    Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition) ×2 (genotype) design (N = 422) to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.

  16. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  17. An Investigation on the Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Physalis alkekengi on Blood Indexes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yarmahmoudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physalis alkekengi by effective ingredients such as alkaloids, glucocorticoids and because of antioxidant property can play a role in homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine the possible effects of fruit extract of P. alkekengi on blood homogram. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided to control, sham (normal saline and experimental groups (highest, moderate and minimum doses of alcoholic extract. Then, the blood samples were taken in order to perform laboratory test by Sysmex analyzer, and were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit increased and white blood cells decreased. Conclusion: Fruit extract of P. alkekensi is probably effective in treatment of anemia.

  18. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus chungangensis: application in cream cheese to moderate alcohol uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkit, Maytiya; Choi, Woo Jin; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-09-01

    Many human gastrointestinal facultative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are therefore capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. However, the ADH activity of Lactococcus spp., except Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, has not been widely determined, though they play an important role as the starter for most cheesemaking technologies. Cheese is a functional food recognized as an aid to digestion. In the current study, the ADH activity of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and 11 reference strains from the genus Lactococcus was determined. Only 5 strains, 3 of dairy origin, L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), L. lactis ssp. cremoris KCCM 40699(T), and Lactococcus raffinolactis DSM 20443(T), and 2 of nondairy origin, Lactococcus fujiensis NJ317(T) and Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) KCTC 13185(T), showed ADH activity and possessed the ADH gene. All these strains were capable of making cheese, but the highest level of ADH activity was found in L. chungangensis, with 45.9nmol/min per gram in tryptic soy broth and 65.8nmol/min per gram in cream cheese. The extent that consumption of cheese, following imbibing alcohol, reduced alcohol uptake was observed by following the level of alcohol in the serum of mice. The results show a potential novel benefit of cheese as a dairy functional food. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Warnings and Moderate Drinking Patterns among Italian University Students: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo; Mariani, Angela

    2017-06-17

    The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic beverages and to verify the existence of segments that differ in terms of attitudes towards such warnings. Our results show that young consumers consider health warnings quite important, although the degree of perceived utility differs in relation to the type of warning. Cluster analysis shows the existence of three groups of young consumers with different degrees of attention and perceived utility of warnings on alcoholic beverages, but also in relation to drinking behaviour and awareness of social and health risks related to alcohol consumption. In brief, Italian young adults with moderate consumption behaviour view label warnings positively, while this attitude is weaker among younger adults and those with riskier consumption behaviours. Our findings, albeit limited and based on stated and not revealed data, support the need for appropriate tools to improve the availability of information among young adults on the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and increased awareness of the importance of moderate drinking.

  20. Alcohol Warnings and Moderate Drinking Patterns among Italian University Students: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Annunziata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic beverages and to verify the existence of segments that differ in terms of attitudes towards such warnings. Our results show that young consumers consider health warnings quite important, although the degree of perceived utility differs in relation to the type of warning. Cluster analysis shows the existence of three groups of young consumers with different degrees of attention and perceived utility of warnings on alcoholic beverages, but also in relation to drinking behaviour and awareness of social and health risks related to alcohol consumption. In brief, Italian young adults with moderate consumption behaviour view label warnings positively, while this attitude is weaker among younger adults and those with riskier consumption behaviours. Our findings, albeit limited and based on stated and not revealed data, support the need for appropriate tools to improve the availability of information among young adults on the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and increased awareness of the importance of moderate drinking.

  1. Racial Discrimination and Alcohol Use: The Moderating Role of Religious Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Stacy C; Waters, Kristen; Cox, Brittany; Patterson, Tarsha; Carr, Richard

    2017-01-02

    An outgrowth of research has established a relationship between racial discrimination and alcohol use, as well as factors that moderate this association. The main objective of this study was to determine if religious orientation moderates the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and alcohol use. This study utilized a cross-sectional data collection strategy to examine the relationship among discrimination, religious orientation, and alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 349) at a midsize southeastern university. Data was collected in 2014. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the General Ethnic Discrimination Scale, the Extrinsic/Intrinsic Religious Orientation Scale-Revised and the Drinking and Drug Habits Questionnaire. Analyses using hierarchical linear regression indicate a significant interaction effect (lifetime discrimination × extrinsic religious orientation) on problem drinking. Additional moderation analyses reveal a significant interaction effect between lifetime discrimination and the extrinsic-personal religious orientation on problem drinking. Results suggest that an extrinsic religious orientation, and particularly, an extrinsic-personal religious orientation, moderates the relationship between lifetime discrimination and problem drinking, suggesting that turning to religion for comfort and protection, rather than for the superficial purpose of seeing/making friends at church, may buffer against the deleterious effects of discrimination-specifically, engaging in problem drinking to cope with the stress of discrimination. Limitations, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, DW; Scholman, WLG; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; Akkerman, JWN; van de Wiel, A

    2004-01-01

    Background Moderate and prolonged alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inhibition of platelet function in suspension attributes to these effects. Whether alcohol, red wine, or polyphenolic grape extracts (PGE) inhibit platelet adhesion is not

  3. Selection biases in observational studies affect associations between 'moderate' alcohol consumption and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Stockwell, Timothy; Zhao, Jinhui; Xuan, Ziming; Dangardt, Frida; Saitz, Rich; Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2017-02-01

    Selection biases may lead to systematic overestimate of protective effects from 'moderate' alcohol consumption. Overall, most sources of selection bias favor low-volume drinkers in relation to non-drinkers. Studies that attempt to address these types of bias generally find attenuated or non-significant relationships between low-volume alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease, which is the major source of possible protective effects on mortality from low-volume consumption. Furthermore, observed mortality effects among established low-volume consumers are of limited relevance to health-related decisions about whether to initiate consumption or to continue drinking purposefully into old age. Short of randomized trials with mortality end-points, there are a number of approaches that can minimize selection bias involving low-volume alcohol consumption.

  4. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning.

  5. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature.

  6. Alcohol and aggressive behavior in men--moderating effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L

    2012-03-01

    We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans.

  7. [Beta-endorphin and endogenous alcohol level of the blood in alcoholic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Iukhananov, R Iu; Kovalenko, A K

    1984-11-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the blood content of beta-endorphines in patients with chronic alcoholism. The concentration of endogenous ethanol in these patients was determined by gas chromatography. The blood concentration of beta-endorphines was found to be high in patients who showed atypical affective disorders off the period of abstinence. It is assumed that peripheral beta-endorphine is not linked with the development of the narcomanic syndrome proper but mirrors the pathogenetic mechanisms of psychopathological disorders. The levels of endogenous ethanol vary in alcoholics and healthy subjects within the same ranges. However, the percentage distribution indicates that in patients, they are shifted toward lower concentrations, which is likely to be conditioned by the induction of enzymatic systems that metabolize ethanol.

  8. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  9. Self-consciousness as a moderator of the effect of social drinking motives on alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated self-consciousness as a moderator of the relationship between social drinking motives and alcohol use. Participants included 243 undergraduate students who reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, self-consciousness, and social motives. We expected that social drinking motives, private self-consciousness, and public self-consciousness would be positively associated with drinking and that this relationship would be moderated by self-consciousness. Specifically, we expected this relationship to be stronger for people lower in private self-consciousness, based on decreased awareness about their internal states. In addition, we expected that the relationship between social motives and drinking would be stronger among those who were higher in public self-consciousness, given their focus on the self as a social object. Consistent with expectations, the associations between social motives and peak drinking and drinks per week were more strongly associated among those lower in private self-consciousness. However, inconsistent with expectations, the relationship between social motives and drinking was stronger among those who were lower, rather than higher, in public self-consciousness. Overall implications of these research findings extend previous research emphasizing the importance of considering social influences in etiology and prevention of drinking. Moreover, while social motives are a consistent predictor of drinking among young adults, this is not universally true. This study contributes to social cognitive literature seeking to understand and identify individual factors related to drinking and their application to the adaptation of existing intervention approaches.

  10. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents' willingness to drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-05-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14 in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female. We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01. Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b, p-values (p, and percent of variance (R2 accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively. Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  12. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C.; Evans, David M.; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes. PMID:24727307

  13. School commitment and alcohol use: The moderating role of race and ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamela McNulty Eitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that lower levels of school commitment may be one potential outcome of policy initiatives such as high-stakes testing and exit exams. Such outcomes may lead these policy initiatives to have unintended consequences for students, particularly racial or ethnic minority students. This study examines whether race or ethnicity moderate the relationship between school commitment and alcohol use or binge drinking among a sample of Florida public middle and high-school students who were surveyed as part of the 2002 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. Low school commitment was found to be associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol use in the past 30 days and a greater likelihood of binge drinking during the past two weeks for Black, Hispanic, and White students. Both the higher average levels of school commitment among Black and Hispanic than among white students and the greater association between low school commitment and the two alcohol use outcomes for Black and Hispanic students compared to White students account for some of the difference in alcohol use and binge drinking among the different groups.


    1 Financial assistance for this study was provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (grant number R01 AA13167 and the National Institute of Drug Abuse (grant number R01 DA018645-01A1. We gratefully acknowledge Michael French and members of the Health Economics Research Group (HERG for their research suggestions and William Russell for editorial assistance. The authors are entirely responsible for the research and results reported in this paper, and their position or opinions do not necessarily represent those of NIAAA or NIDA.

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption, adiponectin, inflammation and type 2 diabetes risk : prospective cohort studies and randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in various populations. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to substantiate the evidence of the association between alcohol consumption and type 2

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption, adiponectin, inflammation and type 2 diabetes risk : prospective cohort studies and randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in various populations. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to substantiate the evidence of the association between alcohol consumption and type 2

  16. [Role of heat shock proteins in the cardioprotection of regular moderate alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Maria Concepción

    2016-04-01

    To study whether the cardioprotective effect of regular alcohol consumption can be explained by the heat shock proteins (HSP), given their pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on 452 men and women aged 40-60. Clinical history, epidemiological survey (frequency of average alcohol consumption) and biochemical analysis was performed; Task Force Chart was applied for classification according to the risk of vascular disease. Intracellular HSPA1A, circulating HSPA1A and HSPD1, and anti-Hsp70/anti-Hsp60 antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Two hundred and thirty-eight (52.7%) were abstemious or drank60 g/d (5.5%). Two hundred and thirty-nine had no vascular risk (VR) factor or a risk60 g/d especially in subjects with moderate VR, and female drinkers of 40-60 g/d. The cardioprotective effect of 40-60 g/d of alcohol consumption could be due in part, to increased intracellular HSPA1A, a potent anti-inflammatory protein. Excessive intake of alcohol increases antibodies anti-Hsp60, stimulating proinflammatory cytokines. This fact may explain the mortality from cardiovascular disease in heavy drinkers. The clinical application of antibody anti-Hsps quantification has been proposed in patients at risk in order to detect atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  18. Low to moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of psychomotor deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Støvring, Henrik; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    . At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the "Movement Assessment Battery for Children" (MABC). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, and gender of child were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal......Background: To examine the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child motor function at age 5. Methods: A prospective follow-up study of 685 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy...... maternal binge drinking episodes, age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. Results: There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers...

  19. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  20. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high–molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  1. Lifetime racial/ethnic discrimination and ambulatory blood pressure: The moderating effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty Moody, Danielle L; Waldstein, Shari R; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Schwartz, Joseph C; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether the relationships of lifetime discrimination to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) varied as a function of age in a sample of Black and Latino(a) adults ages 19 - 65. Participants were 607 Black (n = 318) and Latino(a) (n = 289) adults (49% female) who completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV), which assesses lifetime exposure to racism/ethnic discrimination. They were outfitted with an ABP monitor to assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) across a 24-hr period. Mixed-level modeling was conducted to examine potential interactive effects of lifetime discrimination and age to 24-hr, daytime, and nighttime ABP after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, personality and life stress characteristics, and substance consumption covariates (e.g., smoking, alcohol). There were significant interactions of Age × Lifetime Discrimination on 24-hr and daytime DBP (ps ≤ .04), and in particular significant interactions for the Social Exclusion component of Lifetime Discrimination. Post hoc probing of the interactions revealed the effects of Lifetime Discrimination on DBP were seen for older, but not younger participants. Lifetime discrimination was significantly positively associated with nocturnal SBP, and these effects were not moderated by age. All associations of Lifetime Discrimination to ABP remained significant controlling for recent exposure to discrimination as well as all other covariates. Exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination across the life course is associated with elevated ABP in middle to older aged Black and Latino(a) adults. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms linking discrimination to ABP over the life course. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Effect of Alcohol Withdrawl on Glutathione S-transferase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Amylase in Blood and Saliva of Alcohol-Dependent Males

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter, Neethumol; Chiramel, Kevin J; A R, Shivashankara

    2013-01-01

    .... The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of alcohol withdrawal on the antioxidants and amylase in blood and saliva, and at finding the correlation between the blood and the salivary parameters in alcoholics...

  3. Gender and extroversion as moderators of the association between Alcoholics Anonymous and sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R; Brower, Kirk J; Cranford, James A; Bradley, Jaclyn Christine; Robinson, Elizabeth A R

    2012-01-01

    Although women make up one third of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership, research on gender and AA has been limited. Findings in the literature are mixed, with few empirical investigations of factors that may moderate any gender differences found. AA is highly interpersonal, and research has found that women are more extroverted than men. The current study explores the impact of AA on sobriety, gender differences in the relationship between AA and sobriety, and whether extroversion can inform our understanding of gender differences. A sample of 276 alcohol-dependent adults (180 men, 96 women) was recruited from four sites and followed prospectively for 2.5-3 years. Participants completed the Timeline Followback interview. AA membership was assessed by an item from the Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether gender, extroversion, AA membership, and their interaction would predict sobriety status at follow-up. AA membership significantly increased the odds of achieving a year of sobriety, and this relationship was stronger for women than men (odds ratio [OR] = 4.42, 95% CI [1.14, 17.18]). There were no main or interactive effects of extroversion on sobriety. A A was founded by men, and early in its history it was exclusively attended by men. Some have criticized AA for women because of its emphasis on "powerlessness." Despite its historical beginnings and such debate, this study joins others in finding evidence that women fare better in AA than do men. In this sample, extroversion did not moderate the association between gender and sobriety. Further research is needed on gender differences in AA and its explanatory factors.

  4. Dose-dependent effects of intravenous alcohol administration on cerebral blood flow in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Nicole M; Claus, Eric D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Boileau, Isabelle; Hendershot, Christian S

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving alcohol challenge are important for identifying neural correlates of alcohol's psychopharmacological effects. However, evaluating acute alcohol effects on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change is complicated by alcohol-related increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). The present study aimed to further characterize acute alcohol effects on CBF using intravenous alcohol administration to maximize control over brain alcohol exposure. Twenty heavy-drinking young adults (M = 19.95 years old, SD = 0.76) completed alcohol and placebo imaging sessions in a within-subject, counter-balanced, placebo-controlled design. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provided estimates of perfusion change at two target blood alcohol concentrations (40 and 80 mg%) relative to baseline and relative to a saline control infusion. Voxel-wise analyses showed widespread and dose-dependent effects of alcohol on CBF increase. Region-of-interest analyses confirmed these findings, also indicating regional variation in the magnitude of perfusion change. Additional findings indicated that lower self-reported sensitivity to alcohol corresponded with reduced perfusion change during alcohol administration. This study provides further evidence for widespread effects of acute alcohol on cerebral perfusion, also demonstrating regional, dose-dependent, and inter-individual variation. Further research is needed to evaluate implications of these effects for the design and interpretation of pharmacological fMRI studies involving alcohol challenge.

  5. Ego depletion increases ad-lib alcohol consumption: investigating cognitive mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2012-04-01

    When self-control resources are depleted ("ego depletion"), alcohol-seeking behavior becomes closely associated with automatic alcohol-related processing biases (e.g., Ostafin, Marlatt, & Greenwald, 2008). The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings, and also to investigate whether the effects of ego depletion on drinking behavior would be mediated by temporary impairments in executive function or increases in impulsivity. Eighty heavy social drinkers (46 female) initially completed measures of automatic approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility [SRC] task) and attentional bias (visual probe task) elicited by alcohol-related cues. Participants were then exposed to either an ego depletion manipulation or a control manipulation, before completing a bogus taste test in order to assess ad-lib alcohol consumption. In a subsequent testing session, we examined effects of the ego depletion manipulation (vs. control manipulation) on 3 aspects of executive function (inhibitory control, phonemic fluency, and delay discounting). Results indicated that the ego depletion manipulation increased ad-lib drinking, relative to the control manipulation. Automatic approach tendencies, but not attentional bias, predicted ad-lib drinking, although this effect was not moderated by ego depletion. Ego depletion had inconsistent effects on measures of executive function and impulsivity, and none of these measures mediated the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking. However, the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking was mediated by self-reported effort in suppressing emotion and thoughts during the manipulation. Implications for the effects of self-control strength on drinking behavior, and cognitive mediators of these effects, are discussed.

  6. Trait Anger and Partner-Specific Anger Management Moderate the Temporal Association Between Alcohol Use and Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; McNulty, James K; Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-03-01

    Research demonstrates alcohol temporally precedes and increases the odds of violence between intimate partners. However, despite an extensive theoretical literature on factors that likely moderate the relationship between alcohol and dating violence, minimal empirical research has examined such moderators. The purpose of the present study was to examine two potential moderators of this association: trait anger and partner-specific anger management. Undergraduate men (N = 67) who had consumed alcohol within the past month and were in current dating relationships completed a baseline assessment of their trait anger and partner-specific anger management skills and subsequently completed daily assessments of their alcohol use and violence perpetration (psychological, physical, and sexual) for up to 90 consecutive days. Alcohol was significantly associated with increased odds of physical aggression among men with relatively high but not low trait anger and partner-specific anger management deficits. In contrast, alcohol was significantly associated with increased odds of sexual aggression among men with relatively low trait anger and partner-specific anger management deficits. Our findings demonstrate important differences in the roles of acute intoxication and anger management in the risk of physical aggression and sexual dating violence. Interventions for dating violence may benefit from targeting both alcohol and adaptive anger management skills.

  7. Does Age Moderate the Effect of Spirituality/Religiousness in Accounting for Alcoholics Anonymous Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, K S; Tonigan, J S

    2017-01-01

    Gains in spiritual/religious (S/R) practices among Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members are associated with reductions in drinking. This study had the following aims: (a) examine spirituality/religiousness as a mediator of the relationship between AA attendance and reductions in drinking behavior to replicate past research findings and to (b) examine age-cohort as a moderator of the mediational analyses given that empirical evidence (e.g., generational differences in spirituality) suggests that age may influence the acquisition of gains in spirituality/religiousness during AA as well as the expression of these gains on drinking behavior. Measures were administered to 253 participants recruited from community-based AA and outpatient treatment programs at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12-months, and 210 (83%) participants provided complete data to test study aims. Gains in S/R practices mediated the relationship between AA attendance and increased abstinence, but not drinking intensity. Simple slopes analyses indicated a positive association between AA attendance and gains in S/R practices among younger AA affiliates but not older AA affiliates in the moderated-mediational analyses. However, age was not found to moderate the global mediational effect. The results from the current study inform efforts to increase positive change in AA affiliates' drinking behavior by highlighting specific aspects of S/R practices that should be targeted based on the age of an AA affiliate.

  8. Predicting DUI recidivism: blood alcohol concentration and driver record factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowitz, L A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at arrest, driving history and other demographic factors, and the 1-year post-arrest probability of recidivism for drunk driving (DUI) convictees. Complex and simple prediction models were developed. All models found a statistically significant cubic relationship between BAC and recidivism, reflecting a relatively high rate of recidivism at a BAC of 0.00%, decreasing to a minimum at ca 0.09% BAC, then increasing to another relatively high rate at a BAC of ca 0.29%, followed by a decline in recidivism to BAC levels of 0.35% and beyond. High rates of recidivism at high BACs suggest alcohol dependency, while high rates at low BACs suggest the involvement of other impairing substances. The rate of DUI recidivism for offenders who refused alcohol testing was the same as for aggregated BAC-tested offenders who had prior DUIs at the time of the arrest. The probability of DUI recidivism predicted by a simple model using BAC, prior 2-year traffic convictions, and offender level (first or repeat offender) could be used along with other factors by presentence investigators, judges or in administrative settings to determine appropriate sanctions, treatment or other remedial measures. The findings support the notion that first offenders with high BAC levels and prior 2-year traffic convictions are at as high a risk of recidivating as many repeat offenders, and might therefore benefit from similar sanctions and/or remedial treatment. The findings also support viewing DUI arrestees with very low BACs as probable drug users with relatively high probabilities of recidivating.

  9. Persistent dose-dependent changes in brain structure in young adults with low-to-moderate alcohol exposure in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Ding, Zhaohua; Dodge, Neil C; Cowan, Ronald L; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Avison, Malcolm J

    2012-11-01

    Many children with heavy exposure to alcohol in utero display characteristic alterations in brain size and structure. However, the long-term effects of low-to-moderate alcohol exposure on these outcomes are unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry and region-of-interest analyses, we examined the influence of lower doses of alcohol on gray and white matter composition in a prospectively recruited, homogeneous, well-characterized cohort of alcohol-exposed (n = 11, age 19.5 ± 0.3 years) and control (n = 9, age 19.6 ± 0.5 years) young adults. A large proportion of the exposed individuals were born to mothers whose alcohol consumption during pregnancy was in the low-to-moderate range. There were no differences in total brain volume or total gray or white matter volume between the exposed and control groups. However, gray matter volume was reduced in alcohol-exposed individuals in several areas previously reported to be affected by high levels of exposure, including the left cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. Notably, this gray matter loss was dose dependent, with higher exposure producing more substantial losses. These results indicate that even at low doses, alcohol exposure during pregnancy impacts brain development and that these effects persist into young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Housing instability and alcohol problems during the 2007-2009 US recession: the moderating role of perceived family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan D; Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina

    2014-02-01

    The 2007-2009 US economic recession was marked by unprecedented rates of housing instability and relatively little is known about how this instability impacted alcohol problems. While previous studies have linked homelessness to increased rates of alcohol use and abuse, housing instability during a recession impacts a much larger segment of the population and usually does not result in homelessness. Using a nationally representative sample of US adults, this study examines the association between housing instability during the recession and alcohol outcomes. Additionally, we assess whether this association is moderated by perceived family support. In multivariate negative binomial regressions, both trouble paying the rent/mortgage (vs. stable housing) and lost (vs. stable) housing were associated with experiencing more negative drinking consequences and alcohol dependence symptoms. However, these associations were moderated by perceived family support. In contrast to those with low perceived family support, participants with high perceived family support reported relatively few alcohol problems, irrespective of housing instability. Furthermore, while job loss was strongly associated with alcohol problems in univariate models, no significant associations between job loss and alcohol outcomes were observed in multivariate models that included indicators of housing instability. Findings point to the importance of the informal safety net and suggest that alcohol screening and abuse prevention efforts should be intensified during periods of recession, particularly among those who experience housing instability.

  11. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status and those with greater alcohol outlet density. Neighborhoods with easily accessed substance abuse service facilities had lower rates of child maltreatment. Additionally, the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol outlet density was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. The study findings highlight the relevance of making primary prevention approaches readily available and using multi-sector collaboration to reduce child maltreatment.

  12. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  13. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  14. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Intracultural accusations of assimilation and alcohol use severity among Hispanic emerging adults: Moderating effects of acculturation, enculturation, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-01

    Individuals, including Hispanics, tend to drink most heavily during emerging adulthood (ages 18-25 years old). Research has suggested that intercultural stressors (e.g., ethnic discrimination) may increase levels of alcohol use among Hispanics. However, the relationship between intracultural stressors (e.g., accusations of assimilation-when Hispanics accuse a member of their heritage group of acculturating to U.S. culture) and alcohol use has been examined to a lesser extent. Accordingly, the present study aimed to (a) examine the association between family accusations of assimilation and alcohol use severity; and (b) examine if acculturation domains, enculturation domains, and gender moderated that association. A hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses were conducted on a cross-sectional sample of 181 Hispanic emerging adults. Results indicated that higher family accusations of assimilation were associated with higher levels of alcohol use severity (β = .18, p assimilation were associated with higher alcohol use severity among men, but not women. Of the four acculturation/enculturation domains, none had a moderation effect. However, there was a statistically significant three-way interaction among family accusations of assimilation, gender, and affective enculturation. This three-way interaction suggests that among men, higher family accusations of assimilation were associated with higher alcohol use severity at lower levels of affective enculturation. This study addresses a literature gap on intracultural stressors and substance use among Hispanics, and discusses recommendations for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Sex-related alcohol expectancies as moderators of the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermen, K H; Cooper, M L; Agocha, V B

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently identified as a potential contributor to HIV-related sexual risk taking. Drawing on alcohol expectancy explanations for postdrinking behavior, the present study tested the hypothesis that adolescents who drink alcohol on a given occasion will be more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking behavior to the extent that they believe that alcohol disinhibits sexual behavior or promotes sexual risk taking. The combined effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies and alcohol use in sexual situations were investigated using interview data from a representative sample of 907 (476 male) sexually experienced adolescents (13 to 19 years) who had ever consumed alcohol. Regression analyses on a composite measure of risk taking revealed that for two of three intercourse occasions examined alcohol use was associated with greater risk taking primarily among respondents who expected alcohol to increase risky sexual behavior. The results lend support to expectancy theories of alcohol's effects on sexual risk taking and raise the possibility that providing overly simplistic warnings that "alcohol leads to risky sex" may paradoxically increase the likelihood that individuals will fail to act prudently when intoxicated. Preventive interventions might beneficially focus on weakening, rather than strengthening, individuals' expectancies with regard to the impact of alcohol on sexual behavior, so that self-protective behavior will be more likely to occur even during intoxication.

  17. Impulsivity and alcohol-related risk among college students: examining urgency, sensation seeking and the moderating influence of beliefs about alcohol's role in the college experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; Miller, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The personality trait of impulsivity is predictive of heavy drinking and consequences among college students. The current study examined how impulsivity-measured via positive urgency, negative urgency, and sensation seeking-and a person's beliefs about the role alcohol plays in the college experience relate to drinking and consequences in a sample of 470 college students (mean age=19 years, 61.3% female, 59.8% White). In support of the hypotheses, sensation seeking independently predicted greater drinking, and both positive urgency and negative urgency predicted greater experience of alcohol-related negative consequences after controlling for consumption level. Moreover, alcohol beliefs moderated the relationship between impulsivity types and alcohol outcomes. Among students high (versus low) in sensation seeking, strong beliefs about alcohol's role in college life were related to significantly greater drinking, and among students high (versus low) in negative urgency, endorsing strong beliefs about alcohol's role in college life were related to greater levels of alcohol-related negative consequences. Overall, findings inform college prevention efforts by highlighting the need to distinguish unique facets of impulsivity and examine how they intersect with students' beliefs about alcohol in college.

  18. Independent and joint effects of moderate alcohol consumption and smoking on the risks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peiyi; Xu, Yanyan; Tang, Yuhan; Du, Min; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jian; Xiao, Lin; He, Meian; Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Wu, Tangchun; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Whether cigarette smoking and moderate drinking are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)has not been fully described. This study investigated the separate and joint effects of smoking and moderate drinking on Chinese men with NAFLD. Across-sectional assay from DFTJ Cohort study was performed with a size of 9432 elderly Chinese men excluding excessive alcohol consumption (smoking for the prevalence of NAFLD were analyzed using multiple logistic regression with multiple adjustments. The prevalence of NAFLD in current smokers (pack-year≥40) and drinkers (80~210g/week or drinking duration≥35years) was significantly higher than that in non-smokers and non-drinkers, respectively. The combination of current smoking (pack-year≥40) and drinking (80~210g/week) was associated with the highest risk of NAFLD (OR 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.68;Peffect was found in participants with pack-year≥40 and drinking duration≥35 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.34;Psmoking and moderate drinking in NAFLD. In elderly Chinese men, cigarette smoking and moderate alcohol consumption exerts an evident joint effect and interaction on the prevalence of NAFLD, although both are significantly and independently associated with NAFLD prevalence. Such findings highlight particular significance of avoidance of cigarette and alcohol on NAFLD prevention.

  19. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Heli; Mäkelä, Pia; Lintonen, Tomi

    2016-11-01

    The first aim was to estimate the extent to which the variation in alcohol use across specific drinking occasions arises from variation at the occasion level and from variation at the drinker level. The second aim was to identify characteristics of drinking situations that moderate or increase situational alcohol use beyond the influence of drinker-level characteristics. The general population aged 15-69 years in Finland was sampled randomly in 2008. The multilevel analysis was based on data from 1511 drinkers and 2933 drinking occasions that occurred in the 7 days before the interview. Alcohol use was operationalised as estimated blood alcohol level (BAL). Characteristics of drinking occasions included location, circumstance, company and timing. Drinker-level data included demographic and drinking pattern variables. Fifty-three percent of the variance in BAL was between occasions and 47% between respondents, for both women and men. With drinking patterns and demographic characteristics controlled for, the dominant characteristics of drinking occasions predisposing to greater intoxication were late-night drinking, across locations and for both genders. For private locations, predisposing characteristics included drinking on weekends for both genders and drinking with friends for men. Situational and drinker levels are equally important in determining the BAL in drinking occasions; therefore, prevention efforts should be targeted at both risky individuals and risky drinking occasions. Occasions occurring late at night, often at home and with friends, are a central challenge for targeting preventive efforts related to situational drinking.[Mustonen H, Mäkelä P, Lintonen T. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:772-784]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten middle-ag

  2. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Koning, Ina M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. Design: A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m=12.68. years, SD=0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention, combin

  3. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml

  4. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18 - 25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight ( BMI >= 27 kg/m(2)) men consumed

  5. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml whis

  6. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18 - 25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight ( BMI >= 27 kg/m(2)) men consumed 1

  7. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fibrinogen levels in healthy volunteers is discordant with effects on C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    In a diet-controlled, crossover trial with 10 middle-aged men and 9 postmenopausal women, baseline concentrations of fibrinogen influenced the magnitude of decrease of fibrinogen after moderate alcohol consumption. The mechanism of reduction is specific for fibrinogen and unrelated to a reduction in

  8. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...

  9. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.

  10. Effect of blood volume in resting muscle on heart rate upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takehide; Matsuura, Ryouta; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yunoki, Takahiro; Yano, Tokuo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increase in blood volume in resting muscle during moderately prolonged exercise is related to heart rate (HR) upward drift. Eight healthy men completed both arm-cranking moderately prolonged exercise (APE) and leg-pedaling moderately prolonged exercise (LPE) for 30 min. Exercise intensity was 120 bpm of HR that was determined by ramp incremental exercise. During both APE and LPE, HR significantly increased from 3 to 30 min (from 108±9.3 to 119±12 bpm and from 112±8.9 to 122±11 bpm, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between HR in APE and that in LPE. Oxygen uptake was maintained throughout the two exercises. Skin blood flow, deep temperature, and total Hb (blood volume) in resting muscle continuously increased for 30 min of exercise during both APE and LPE. During both APE and LPE, there was a significant positive correlation between total Hb and deep temperature in all subjects. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between HR and total Hb (in seven out of eight subjects) during LPE. However, during APE, there was no positive correlation between HR and total Hb (r=0.391). These findings suggest that an increase of blood pooling in resting muscle could be proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying HR upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.

  11. Low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise does not limit muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5 minute one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24+/-1 (+/-S.D.) W) without (CON) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of i...

  12. Driving performance on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration (BAC in undergraduate students: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tremblay

    Full Text Available Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16 took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV. Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third assessment. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sensitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated.

  13. Driving Performance on the Descending Limb of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J.

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third asessement. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sentitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated. PMID:25723618

  14. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women: post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Schrieks, I.C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol consu

  15. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women : post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Schrieks, Ilse C.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol cons

  16. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  17. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  18. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women : post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Schrieks, Ilse C.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol cons

  19. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women: Post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Schrieks, I.C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol cons

  20. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance : A Randomized Crossover Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Kallen, V.L.; Grootjen, M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown.

  1. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance : A Randomized Crossover Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Kallen, V.L.; Grootjen, M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown.

  2. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  3. A Moderate Dose of Alcohol Does Not Influence Experience of Social Ostracism in Hazardous Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    J. Buckingham; Moss, A.; Gyure, K.; Ralph, N.; Hindocha, C.; Lawn, W.; Curran, H.V.; Freeman, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions i...

  4. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  5. Correlates of whole-blood polyunsaturated fatty acids among young children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaméogo, Charles W; Cichon, Bernardette; Fabiansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been associated with low polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status. However, investigations regarding PUFA status and correlates in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) from low-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study...... was to describe whole-blood PUFA levels in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and to identify correlates of PUFAs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from a prospective nutritional intervention trial among 1609 children with MAM aged 6-23 months in Burkina Faso...

  6. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  7. Use of protective behavioral strategies and reduced alcohol risk: examining the moderating effects of mental health, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)-previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students-may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past-month incidence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences, use of PBS, and depression and anxiety symptomatology. Overall, results demonstrated that among participants experiencing depression or anxiety, greater PBS utilization was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol-related consequences, even after controlling for drinking and other predictors. However, findings also revealed important distinctions in the potential effectiveness of PBS by depression/anxiety severity and racial-gender subgroup, such that Asian men with poor mental health appeared to garner unique and substantial benefit (i.e., lesser consequences) from increased PBS use. Further, PBS were found to offer substantial protective benefit for White females, irrespective of mental health. This study points to the potential for targeted PBS-specific skills training and interventions to minimize alcohol-related risks faced by the growing subpopulation of college students experiencing psychological distress, and further highlights important race and gender differentials.

  8. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based casecontrol study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    , previous diseases, education, and family history of hypothyroidism. The association between alcohol intake and development of hypothyroidism was analyzed in conditional regression models. RESULTS: Hypothyroid cases had reported a lower alcohol consumption than controls (median units of alcohol (12 g) per...... of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week, 1.98 (1.21-3.33); 11-20 units/week, 0.41 (0.20-0.83); and ≥21 units/week, 0.90 (0.41-2.00). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), sex...

  10. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  12. Influence of blood donation on oxygen uptake kinetics during moderate and heavy intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D; Marshall, K; Connell, A; Barnes, R J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a reduced whole body blood volume on the kinetic response of VO(2) during moderate and heavy intensity exercise. Six males and four females (age, 21+/-2 yrs; height, 175.2+/-5.1 cm; weight, 66.4+/-2.8 kg; VO(2)max, 53.0+/-4.1 ml x kg (-1) x min(-1)), completed a square-wave cycling ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO(2max). Kinetics trials were completed 24 h pre and post donation of 450 cm (3) of blood. The kinetics trials were moderate intensity (80%VT) and heavy intensity (Delta50% VT - VO(2max)). Breath-by-breath gas exchange, heart rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin O(2) saturation, and blood [lactate] were measured throughout the trials. Post-donation haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte count were all significantly reduced (por= 0.05), or in the amplitude of the slow component. The capacity of the cardiovascular system to meet the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise does not limit the oxygen uptake.

  13. Longitudinal associations from neurobehavioral disinhibition to adolescent risky sexual behavior in boys: direct and mediated effects through moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Tate, Eleanor B; Ridenour, Ty A; Reynolds, Maureen D; Zhai, Zu W; Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E

    2013-10-01

    This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in midadolescence. Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up, and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up. Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners. These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in midadolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys' psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of instruments for determining blood alcohol concentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    The results of breath tests with an ethanographe for B.A.C. determination are compared with results of blood samples and blood analysis by gas chromatography. This has been done to look for the best and most secure equipment.

  15. The influence of depressed mood on action tendencies toward alcohol: the moderational role of drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ralston, T.E.; Palfai, T.P.; Rinck, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially

  16. Similarities in drinking behavior of twin's friends: moderation of heritability of alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The N

  17. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use : The moderating role of executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Nienke C.; Ostafin, Brian D.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use

  18. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use : The moderating role of executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Nienke C.; Ostafin, Brian D.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use

  19. The influence of depressed mood on action tendencies toward alcohol: the moderational role of drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ralston, T.E.; Palfai, T.P.; Rinck, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially

  20. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use : The moderating role of executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Nienke C.; Ostafin, Brian D.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use

  1. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use : The moderating role of executive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Nienke C.; Ostafin, Brian D.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use

  2. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions.

  3. HIGH BLOOD LEVELS PROCALCITONIN AS SYSTEMIC IMFLAMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME PREDICTOR IN SEVERE AND MODERATE HEAD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sinaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies have shown that procalcitonin (PCT was not related to degree of trauma. High PCT serum levels have been found in patients with bacterial or fungal infection and also in acute phase of trauma. Currently, there has been no research discussed about changes in serum levels of PCT in particular head injuries and severe head injuries. Moderate and severe head injuries were common trauma cases in Emergency Room (ER and had high mortality rate. Based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, moderate and severe head injuries were scored between 3 and 13. This research aim to determine whether high blood levels PCT can be used as a predictor of the occurrence of SIRS. Method: A cohort prospective study was applied in this research to determine high blood levels of PCT as a predictor for SIRS in moderate and severe head injury. This study was conducted from June 2013 - August 2013 at Sanglah General Hospital with 40 research subjects. Data was presented in tables and analyzed with Chi Square test at 95% CI and p <0.05% was considered significant. Results: From the 40 samples, there were 34 males (85% and 6 females (15%, 18 samples (45% had moderate head injury and 22 samples (65% had severe head injury. One sample (2.5 % was 0-10 years old, 15 samples (37.5% were 10-20 years old, 13 samples (32.5% were 20-40 years old, 7 samples (17.5% were 40-60 years old and 4 samples (10% were>60 years old. PCT levels in the blood obtained on day first were normal in 6 samples (15% and elevated in 34 samples (85%, SIRS (+ were found in 35 samples (87.5% and 5 samples (12.5% were SIRS (-. Using bivariate analysis between PCT levels and SIRS showed p = 0.000 (p < 0.05, and multivariate analysis of the control variables showed no significant correlation between variables with PCT levels. Conclusion: From 40 samples moderate head injury and severe head injury, there were 34 samples (85% with elevated PCT level on the first day, while 35 samples (87.5% had SIRS

  4. Dropout among patients in qualified alcohol detoxification treatment: the effect of treatment motivation is moderated by Trauma Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter

    2013-03-21

    Motivation to change has been proposed as a prerequisite for behavioral change, although empirical results are contradictory. Traumatic experiences are frequently found amongst patients in alcohol treatment, but this has not been systematically studied in terms of effects on treatment outcomes. This study aimed to clarify whether individual Trauma Load explains some of the inconsistencies between motivation to change and behavioral change. Over the course of two months in 2009, 55 patients admitted to an alcohol detoxification unit of a psychiatric hospital were enrolled in this study. At treatment entry, we assessed lifetime Trauma Load and motivation to change. Mode of discharge was taken from patient files following therapy. We tested whether Trauma Load moderates the effect of motivation to change on dropout from alcohol detoxification using multivariate methods. 55.4% dropped out of detoxification treatment, while 44.6% completed the treatment. Age, gender and days in treatment did not differ between completers and dropouts. Patients who dropped out reported more traumatic event types on average than completers. Treatment completers had higher scores in the URICA subscale Maintenance. Multivariate methods confirmed the moderator effect of Trauma Load: among participants with high Trauma Load, treatment completion was related to higher Maintenance scores at treatment entry; this was not true among patients with low Trauma Load. We found evidence that the effect of motivation to change on detoxification treatment completion is moderated by Trauma Load: among patients with low Trauma Load, motivation to change is not relevant for treatment completion; among highly burdened patients, however, who a priori have a greater risk of dropping out, a high motivation to change might make the difference. This finding justifies targeted and specific interventions for highly burdened alcohol patients to increase their motivation to change.

  5. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falgreen Eriksen, H‐L; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2012-01-01

    ..., Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191–1200. Objective...

  6. Alcohol Use among Mexican Youths: Is Familismo Protective for Moderate Drinking?

    OpenAIRE

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández–Ávila, Carlos A.; García-Bernabé, C. Camilo; Fernández-Varela, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    The construct of familismo has been identified as a potential protective cultural value in Hispanic cultures. This paper considers familismo and alcohol use among young people in Mexico. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117 first year students at a large free public university in Mexico City between April-May 2011. The findings indicate that dimensions of familismo can act as protective factors against misuse of alcohol among Mexican youths and ma...

  7. Moderators of the association between discrimination and alcohol consumption: findings from a representative sample of Brazilian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Isabela Zeni; Bastos, João Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2015-01-01

    Few studies about discrimination and patterns of alcohol consumption among youth populations have been conducted outside the United States addressing different types of discriminatory experiences, in addition to racially motivated events. This study investigated moderators of the association between discrimination attributed to single and multiple reasons and patterns of alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample (n = 1,264) of undergraduate students from Florianópolis, southern Brazil, in 2013. Analyses included adjustment of associations for covariates in ordinal logistic regression models and the examination of effect modification by common mental disorders, year of study and age. Discrimination was reported by 65.8% of the students, and alcohol consumption, by 80.0%. Over half of the students reported being discriminated against for two or more reasons. The odds of alcohol-related problems were higher among lastyear students that reported discrimination (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.0-3.4) or multiple reasons for being discriminated against (OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.3- 4.3), when compared to first-year students that did not report discrimination. For the whole sample, there were no associations between discrimination, discrimination attributed to multiple reasons and patterns of alcohol consumption (OR = 1.0, 95%CI 0.8-1.4; and OR = 0.9, 95%CI 0.5-1.6). The effects of discrimination on the patterns of alcohol consumption are seen at a critical period in university life, specifically during the completion of undergraduate studies.

  8. Blood flow and muscle oxygenation during low, moderate, and maximal sustained isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Chris J; Allen, Matti D; Olympico, Eric; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Rice, Charles L

    2015-09-01

    A reduction of blood flow to active muscle will precipitate fatigue, and sustained isometric contractions produce intramuscular and compartmental pressures that can limit flow. The present study explored how blood flow and muscle oxygenation respond to isometric contractions at low, moderate, and maximal intensities. Over two visits, 10 males (26 ± 2 yr; means ± SD) performed 1-min dorsiflexion contractions at 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. Doppler ultrasound of the anterior tibial artery was used to record arterial diameter and mean blood velocity and to calculate absolute blood flow. The tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of tibialis anterior was acquired with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). There was a progressive increase in blood flow at 30% MVC (peak of 289 ± 139% resting value), no change from rest until an increase in the final 10 s of exercise at 60% MVC (peak of 197 ± 102% rest), and an initial decrease (59 ± 30% resting value) followed by a progressive increase at 100% MVC (peak of 355 ± 133% rest). Blood flow was greater at 30 and 100% than 60% MVC during the last 30 s of exercise. TOI was ∼63% at rest and, within 30 s of exercise, reached steady-state values of ∼42%, ∼22%, and ∼22% for 30, 60, and 100% MVC, respectively. Even maximal contraction of the dorsiflexors is unable to cause more than a transient decrease of flow in the anterior tibial artery. Unlike dynamic or intermittent isometric exercise, our results indicate blood flow is not linearly graded with intensity or directly coupled with oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions.

  9. EGFR may couple moderate alcohol consumption to increased breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Mill

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher P Mill1, Julia A Chester2, David J Riese II11Purdue University School of Pharmacy, Purdue University Center for Cancer Research, 2Purdue University Department of Psychological Sciences, West Lafayette, IN, USAAbstract: Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which alcohol contributes to breast tumor initiation or progression has yet to be definitively established. Studies using cultured human tumor cell lines have identified signaling molecules that may contribute to the effects of alcohol, including reactive oxygen species and other ethanol metabolites, matrix metalloproteases, the ErbB2/Her2/Neu receptor tyrosine kinase, cytoplasmic protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, E-cadherins, estrogen receptor, and a variety of transcription factors. Emerging data suggest that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase may contribute to breast cancer genesis and progression. Here we integrate these findings and propose three mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to breast cancer. A common feature of these mechanisms is increased EGFR signaling. Finally, we discuss how these mechanisms suggest strategies for addressing the risks associated with alcohol consumption.Keywords: alcohol, breast cancer risk factor, EGF receptor, matrix metalloprotease

  10. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old * alcohol consumption (light, moderate factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long–term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.

  11. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Grata, Michelle E; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old) (*) alcohol consumption (light, moderate) factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long-term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption alters both leucocyte gene expression profiles and circulating proteins related to immune response and lipid metabolism in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Erk, van M.J.; Pellis, E.P.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has various effects on immune and inflammatory processes, which could accumulatively modulate chronic disease risk. So far, no comprehensive, integrative profiling has been performed to investigate the effects of longer-term alcohol consumption. Therefore, we studied the

  13. Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Light to moderate alcohol intake lowers the risk of cardiovascular mortality, but whether this protective effect can be attributed to a specific type of beverage remains unclear. Moreover, little is known about the effects of long-term alcohol intake on life expectancy. Methods: The impa

  14. Low to moderate alcohol consumption on serum vitamin D and other indicators of bone health in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy alcohol drinking adversely affects vitamin D status and bone health. However, data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption on vitamin D status and bone health in humans is unavailable. The objective of this cross-over RCT was to e...

  15. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  16. [Blood alcohol in automobile drivers--a comparison between Saarland and West Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M R; Müller, R K

    1991-01-01

    The Saarland and Saxony have not only been located at the western respectively at the eastern border of Germany (or of the then separated both German states). Different law regulations and lifestyles seemed to be an additional reason for different incidences of blood alcohol. Therefore, the blood alcohol cases of the university institutes for legal medicine of both provinces were statistically compared for 1989. Beyond some difficulties in the comparison itself due to different definitions and managements, equal or similar patterns dominated by far against discrepancies. The slightly different regulations for quality assurance were also compared with the expectation of their equalisation during the next future.

  17. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-02-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do baseline executive functions mediate prospective memory performance under a moderate dose of alcohol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hugo Smith-Spark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs. To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin, Buckheit & Sherrod, 2010, and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. Prospective memory is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programmes and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness.

  19. An analysis of two recent epidemiologic reports in the New England Journal of Medicine associating breast cancer in women with moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, N

    1988-11-01

    Two cohort studies showed an association between moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer, with an apparent relative risk of 1.50. Drinkers and nondrinkers already differed in important ways at the initiation of these two studies, precluding a causal interpretation of the associations found. Women in need of the relaxing effect of alcohol may indeed be the group at higher risk for breast cancer. Inasmuch as the studies did not inquire into other cancers, morbidities, mortalities, or total mortality, they leave open the possibility that, on balance, moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial.

  20. Moderate alcohol exposure compromises neural tube midline development in prenatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Sari, Youssef; Powrozek, Teresa; Goodlett, Charles R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2003-08-12

    We previously reported that fetal alcohol treatment compromised the development of the midline raphe and the serotonin neurons contained in it. In this study, we report that the timely development of midline neural tissue during neural tube formation is sensitive to alcohol exposure. Pregnant dams were treated from embryonic day 7 (E7, prior to neurulation) or E8.5 (at neurulation) with the following diets: (a) alcohol (ALC), given as either a 20% or 25% ethanol-derived calorie (EDC) liquid diet, or (b) isocaloric liquid diet pair-fed (PF), or (c) standard rat chow (Chow). Fetal brains from each group were examined on E13, E15, or E18. Neural tube development was compromised as a result of alcohol exposure in the following ways: (1) approximately 60% of embryos at E13 and 20% at E15 showed perforation of the floor plate in the diencephalic vesicle, (2) although completely closed at E13, 70-80% of embryos failed to complete the formation of neural tissue at the roof as the alcohol exposure continued to E15, and (3) 60-80% of embryos show delayed 'occlusion' of the ventral canal by newly formed nestin-positive neuroepithelial cells and S100beta-positive glia in the brainstem of E15. The compromised (incomplete) neural tube midline (cNTM) occurred near the ventricles at E13 and E15, but was later completed at E18. In all cases, the cNTM was accompanied by an enlarged ventricle, and dose-dependent brain weight reduction. The midline of the neural tube at the roof and floor plates is known to mediate timely trophic induction for neural differentiation. Prenatal midline deficits also have the potential to affect the development of midline neurons such as raphe, septal nuclei, and the timely crossing of commissural fibers. The results of the liquid diet alcohol exposure paradigm suggest it is more a model for Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) featuring neuropsychiatric disorders than for full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with noticeable facial

  1. Genetic and environmental factors underlying comorbid bulimic behaviours and alcohol use disorders: a moderating role for the dysregulated personality cluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Jennifer D; Klump, Kelly L; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, G

    2014-05-01

    Women with bulimia nervosa (BN) frequently have co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Studies of shared genetic transmission of these disorders have been mixed. Personality heterogeneity among individuals with BN may explain discrepant findings. Cluster analysis has characterized women with BN in groups on the basis of personality profiles. One group, the Dysregulated cluster, characterized largely by behavioural disinhibition and emotional dysregulation may be more closely linked etiologically to AUDs. This study examined whether genetic associations between BN and AUDs are the strongest among the Dysregulated cluster. Symptoms of BN and AUDs were assessed in female twins at ages 17 and 25 years from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Personality clusters were defined using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. Twin moderation models suggested small-to-moderate common genetic transmission between BN and AUDs. However, shared genetic effects did not differ by personality cluster. Findings suggest that personality clusters are unlikely to account for inconsistent findings regarding their shared aetiology.

  2. Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…

  3. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma choles

  4. Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…

  5. A field investigation of perceived behavioral control and blood alcohol content: a pattern-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Coyle, Patrick T; Baldner, Conrad; Bray, Bethany C; Geller, E Scott

    2013-04-01

    As the first field study of perceived behavioral control (PBC) to assess alcohol consumption with a physiological measure (i.e., blood alcohol content; BAC), the research examined the impact of intoxication on alcohol-specific PBC (APBC). In total, 665 passersby were recruited into the study at several late-night drinking locations near a large university campus. After answering questions regarding personal demographics and APBC, participants were administered a breath alcohol test (Lifeloc FC-20; ±.005mL/L). The average BAC of drinking participants was .096mL/L. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify participants based on APBC responses. Three classes emerged: high PBC, high controllability, and low controllability. Class membership varied as a function of gender and Greek-life membership. Blood alcohol content was a significant predictor of class membership. Results show a link between alcohol consumption and APBC that varies based on gender and Greek-life status. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for a variety of prevention interventions.

  6. Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: tests with studies of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10-14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Wakabayashi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol.

  8. The association between depression and craving in alcohol dependency is moderated by gender and by alexithymia factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Fantini, Carole; de Timary, Philippe

    2016-05-30

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation. We first found an interaction between depression and gender in the prediction of craving in the sense that only for women an increase in depressive mood was related to an increase in total craving. When examining gender separately, we found that alexithymia factors acted as moderators. For women, the link between depression and craving was strengthened for the ones scoring higher on "difficulties describing feelings". But for men, the link between depression and craving was reduced for the ones scoring higher on "externally-oriented thinking". These findings suggest that in some cases that need to be identified more systematically in the future, the "externally-oriented thinking" alexithymia factor can exert - at least in the short term - some protective effects.

  9. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia.

  10. Epidemiology of stroke : the role of blood pressure, alcohol and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keli, S.O.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the recent trends in stroke mortality in the Netherlands Antilles, and the role of long-term blood pressure, alcohol and diet as risk factors for stroke incidence. The official mortality statistics and population data from the Netherlands Antilles over the period

  11. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg, forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise. Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001. This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  12. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (Pdiazepam and treated by forced exercise and Pdiazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  13. Adults with mild to moderate depression exhibit more alcohol related problems compared to the general adult population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhlin, Julia; Hallgren, Mats; Öjehagen, Agneta; Källmén, Håkan; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-06-09

    Alcohol use has been shown to interfere with treatment for depression, but consumption habits are not routinely screened in primary care. To date, few studies have compared the alcohol consumption habits of patients with depression to the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol habits in adults diagnosed with depression in primary care to the general adult population in Sweden. Nine hundred fourty six patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression, without a primary substance use disorder, in primary care settings located across Sweden completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumptions habits and alcohol related problems in the depressed sample were compared to those in the general adult population (n = 663). Analyses were stratified by gender and age. Ratings of alcohol problems and measures of hazardous drinking and binge drinking were significantly higher among patients seeking treatment for depression in primary care compared to the general population. Male patients scored higher on the AUDIT total and AUDIT-C (consumption) subscale than men in the general population. Compared to younger adults (aged 17-27) older depressed adults (aged 28-50 and 51-71) exhibited higher rates of consumption and problems related to alcohol. Compared to the general adult population, consumption and problems related to alcohol use were substantially higher among patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care. Routine screening of alcohol use in primary care is recommended for patients presenting with depression.

  14. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Okubo, Yasushi; Dochi, Mirei; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure, we calculated the benchmark dose (BMD) of alcohol consumption and its 95% lower confidence interval (BMDL) in Japanese workers. The subjects consisted of 4,383 males and 387 females in a Japanese steel company. The target variables were systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. The effects of other potential covariates such as age and body mass index were adjusted by including these covariates in the multiple linear regression models. In male workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption (g/week) at which the probability of an adverse response was estimated to increase by 5% relative to no alcohol consumption, were 396/315 (systolic blood pressure), 321/265 (diastolic blood pressure), and 326/269 (mean arterial pressures). These values were based on significant regression coefficients of alcohol consumption. In female workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption based on insignificant regression coefficients were 693/134 (systolic blood pressure), 199/90 (diastolic blood pressure), and 267/77 (mean arterial pressure). Therefore, BMDs/BMDLs in males were more informative than those in females as there was no significant relationship between alcohol and blood pressure in females. The threshold amount of alcohol consumption determined in this study provides valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hypertension.

  15. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Tsutsumi, Eri; Imazeki, Hiromi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Chizu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-07-01

    The effects of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) on alcohol metabolism are striking in nonalcoholics, and the effects of genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) are modest at most, whereas genetic polymorphisms of both strongly affect the susceptibility to alcoholism and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer of drinkers. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ADH1C/ALDH2 genotypes and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of 168 Japanese alcoholic men who came to our hospital for the first time in the morning and had been drinking until the day before. The ethanol levels in their blood and saliva were similar, but the acetaldehyde levels in their saliva were much higher than in their blood, probably because of acetaldehyde production by oral bacteria. Blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were both significantly higher in the subjects with the less active ADH1B*1/*1 genotype than in the ADH1B*2 carriers, but none of the levels differed according to ALDH2 genotype. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, but ADH1C genotype did not affect the blood or salivary ethanol or acetaldehyde levels. High blood acetaldehyde levels were found even in the active ALDH2*1/*1 alcoholics, which were comparable with the levels of the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 alcoholics with less active ADH1B*1/*1. The slope of the increase in blood acetaldehyde level as the blood ethanol level increased was significantly steeper in alcoholics with inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 plus ADH1B*2 allele than with any other genotype combinations, but the slopes of the increase in salivary acetaldehyde level as the salivary ethanol level increased did not differ between the groups of subjects with any combinations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes. The ADH1B/ALDH2 genotype affected the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of nonabstinent alcoholics in a different manner

  16. Phytophenols in whisky lower blood acetaldehyde level by depressing alcohol metabolism through inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo; Abe, Yuko; Ohno, Youkichi

    2008-12-01

    We recently reported that the maturation of whisky prolongs the exposure of the body to a given dose of alcohol by reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism and thus lowers the blood acetaldehyde level (Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:77s-82s). In this study, administration of the nonvolatile fraction of whisky was found to lower the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of mice by depressing alcohol metabolism through the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Four of the 12 phenolic compounds detected in the nonvolatile fraction (caffeic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, ellagic acid), the amounts of which increase during the maturation of whisky, were found to strongly inhibit mouse ADH 1 (class I). Their inhibition constant values for ADH 1 were 0.08, 7.9, 15.6, and 22.0 mumol/L, respectively, whereas that for pyrazole, a well-known ADH inhibitor, was 5.1 mumol/L. The 2 phenolic aldehydes and ellagic acid exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, whereas caffeic acid showed the competitive type. When individually administered to mice together with ethanol, each of these phytophenols depressed the elimination of ethanol, thereby lowering the acetaldehyde concentration of blood. Thus, it was demonstrated that the enhanced inhibition of liver ADH 1 due to the increased amounts of these phytophenols in mature whisky caused the depression of alcohol metabolism and a consequent lowering of blood acetaldehyde level. These substances are commonly found in various food plants and act as antioxidants and/or anticarcinogens. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in them together with alcohol may not only diminish the metabolic toxicity of alcohol by reducing both the blood acetaldehyde level and oxidative stress, but also help limit the amount of alcohol a person drinks by depressing alcohol metabolism.

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  18. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (pdance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers.

  19. Effect of succimer on growth of preschool children with moderate blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen E; Salganik, Mikhail; Campbell, Carla; Rhoads, George G; Rubin, Judith; Berger, Omer; Ware, James H; Rogan, Walter

    2004-02-01

    Growth deficits associated with lead exposure might be ameliorated by chelation. We examined the effect of succimer on growth in 780 children 12-33 months old who had blood lead levels of 20-44 microg/dL and were randomized to receive up to three 26-day courses of succimer or placebo in a multicenter, double-blind trial. The difference in changes in weight and height between succimer and placebo groups at 1-34 months was calculated by fitting cubic splines. The difference in height change in children on succimer compared with placebo was -0.27 cm [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -0.42 to -0.11] from baseline to 9 months, when 99% of children had completed treatment, and -0.43 cm (95% CI, -0.77 to -0.09) during 34 months of follow-up. Similar differences in weight gain were not statistically significant. Although succimer lowers blood lead in moderately lead-poisoned children, it does not have a beneficial effect on growth and may have an adverse effect.

  20. Is Blood Alcohol Level a Good Predictor for Injury Severity Outcomes in Motor Vehicle Crash Victims?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikaramjit Mann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies in animals suggest that alcohol may influence pathophysiologic response to injury mechanisms. However, biological evidence for the alcohol-injury severity relationship provides conflicting results. The purpose of our retrospective cross-sectional study in 2,323 people was to assess whether blood alcohol level (BAC adversely influences injury severity in victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs. We found no difference in mortality OR 1.09 (0.73–1.62, or length of hospital stay, and a trend for lower ISS score was found in the high-alcohol group (P=0.052. Furthermore, the high-alcohol group demonstrated a lower adjusted rate of severe head injury OR 0.65 (0.48–0.87, chest injury OR 0.58 (0.42–0.80, and serious extremity injury OR 0.10 (0.01–0.76. The findings of our study do not demonstrate a dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and injury severity in MVCs. This study implies that higher BAC may lead to less severe injuries, without impacting mortality or length of hospital stay, however, further research is required to elucidate the nature of this relationship.

  1. The effects of therapeutic bond within a brief intervention for alcohol moderation for problem drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiprovnick, Alicia E; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-03-01

    The quality of the relationship between a therapist and his or her client can make a significant contribution to recovery from substance use disorders. Treatments often harness aspects of therapeutic relationships (e.g., therapeutic bond) to positively affect therapeutic outcomes. Within motivational interviewing (MI), for example, authors theorize that a relational component is 1 active component that affects change. The present study aims to examine the effects of relationships within a treatment setting on drinking. A secondary data analysis was performed on data collected from problem drinkers in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were assigned to MI or relational MI without directive elements (spirit-only MI). Participants answered questions about alcohol use and therapeutic bond before, during, and at the end of an 8-week treatment period. High levels of therapeutic bond and empathic resonance predicted decreased alcohol use at the end of treatment for participants in both conditions. This study highlights the importance of relational components in treatments for substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline.

  3. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of Cmax, tmax, area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β60) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also tmax (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (Cmax, tmax, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β60). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  5. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  6. Effect of alcohol consumption on peripheral blood Alu methylation in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kim, Young Hun; Lee, Won Kee; Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create a substantial public health problem worldwide. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. They are complex diseases characterized by both genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals and account for multi-factorial nature of the disease. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. Alu elements host one-quarter of CpG dinucelotides in the genome to function as proxies for global DNA methylation. In this study, we evaluated the Alu methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of healthy volunteers and AUD patients using the pyrosequencing technology. The Alu methylation level is significantly higher in AUD compared to healthy controls (23.4 ± 1.6 versus 22.1 ± 1.0, t = 7.83, p methylation and alcohol use disorders identification test score (r = 0.250, p methylation might play a complex role in the etiology and pathogenesis of AUD. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  7. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group: normal control (NC, alcohol treatment (At, diabetic control (DC, diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At, diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli. Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001 elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001 decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001 in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.

  8. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  9. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  10. The effectiveness and safety of L-amlodipine besylate for blood pressure control in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾坦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of L-amlodipine besylate for blood pressure control in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.Methods A total of 1051 mild to moderate essential

  11. Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekvelt, M.C.P. van; Shoemaker, J.K.; Tschakovsky, M.E.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Hughson, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that forearm blood flow (FBF) during moderate intensity dynamic exercise would meet the demands of the exercise and that postexercise FBF would quickly recover. In contrast, during heavy exercise, FBF would be inadequate causing a marked postexercise hyperemia and sustained increase

  12. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, F; Disse, E; Laville, M

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration....

  14. Effects of Mood Inductions by Meal Ambiance and Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Endocannabinoids and N-Acylethanolamines in Humans: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Ripken, D.; Stafleu, A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol c

  15. [The effects of captopril and metoprolol on blood pressure and side effects in patients with mild to moderate hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J; Korsager, S

    1989-04-03

    A material of 76 patients from general practice treated with diuretics for mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to supplementary treatment with captopril (39 patients) and metoprolol (37 patients), respectively, on account of diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. Satisfactory regulation of the blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mmHg) and acceptable wellbeing was obtained in 29 patients in the captopril group and in 23 patients in the metoprolol group. Six patients in the captopril group were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and four dropped out on account of side effects. In the metoprolol group, nine patients were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and five on account of side effects. This difference was not significant. In the captopril group, 14 side effects were registered in eight patients while 23 side effects were observed in 15 patients in the metoprolol group. This difference was not statistically significant, p greater than 0.05 (risk for type 2 error = 60%). It is concluded that captopril + a diuretic is just as effective a form of treatment of slight to moderate hypertension as metoprolol + a diuretic and that treatment with captopril + a diuretic is associated with so few side effects that it may be considered as an alternative first choice of treatment in cases of slight to moderate hypertension.

  16. Low to moderate alcohol consumption on serum vitamin D and other indicators of bone health in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Pfeiffer, R M; Li, Y; Watkins, B A; Taylor, P R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of no alcohol, low (1 drink or 15 g/day) and moderate (2 drinks or 30 g/day) alcohol consumption on markers of bone health: fasting serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and helical peptide (HP) in postmenopausal women (n=51). Compared with no alcohol, 1 or 2 drinks/day for 8 weeks had no significant impact on any of the bone markers. Within each alcohol group, obese women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and higher DPD concentrations than normal weight women. Season significantly affected the concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, but there was no significant interaction between alcohol and season on serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Low or moderate alcohol consumption for 8 weeks had no significant impact on markers of bone health in postmenopausal women.

  17. Daidzin, an antioxidant isoflavonoid, decreases blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F

    1994-12-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Does Alcoholics Anonymous work differently for men and women? A moderated multiple-mediation analysis in a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Hoeppner, Bettina B

    2013-06-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) began as a male organization, but about one third is now female. Studies have found that women participate at least as much as men and benefit equally from AA, but it is unclear whether women benefit from AA in the same or different ways as men. This study tested whether gender moderated the mechanisms through which AA aids recovery. A cohort study of alcohol dependent adults (N=1726; 24% female; Project MATCH) was assessed on AA attendance during treatment; with mediators at 9 months; outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent [PDA] and Drinks per Drinking Day [DDD]) at 15 months. Multiple mediator models tested whether purported mechanisms (i.e., self-efficacy, depression, social networks, spirituality/religiosity) explained AA's effects differently for men and women controlling for baseline values, mediators, treatment, and other confounders. For PDA, the proportion of AA's effect accounted for by the mediators was similar for men (53%) and women (49%). Both men and women were found to benefit from changes in social factors but these mechanisms were more important among men. For DDD, the mediators accounted for 70% of the effect of AA for men and 41% for women. Again, men benefitted mostly from social changes. Independent of AA's effects, negative affect self-efficacy was shown to have a strong relationship to outcome for women but not men. The recovery benefits derived from AA differ in nature and magnitude between men and women and may reflect differing needs based on recovery challenges related to gender-based social roles and drinking contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  20. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  1. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  2. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation...... and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood...... cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P blood cell count (4...

  3. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C; Johansson, Pär I; Secher, Niels H

    2014-09-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P coagulation, and this is further accentuated when blood loss is 900 ml.

  4. Does Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity Moderate Relations Among Perceived Peer Norms for Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Dependence Symptomatology, and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L; Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study examines the relation between peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement and alcohol-dependence symptomatology and whether this relation differs as a function of sexual self-concept ambiguity (SSA). This study also examines the associations among peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and lifetime HIV risk-taking behavior and how these relations are influenced by SSA. Method: Women between ages 18 and 30 years (N = 351; M = 20.96, SD = 2.92) completed an online survey assessing sexual self-concept, peer descriptive norms, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses of interest. Results: There was a significant latent variable interaction between SSA and descriptive norms for peer alcohol use. There was a stronger positive relationship between peer descriptive norms for alcohol and alcohol-dependence symptomatology when SSA was higher compared with when SSA was lower. Both latent variables exhibited positive simple associations with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement directly and indirectly influenced HIV risk-taking behaviors, and the indirect influence was conditional based on SSA. Conclusions: The current findings illustrate complex, nuanced associations between perceived norms, identity-related self-concepts, and risky health behaviors from various domains. Future intervention efforts may be warranted to address both problem alcohol use and HIV-risk engagement among individuals with greater sexual self-concept ambiguity. PMID:25343661

  5. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, decreases in impulsivity and drinking and psychosocial outcomes over 16 years: moderated-mediation from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Timko, Christine; Finney, John W; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2011-12-01

    To examine whether decreases in impulsivity account for links between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance and better drinking and psychosocial outcomes, and whether these mediational 'effects' are conditional on age. A naturalistic study in which individuals were assessed at baseline, and 1, 8 and 16 years later. Participants initiated help-seeking through the alcohol intervention system (detoxification programs, information and referral centers). Individuals with alcohol use disorders and no prior history of substance abuse treatment at baseline [n=628; 47% women; mean age=34.7 years (standard deviation=9.4)]. Self-reports of impulsivity and drinking pattern at baseline and year 1, duration of AA (number of weeks) in year 1 and drinking (alcohol use problems, self-efficacy to resist drinking) and psychosocial outcomes (emotional discharge coping, social support) at baseline and follow-ups. Controlling for changes in drinking pattern, decreases in impulsivity were associated with fewer alcohol use problems, better coping and greater social support and self-efficacy at year 1, and better coping and greater social support at year 8. Decreases in impulsivity statistically mediated associations between longer AA duration and improvements on all year 1 outcomes and indirect effects were moderated by participant age (significant only for individuals 25 years of age or younger). Decreased impulsivity appears to mediate reductions in alcohol-related problems over 8 years in people attending Alcoholics Anonymous. Published 2011 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Foster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+ vs negative (BAC- blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out of 823, 319 subjects were tested for BAC (38.8%, of whom 37 were BAC+ (mean 0.151 g/dL, range 0.015-0.371 g/dL. Age (41 years, sex (97.2% men, race, intensive care unit (ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS, and mortality were similar between groups. Nearly half of BAC+ cases were farming injuries (18, 48.6%: Eight involved livestock, five involved all-terrain vehicles (ATVs, three involved heavy equipment, one fell, and one had a firearm injury. Eight (21.6% were construction site injuries involving falls from a roof or scaffolding, five (13.5% were semi-truck collisions, four (10.8% involved falls from a vehicle in various settings, and two (5.4% were crush injuries at an oilfield. BAC+ subjects were less likely to be injured in construction sites and oilfields, including vehicle-related falls (2.3 vs 33.9%, P < 0.0001. Over half of BAC+ (n = 20, 54% subjects were alcohol dependent; three (8.1% also tested positive for cocaine on admission. No BAC+ subjects were admitted to rehabilitation compared to 33 (11.7% of BAC- subjects. Workers′ compensation covered a significantly smaller proportion of BAC+ patients (16.2 vs 61.0%, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the workplace is more prevalent than commonly suspected, especially in farming and other less regulated industries. BAC+ is associated with less insurance coverage, which probably affects resources available for post-discharge rehabilitation and hospital reimbursement.

  7. Measurements of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel for the Development of Blood Vessel Biomodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Mamada, Keisuke; Kuroki, Kanju; Liu, Lei; Inoue, Kosuke; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Makoto

    In vitro blood vessel biomodeling with realistic mechanical properties and geometrical structures is helpful for training in surgical procedures, especial those used in endovascular treatment. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H), which is made of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and water, may be useful as a material for blood vessel biomodeling due to its low surface friction resistance and good transparency. In order to simulate the mechanical properties of blood vessels, measurements of mechanical properties of PVA-H were carried out with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of PVA-H were obtained. PVA-Hs were prepared by the low-temperature crystallization method. They were made of PVA with various concentrations (C) and degrees of polymerization (DP), and made by blending two kinds of PVA having different DP or saponification values (SV). The G’ and G” of PVA-H increased, as the C or DP of PVA increased, or as the proportion of PVA with higher DP or SV increased. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain PVA-H with desirable dynamic viscoelasticity. Furthermore, it is suggested that PVA-H is stable in the temperature range of 0°C to 40°C, indicating that biomodeling made of PVA-H should be available at 37°C, the physiological temperature. The dynamic viscoelasticity of PVA-H obtained was similar to that of the dog blood vessel measured in previous reports. In conclusion, PVA-H is suggested to be useful as a material of blood vessel biomodeling.

  8. Executive Functions and Motivation as Moderators of the Relationship Between Automatic Associations and Alcohol Use in Problem Drinkers Seeking Online Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Denise S; Salemink, Elske; Boendermaker, Wouter J; Pronk, Thomas; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-09-01

    Dual process models posit that problem drinking is maintained by an imbalance between relatively strong automatic processes and weak controlled processes, a combination of executive functions and motivation. Few studies have examined how the interplay between automatic processes and executive functions is affected by motivation to change. This study examined this relationship in problem drinkers seeking online help to change their alcohol use. It was expected that executive functions (i.e., working memory, response inhibition) would moderate the relationship between automatic (valence and approach) associations and alcohol use and that this effect would be stronger in individuals with strong motivation to change. A sample of 302 problem drinkers (mean age: 51.7 years) participated in this study as part of the baseline assessment before an Internet intervention. Participants completed an online version of the brief Implicit Association Test (valence and approach associations), the self-ordered pointing task (working memory), the Stroop task (response inhibition), the Readiness to Change Questionnaire (motivation to change), and the Timeline Follow-Back Questionnaire (alcohol use). Hierarchical moderated regression analysis was used to test the 4 hypothesized 3-way interactions. As expected, the interaction between valence associations and working memory only predicted alcohol use among individuals with strong motivation. This pattern was neither found for response inhibition nor for approach associations. Results provide partial support for the moderating role of motivation in the interplay between automatic processes and executive functions. Future studies should investigate this relationship in participants with the full range of motivation and alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. The Moderating Effects of Culture on Peer Deviance and Alcohol Use among High-Risk African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal

    2007-01-01

    African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…

  10. The Bac(chus experiment: blood alcohol concentrations after wine tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert van de Wiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs were measured in ten volunteers after a wine tasting event with and without the swallowing of 15 mL of each wine. In case ten wines were tasted within one hour without swallowing, buccal mucosa absorption did not result in problematic BAC’s; however in case 15 mL of each wine was swallowed, BAC’s may exceed the legal driving limit of most countries. It is recommended to eat beforehand, but also to wait at least one hour after the session before driving back home.

  11. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood alcohol limits: the presence of alcohol in traffic accidents according to category of driver in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Akan; İdiz, Nuri; Dalgiç, Mustafa; Uluçay, Tarik; Sincar, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under existing Turkish road traffic law, there are 2 different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits allowed for drivers in 2013: zero blood alcohol and ≤0.50 g/L. All public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol concentration while driving. Private vehicle drivers must maintain a BAC of 0.50 g/L or lower. The aim of the recent study was to evaluate the effect of these 2 legal blood alcohol limits on nonfatal traffic accidents that occurred due to the driver being under the influence of alcohol. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the blood alcohol concentration of 224 drivers in nonfatal road accidents between June 2010 and July 2011 using headspace gas chromatography at the Izmir Forensic Medicine Group Presidency, Turkey. All cases evaluated by the toxicology department were entered into a database. We used descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and independent sampling test to analyze the data. The total number of drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents was 224; 191 were private vehicle drivers and 33 were public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers. In the present study, alcohol was detected in the blood of about 27.2% (n = 61) of the 224 drivers. Sixty (31.4%) private vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents tested positive for alcohol. BAC values were also above the legal limit (0.50 g/L) in 27.7% (n = 53) of private vehicle drivers. However, the BAC was above the legal limit in only 3% (n = 1) of public transport, commercial, and official vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents. These results showed that private vehicle drivers subject to a BAC limit of ≤0.50 g/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of nonfatal accident involvement than drivers subject to a zero BAC limit (odds ratio [OR] = 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-92.22; Fisher's exact test, P accidents in Turkey.

  12. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  13. Altered extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in blood serum of sedentary individuals after an acute, aerobic, moderate exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Cesar Eduardo Jacintho; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Rockenbach, Liliana; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Casali, Emerson André; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Nucleotidases participate in the regulation of physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and coagulation. Exercise promotes distinct adaptations, and can influence purinergic signaling. In the present study, we investigated soluble nucleotidase activities in the blood serum of sedentary young male adults at pre- and post-acute moderate aerobic exercise. In addition, we evaluated how this kind of exercise could influence adenine nucleotide concentrations in the blood serum. Sedentary individuals were submitted to moderate aerobic exercise on a treadmill; blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and serum was separated for analysis. Results showed increases in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise values. The ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase was also evaluated, showing an increased activity post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise. Purine levels were analyzed by HPLC in the blood serum, pre- and post-exercise. Decreased levels of ATP and ADP were found post-exercise, in contrast with pre-exercise values. Conversely, post-exercise levels of adenosine and inosine increased compared to pre-exercise levels. Our results indicate an influence of acute exercise on ATP metabolism, modifying enzymatic behavior to promote a protective biological environment.

  14. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Selective and Sustained Attention in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2012-01-01

    consumption, age, body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures  TEACh-5 attention scores. Results  There were no significant effects on test performance in children of mothers......Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... 2012;119:1211-1221. Objective  The aim was to examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's attention at 5 years of age. Design  Prospective follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003...

  15. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Executive Function in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... status, family home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), and the health status of the child. Main outcome measures  The BRIEF parent and teacher forms. Results  Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations......Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...

  16. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Hong; Li, Shu-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Qiu, Giu-Xing

    2012-01-01

    It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis. Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery. However, few studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction. This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery. The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters: partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, pH, and standard bases excess. The pulmonary function tests included three parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio, forced vital capacity ratio, and peak expiratory flow ratio. All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis. Similarly, all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared. The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range, 50° - 180°). A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications, including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%), increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%), pneumonia in 2 (13.3%), atelectasis in 2 (13.3%), pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%), and hydrothorax in 1 (6.7%). No significant differences in demographic characteristics or perioperative factors (P > 0.05) existed between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications. According to the variance analysis, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameter of the arterial blood gas tests between the two groups. No significant correlation between

  17. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  18. Dose-response relationship between alcohol use and blood pressure among drivers of commercial vehicles in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Bello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a sedative/hypnotic with effects similar to those of barbiturates.1 The type of alcoholic beverages consumed depends on the social context and financial capability. Alcoholic beverages may be in form of beer, wine, dry gin. Drinking alcohol is an activity that many people enjoy; taking a few drinks occasionally is generally harmless. Most people do not have problems as a result of drinking alcohol in this manner, although this may predispose to heavy use. Heavy alcohol consumption has been shown in observational studies to have a strong positive association with elevated blood pressure.2-4 Further evidence have been shown by clinical trials5,6 that have demonstrated that reduction in alcohol intake among individuals who drink heavily (i.e. three or more drinks per day can lower blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive men. Some studies have recorded a linear dose-response relationship sometimes starting with a consumption threshold of three drinks per day (30 g of ethanol.7-13 In others, the relationship has been non-linear especially in women, and some authors have speculated that ingestion of small quantities may reduce blood pressure.14-22 These discrepancies may reflect differences in investigational design, methods and populations.23 Many studies have been done in this area in developed countries like the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. This is however, not a commonly researched area in this part of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure of drivers of commercial vehicles.

  19. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  1. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  2. Effects of mood inductions by meal ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in humans: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on plasma ECs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, anandamide (AEA, and some N-acylethanolamine (NAE congeners in humans.Healthy women (n = 28 participated in a randomized cross-over study. They consumed sparkling white wine (340 mL; 30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine (340 mL; <2 g alcohol as part of a standard evening meal in a room with either a pleasant or an unpleasant ambiance.Plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and stearoylethanolamide (SEA increased after 30 min in the unpleasant ambiance, while they decreased in the pleasant ambiance. Changes in ECs and their NAE congeners correlated with mood states, such as happiness and fatigue, but in the pleasant ambiance without alcohol only. ECs and their NAE congeners were correlated with serum free fatty acids and cortisol.This is the first human study to demonstrate that plasma NAEs are responsive to an unpleasant meal ambiance. Furthermore, associations between mood states and ECs and their NAE congeners were observed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  3. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  4. Mediation and Moderation Effects of an In-Home Family Intervention : the "In control: No alcohol!" Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; van der Vorst, Haske; Schulten, Ingrid G. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a theory-based in-home family intervention (In control: No alcohol!) on adolescent alcohol cognitions via its putative mediators using a randomized controlled design. In the South Holland region of the Netherlands, a total of 213 children (11-12 yea

  5. Blood alcohol concentration at 0.06 and 0.10% causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of body movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Patel, Mitesh

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol-related falls are recognized as a major contributor to the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The control of upright standing balance is complex and composes of contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as appropriate information from multiple sensory systems and correct feedback and feed forward movement control. Analysis of multisegmented body movement offers a rarely used option for detecting the fine motor problems associated with alcohol intoxication. The study aims were to investigate whether (1) alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the body movements under unperturbed and perturbed standing; and (2) alcohol affected the ability for sensorimotor adaptation. Body movements were recorded in 25 participants (13 women and 12 men, mean age 25.1 years) at five locations (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and head) during quiet standing and during balance perturbations from pseudorandom pulses of calf muscle vibration over 200s with eyes closed or open. Tests were performed at 0.00, 0.06, and 0.10% BAC. The study revealed several significant findings: (1) an alcohol dose-specific effect; (2) a direction-specific stability decrease from alcohol intoxication; (3) a movement pattern change related to the level of alcohol intoxication during unperturbed standing and perturbed standing; (4) a sensorimotor adaptation deterioration with increased alcohol intoxication; and (5) that vision provided a weaker contribution to postural control during alcohol intoxication. Hence, alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% BAC causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of human postural control.

  6. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  7. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-ming; SHEN Jian-xiong; ZHANG Jian-guo; ZHAO Hong; LI Shu-gang; ZHAO Yu; QIU Giu-xing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis.Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery.However,few studies have been reported.The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.Methods This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity <60%) who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and April 2010.A total of 73 scoliotic patients (23 males and 50 females) with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction were included.The average age of the patients was 16.53 years (ranged 10-44).The demographic distribution,medical records,and radiographs of all patients were collected.All patients received arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery.The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters:partial pressure of arterial oxygen,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide,alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient,pH,and standard bases excess.The pulmonary function tests included three parameters:forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio,forced vital capacity ratio,and peak expiratory flow ratio.All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis.Similarly,all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared.Results The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range,50°-180°).A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications,including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%),increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%),pneumonia in 2 (13.3%),atelectasis in 2 (13.3%),pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%),and hydrothorax in 1

  8. Drinking and driving: a decrease in executive frontal functions in young drivers with high blood alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Simone Cristina Aires; Mendonça, Josidéia Barreto; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki

    2009-12-01

    This study correlated the executive frontal functions with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in night drivers in a Brazilian city. Of 592 drivers randomly recruited between December 17, 2005 and May 5, 2006, during nighttime hours on main streets or avenues with intense vehicle traffic in Vitória, Brazil, 444 had the BAC determined by a portable digital breath alcohol analyzer and 389 were submitted to a frontal function examination by a frontal assessment battery (FAB). A high percentage (24.4%) of drivers presented alcohol in their blood. Most of these drivers were male (82%), and nearly half (43.7%) were young adults (aged between 20 and 30 years). The results showed an inverse relationship between the BAC and FAB total scores, with a higher BAC corresponding to a smaller FAB total score, delineating a progressive decrease in frontal function with increasing concentrations of alcohol. The most intriguing result was that alcohol-induced impairment on frontal executive function was particularly important in young adults, and more specifically in the motor programming subset of FAB, an executive function highly involved in driving skills. Considering the worldwide evidence of the high-risk involvement of youth in automobile crashes, the effects of alcohol in young adults need to be more thoroughly examined by cognitive studies, and more direct preventive solutions need to be taken focusing on this age range.

  9. The Effect of Taraxacum Officinale Hydro Alcoholic Extract on the Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Modaresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Taraxacum officinaleis a herbaceous perennial plant which has many pharmaceutical effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of this plant on blood cell counts in mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 mature female mice were divided into 5 groups, each group including ten adult female Balb/C mice. The control group did not receive any extract.while the placebo group received 0.5 cc of normal saline, every other day. The three treatment groups intraperitoneally received 50, 100, 200 mg/kg /2day doses of hydro alcoholic extract for 20 days. Normal saline was administered to the control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet and other cells of the animals were counted using full automated cell counter. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of RBC and the rate of Hb in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all three treatment groups as compared with the control group. The number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significant in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with the control group (p<0.05.The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: The study confirmed the dose dependent efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and WBC. Keywords: Dandelion, Blood Cell, mice

  10. [Ethanol elimination rate (beta60, beta-slope) in different age groups after intake of a moderate or high dose of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinskaia, T O; Smirnov, A V; Salomatin, E M; Shaev, A I

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol elimination rate (beta60) was measured in different age groups of men and women following its single intake at a dose of 0.8 g/kg body weight (experiment 1) and 2 g/kg (experiment 2). Samples of capillary blood were collected 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 300 min (experiment 1) or 360 min after the termination of the intake (experiment 2). The phase of alcohol elimination was deduced from the kinetic curve. Each alcohol dose was consumed during 1-2 minutes or 1-1.5 hours (experiments 1 and 2 respectively). The value of (beta60) in experiment 1 was estimated at 0.17 +/- 0.04 per thousand/hour in young men aged between 18-26 years, 0.22 per thousand/hour in adult men of 32-48 years, and 0.21 per thousand/hour in women aged between 19-41 years. The difference between alcohol elimination rates in young and adult men on the one hand and between young men and women on the other hand was statistically significant (p alcohol excretion rate overestimated by 8 +/- 5% and 31 +/- 6% respectively compared with 10 +/- 7% in women. It is suggested that a single intake of alcohol may lead to an instantaneous rise in the hepatic concentration of ethanol unrelated to the consumed amount that however affects its metabolic rate. It is concluded that the duration of ethanol intake has greater effect on the rate of its elimination from the body than the amount of consumed alcohol, especially in alcohol-tolerant subjects.

  11. Mediation and moderation effects of an in-home family intervention: the "in control: no alcohol!" pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Mares, Suzanne H W; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Van der Vorst, Haske; Schulten, Ingrid G H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a theory-based in-home family intervention (In control: No alcohol!) on adolescent alcohol cognitions via its putative mediators using a randomized controlled design. In the South Holland region of the Netherlands, a total of 213 children (11-12 years) and their mothers were randomly assigned to the prevention program (108 dyads) and the control condition (105 dyads). Mediation effects were analyzed using pretest and two follow-up measurements (5 and 12 months after baseline). A path model was estimated (using Mplus) to examine the effect of the intervention on the putative mediators (frequency- and quality of mother-child communication, rules about alcohol, establishing a nondrinking agreement, and parental monitoring of the child's whereabouts). Outcomes were adolescents' perceived harmfulness of drinking and intention to drink. Multigroup analyses were performed to examine potential differences across gender. The program led to an increase in frequency of alcohol-specific communication, nondrinking agreements, and parental monitoring. Moreover, adolescents in the experimental condition perceived drinking to be more harmful and had less intention to drink compared to adolescents in the control condition. The effect of the program on adolescent alcohol cognitions was significantly mediated through having more frequent conversations about alcohol, yet only among boys. Although results on actual drinking need to be added, findings indicate that this relatively inexpensive, easy-to-administer home intervention is promising.

  12. Can the blood alcohol concentration be a predictor for increased hospital complications in trauma patients involved in motor vehicle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) 200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0-20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4-27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5-49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification.

  13. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Alcohol-positive multiple trauma patients with and without blood transfusion: an outcome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuttmann Ralph

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is a common therapy for multiple trauma patients, and is often performed soon after hospital admission. It is unclear whether the need for a blood transfusion in multiply injured patients presenting with a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC is associated with increased morbidity/mortality, since their risk behavior differs significantly from patients with a negative BAC. In this study, we evaluated the role of blood transfusion in the treatment of BAC-positive multiple trauma patients. Patients In a three-year period, 164 patients at a single trauma center presented with a positive BAC, and 145 met the inclusion criteria for further evaluation and regression analysis. We compared patients who were transfused (n = 76 with those who were not transfused (n = 69. Results In both groups, the most common causes of trauma were traffic accidents and falls. Most patients were admitted to the hospital from the scene of the accident (77.2% and were male (89.0%. Transfused patients had a lower GCS (p ≤ .001 and her ISS (p ≤ .001, were more likely to have severe head injuries (p ≤ .001, tended to have higher BACs (p = .053, had lower hemoglobin levels and prothrombin times in the first 24 hours (p ≤ .001, had lower lactate levels, had higher rates of intubation (p ≤ .001 and ICU admission, and had longer ICU stays and artificial ventilation times (p ≤ .001. Mortality was significantly higher in transfused patients (n = 15 vs. n = 3, p ≤ .001. Non-survivors were more likely to have severe head injuries; be intubated and ventilated; be older; have higher ISS scores, lactate levels, and numbers of transfusions in the first 24 hours; and have lower GCS scores, hemoglobin measurements, and prothrombin levels. In a binary logistic regression model, only age (p = .009 and ISS (p = .004 independently predicted mortality. Conclusion In our single-center study, the BAC of multiple trauma patients and the

  15. Effect of long-term alcohol habit on coronary morphology and blood flow in males%长期饮酒对男性冠状动脉内径及血流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凯; 张海成; 肖世南; 董卫锋

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the angiographic characteristics of coronary artery in males with long-term alcohol habit. METHODS: Included in this study were males who underwent coronary angiography from July 2008 to July 2012 in our hospital and were found to have no coronary artery stenosis and no diseases that cause coronary artery ectasis. According to their alcohol consumption, subjects were divided into three groups: heavy alcohol consumption, light/moderate alcohol consumption, and no alcohol consumption. The results of coronary angiography were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The coronary artery diameter in heavy alcohol consumption group was significantly wider than in the light/moderate alcohol group and no alcohol group ( P < 0. 05 ). In the heavy alcohol consumption group, the rate of coronary artery ecta-sias (18% ) was significantly higher than those in the light/moderate alcohol group (2% ) and no alcohol group (l%)(P<0. 05) and the rate of slow flow (29% ) was significantly higher than in the light/moderate alcohol group (4% ) and no alcohol group (3% ) (P <0. 05). CONCLUSION: Long-term heavy alcohol consumption can change the normal form of the coronary artery and increase the incidence of coronary artery dilatation and slow blood flow rate, thus affecting myocardial blood supply.%目的:初步探讨长期饮酒对男性冠状动脉内径及血流速度的影响.方法:选择2008年7月~2012年7月在我院行冠脉造影,无冠脉粥样硬化狭窄病变的所有男性为研究对象.根据既往是否饮酒及饮酒程度分为3组:重度饮酒组(38例)、轻中度饮酒组(84例)和不饮酒组(67例).对比分析各组冠状动脉造影结果.结果:重度饮酒组左主干、左前降支主支、回旋支主支、右冠状动脉主支内径均较轻中度饮酒组与不饮酒组显著增宽(均P<0.05);轻中度饮酒组与不饮酒组无统计学差异.重度饮酒组冠脉扩张病变率(18%)较轻中度饮酒组(2%)与不饮酒组(1

  16. The effect of manual acupuncture on blood neutrophil counts in moderate intensity exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciang, C. Y.; Simadibrata, C.; Tobing, A.; Srilestari, A.

    2017-08-01

    Exercise, even though it has a beneficial effect, can cause muscle damage and trigger inflammatory responses, as evidenced by increased neutrophils in the blood. Acupuncture is a therapeutic modality that is expected to reduce acute inflammatory responses due to exercise. Thirty untrained men were divided randomly into two groups. The manual acupuncture group (n = 15) received stimulation at acupoints ST36 and SP6 bilateral by needle insertion, while the placebo group (n = 15) received insertion of needles on plaster without penetrating the skin. Therapy was done once for 30 minutes immediately after the subjects completed the exercise. Blood neutrophil counts were assessed before exercise and one hour after exercise ended. The results show there is a statistically significant difference in the number of neutrophils before and after exercise between the manual acupuncture group and the placebo group (0.08±0.91 and 0.97±0.70 p = 0.006). Acupuncture therapy effectively mitigates the acute inflammatory response triggered by exercise.

  17. Exposure to the Lebanon War of 2006 and effects on alcohol use disorders: The moderating role of childhood maltreatment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greenstein, Eliana; McLaughlin, Kate; Wall, Melanie; Aharonovich, Efrat; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Civilian populations now comprise the majority of casualties in modern warfare, but effects of war exposure on alcohol disorders in the general population are largely unexplored. Accumulating literature indicates that adverse experiences early in life sensitize individuals to increased alcohol problems after adult stressful experiences. However, child and adult stressful experiences can be correlated, limiting interpretation. We examine risk for alcohol disorders among Israelis after the 2006 Lebanon War, a fateful event outside the control of civilian individuals and uncorrelated with childhood experiences. Further, we test whether those with a history of maltreatment are at greater risk for an alcohol use disorder after war exposure compared to those without such a history. Methods Adult household residents selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a psychiatric structured interview; the analyzed sample included 1306 respondents. War measures included self-reported days in an exposed region. Results Among those with a history of maltreatment, those in a war-exposed region for 30+ days had 5.3 times the odds of subsequent alcohol disorders compared to those exposed 0 days (95%C.I. 1.01–27.76), controlled for relevant confounders; the odds ratio for those without this history was 0.5 (95%C.I. 0.25–1.01); test for interaction: X2 = 5.28, df = 1, P = 0.02. Conclusions Experiencing a fateful stressor outside the control of study participants, civilian exposure to the 2006 Lebanon War, is associated with a heightened the risk of alcohol disorders among those with early adverse childhood experiences. Results suggest that early life experiences may sensitize individuals to adverse health responses later in life. PMID:24262650

  18. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  20. Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette eSimino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP regulation. We used 6,882 (predominantly Caucasian participants aged 20 to 80 years from the Framingham SHARe (SNP Health Association Resource to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures [ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week] on four BP traits [systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, mean arterial (MAP, and pulse (PP pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9 on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively. Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week versus a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value≤1E-06 associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B,ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A , FBX015, and IGSF5. SNP -alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can

  1. Relationship between blood alcohol concentration on admission and outcome in dimethoate organophosphorus self-poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; von Meyer, Ludwig; Eyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    center dot Acute alcohol intoxication often complicates acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot No data are available on how alcohol intoxication affects outcome in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot In particular, the relationships between plasma alcohol concentration and plasma organophosphorus concentration or outcome are unclear.WHAT THIS STUDY ADDScenter dot Alcohol co-ingestion is associated with higher concentrations of the organophosphorus insecticide ...

  2. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 group...

  3. Coping motives and trait negative affect: testing mediation and moderation models of alcohol problems among American Red Cross disaster workers who responded to the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Jacobs, Gerard A; Meyer, David; Johnson-Jimenez, Erika

    2006-08-01

    This study explored the mechanism by which trait negative affect and alcohol coping motives are associated with alcohol-related problems in a sample of American Red Cross workers who participated in the relief operation following the attacks in New York City, the Pentagon, and the Pennsylvania crash site on Sept. 11th 2001. The results supported the mediation but not moderation model of coping motives. The support for the mediation model was fairly strong, including small to moderate associations between negative affect and alcohol problems, moderate to strong associations between negative affect and coping motives, and evidence of coping motives mediating the negative affect to alcohol problems relationships. The association between negative affect and coping motives was stronger among younger participants.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - This meta-analysis was undertaken to obtain insight regarding the shape and strength of the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the effects of adjustment for confounders, and the effect of modification by type 2 diabetes definition, sex, and BMI. RES

  5. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  6. Electroacupuncture acutely improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via an endothelial mechanism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA is a novel therapy based on traditional acupuncture combined with modern eletrotherapy that is currently being investigated as a treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Here, we studied whether acute EA stimulation improves tissue and functional outcome following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in mice. We hypothesized that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-mediated perfusion augmentation was related to the beneficial effects of EA by interventions in acute ischemic injury. EA stimulation at Baihui (GV20 and Dazhui (GV14 increased cerebral perfusion in the cerebral cortex, which was suppressed in eNOS KO, but there was no mean arterial blood pressure (MABP response. The increased perfusion elicited by EA were completely abolished by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR blocker (atropine, but not a β-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol, an α-adrenergic receptor blocker (phentolamine, or a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR blocker (mecamylamine. In addition, EA increased acetylcholine (ACh release and mAChR M3 expression in the cerebral cortex. Acute EA stimulation after occlusion significantly reduced infarct volume by 34.5% when compared to a control group of mice at 24 h after 60 min-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO (moderate ischemic injury, but not 90-min MCAO (severe ischemic injury. Furthermore, the impact of EA on moderate ischemic injury was totally abolished in eNOS KO. Consistent with a smaller infarct size, acute EA stimulation led to prominent improvement of neurological function and vestibule-motor function. Our results suggest that acute EA stimulation after moderate focal cerebral ischemia, but not severe ischemia improves tissue and functional recovery and ACh/eNOS-mediated perfusion augmentation might be related to these beneficial effects of EA by interventions in acute ischemic injury.

  7. Emotion regulation, coping and alcohol use as moderators in the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Fiona; Hasking, Penelope

    2010-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury is a risk factor for more severe self-injury and later suicide, yet is relatively under-researched in non-clinical populations. In order to prevent more severe self-injury and later suicide, understanding of non-suicidal self-injury is imperative. This study aimed to examine whether coping skills, emotion regulation and alcohol use moderate the relationship between psychological distress and non-suicidal self-injury. Two hundred eighty-nine young adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. Of the sample, 47.4% reported a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Adaptive coping strategies protected those who were psychologically distressed from severe self-injury. However for those who reported greater distress, this protective effect was negated by heavy alcohol use. Coping skills training may serve to protect young people from self-injury, although those who are severely distressed may also benefit from strategies to limit alcohol use.

  8. [Comparative effects of pindolol and atenolol on blood pressure and lipids in mild to moderate arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpin, D; Guillard, O; Piriou, A; Amiel, A; Boutaud, P; Ciber, M A; Demange, J

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with mild or moderate hypertension were randomised to receive either Atenolol 100 mg (N = 10) or Pindolol 15 mg (N = 11) in a once daily dosage over a two month period. The effects of these two betablockers on the blood pressure and plasma lipid profile were studied. Special attention was paid to the methodology: obese patients (30% over theoretical weight derived from the Lorenz formula) and those with pre-treatment triglyceride levels higher than 1.82 mmol/l were excluded because of the well documented biological instability of such patients. The selected patients were given placebo for two weeks. At the end of the placebo period those subjects whose body weight, total cholesterol, apolipoproteins or triglycerides had varied by more than 10%, 15% and 30% respectively, were also excluded from the study. At the end of the 60 days active treatment period, a comparable fall in the blood pressure was observed in both groups and there was no significant difference in the biological parameters as compared with pre-treatment values. In addition, the cardiovascular risk, evaluated by the B/A1 apolipoprotein ratio, increased in only one patient in the group receiving Atenolol and one patient receiving Pindolol.

  9. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weel 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  10. Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L M; Koseniauskas, R; Burak, E S; Moskal, T J; Gombar, C T; Phillips, J M; Sansone, E B; Keimig, S; Magee, P N; Rice, J M

    1992-03-15

    Low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competitively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with N-nitrosodimethylamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahepatic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine were measured in male patas monkeys. Ethanol, 1.2 g/kg given p.o. before i.v. N-nitrosodimethylamine (1 mg/kg) or concurrently with an intragastric dose resulted in a 10-50-fold increase in the area under the blood concentration versus time curves and a 4-13-fold increase in mean residence times for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Isopropyl alcohol, 3.2 g/kg 24 h before N-nitrosodimethylamine, also increased these parameters 7-10-fold; this effect was associated with persistence of isopropyl alcohol and its metabolic product acetone, both IIE1 inhibitors, in the blood. While no N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in expired air, trace amounts were found in urine. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pretreatment increased the maximum urinary N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration 15-50-fold and the percentage of the dose excreted in the urine by 100-800-fold. Thus ethanol and isopropyl alcohol greatly increase systemic exposure of extrahepatic organs to N-nitrosodimethylamine in a primate.

  11. Effects of mood inductions by meal ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Ripken, Dina; Stafleu, Annette; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, Henk F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcoho

  12. Impact of alcohol intake on the relationships of uric acid with blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Shingo; Oki, Yoshitsugu; Tsunoda, Seiko; Takemoto, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-11-01

    Hyperuricemia, which is frequently associated with hypertension, can be caused by alcohol intake. To date, limited data have shown the link between alcohol intake and hyperuricemic hypertension. We retrospectively examined the influence of alcohol intake on the relationship between the uric acid level and blood pressure or cardio-metabolic parameters in 171 untreated non-failing hypertensive patients (mean 59.3±10.7 years). Cross-sectional analysis was separately performed in regular alcohol drinkers (more than 25g/day ethanol, n=74, 82.4% men) and non-drinkers (n=97, 33.0% men). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (101.6±11.5mmHg vs. 96.8±8.2mmHg, puric acid level (mean 6.3±1.7mg/dL) was positively correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r=0.270/p=0.020 and r=0.354/p=0.0020, respectively), and with the markers of cardiac hypertrophy, including electrocardiographic voltage (V1S+V5R, r=0.244/p=0.042) and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (r=0.270/p=0.026). These correlations were also observed in the male drinker sub-group. In the non-drinkers, the uric acid level (mean 5.0±1.4mg/dL) was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.369/p=0.0002) but not with blood pressure or the markers of cardiac hypertrophy. The results suggest that the role of uric acid in blood pressure might differ between hypertensive drinkers and non-drinkers. In regular alcohol drinkers, there was a positive association of uric acid level with blood pressure and the severity of cardiac hypertrophy. In non-regular drinkers, an increased uric acid level is likely to be closely associated with increased BMI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Self-reported alcohol intake is a better estimate of 5-year change in blood pressure than biochemical markers in low resource settings: the PURE study

    OpenAIRE

    Zatu, Mandlenkosi C.; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Du Toit, Loots; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Greeff, Minrie; Schutte, Aletta E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite criticism of self-reported alcohol intake, it is a valuable tool to screen for alcohol abuse as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare various self-reported estimates of alcohol use with γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and percentage carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) considering their relationship with blood pressure changes (%BP) over a 5-year period in black South Africans. Method: We recruited 1994 participants and collected 5-year followe...

  14. [Parental education to reduce blood lead levels in children with mild and moderate lead poisoning: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-ming; Yan, Chong-huai; Wu, Sheng-hu; Shi, Rong

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of parental education on reducing lead exposure of children by examining the changes in blood lead levels of children whose parents receiving or not receiving educational intervention. Two hundred children with confirmed blood lead levels beyond 100 microg/L were selected. They were randomized into two groups, 107 children in study group and 93 in control. At the beginning of the study, parents of both study and control groups were called for interview to complete KABP questionnaire and lead study questionnaire. The study group was provided with interventional measures while control group was not contacted until the end of study. Intervention of parental education was undertaken by means of a TV program, a set of slides and a brochure, and focused on the questions regarding harmful effects of lead poisoning, the sources of environmental lead and prevention of this preventable disease. Tests for blood lead level were repeated for both study and control groups 3 months after the determination of the initial blood lead level. All the relevant knowledge of health effect, lead sources and prevention of childhood lead poisoning of participating parents of study group were improved significantly (chi(2) = 14.06, 13.07, 10.08, 28.26, P parents control group also were significantly improved in the sub-catalogs of concept and prevention (chi(2) = 7.69, 8.64, P parents' behavior in study group was improved accordingly and significantly. Less children ate popcorn (chi(2) = 4.08, P parents changed their coat or took shower or washed hands before going home after work (chi(2) = 4.00, P control group only the number of kids playing on road side was decreased significantly (chi(2) = 9.60, P control (t = 3.398, P parents' occupational exposure to lead, the improvement of knowledge about prevention of childhood lead poisoning, the chang of habit of snacks intake, parents' education levels, the change of attitude of parents for the childhood lead

  15. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  16. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis as the control (CON, and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP, ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and total cholesterol (TC compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol

  17. Benidipine has effects similar to losartan on the central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Hyun Ihm; Hui-Kyung Jeon; Shung Chull Chae; Do-Sun Lim; Kee-Sik Kim; Dong-Ju Choi; Jong-Won Ha

    2013-01-01

    Background Central blood pressure (BP) is pathophysiologically more important than peripheral BP for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.Arterial stiffness is also a good predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.The effects of benidipine,a unique dual L-/T-type calcium channel blocker,on central BP have not been reported.This study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and losartan on the central BP and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertensives.Methods This 24 weeks,multi-center,open label,randomized,active drug comparative,parallel group study was designed as a non-inferiority study.The eligible patients (n=200) were randomly assigned to receive benidipine (n=101)or losartan (n=99).Radial artery applanation tonometry and pulse wave analysis were used to measure the central BP,pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Alx).We also measured the metabolic and inflammatory markers.Results After 24 weeks,the central BP decreased significantly from baseline by (16.8+14.0/10.5+9.2) mmHg (1mmHg =0.133 kPa) (systolic/diastolic BP; P <0.001) in benidipine group and (18.9+14.7/12.1+10.2) mmHg (P <0.001)in losartan group respectively.Both benidipine and losartan groups significantly lowered peripheral BP (P <0.001) and Alx (P <0.05),but there were no significant differences between the two groups.The mean aortic,brachial and femoral PWV did not change in both groups after 24-week treatment.There were no significant changes of the blood metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in each group.Conclusion Benidipine is as effective as losartan in lowering the central and peripheral BP,and improving arterial stiffness.

  18. The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Sonmez

    Full Text Available The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01. The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations.

  19. Familial risk for alcohol dependence and developmental changes in BMI: the moderating influence of addiction and obesity genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichenstein, Sarah D; Jones, Bobby L; O’Brien, Jessica W; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffer, Scott; Holmes, Brian; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-01-01

    Aim Familial loading for alcohol dependence (AD) and variation in genes reported to be associated with AD or BMI were tested in a longitudinal study. Materials & methods Growth curve analyses of BMI data collected at approximately yearly intervals and obesity status (BMI > 30) were examined. Results High-risk males were found to have higher BMI than low-risk males, beginning at age 15 years (2.0 kg / m2 difference; p = 0.046), persisting through age 19 years (3.3 kg/m2 difference; p = 0.005). CHRM2 genotypic variance predicted longitudinal BMI and obesity status. Interactions with risk status and sex were also observed for DRD2 and FTO gene variation. Conclusion Variation at loci implicated in addiction may be influential in determining susceptibility to increased BMI in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25155933

  20. Drinking Motives Moderate the Effect of the Social Environment on Alcohol Use: An Event-Level Study Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Koen; Groefsema, Martine; Luijten, Maartje; Engels, Rutger; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test (a) whether drinking motives predict event-level drinking on weekend evenings; (b) whether the number of friends present in social situations was associated with drinking on weekend evenings; and (c) whether drinking motives moderate the association between friends present and drinking. We linked individual-level drinking motives (measured at baseline) to event-level data assessed every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over 5 weeks. The number of drinks and male and female friends present in the situation were assessed at 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m., midnight, and 1 a.m. In total, 197 young adults (51.3% male) completed 11,516 event-level assessments. Multilevel models by gender revealed that higher enhancement motives predicted a greater number of drinks consumed in a given moment, but only among women. The higher the number of male and female friends present in a situation, the more drinks consumed by both genders. Last, drinking motives moderated the association between the number of friends present and the number of drinks. For women, higher enhancement motives predicted more drinks in situations with more male friends. For men, higher coping motives predicted more drinks in situations with no friends and in situations with more female friends. Lower coping motives predicted more drinks with more male friends. Higher conformity motives predicted fewer drinks with more female friends. Drinking motives appear to moderate event-level factors rather than directly predict drinking on weekend evenings. Depending on the motives for drinking, event-level factors (e.g., friends present in a situation) have a strong effect on an individual's drinking.

  1. Detection of Alcohol Concentration in blood%血液中乙醇浓度的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云平

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The purpose ofthis study was to establish gas chromatographic method for the determination of alcohol in blood.Methods: Alcohol Concentration were quantitatively determined by headspace gas chromatography, tert-butanol was internal standard. Results: In the range of 8.12~97.44μgöml-1 had a good linear(r=0.9999). The average recoveries were 99.8%,RSD=0.3%. Conclusion:The method is simple, reliable, accurate, reproducible and can be used for quality control of Alcohol Concentration in blood.%目的建立在血液中检测乙醇含量的气相色谱法。方法 采用顶空进样毛细管气相色谱法,以叔丁醇为内标物。结果 乙醇在8.12~97.44μg•ml-1浓度范围内线性良好,相关系数为0.9999,平均回收率为99.8%,RSD为0.3%。结论 本方法操作简便、可靠,结果准确,重现性好,可用于血液中乙醇浓度的检测。

  2. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Kido; Akihiro Asakawa; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Toshio Takaoka; Aya Tajima; Shigeru Takaoka; Yumiko Yoshizaki; Kayu Okutsu; Kazunori T. Takamine; Yoshihiro Sameshima; Akio Inui

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types ...

  3. [What nurses with a bachelor of nursing degree know about the effects of alcohol on blood pressure and risk of arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Hanna; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Grabowski, Władysław; Grzegorczyk, Michał; Swietlik, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the main causes of arterial hypertension. Alcohol is responsible for a few to more than ten percent of all cases of primary hypertension, particularly in persons consuming more than 20-30 g of alcohol per day. The aim of this study was to find out what Bachelor of Nursing degree holders know about alcohol consumption styles and the effects of alcohol on blood pressure, as well as on the risk of arterial hypertension in adults. The study group comprised 116 qualified nurses (112 females, 4 males; age 21-50 years; work seniority 0-29 years). The study was done between June 2007 and January 2008 with the use of the diagnostic poll technique based on a questionnaire developed by the authors. We found that 8.62% of participants were informed about screening tools used for evaluating styles of alcohol consumption while 41.38% gave the correct definition of the standard portion of alcohol. The alcohol consumption threshold above which the risk of hypertension becomes significant was known to 58.62% of respondents. The influence of alcohol (drunk directly before blood pressure measurement) on blood pressure was known to 89.66% of the nurses. We observed a statistically significant effect of work experience (p = 0.002), place of work (p family status or type of postgraduate education were noted. It is necessary to increase awareness among nurses regarding the risk of arterial hypertension associated with alcohol consumption and to improve the effectiveness of undergraduate and postgraduate education aimed at early recognition of problems caused by alcohol consumption which are important for the prevention of arterial hypertension.

  4. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  5. Probable posttraumatic stress disorder and women's use of aggression in intimate relationships: the moderating role of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Sullivan, Tami P

    2014-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among individuals who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and is associated with aggression in intimate relationships. The present study examined whether alcohol dependence (AD) attenuates the relation between PTSD and IPV-victimized women's use of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression. Participants were recruited from the community and included 147 women who engaged in substance use and experienced IPV (80.3% Black; M age = 38.24 years, SD = 10.62; M income = $14,323, SD = $12,832). Women with (vs. without) AD reported using significantly more physical and psychological aggression (ηp (2)  = .12 and .03, respectively). The probable PTSD × AD interaction emerged as a significant correlate of physical and sexual aggression (ηp (2)  = .03). Post hoc analyses revealed higher levels of physical aggression among women with probable PTSD and AD and no-PTSD and AD compared to women with probable PTSD and no-AD (Cohen's ds = 1.09 and 0.63, respectively) and women without PTSD and no-AD (Cohen's ds = 0.92 and 0.60, respectively). Further, women with PTSD and AD reported higher levels of sexual aggression than women without PTSD and AD (Cohen's d = 0.80). Findings suggest the utility of identifying and treating PTSD-AD among IPV-victimized women. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.

  7. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is related to the TaqIB cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene polymorphism and smoking, but not to moderate alcohol consumption in insulin-dependent diabetic men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Beusekamp, BJ; Riemens, SC; Hoogenberg, K; Stulp, BK; Van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ

    1998-01-01

    In non-diabetic subjects, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is increased by alcohol and decreased by smoking. The biallelic B1B2 polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene is a genetic determinant of HDL cholesterol. We evaluated the effect of moderate alco

  8. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p blood donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p blood donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  9. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  10. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2017-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up, 363 students were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (n = 205) or usual curriculum (n = 158). Thirteen secondary SE schools spread throughout the Netherlands. Participants were recruited during the autumn of 2013 from three school subtypes: SE for adolescents with intellectual/physical disabilities (SEI; n = 13), behavioural/emotional difficulties (SEB; n = 136) and learning disabilities/developmental disorders (SEL; n = 214). Self-reported life-time smoking prevalence and life-time drinking frequency as outcomes, and school subtype (SEL/SEB) and implementation fidelity (high/low) as moderators. No significant differences were found at follow-up in life-time smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-3.12] and drinking frequency (d = 0.01; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.18). Interaction analyses revealed adverse effects in SEB students for alcohol use (d = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.16-0.69). Effect on tobacco refusal self-efficacy was moderated positively by implementation fidelity (d = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.07-0.63). The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests further that, within special education, substance use interventions may need to be targeted at school subtypes, as these may have harmful effects among students with behavioural difficulties. Finally, limited evidence was found that programme effectiveness may depend upon implementation fidelity. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  12. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  13. Phosphatidylethanol in Blood as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Davide Ferrara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at a systematic review of the current knowledge on phosphatidylethanol (PEth in blood as a direct marker of chronic alcohol use and abuse. In March 2012, the search through “MeSH” and “free-text” protocols in the databases Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Ovid/Embase, combining the terms phosphatidylethanol and alcohol, provided 444 records, 58 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the current evidence on the formation, distribution and degradation of PEth in human blood: (1, the presence and distribution of different PEth molecular species (2, the most diffused analytical methods devoted to PEth identification and quantization (3, the clinical efficiency of total PEth quantification as a marker of chronic excessive drinking (4, and the potential utility of this marker for identifying binge drinking behaviors (5. Twelve papers were included in the meta-analysis and the mean (M and 95% confidence interval (CI of total PEth concentrations in social drinkers (DAI ≤ 60 g/die; M = 0.288 µM; CI 0.208–0.367 µM and heavy drinkers (DAI > 60 g/die; M = 3.897 µM; CI 2.404–5.391 µM were calculated. The present analysis demonstrates a good clinical efficiency of PEth for detecting chronic heavy drinking.

  14. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.

  15. Adenosine mediates decreased cerebral metabolic rate and increased cerebral blood flow during acute moderate hypoxia in the near-term fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Arlin B; Hunter, Christian J; Power, Gordon G

    2003-12-15

    Exposure of the fetal sheep to moderate to severe hypoxic stress results in both increased cortical blood flow and decreased metabolic rate. Using intravenous infusion of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist that is permeable to the blood brain barrier, we examine the role of adenosine A1 receptors in mediating cortical blood flow and metabolic responses to moderate hypoxia. The effects of DPCPX blockade are compared to controls as well as animals receiving intravenous 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline) (8-SPT), a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist which has been found to be blood brain barrier impermeable. Laser Doppler flow probes, tissue PO2, and thermocouples were implanted in the cerebral cortices of near-term fetal sheep. Catheters were placed in the brachial artery and sagittal sinus vein for collection of samples for blood gas analysis. Three to seven days later responses to a 30-min period of fetal hypoxemia (arterial PO2 10-12 mmHg) were studied with administration of 8-SPT, DPCPX, or vehicle. Cerebral metabolic rate was determined by calculation of both brain heat production and oxygen consumption. In response to hypoxia, control experiments demonstrated a 42 +/- 7 % decrease in cortical heat production and a 35 +/- 10 % reduction in oxygen consumption. In contrast, DPCPX infusion during hypoxia resulted in no significant change in brain heat production or oxygen consumption, suggesting the adenosine A1 receptor is involved in lowering metabolic rate during hypoxia. The decrease in cerebral metabolic rate was not altered by 8-SPT infusion, suggesting that the response is not mediated by adenosine receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. In response to hypoxia, control experiments demonstrated a 35 +/- 7 % increase in cortical blood flow. DPCPX infusion did not change this increase in cortical blood flow, however 8-SPT infusion attenuated increases in flow, indicating that hypoxic

  16. Effect of the allelic variants of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 and alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on blood acetaldehyde concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Giia-Sheun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcoholism is a complex behavioural disorder. Molecular genetics studies have identified numerous candidate genes associated with alcoholism. It is crucial to verify the disease susceptibility genes by correlating the pinpointed allelic variations to the causal phenotypes. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit functional polymorphisms among racial populations; these polymorphisms have been shown to be the important genetic determinants in ethanol metabolism and alcoholism. Here, we briefly review recent advances in genomic studies of human ADH/ALDH families and alcoholism, with an emphasis on the pharmacogenetic consequences of venous blood acetaldehyde in the different ALDH2 genotypes following the intake of various doses of ethanol. This paper illustrates a paradigmatic example of phenotypic verifications in a protective disease gene for substance abuse.

  17. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  18. Fixed combination of benazepril and low-dose amlodipine in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension: evaluation by 24-hour noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogari, R; Zoppi, A; Lusardi, P; Mugellini, A; Preti, P; Motolese, M

    1997-08-01

    The antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of benazepril (10 mg) and low-dose amlodipine (2.5 mg) were assessed in 24 patients (mean age, 43.9 years) with uncomplicated mild to moderate essential hypertension [supine diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 95 and benazepril 10 mg/amlodipine 2.5 mg was well tolerated, and no patient withdrew from the study because of side effects.

  19. The Effects of Soy Protein and Isoflavones on Lipid Oxidation and Blood Lipid Profile on Humans Participating in Moderate Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shehadeh, Sandra C

    1999-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF SOY PROTEIN AND ISOFLAVONES ON LIPID OXIDATION AND BLOOD LIPID PROFILE ON HUMANS PARTICIPATING IN MODERATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Sandra C. Shehadeh The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of dietary soy protein and animal protein (casein) on plasma lipoprotein concentrations, and exercise induced oxidation in human subjects. Sixteen normocholesterolemic young men participated in 30 min of cycling at 70% VO2pk to induce plasma oxidation. Each subject then followe...

  20. Improving the prognosis of diabetic patients: evaluating the role of intensive versus moderate blood pressure control with selective angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Bedigian

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ABCD (Appropriate Blood Pressure Control in Diabetes and ABCD-2V (Part 2 with Valsartan are prospective, randomised clinical trials which will provide important data on the impact of intensive vs. moderate blood pressure (BP control on microvascular and macrovascular complications in normotensive and hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The ABCD trial was a five-year study that compared the effects of intensive vs. moderate BP control on the endpoints of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease events using a calcium channel blocker (CCB and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor as the primary antihypertensive agents. The recently published results of the hypertensive cohort of ABCD are reviewed herein. The follow-up study, ABCD-2V, is ongoing and was designed to compare intensive vs. moderate BP control on the same endpoints as the ABCD study, using the highly selective angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB valsartan as the primary antihypertensive agent. First results of ABCD-2V are expected in 2004. The baseline characteristics for the patients enrolled thus far in the hypertensive cohort of ABCD-2V are reviewed. These studies will provide insight into the role of intensive vs. moderate BP control in the management of normotensive and hypertensive patients with type 2 DM.

  1. [Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Podpalova, O M; Nuryshchenko, N Ie; Martyniuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skeletal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

  2. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  3. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okafor OY; Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Owolabi FO; Kosoko SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results: Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions: The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity.

  4. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  5. Promoción de salud: autotrascendencia, espiritualidad y bienestar en no consumidores y consumidores moderados de alcohol / Health promotion: self-transcendence, spirituality and well being in no consumers of alcohol and moderate consumers of alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El creciente consumo de alcohol en la población entre los 18 y 25 años, en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia, en particular, se ha convertido en un problema social de salud pública, político y económico, por sus efectos sobre esta población y la sociedad en general. Objetivo: Establecer las relaciones entre las variables sociodemográficas, de vulnerabilidad al consumo, autotrascendencia, espiritualidad y bienestar psicológico y social en universitarios de 18 a 25 años (adultos...

  6. Young people's blood alcohol concentration and the alcohol consumption city law, Brazil Alcoholemia de jóvenes y la ley contra consumo de alcohol, Brasil Alcoolemia de jovens e lei contra o consumo de álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel De Boni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses blood alcohol concentration and risk behaviors for traffic accidents before and after the implementation of a law which prohibits the use of alcoholic beverages on city gas stations. In Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, young people go out at night and drive to gas station convenience stores to buy alcoholic beverages which are consumed on the premises of parking lots in gas stations. Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires and breath analyzers in two cross-sectional collections with purposive samples of youngsters in May and July 2006 (n=62, and n=50, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups before and after the city law was passed. Blood alcohol concentration greater than 0.06% was found in 35.5% of pre-law group and 40% of post-law group (p=0.62. Results point out heavy alcohol use in both groups, which did not change after the law was passed.En el artículo se analizaron la alcoholemia y los comportamientos de riesgo de accidentes de transito en jóvenes antes y después de la implementación de la ley que prohíbe el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas en puestos de gasolina. En Puerto Alegre (Sur de Brasil, los jóvenes acostumbran salir de noche y conducir hasta las tiendas de conveniencia de puestos de gasolina para comprar y consumir bebidas alcohólicas en los estacionamientos dentro de los puestos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de encuestas auto-aplicables y alcoholímetro en dos colectas transversales realizadas con jóvenes, abordados en mayo y julio de 2006 con muestreo intencional (n=62 y n=50, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos entrevistados. Alcoholemia > 0,06% fue encontrada en 35,5% y 40% de los individuos antes y después de la ley, respectivamente (p=0,62. Los resultados señalan el uso pesado de alcohol en ambos grupos, inalterado por la implementación de la ley.No artigo foram analisados a alcoolemia e comportamentos de risco para

  7. [Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2015-03-01

    The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ≥ 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits.

  8. Mediation and Moderation of the Association between Cynical Hostility and Systolic Blood Pressure in Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H. Shellae; Kaplan, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Hostility may be related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as blood pressure. However, the process by which hostility affects blood pressure is not fully understood. The current study sought to evaluate abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) as a potential mediator and modifier of the relationship between cynical…

  9. Cerebral hemodynamics after short- and long-term reduction in blood pressure in mild and moderate hypertension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, R.; Witkowski, S.; Fu, Q.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Levine, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that acute reduction in blood pressure (BP) at the initial stage of antihypertensive therapy compromises brain perfusion and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in patients with hypertension. Cerebral blood flow velocity and BP were measured in patients with mild and mod

  10. Mediation and Moderation of the Association between Cynical Hostility and Systolic Blood Pressure in Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H. Shellae; Kaplan, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Hostility may be related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as blood pressure. However, the process by which hostility affects blood pressure is not fully understood. The current study sought to evaluate abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) as a potential mediator and modifier of the relationship between cynical…

  11. Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarman Ian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of nightlife in UK cities focuses on creating safe places for individuals to drink. Little is known about intoxication levels as measuring total alcohol consumption on nights out is complicated by early evening interviews missing subsequent consumption and later interviews risking individuals being too drunk to recall consumption or participate at all. Here we assess mixed survey and modelling techniques as a methodological approach to examining these issues. Methods Interviews with a cross sectional sample of nightlife patrons (n = 214 recruited at different locations in three cities established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview, self-assessed drunkenness and intended drinking patterns throughout the remaining night out. Researchers observed individuals' behaviours to independently assess drunkenness. Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings. Results At interview 49.53% of individuals regarded themselves as drunk and 79.43% intended to consume more alcohol before returning home, with around one in ten individuals (15.38% males; 4.35% females intending to consume >40 units (equal to 400 mls of pure alcohol. Self-assessed drunkenness, researcher observed measures of sobriety and blood alcohol levels all correlated well. Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood. Higher blood alcohol levels were related to drinking later into the night. Conclusions UK nightlife has used substantive health and judicial resources with the aim of creating safer and later drinking environments. Survey and modelling techniques together can help characterise the condition of drinkers when using and leaving these settings. Here such methods identified patrons as routinely getting drunk, with risks of drunkenness

  12. Moderate alcohol exposure during the rat equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy alters dopamine regulation of GABAA receptor-mediated transmission in the basolateral amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Rafael Diaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal ethanol (EtOH exposure leads to a range of neurobehavioral alterations, including deficits in emotional processing. The basolateral amygdala (BLA plays a critical role in modulating emotional processing, in part, via dopamine (DA regulation of GABA transmission. This BLA modulatory system is acquired during the first two weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the 3rd trimester of human pregnancy and we hypothesized that it could be altered by EtOH exposure during this period. We found that exposure of rats to moderate levels of EtOH vapor during the 3rd trimester-equivalent (postnatal days (P 2-12 alters DA modulation of GABAergic transmission in BLA pyramidal neurons during periadolescence. Specifically, D1R-mediated potentiation of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs was significantly attenuated in EtOH-exposed animals. However, this was associated with a compensatory decrease in D3R-mediated suppression of miniature IPSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that these effects were not a result of altered D1R or D3R levels. BLA samples from EtOH-exposed animals also had significantly lower levels of the DA precursor (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine but DA levels were not affected. This is likely a consequence of reduced catabolism of DA, as indicated by reduced levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the BLA samples. Anxiety-like behavior was not altered in EtOH-exposed animals. This is the first study to demonstrate that the modulatory actions of DA in the BLA are altered by developmental EtOH exposure. Although compensatory adaptations were engaged in our moderate EtOH exposure paradigm, it is possible that these are not able to restore homeostasis and correct anxiety-like behaviors under conditions of heavier EtOH exposure. Therefore, future studies should investigate the potential role of alterations in the modulatory actions of DA in the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum

  13. Interference of anesthetics in blood alcohol analysis by HS-GC-FID: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Proença, P; Tavares, C; Castañera, A; Corte Real, F

    2016-08-01

    One of the techniques most widely used in ethanol analysis in forensic laboratories is undoubtedly the headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) since the determination of this substance is carried out directly, without the need for additional purification procedures, which leads to increased productivity. This is a very important factor due to the high number of alcohol analysis requested to these laboratories. The presence of other volatile substances can cause a problem given the fact that they can be interferents in ethanol analysis by HS-GC-FID, which can have legal consequences related with driving under the influence of alcohol. The authors report a case of a routine analysis by HS-GC-FID for the determination of ethanol of a driver who has suffered an accident in which the use of two chromatographic columns with different polarities was essential to obtain an unequivocally identification of this substance in presence of an interfering volatile anesthetic administered in the hospital. The method was validated according to international recommendations before being introduced into routine laboratory in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and carryover.

  14. Alcohol misuse in patients with psoriasis: identification and relationship to disease severity and psychological distress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAleer, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with increased alcohol intake and excessive mortality from alcohol-related causes. Alcohol biomarkers provide an objective measure of alcohol consumption. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is the single most sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker. OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis using standard alcohol screening questionnaires and biomarkers. We investigated whether there was an association between alcohol intake, anxiety, depression and disease severity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited and completed a range of anonymized assessments. Psoriasis severity, anxiety and depression, and the impact of psoriasis on quality of life were assessed. Alcohol screening questionnaires were administered. Blood specimens were taken and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and CDT were measured. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients completed the study. Using validated questionnaires, between 22% and 32% had difficulties with alcohol. Seven per cent had CDT > 1.6% indicating a heavy alcohol intake. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was superior to other validated questionnaires in detecting alcohol misuse. There were no significant associations between measures of excessive alcohol consumption and disease severity. Excessive alcohol intake as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was associated with increased depression (P = 0.001) but other measures of alcohol excess did not correlate with psychological distress. Men had significantly more difficulties with alcohol than women (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Alcohol misuse is common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Screening with the AUDIT questionnaire and CDT may allow the identification of patients who are misusing alcohol and allow appropriate intervention.

  15. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    Alcohol is used all over the world and in most Western societies, the average intake is high. Alcohol is associated with more than 60 diseases and globally, 4% of all deaths are attributable to alcohol. The aim of the present thesis is to study associations between alcohol intake and risk...... with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...... that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  17. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  18. Effects of nifedipine GITS 20 mg or enalapril 20 mg on blood pressure and inflammatory markers in patients with mild-moderate hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Morelli, Patrizia; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2005-07-01

    Calcium antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and other drug classes either alone or in combination have been recommended for the treatment of hypertension. Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) 20 mg is a new low-dose formulation with an improved tolerability. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of nifedipine GITS 20 mg and enalapril 20 mg on blood pressure and circulating adhesion molecules in hypertensive patients. This randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial compared the blood pressure lowering effects of a 12-week treatment of nifedipine GITS 20 mg vs enalapril 20 mg in 264 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Nifedipine GITS 20 mg induced a reduction of clinic blood pressure, which was similar to that observed with enalapril 20 mg. Nifedipine GITS and enalapril lowered mean sitting diastolic blood pressure by 11.8 and 12.4 mmHg, respectively, while systolic blood pressure was reduced by 15.3 and 16.3 mmHg, respectively. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived blood pressure data showed similar results in both groups without any statistically significant differences between treatments. Both enalapril and nifedipine tended to reduce ICAM-1 and E-selectin, while only nifedipine reduced von Willebrand factor. Both treatments were well tolerated. Our findings demonstrate a similar antihypertensive effectiveness of a low dose (20 mg) of nifedipine GITS in comparison with a standard dose of enalapril (20 mg). Given its clinical efficacy and good tolerability, low-dose nifedipine GITS may be considered a valuable treatment option for hypertensive patients.

  19. PARENTERAL IRON SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PACKED CELLS/BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sarala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM This case study focuses on the efficacy of iron sucrose in moderate-to-severe anaemia in pregnancy and to compare the efficacy of iron sucrose with packed cell transfusion and based on the study to establish whether iron sucrose could be an alternative to packed cells transfusion for the management of moderate-to-severe anaemia complicating pregnancy remote from the term gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a case control study for a period of 2 years. Women were randomly selected where for the study group 50 patients intravenous iron sucrose was given and for control group 50 patients packed cells transfusion was given. RESULTS The study group and the control group had 50 subjects each. On an average 80% were in the age group of 15-24 yrs. in both groups. In both groups, on an average 85% were with moderate anaemia (6-8 g/dL and 15% were with severe anaemia (<6 g/dL. Mean requirement of iron sucrose for moderate anaemia was 1100 mg and for severe anaemia it was 1300 mg. Mean requirement of packed cells for moderate anaemia was 3 units and for severe anaemia 4-5 units. In iron sucrose group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.1±0.8 g/dL, after 1 week 7.9±0.6, after 4 weeks 11±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 11.7±0.6 g/dL. In packed cells group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.0±0.7 g/dL, after 1 week 10.2±0.5 g/dL, after 4 weeks 10.3±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 10.4±0.4 g/dL. The mean haematocrit values in iron sucrose group at baseline 20.9±2.5%, after 1 week 25.3±2.2% and after 4 weeks 33.6±2.0%. The mean haematocrit values in packed cells group at baseline 20.8±2.3%, after 1 week 30.0±1.9% and after 4 weeks 30.2±2.0%. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 1 week in iron sucrose and packed cells group were 4.4±1.3% and 9.1±2.0% respectively. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 4 weeks in iron sucrose and packed cell group were 12.7±2.1% and 9.3±2.3 respectively. The mean ferritin values in iron sucrose group at baseline

  20. Effect of self-measurement of blood pressure on adherence to treatment in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A.W. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Kessels, A.G.; Nelemans, P.J.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Neef, C.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to treatment is one of the major problems in the treatment of hypertension. Self blood pressure measurement may help patients to improve their adherence to treatment. METHOD: In this prospective, randomized, controlled study coordinated by a university hospital, a total of

  1. Brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] incorporation and blood flow are increased in chronic alcoholics: a positron emission tomography study corrected for cerebral atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Umhau

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic alcohol dependence has been associated with disturbed behavior, cerebral atrophy and a low plasma concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3, particularly if liver disease is present. In animal models, excessive alcohol consumption is reported to reduce brain DHA concentration, suggesting disturbed brain DHA metabolism. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism also is abnormal in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: We compared 15 non-smoking chronic alcoholics, studied within 7 days of their last drink, with 22 non-smoking healthy controls. Using published neuroimaging methods with positron emission tomography (PET, we measured regional coefficients (K* and rates (J(in of DHA incorporation from plasma into the brain of each group using [1-(11C]DHA, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF using [(15O]water. Data were partial volume error corrected for brain atrophy. Plasma unesterified DHA concentration also was quantified. RESULTS: Mean K* for DHA was significantly and widely elevated by 10-20%, and rCBF was elevated by 7%-34%, in alcoholics compared with controls. Unesterified plasma DHA did not differ significantly between groups nor did whole brain J(in, the product of K* and unesterified plasma DHA concentration. DISCUSSION: Significantly higher values of K* for DHA in alcoholics indicate increased brain avidity for DHA, thus a brain DHA metabolic deficit vis-à-vis plasma DHA availability. Higher rCBF in alcoholics suggests increased energy consumption. These changes may reflect a hypermetabolic state related to early alcohol withdrawal, or a general brain metabolic change in chronic alcoholics.

  2. Laboratory evolution of Pyrococcus furiosus alcohol dehydrogenase to improve the production of (2S,5S)-hexanediol at moderate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Leferink, N.G.H.; Hendriks, A.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Hennemann, H.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of enantioselective alcohol dehydrogenases for the production of enantio- and diastereomerically pure diols, which are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and fine chemicals. Due to the need for a stable alcohol dehydrogenase with

  3. Initiation and continuation of best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption: Do self-esteem and self-control function as moderators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Granic, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we

  4. Initiation and Continuation of Best Friends and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption: Do Self-Esteem and Self-Control Function as Moderators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Helle; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we examined this relation not only with regard to…

  5. Initiation and Continuation of Best Friends and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption: Do Self-Esteem and Self-Control Function as Moderators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Helle; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we examined this relation not only with regard to…

  6. Effects of Moderate Strength Cold Air Exposure on Blood Pressure and Biochemical Indicators among Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiakun Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cold air on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated in an experimental study examining blood pressure and biochemical indicators. Zhangye, a city in Gansu Province, China, was selected as the experimental site. Health screening and blood tests were conducted, and finally, 30 cardiovascular disease patients and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. The experiment was performed during a cold event during 27–28 April 2013. Blood pressure, catecholamine, angiotensin II (ANG-II, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, muscle myoglobin (Mb and endothefin-1 (ET-1 levels of the subjects were evaluated 1 day before, during the 2nd day of the cold exposure and 1 day after the cold air exposure. Our results suggest that cold air exposure increases blood pressure in cardiovascular disease patients and healthy subjects via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS that is activated first and which augments ANG-II levels accelerating the release of the norepinephrine and stimulates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. The combined effect of these factors leads to a rise in blood pressure. In addition, cold air exposure can cause significant metabolism and secretion of Mb, cTnI and ET-1 in subjects; taking the patient group as an example, ET-1 was 202.7 ng/L during the cold air exposure, increased 58 ng/L compared with before the cold air exposure, Mb and cTnI levels remained relatively high (2,219.5 ng/L and 613.2 ng/L, increased 642.1 ng/L and 306.5 ng/L compared with before the cold air exposure, respectively 1-day after the cold exposure. This showed that cold air can cause damage to patients’ heart cells, and the damage cannot be rapidly repaired. Some of the responses related to the biochemical markers indicated that cold exposure increased cardiovascular strain and possible myocardial injury.

  7. Forensic-metrological considerations on assessment of compliance (or non-compliance) in forensic blood alcohol content determinations: A case study with software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela

    2016-08-01

    Blood alcohol concentration is the most frequent analytical determination carried out in forensic toxicology laboratories worldwide. It is usually required to assess if an offence has been committed by comparing blood alcohol levels with specified legal limits, which can vary widely among countries. Due to possible serious legal consequences associated with non-compliant alcohol levels, measurement uncertainty should be carefully evaluated, along with other metrological aspects which can influence the final result. The whole procedure can be time-consuming and error-generating in routine practice, increasing the risks for unreliable assessments. A software application named Ethanol WorkBook (EtWB) was developed at the author's laboratory by using Visual Basic for Application language and MS Excel(®), with the aim of providing help to forensic analysts involved in blood alcohol determinations. The program can (i) calculate measurement uncertainties and decision limits with different methodologies; (ii) assess compliance to specification limits with a guard-band approach; (iii) manage quality control (QC) data and create control charts for QC samples; (iv) create control maps from real cases data archives; (v) provide laboratory reports with graphical outputs for elaborated data and (vi) create comprehensive searchable case archives. A typical example of drink driving case is presented and discussed to illustrate the importance of a metrological approach for reliable compliance assessment and to demonstrate software application in routine practice. The tool is made freely available to the scientific community at request.

  8. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  9. The association between blood alcohol content and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among young adults attending high school parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten H; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Petersen, Jørgen H; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2014-03-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students attending high school parties. Participants included 230 students attending high school parties. BAC, measured by use of a breath analyzer, self-reported cheerfulness (on a score from 0 to 16), focus distraction (score from 0 to 8), and sluggishness (score from 0 to 4) were assessed several times during the party. Data were analyzed by means of linear regression, including robust standard errors and stratified on sex. For girls, cheerfulness increased up to a BAC of 0.113 g% and decreased at higher BACs. At BACs of 0.020, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.150 g% cheerfulness was 11.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4 to 11.6), 12.4 (95% CI: 11.8 to 12.9), 13.5 (95% CI: 13.0 to 14.0), and 13.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 14.4), respectively. For boys, the association was linear with an increase of 0.18 points in cheerfulness (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.36) for every 0.010 g% increase in BAC. Focus distraction increased with increasing BAC: 0.22 (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.28) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.33) points for girls and boys, respectively, per 0.010 g% increase in BAC. The degree of sluggishness increased only slightly with increasing BAC with 0.02 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05) and 0.03 (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.07) points for every 0.010 g% increase in BAC for girls and boys, respectively. Cheerfulness increased up to a certain BAC value for girls, while it increased linearly for boys. Focus distraction increased with increasing BAC. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Qualitative similarities in cognitive impairment associated with 24 h of sustained wakefulness and a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleti, Marina G; Maruff, Paul; Collie, Alexander; Darby, David G; McStephen, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies that have quantified fatigue-related cognitive impairment as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents have been limited by two issues: the effect of practice on tests of cognition and, more importantly, the statistic used to quantify change in cognitive performance. The current study addressed these issues by adopting an ABACA design, which allowed for the adequate control of practice effects, and by using effect size metrics, which enabled direct comparisons to be made in performance impairments as a result of fatigue (i.e. sustained wakefulness of 24 h) and alcohol (i.e. BAC of 0.05%). Cognitive performance under the fatigue and alcohol conditions required the use of the CogState battery. It was demonstrated that fatigue caused greater impairment than alcohol on the speed of continuous attention and memory and learning, and on the accuracy of complex matching. Alcohol was more detrimental than fatigue only on the accuracy of memory and learning. Performances on the remaining tasks were the same for both the fatigue and alcohol conditions. These differences and similarities in performance impairment are discussed emphasizing the deleterious cognitive effects of relatively short periods of sustained wakefulness.

  11. [Presence of psychotropic drugs in the blood of drivers responsible for car accidents, and who consumed alcohol at the same time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, C; Lacalle, H; Fryc, O

    1994-01-01

    The presence of psychotropic drugs was determined in 383 blood samples of drivers being responsible for car accidents, having taken alcohol as well. Benzodiazepines were detected in 52 cases and cannabinoids in 31 cases. The characterisation of these positive cases showed a majority of classic benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, and bromazepam). Even if the specific role of these two families of psychotropic drugs cannot be deduced from this study, the results should make drivers more aware of the dangers of the simultaneous consumption of alcohol and psychotropes.

  12. Influencing factors of human blood alcohol concentration detection%人体血液酒精浓度检测的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萱; 汪炜; 孟祥志

    2014-01-01

    In forensic identification,the blood alcohol concentration detection has to be conducted to get the evidence for drunk driving.Based on the fact that alcohol can be decomposed in human body and there are lots of factors that may affect the physicochemical properties of alcohol, this paper aims to review those factors that may influence the blood alcohol concentration detection, including blood specimen collection and preservation,detection methods, body corruption,diffusion of alcohol in the stomach and disease of the Decedent.It is suggested that all these factors should be considered in future forensic cases to detect accurately blood concentration of drivers.%在法医学鉴定中,为了给交通警察提供酒后驾车或醉酒驾车的证据,必须对驾驶员血液的乙醇浓度进行准确测定,酒精摄入人体后可以被转化分解,并且酒精的理化性质可受外界环境及诸多因素的影响。本文对影响血液酒精浓度测定的诸多因素进行综述,如:血液标本的采集、保存、检测方法,尸体的腐败、胃内酒精的弥散及死者生前罹患的疾病等因素,都可以影响血液乙醇浓度的数值,为了能真实反映当事人血液中的酒精浓度,在今后的日常工作中应该注意以上因素对血液乙醇浓度的影响。

  13. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  14. THE STUDY OF HEART MUSCLE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS

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    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol affects many organs, especially the liver, pancreas and brain. Although, the beneficial effects of mild or moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to coronary artery disease, excessive ethanol consumption can result in Alcoholic Heart Muscle Disease (AHMD. AIMS Alcohol consumption, mainly arrack, is common social problem in Mangalore. This study has been undertaken to assess the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patient with history of consumption of about 6 units of alcohol per day for at least 5 days a week for at least 5 years who were admitted to Government Wenlock Hospital, Attavar K.M.C. and University Medical Centre, Mangalore, were selected as case and studied. RESULTS Alcohol intake is predominantly observed in males, majority of alcoholic had high blood pressure, serum levels of CPK-MB and LDH are elevated in chronic alcoholic patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, premature ventricular contraction and sinus tachycardia were common findings in the electrocardiograms of chronic alcoholic patients and development of alcoholic heart muscle disease is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol intake. CONCLUSION Overall, the present study has found high morbidity from chronic alcohol consumption highlighting the need for preventive measures to tackle this preventable hazard.

  15. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin...... or equal to seven drinks/week. Smokers displayed similar results. Body mass index per se had no direct influence on haemoglobin levels but had indirect positive influence in men through its correlation with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking has an increasing effect on haemoglobin...... concentrations in both genders, which is proportional to the amount of tobacco smoked. The effect appears to be more pronounced in women. Likewise, high alcohol consumption has an increasing effect on haemoglobin in both genders, being most pronounced in women. However, in clinical biochemistry, the relatively...

  16. Effect of telmisartan on arterial distensibility and central blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Asmar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial wall stiffness is an important independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in hypertensive patients, which is further exacerbated by co-existent diabetes mellitus. Increased arterial stiffness is directly associated with an increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV and indirectly with increased central and peripheral blood pressure. Following a two-week placebo run-in period, 27 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and Type 2 diabetes mellitus, were randomised to once daily treatment with either telmisartan 40 mg or placebo for three weeks, and after a two-week washout period, crossed-over to the alternative treatment for a further three weeks. Carotid/femoral and carotid/radial PWV were measured non-invasively using the automatic Complior® device, and central parameters (central blood pressure, pulse contour analysis, and augmentation index were measured using the SphygmoCor® system, at the start and end of each treatment period. Compared with placebo, treatment with telmisartan significantly reduced carotid/femoral PWV (mean adjusted treatment difference -0.95 m/s, 95% confidence intervals: -1.67, -0.23 m/s, p=0.013, as well as peripheral and central diastolic, systolic and pulse pressure. In conclusion, the results of this study show that telmisartan is effective in reducing arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and may potentially have beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes, beyond blood-pressure lowering effects, in this patient group.

  17. Nrf2 expression is increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from mild–moderate ex-smoker COPD patients with persistent oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratta Pasini AM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Maria Fratta Pasini,1 Marcello Ferrari,2 Chiara Stranieri,1 Paola Vallerio,1 Chiara Mozzini,1 Ulisse Garbin,1 Giorgia Zambon,1 Luciano Cominacini1 1Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Diseases, University of Verona, Verona, Italy Abstract: Inadequacy of antioxidant nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated unfolded protein response has been implicated in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cigarette smoking-induced emphysema. As evidence suggests that the ability to upregulate Nrf2 expression may influence the progression of COPD and no data exist up to now in ex-smokers with mild–moderate COPD, this study was first aimed to evaluate Nrf2 and unfolded protein response expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of mild–moderate ex-smokers with COPD compared to smoking habit-matched non-COPD subjects. Then, we tested whether oxidative stress persists after cigarette smoking cessation and whether the concentrations of oxidized phospholipids (oxidation products of the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [oxPAPC] in the PBMC of the same subjects may have a causative role in determining the upregulation of Nrf2. The expression (mRNA and protein of Nrf2 and of its related gene heme oxygenase-1 was significantly increased in COPD group without differences in the unfolded protein response. Plasma malondialdehyde, the circulating marker of oxidative stress, and oxPAPC in PBMC were significantly higher in COPD than in non-COPD subjects. The fact that the expression of p47phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, was increased in PBMC of COPD patients and that it was directly correlated with oxPAPC may indicate that oxPAPC may be one of the determinants of oxidative stress-induced Nrf2 upregulation. Finally, we also demonstrated that lung function inversely correlated with plasma

  18. Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM overall and by body mass index. Methods. Cross-sectional study of employed individuals. Daily alcohol intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire by 5,512 Maori, Pacific Island, and European workers (3,992 men, 1520 women aged 40 years and above. Results. There were 170 new cases of T2DM. Compared to the group with no alcohol consumption and adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, the group consuming alcohol had relative risks of T2DM of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.65 in normal weight individuals, 0.38 (0.18, 0.81 in overweight individuals, and 0.99 (0.59, 1.67 in obese individuals. After further adjusting for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking habit, physical activity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and hypertension, the relative risks of T2DM were 0.16 (0.05, 0.50 in normal weight individuals, 0.43 (0.19, 0.97 in overweight individuals, and 0.92 (0.52, 1.60 in overweight individuals. Across the categories of alcohol consumption, there was an approximate U-shaped relationship for new cases of T2DM. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and IGT. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption was protective against diagnosis of T2DM in normal and overweight individuals but not in the obese.

  19. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  20. Moderator's view: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure for the prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Tripepi, Rocco; Torino, Claudia; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    Major health agencies now recommend the systematic application of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for the diagnosis of hypertension. Given the exceedingly high prevalence of nocturnal hypertension, masked and white coat hypertension and the overt inadequacy of peridialysis (pre-, intra- and post-dialysis) BP measurements, more extensive application of ABPM for the diagnosis of hypertension in dialysis patients would appear logical. In a recent survey performed in NDT Educational, organizational problems and/or cognitive resistance emerged as important factors hindering more extensive application of ABPM and home BP by nephrologists. External validation of observations made in landmark studies in a single institution about hypertension subcategorization by ABPM is urgently needed. Furthermore, apparent cognitive resistance by nephrologists may be justified by the fact that these techniques have been insufficiently tested in the dialysis population for applicability in everyday clinical practice, tolerability, organizational impact and cost-effectiveness. We should be more resolute in abandoning peridialysis measurements for diagnosing and treating hypertension in haemodialysis patients. Home BP is a formidable educational instrument for patient empowerment and self-care, and evidence exists that this technique is superior to peridialysis values to better hypertension control as defined on the basis of ABPM. We should strive to promote more extensive application of home BP monitoring to diagnose and manage hypertension in haemodialysis patients. ABPM with novel, user friendly and better tolerated techniques is to be awaited in the near future.

  1. Association of early systolic blood pressure response to exercise with future cardiovascular events in patients with uncomplicated mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Soo; Jang, Sun-Joo; Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Chong-Hun

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between blood pressure (BP) response during exercise and future cardiovascular events remains unclear. We assessed the association between an increase in early systolic BP (SBP) during exercise tests and future cardiovascular events in patients with sustained hypertension (sHT). Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 300 patients newly diagnosed with mild-to-moderate sHT without complications from the Asan Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring registry. All the patients successfully performed treadmill tests, achieving target heart rate according to the Naughton/Balke protocol. The patients were divided into quartiles according to their SBP at 8 min (7.4 metabolic equivalent tasks). The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death, new-onset ischemic heart disease and stroke. The 5-year survival rates did not differ significantly among quartiles 1-4 (100% vs. 96.6% vs. 94.4% vs. 98.3%, P=0.211). Relative to quartile 1, the 5-year event-free survival rates were significantly lower in patients in quartiles 3 (86.9% vs. 98.3%, P=0.023) and 4 (88.2% vs. 98.3%, P=0.023). After multivariable adjustment for covariates, the risk for the composite end point was higher for patients in quartiles 3 (Hazard ratio (HR) 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-17.13, P=0.020) and 4 (HR 3.65, 95% CI 0.92-14.50, P=0.065) than in quartiles 1 and 2. Cardiovascular risk was significantly higher in patients with stage 4 SBP (>180 mm Hg) even after adjustment (HR 4.00, 95% CI 1.19-13.44, P=0.025). Increased submaximal SBP response to exercise may be a predictor of future cardiovascular events in patients with mild-to-moderate sHT.

  2. Moderate hypoxia followed by reoxygenation results in blood-brain barrier breakdown via oxidative stress-dependent tight-junction protein disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M Zehendner

    Full Text Available Re-canalization of cerebral vessels in ischemic stroke is pivotal to rescue dysfunctional brain areas that are exposed to moderate hypoxia within the penumbra from irreversible cell death. Goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of moderate hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (MHR on the evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS and blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity in brain endothelial cells (BEC. BBB integrity was assessed in BEC in vitro and in microvessels of the guinea pig whole brain in situ preparation. Probes were exposed to MHR (2 hours 67-70 mmHg O2, 3 hours reoxygenation, BEC or towards occlusion of the arteria cerebri media (MCAO with or without subsequent reperfusion in the whole brain preparation. In vitro BBB integrity was evaluated using trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER and transwell permeability assays. ROS in BEC were evaluated using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF, MitoSox and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine. Tight-junction protein (TJ integrity in BEC, stainings for nitrotyrosine and FITC-albumin extravasation in the guinea pig brain preparation were assessed by confocal microscopy. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI was used to investigate NADPH oxidase dependent ROS evolution and its effect on BBB parameters in BEC. MHR impaired TJ proteins zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1 and claudin 5 (Cl5, decreased TEER, and significantly increased cytosolic ROS in BEC. These events were blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI. MCAO with or without subsequent reoxygenation resulted in extravasation of FITC-albumin and ROS generation in the penumbra region of the guinea pig brain preparation and confirmed BBB damage. BEC integrity may be impaired through ROS in MHR on the level of TJ and the BBB is also functionally impaired in moderate hypoxic conditions followed by reperfusion in a complex guinea pig brain preparation. These findings suggest that the BBB is susceptible towards MHR and that ROS play a key role

  3. Moderate hypoxia followed by reoxygenation results in blood-brain barrier breakdown via oxidative stress-dependent tight-junction protein disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehendner, Christoph M; Librizzi, Laura; Hedrich, Jana; Bauer, Nina M; Angamo, Eskedar A; de Curtis, Marco; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2013-01-01

    Re-canalization of cerebral vessels in ischemic stroke is pivotal to rescue dysfunctional brain areas that are exposed to moderate hypoxia within the penumbra from irreversible cell death. Goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of moderate hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (MHR) on the evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in brain endothelial cells (BEC). BBB integrity was assessed in BEC in vitro and in microvessels of the guinea pig whole brain in situ preparation. Probes were exposed to MHR (2 hours 67-70 mmHg O2, 3 hours reoxygenation, BEC) or towards occlusion of the arteria cerebri media (MCAO) with or without subsequent reperfusion in the whole brain preparation. In vitro BBB integrity was evaluated using trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and transwell permeability assays. ROS in BEC were evaluated using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF), MitoSox and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine. Tight-junction protein (TJ) integrity in BEC, stainings for nitrotyrosine and FITC-albumin extravasation in the guinea pig brain preparation were assessed by confocal microscopy. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used to investigate NADPH oxidase dependent ROS evolution and its effect on BBB parameters in BEC. MHR impaired TJ proteins zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin 5 (Cl5), decreased TEER, and significantly increased cytosolic ROS in BEC. These events were blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI. MCAO with or without subsequent reoxygenation resulted in extravasation of FITC-albumin and ROS generation in the penumbra region of the guinea pig brain preparation and confirmed BBB damage. BEC integrity may be impaired through ROS in MHR on the level of TJ and the BBB is also functionally impaired in moderate hypoxic conditions followed by reperfusion in a complex guinea pig brain preparation. These findings suggest that the BBB is susceptible towards MHR and that ROS play a key role in this

  4. Brazilian multicenter study on efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril in mild-to-moderate essential arterial hypertension. EMBATHE substudy with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kohlmann Jr

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study involving 34 centers from different Brazilian regions was performed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril, an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, in the treatment of mild-to-moderate systemic arterial hypertension. METHODS: Of 262 patients enrolled in this study, 127 were treated with trandolapril 2 mg/day for 8 consecutive weeks, and the remaining 135 patients received placebo for the same period of time. Reduction in blood pressure (BP and the occurrence of adverse events during this period were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: Significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic pressures were observed in patients treated with trandolapril when compared with those on placebo. Antihypertensive efficacy was achieved in 57.5% of the patients on trandolapril and in 42% of these normal values of BP were obtained. The efficacy of trandolapril was similar in all centers, regardless of the area of the country. In a subset of 30 patients who underwent ABPM, responders showed a significant hypotensive effect to trandolapril throughout the 24 hour day. The adverse event profile was similar in both trandolapril and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate, for the first time in a large group of hypertensive patients from different regions in Brazil, good efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril during treatment of mild-to-moderate essential systemic hypertension.

  5. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Al-Hindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES. It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs, serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05 decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  6. Occupational status moderates the association between current perceived stress and high blood pressure: evidence from the IPC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Emmanuel; Pannier, Bruno; Czernichow, Sébastien; Nabi, Hermann; Hanon, Olivier; Simon, Tabassome; Simon, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Frédérique; Bean, Kathy; Consoli, Silla M; Danchin, Nicolas; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-03-01

    Although lay beliefs commonly relate high blood pressure (BP) to psychological stress exposure, research findings are conflicting. This study examined the association between current perceived stress and high BP, and explored the potential impact of occupational status on this association. Resting BP was measured in 122 816 adults (84 994 men), aged ≥30 years (mean age±standard deviation: 46.8±9.9 years), without history of cardiovascular and renal disease and not on either psychotropic or antihypertensive drugs. High BP was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. Perceived stress in the past month was measured with the 4-item perceived stress scale. A total of 33 154 participants (27.0%) had high BP (151±14/90±9 mm Hg). After adjustment for all variables except occupational status, perceived stress was associated with high BP (odds ratio [OR] for a 5-point increase: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.09). This association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for occupational status (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.99-1.04). There was a significant interaction (P<0.001) between perceived stress and occupational status in relation to BP: perceived stress was negatively associated with high BP among individuals of high occupational status (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96), but positively associated among those of low status (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) or unemployed (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03-1.24). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. The association between current perceived stress and BP depends on occupational status. This interaction may account for previous conflicting results and warrants further studies to explore its underlying mechanisms.

  7. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  8. The effects of low alcohol beers on the blood alcohol concentration. [Die Wirkung von Bier mit geringem Alkoholgehalt auf die Blutalkoholkonzentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, W. & Vis, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade the consumption of low alcohol beers has increased considerably in the Netherlands. The improved taste and appearance of these beers, compared to those of previous years, combined with a more general trend for a healthier life-style might explain this increase. The permanent p

  9. Links between Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and Maltreatment among Adolescent Girls: Perceived Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Orientation as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…

  10. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and

  11. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  12. Comparison of the non-invasive Nexfin® monitor with conventional methods for the measurement of arterial blood pressure in moderate risk orthopaedic surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Felix; Habicher, Marit; Sander, Michael; Sterr, Julian; Scholz, Stephanie; Feldheiser, Aarne; Müller, Michael; Perka, Carsten; Treskatsch, Sascha

    2016-08-01

    Continuous invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) monitoring remains the gold standard for BP measurement, but traditional oscillometric non-invasive intermittent pressure (NIBP) measurement is used in most low-to-moderate risk procedures. This study compared non-invasive continuous arterial BP measurement using a Nexfin® monitor with NIBP and IBP monitors. This was a single-centre, prospective, pilot study in patients scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery. Systolic BP, diastolic BP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured by Nexfin®, IBP and NIBP at five intraoperative time-points. Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots and trending ability of Nexfin® measurements were used as criteria for success in the investigation of measurement reliability. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study. For MAP, there was a sufficient correlation between IBP/Nexfin® (Pearson = 0.75), which was better than the correlation between IBP/NIBP (Pearson = 0.70). Bland-Altman analysis of the data showed that compared with IBP, there was a higher percentage error for MAPNIBP (30%) compared with MAPNexfin® (27%). Nexfin® and NIBP underestimated systolic BP; NIBP also underestimated diastolic BP and MAP. Trending ability for MAPNexfin® and MAPNIBP were comparable to IBP. Non-invasive BP measurement with Nexfin® was comparable with IBP and tended to be more precise than NIBP. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Differential effect of severe and moderate social stress on blood immune and endocrine measures and susceptibility to collagen type II arthritis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Volker; Hemschemeier, Susanne K; Schunke, Kerstin; Hahnel, Anja; Wolff, Christine; Straub, Rainer H

    2013-03-01

    The effects of social stress on several blood immune measures and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated in Wistar rats using the resident-intruder confrontation paradigm to induce stress of different intensity. Male intruders were exposed for one week to a dominant opponent either repeatedly for 4h daily (moderate stress) or continuously (severe stress). Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of collagen type II (CII) into the tail skin at the end of day 3 of confrontation. Only severe stress was associated with decreased CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in granulocyte numbers and body mass loss was more pronounced under these conditions. Only severe stress reduced the susceptibility to arthritis by about 50%. Severity scores did not differ in the first five days after disease onset between all groups. Subsequent experiments focused on severely stressed rats indicated that disease progressed until day 10 only in control animals, but not in severely stressed males. Stressor exposure resulted in increased blood monocyte numbers, but these males failed to accumulate macrophages into the skin at the site of CII injection. High numbers of attacks experienced by intruders correlated with delayed disease onset in severely stressed rats. We hypothesize that severe stress persisting after disease induction exhibits beneficial effects on the susceptibility of CIA and propose that the specific endocrine and immunological profile associated with severe stress is an important factor for disease outcome--a factor which probably explains many of the conflicting data of previous stress studies on CIA.

  14. Translating evidence into policy: lessons learned from the case of lowering the legal blood alcohol limit for drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Shawna L; Sleet, David A; Elder, Randy W; Cole, Krista Hopkins; Shults, Ruth A; Nichols, James L

    2010-06-01

    This case study examines the translation of evidence on the effectiveness of laws to reduce the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drivers into policy. It was reconstructed through discussions among individuals involved in the processes as well as a review of documentation and feedback on oral presentations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated extensively with federal and non-federal partners and stakeholders in conducting a rigorous systematic review, using the processes of the Guide to Community Preventive Services to evaluate the body of empirical evidence on 0.08% BAC laws. The timely dissemination of the findings and related policy recommendations-made by the independent Task Force on Community Preventive Services-to Congress very likely contributed to the inclusion of strong incentives to States to adopt 0.08 BAC laws by October 2003. Subsequent dissemination to partners and stakeholders informed decision-making about support for state legislative and policy action. This case study suggests the value of: clearly outlining the relationships between health problems, interventions and outcomes; systematically assessing and synthesizing the evidence; using a credible group and rigorous process to assess the evidence; having an impartial body make specific policy recommendations on the basis of the evidence; being ready to capitalize in briefly opening policy windows; engaging key partners and stakeholders throughout the production and dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; undertaking personalized, targeted and compelling dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; involving multiple stakeholders in encouraging uptake and adherence of policy recommendations; and addressing sustainability. These lessons learned may help others working to translate evidence into policy.

  15. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  17. The Legal Importance of Blood Alcohol Limits for Driving in German Law with a Comparative Study of Emirati and Egyptian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI is a crime or offence according to the laws of most countries. DUI increases the risk of traffic accidents as well as the severity and outcome of injuries that result from them. Some countries have a sophisticated control system to monitor DUI of alcohol in all traffic accidents. There is variation between different countries regarding the concept of driving under the influence of alcohol as well as the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC and the requirements to test the victims of accidents. This paper reviews the limit values for BAC in German traffic law (Administrative Offences Act, which stipulates a BAC value of 0.50 mg/g and a breath alcohol value of 0.25 mg/L as a marginal value for the application of punitive measures. German criminal law defines the minimum BAC values of relative unfitness to drive and absolute unfitness to drive as 0.3 mg/g and 1.10 mg/g, respectively (1.60 mg/g for cyclists.The minimum BAC values representing significant impairment and absolute impairment in criminal cases are 2.00 mg/g and 3.00 mg/g, respectively. Different penalties and legal consequences result according to the BAC level of an offender. In contrast, only eight out of twenty-two Arab countries recognise BAC limit values only in traffic laws. In Jordan, the BAC limit is 0.75 mg/g (0.08 g/dL.in the UAE, the BAC limit is 0.094 mg/g (0.01 g/dL, while Egyptian law does not recognise BAC values in the application of sanctions: the mere presence of alcohol in blood, regardless of its concentration and effect, is a sufficient and adequate condition for punishment. Accordingly, this study encourages lawmakers in Arab countries to define the limit values for BAC when investigating any crime in general and traffic offences in particular, in close cooperation with forensic doctors and toxicologists. It urges them to consider different BAC and their effects in relation to traffic offences. It

  18. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  19. A versatile UHPLC–MSMS method for simultaneous quantification of various alcohol intake related compounds in human urine and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monosik, Rastislav; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intake has been associated with preventive as well as negative effects on health. However, the intake estimates are often based on subjective reporting and therefore biased and the types of beverages consumed are often inaccurately reported. Accurate and specific quantification of alcohol...... related compounds in biological samples may help to understand dietary exposure and metabolic kinetics. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and versatile UHPLC–MSMS method able of quantifying various alcohol derived compounds or potential effect markers. The method was thoroughly...

  20. Effects of isoflavone-containing soya protein on ex vivo cholesterol efflux, vascular function and blood markers of CVD risk in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a dose-response randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Fleming, Jennifer A; Link, Christina J; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-05-01

    Emerging CVD risk factors (e.g. HDL function and central haemodynamics) may account for residual CVD risk experienced by individuals who meet LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) targets. Recent evidence suggests that these emerging risk factors can be modified by polyphenol-rich interventions such as soya, but additional research is needed. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an isoflavone-containing soya protein isolate (delivering 25 and 50 g/d soya protein) on HDL function (i.e. ex vivo cholesterol efflux), macrovascular function and blood markers of CVD risk. Middle-aged adults (n 20; mean age=51·6 (sem 6·6) years) with moderately elevated brachial BP (mean systolic BP=129 (sem 9) mmHg; mean diastolic BP=82·5 (sem 8·4) mmHg) consumed 0 (control), 25 and 50 g/d soya protein in a randomised cross-over design. Soya and control powders were consumed for 6 weeks each with a 2-week compliance break between treatment periods. Blood samples and vascular function measures were obtained at baseline and following each supplementation period. Supplementation with 50 g/d soya protein significantly reduced brachial diastolic BP (-2·3 mmHg) compared with 25 g/d soya protein (Tukey-adjusted P=0·03) but not the control. Soya supplementation did not improve ex vivo cholesterol efflux, macrovascular function or other blood markers of CVD risk compared with the carbohydrate-matched control. Additional research is needed to clarify whether effects on these CVD risk factors depend on the relative health of participants and/or equol producing capacity.

  1. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  2. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, Eva; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to

  3. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van E.; Ploeg, van der T.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; Lely, van der Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to h

  4. Reduced sensitivity of red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase to ethanol in vitro in male alcoholic patients: relationship to clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, A C; Reilly, E; Overall, J E

    1986-10-01

    We examined red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase, its sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol in vitro, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and history in 41 newly admitted alcoholic patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Sensitivity to ethanol was significantly lower in the alcoholic patients and correlated negatively with ethanol intake. In addition, sensitivity of enzyme to ethanol was lower in patients with high agitation-anxiety ratings and correlated negatively with agitation and anxiety scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no relationships between (Na+,K+)-ATPase measures and depressive symptoms, history of treatment for depression, or family history of depression. These data suggest that tolerance to the effects of ethanol on (Na+,K+)-ATPase occurs in man and may be related to the severity of ethanol dependence or withdrawal.

  5. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  6. Effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruixing; Li, Hui; Wu, Jinzhen; Lin, Weixiong; Yang, Dezhai; Pan, Shangling; Huang, Jiandong; Long, Xiuyan

    2007-12-01

    Han is the largest group and Zhuang is the largest minority among the 56 ethnic groups in China. Geographically and linguistically, Zhuang can be classified into 43 ethnic subgroups, in which Hei Yi Zhuang is proved to be the most conservative subgroup. Little is known about the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure levels in this population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure levels for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. A total of 657 subjects of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and older were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. Information on demography, diet, and other lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. Anthropometric parameters and serum lipid levels were also obtained in all subjects. The results were compared with those in 520 participants of Han Chinese from the same region. The levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher than those in Han (P sodium intake, educational level, physical activity, and even genetic factors.

  7. A moderate metal-binding hydrazone meets the criteria for a bioinorganic approach towards Parkinson's disease: Therapeutic potential, blood-brain barrier crossing evaluation and preliminary toxicological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukierman, Daphne Schneider; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Castiñeiras-Filho, Sergio L P; da Silva, Anastácia Sá P; Miotto, Marco C; De Falco, Anna; de P Ribeiro, Thales; Maisonette, Silvia; da Cunha, Alessandra L M C; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Aucélio, Ricardo Q; Outeiro, Tiago F; Pereira, Marcos D; Fernández, Claudio O; Rey, Nicolás A

    2017-02-22

    Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases share similar amyloidogenic mechanisms, in which metal ions might play an important role. In this last neuropathy, misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) are crucial pathological events. A moderate metal-binding compound, namely, 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (INHHQ), which was previously reported as a potential 'Metal-Protein Attenuating Compound' for Alzheimer's treatment, is well-tolerated by healthy Wistar rats and does not alter their major organ weights, as well as the tissues' reduced glutathione and biometal levels, at a concentration of 200mgkg(-1). INHHQ definitively crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be detected in the brain of rats so late as 24h after intraperitoneal administration. After 48h, brain clearance is complete. INHHQ is able to disrupt, in vitro, anomalous copper-α-Syn interactions, through a mechanism probably involving metal ions sequestering. This compound is non-toxic to H4 (human neuroglioma) cells and partially inhibits intracellular α-Syn oligomerization. INHHQ, thus, shows definite potential as a therapeutic agent against Parkinson's as well.

  8. The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the burden of disease—an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard E.; Gmel, Gerrit; Hasan, Omer S. M.; Imtiaz, Sameer; Popova, Svetlana; Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Shield, Kevin D.; Shuper, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). Methods Systematic review of reviews and meta‐analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied. For liver cirrhosis, quality of alcohol was additionally considered. For all outcomes (mortality and/or morbidity): cause of death and disease/injury categories based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used in global CRAs; harm to others. Results In total, 255 reviews and meta‐analyses were identified. Alcohol use was found to be linked causally to many disease and injury categories, with more than 40 ICD‐10 three‐digit categories being fully attributable to alcohol. Most partially attributable disease categories showed monotonic relationships with volume of alcohol use: the more alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of disease or death. Exceptions were ischaemic diseases and diabetes, with curvilinear relationships, and with beneficial effects of light to moderate drinking in people without heavy irregular drinking occasions. Biological pathways suggest an impact of heavy drinking occasions on additional diseases; however, the lack of medical epidemiological studies measuring this dimension of alcohol use precluded an in‐depth analysis. For injuries, except suicide, blood alcohol concentration was the most important dimension of alcohol use. Alcohol use caused marked harm to others, which has not yet been researched sufficiently. Conclusions Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more

  9. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)).

  10. Reduction of the morning blood pressure surge treated with olmesartan in Chinese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension--a multicenter, open-label, single treatment group clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuan; Ke, Yuannan; Sun, Ningling; Wang, Jiguang; Deng, Wude; Zhu, Junren

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) in Chinese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension treated with long-term administration of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist according to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In a multi-center, prospective study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of olmesartan by ABPM in 18-75 years-old Chinese patients with mild to moderate hypertension (clinic diastolic blood pressure [DBP] 90-109 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure [SBP] olmesartan 20 mg once daily in the morning for 24 weeks. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted at baseline and at the end of 24 weeks. At baseline, patients with an MBPS > or = 23 mmHg were classified as the MBPS group (n = 41), and all other patients were classified as the non-MBPS group (n = 46). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) over 24 hours were reduced from 141.78 +/- 12.8/91.17 +/- 7.34 to 128.35 +/- 15.86/83.58 +/- 9.53 mmHg (p olmesartan were significantly different between the two groups (p Olmesartan effectively reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension, and olmesartan especially reduces the MBPS in MBPS-prone patients.

  11. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis with midgut volvulus, distributed in a patchy fashion, is reversible with moderate blood flow: resumption of normal function to non-viable intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hizuru; Uchida, Hiroo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yujiro; Kishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Midgut volvulus is a highly life-threatening condition that carries a high risk of short gut syndrome. We report a case of catastrophic neonatal midgut volvulus in which second-look laparotomy revealed apparently non-viable remnant small intestine but with a moderate blood supply. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis was distributed in a patchy fashion, with non-viable and necrotic areas distributed so widely that no portion of the intestine could be resected. A section of full-thickness necrotic intestine preserved at surgery was able to regenerate, and normal function was restored over a period of 1 month. This case indicated that intestinal resumption may be dependent on blood flow. Even when intestinal viability is questionable, preservation enables the chance of regeneration if moderate blood flow is present.

  12. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  13. Efficacy of olmesartan/amlodipine combination therapy in reducing ambulatory blood pressure in moderate-to-severe hypertensive patients not controlled by amlodipine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilo, Grzegorz; Koch, Winfried; Hoshide, Satoshi; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    This previously unpublished, preplanned analysis investigated the efficacy of the olmesartan/amlodipine combination at different doses on 24-h blood pressure (BP) control, as well as assessed trough estimation of trough-to-peak ratio (TPR) and smoothness index (SI). Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension whose BP was inadequately controlled after 8 weeks' treatment with amlodipine 5 mg. Patients were randomized to continue with amlodipine 5 mg or to receive olmesartan/amlodipine 10/5, 20/5 or 40/5 mg for 8 weeks (Period II). Patients not achieving BP control were uptitrated to a more powerful regimen for another 8 weeks (Period III). During Period II, each olmesartan/amlodipine combination reduced 24-h systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), as well as morning and early morning SBP/DBP, significantly more than amlodipine 5 mg (Polmesartan/amlodipine group than with amlodipine 5 mg, and SI values showed dose-related increases; olmesartan/amlodipine 40/5 mg produced a significantly higher SI for SBP and DBP (1.55 and 1.33, respectively) than amlodipine 5 mg (0.96 and 0.77, respectively, Polmesartan/amlodipine 40/10 mg. SI values increased in uptitrated patients and were highest with olmesartan/amlodipine 40/10 mg (SBP 1.62/DBP 1.41). The olmesartan/amlodipine combination effectively reduces BP over 24 h, including the morning hours, in a dose-related manner. Compared with amlodipine alone, the olmesartan/amlodipine combination has a better 24-h coverage (TPR) and a dose-related improvement in BP lowering homogeneity (SI).

  14. 血液酒精浓度对驾驶行为的影响研究%Effect of Blood Alcohol Concentration on Driving Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣婷

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of alcohol on the driving behavior, 13 different drivers′driv⁃ing behaviors, such as acceleration and braking, were tested under different blood alcohol concentration (0mg/dl、20mg/dl、50 mg/dl、80 mg/dl)and different scenarios based on driving simulator. The drivers′subjective feelings were also investigated. Results show that drunk driving, especially under high BAC, has an impact on driving behavior and may cause some dangerous driving behavior;gender and driving ex⁃perience also have an impact on driving behavior under different blood alcohol concentration.%为了探讨饮酒对驾驶员驾驶行为的影响,以驾驶模拟器为平台,测试了13名驾驶人员在不同血液酒精浓度(0mg/dl,20mg/dl,50 mg/dl,80 mg/dl)、不同场景下加速、刹车情况并调查了其主观感受。进行数据分析后初步得到一些结论:饮酒(特别是在较高血液酒精浓度的情况下)确实会对驾驶行为产生影响并可能会导致某些危险驾驶行为;性别和驾驶经验也会对不同酒精浓度下的驾驶行为产生影响。

  15. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  16. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart diseas...

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure on Historically Black College and University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Godette, Dionne C.; White, Sumitra Shantakumar; Tyson, William

    2009-01-01

    Drinking increases the risk of elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic ailments such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The experience of elevated blood pressure in young adulthood may be critical for the development of these diseases later in life. College campuses are venues replete with young adults, and drinking is a…

  18. Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06 g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer's card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems.

  19. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey S. Bbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is common problem in Uganda. Among the types of alcohols consumed include beers, spirits, liqueurs, wines and traditional brew. These alcohols are easily accessible and consumed by many people including the HIV infected patients who are on the d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intake on the red blood cell count (RBC and the RBC indices in the HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. It was a case control study that used a repeated measures design model where serial measurements of the red blood cell count (RBC and RBC indices were determined at 3 month interval for 9 months. A total of 41 HIV infected patients were recruited and grouped into two arms; the control group had 21 patients and the chronic alcohol group had 20 patients. The RBC and RBC indices of the whole blood were determined using automated hematological Coulter CBC-5 Hematology Analyzer system using standard procedures. The data was sorted into alcohol-use self reporting by WHO AUDIT tool and alcohol-use biomarkers groups. It was analysed using the SAS 2003 version 9.1 statistical package with the repeated measures fixed model. The means were compared using the student t-test. The mean MCV and MCH values in the chronic alcohol use group were higher than in the control group and there was a significant difference between the 2 groups (p<0.05 for both the WHO AUDIT tool group and chronic alcohol use biomarkers group. The mean RBC count, Hct, HGB and MCHC values in both the control and chronic alcohol use groups were within the normal reference ranges for both groups though the trend was lower in alcohol group. Chronic alcohol use affects the RBC and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP treatment regimen. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 528-536

  20. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  2. Alcohol consumption, genetic variants in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways and colorectal cancer risk: the JPHC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Thomas; Yamaji, Taiki; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-11-09

    The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) may vary secondary to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two pathways related to alcohol intake. 375 cases of CRC were identified among 38 373 Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study) participants who had returned a baseline questionnaire, reported no diagnosis of any cancer and provided blood samples. For each case, two controls were selected on matching variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine matched Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of enzymes in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways (e.g. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133) and CRC risk. Compared to never/occasional alcohol intake, moderate to heavy alcohol intake was associated with CRC (OR = 2.12, 95% CI, 1.34-3.36). When compared to the CC genotype, the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with CRC (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54-0.97). Never/occasional consumers of alcohol with the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype were also at a reduced risk of CRC compared to never/occasional drinkers with the CC genotype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47-0.98) (P for interaction = 0.27). The results indicate that the folate pathway is likely to be involved in alcohol-related CRC development.

  3. 采血管中添加剂对血样中乙醇含量的影响%Effects of Additives in Blood Collection Tubes on Testing the Alcohol Concentra-tion in Blood Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬娴; 贺江南

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss blood collection tubes with different additives and their effects on the testing results of alcohol concentration in blood sam ples. Methods Blood sam ples from 10 volunteers were collected 2 hours after drinking with seven different types of disposable vacuum blood collection tubes, including ordinary tube without anticoagulant, coagulant tube, separating gel-coagulant tube, sodi-um citrate (1∶4) tube, sodium citrate (1∶9) tube, sodium citrate (9∶1) tube and EDTA-K2 tube. The al-cohol concentrations in these blood sam ples were analyzed by headspace gas chrom atography. Results The concentration testing results of the sam e blood sam ples in different types of tubes were different from one to another. The sequence was as follows:separating gel-coagulant tube>coagulant tube>ordi-nary tube without anticoagulant>EDTA-K2 tube>sodium citrate (1∶9) tube>sodium citrate (1∶4) tube, whereas the results of the sam e blood sam ple in sodium citrate (1∶9) tube and sodium citrate (9∶1) tube showed no obvious difference. Conclusion It is better to collect a suspicious drunk driver’s blood sam-ple using a disposable vacuum blood collection tube, with the EDTA-K2 tube being preferred.%目的:探讨不同种类采血管对血样中乙醇含量检测结果的影响。方法分别用7种一次性真空采血管[无抗凝剂管、促凝剂管、分离胶-促凝剂管、枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管、枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管、柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管、EDTA-K2管]采集10名志愿者饮酒后2 h血液,用顶空气相色谱法检测血样中乙醇含量。结果相同血样用不同的采血管,其乙醇含量检测结果不同,依次为分离胶-促凝剂管>促凝剂管>无抗凝剂管>EDTA-K2管>枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管>枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管,柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管与枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管检测结果基本一致。结论采集涉嫌酒后驾驶的驾驶员血样,应选用一次性真空采血管,首选EDTA-K2管。

  4. 轻中度高血压患者血压达标后动态血压及血压节律的变化特点%Change characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure and blood pressure rhythm after blood pressure reaching standard in patients with mild or moderate hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩楠楠; 王其新

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨轻中度高血压患者血压达标后动态血压及血压节律的变化特点.方法 选择124名轻中度高血压患者,给予口服厄贝沙坦/氢氯噻嗪复方制剂(每片含厄贝沙坦150 mg及氢氯噻嗪12.5 mg)控制血压,目标血压值为<130/85 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa),根据血压达标情况增加药物剂量,观察时间为14~16 d.记录血压达标患者治疗前后动态血压参数及血压达标所需时间.结果 治疗后共70例患者血压达标,血压达标患者24 h收缩压(SBP),24 h舒张压(DBP),昼间平均SBP,昼间平均DBP,夜间平均SBP,夜间平均DBP及脉压在治疗前后差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).治疗后血压达标患者的血压节律构成比发生变化,正常血压节律患者的比例由治疗前52.8%增加至治疗后的81.4%,治疗前后血压节律构成比的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).血压达标患者中血压节律正常者与血压节律异常者血压达标所需天数分别为[(7.70±2.20)d vs.(9.21±2.63)d],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 厄贝沙坦/氢氯噻嗪复方制剂降低轻中度高血压患者血压的同时,改善了血压达标患者的昼夜血压节律.%Objective To explore the change characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure and blood pressure rhythm after blood pressure reaching standard in patients with mild or moderate hypertension. Methods The patients with mild or moderate hypertension ( n = 124 ) were selected and orally given the compound preparation of irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide ( 150 mg irbesartan and 12. 5 mg hydrochlorothiazide in one table ) for controling blood pressure. The target blood pressure was lower than 130/85 mm Hg ( 1 mm Hg =0. 133 kPa ). The dose of medicinal was increased according to the targeting state of blood pressure. The observation was kept on for 14-16 days. The parameters of ambulatory blood pressure and required time for blood pressure reaching standard were recorded in the patients after blood

  5. Honey-induced stimulation of blood ethanol elimination and its influence on serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, I

    2005-01-01

    The effect of honey on blood alcohol metabolism and the accompanying changes in serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure were investigated using volunteers. Fifty consenting undergraduates in apparent good health, between the ages of 15 and 30 years (23.6 +/- 7.4), were recruited for the study. The subjects were moderate alcohol drinkers (alcohol disappearance and elimination rates by 32.4 and 28.6%, respectively, but reduced the intoxication time (that is, the time taken to attain zero blood alcohol level) and its degree (the peak blood alcohol level) by 30.0 and 4.4%. Ethanol + honey further increased serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure by 20.8 and 1.3/1.4% when compared with the proportion induced by ethanol after about 10 h of ingestion. The occasional use of honey as an anti-intoxicating agent may be approved. Meanwhile, further studies on how to ameliorate or prevent the associated increase in serum triacylglycerol and blood pressure is required.

  6. Alcohol, Medicines and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... declines with age, older people reach higher blood alcohol concentrations after each drink than younger people. Meanwhile, as we age we become more sensitive to some of the impairments alcohol produces. On tests that require ... younger adults after a few drinks. Similarly, balance, concentration, ...

  7. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  8. Moderation in Australia-policy and achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Creina

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60% of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990-cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year.

  9. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C.; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Af

  10. Heart failure patients demonstrate impaired changes in brachial artery blood flow and shear rate pattern during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Lier, D.P. van; Bellersen, L.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate different exercise-induced brachial artery shear rate patterns compared with control subjects. What is the main finding and its importance? Moderate-intensity cycle exercise in HF

  11. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C.; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

  12. No Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Subjective Visual Horizontal Determination During Eccentric Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren; Svenson; Olsson; Ödkvist; Ledin

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating the function of the vestibular part of the inner ear comprises more than the classic analysis of the lateral semicircular canal function. In healthy subjects, positional alcohol nystagmus may be seen after acute alcohol ingestion. Posturography has shown a deteriorated equilibrium after even moderate doses of alcohol, which speculatively could be an effect of otolith disturbance or a central integrative effect. We tested the possibility of an otolith effect by using linear acceleration in the lateral direction by means of eccentric rotation, stimulating mainly the outermost ear's otolith organ. The subject is seated eccentrically in a rotatory chair facing the direction of rotation. Thus, the otolith organs are stimulated in steady-state rotation. The subject experiences a lateral tilt and, in darkness, is instructed to put a short light bar in the position thought to be that of a water surface, which is identical to the perceived tilt. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women) aged 20-29 years were tested before and approximately 1 hour after ingestion of alcohol, the amounts consumed corresponding to an approximate blood alcohol level of 0.05%, well above the maximum permissible level for driving in Sweden. No significant effects of alcohol were found. The otolith function probably is not affected by moderate alcohol intoxication levels. From this point of view, equilibrium deterioration due to alcohol ingestion in the erect position is caused by a central integrative deficit and not by an otolith effect.

  13. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial...

  14. Decreased MiR-155 Level in the Peripheral Blood of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients may Serve as a Biomarker and may Influence LXR Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is now a common risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Thus, it is important to explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples from 50 NAFLD patients and 50 healthy controls. In addition, human liver specimens were obtained through liver biopsies from NAFLD patients and healthy controls. The level of miRNA was studied using real-time PCR. The expression of lipogenic genes was analyzed using western blot, and a dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to identify the possible target gene. Adenovirus vectors were injected into the tail vein of the high fat diet (HFD-fed mice to study the role of miR-155 on lipid accumulation in vivo. Results: The level of miR-155 was markedly reduced in the livers and peripheral blood of NAFLD patients compared with healthy controls. Upregulation of miR-155 decreased intracellular lipid content and the SREBP1 and FAS protein levels, while inhibition of miR-155 enhanced the intracellular lipid content. The dual luciferase reporter assay showed that Liver X receptor (LXRα was the target gene of miR-155, and silencing miR-155 reduced the expression of SREBP1 and FAS. An in vivo study showed that upregulation of miR-155 decreased the hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by suppressing the LXRα-dependent lipogenic signaling pathway. Conclusions: In summary, decreased expression of miR-155 in the peripheral blood may be utilized as a potential novel biomarker for NAFLD screening mainly by targeting LXRα.

  15. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K.

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  16. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  17. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  18. Associations of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 levels in peripheral blood with lung function, cellular immune function, and quality of life in children with moderate-to-severe asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Shu-Xiang; Hao, Ying-Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric asthma has gained increasing concerns with poorly understood pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-12 levels in peripheral blood (PB) with lung function, cellular immune function, and children's quality of life (QOL) with moderate-to-severe asthma. Methods: A total of 1158 children with moderate-to-severe asthma (the experimental group) and 1075 healthy children (the control group) were recruited for our study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 levels. T lymphocytes were detected by alkaline phosphatase antialkaline phosphatase, and erythrocyte immune was measured by red blood cell C 3b receptor (RBC-C3bR) rosette-forming test. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were detected, after which FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) was calculated before and after treatment. PedsQL3.0 was used to measure the effect of asthma on QOL of children, and the correlation between IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 levels and the lung function and QOL was measured. Logistic regression analysis was applied to detect related factors of moderate-to-severe asthma of children. Results: After treatment, the decreased IL-4 and IL-6 levels and increased IL-12 level were revealed in the experimental group. The cellular immune function's disorder was significantly decreased, and an elevated CD3, CD4, CD8, and declined CD4/CD8 level was performed in T lymphocytes. RBC-C3bR was increased, and red blood cell immune complex (RBC-IC) was reduced in erythrocyte immune in comparison with those before treatment. Lung function parameters all increased. After treatment, the symptoms of asthma in children reduced with scores of increased QOL. IL-4 was positively related to RBC-IC, but negatively associated with the QOL score. IL-6 showed negative connection with CD4/CD8, RBC-C3bR, FEV1/FVC, and QOL score, and had positive connection

  19. Associations of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 levels in peripheral blood with lung function, cellular immune function, and quality of life in children with moderate-to-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Shu-Xiang; Hao, Ying-Shuang

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric asthma has gained increasing concerns with poorly understood pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-12 levels in peripheral blood (PB) with lung function, cellular immune function, and children's quality of life (QOL) with moderate-to-severe asthma. A total of 1158 children with moderate-to-severe asthma (the experimental group) and 1075 healthy children (the control group) were recruited for our study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 levels. T lymphocytes were detected by alkaline phosphatase antialkaline phosphatase, and erythrocyte immune was measured by red blood cell C 3b receptor (RBC-C3bR) rosette-forming test. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were detected, after which FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) was calculated before and after treatment. PedsQL3.0 was used to measure the effect of asthma on QOL of children, and the correlation between IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 levels and the lung function and QOL was measured. Logistic regression analysis was applied to detect related factors of moderate-to-severe asthma of children. After treatment, the decreased IL-4 and IL-6 levels and increased IL-12 level were revealed in the experimental group. The cellular immune function's disorder was significantly decreased, and an elevated CD3, CD4, CD8, and declined CD4/CD8 level was performed in T lymphocytes. RBC-C3bR was increased, and red blood cell immune complex (RBC-IC) was reduced in erythrocyte immune in comparison with those before treatment. Lung function parameters all increased. After treatment, the symptoms of asthma in children reduced with scores of increased QOL. IL-4 was positively related to RBC-IC, but negatively associated with the QOL score. IL-6 showed negative connection with CD4/CD8, RBC-C3bR, FEV1/FVC, and QOL score, and had positive connection with PEF. In addition, IL-12 was

  20. FULL-THICKNESS SMALL INTESTINE NECROSIS WITH MIDGUT VOLVULUS, DISTRIBUTED IN A PATCHY FASHION, IS REVERSIBLE WITH MODERATE BLOOD FLOW : RESUMPTION OF NORMAL FUNCTION TO NON-VIABLE INTESTINE

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Midgut volvulus is a highly life-threatening condition that carries a high risk of short gut syndrome. We report a case of catastrophic neonatal midgut volvulus in which second-look laparotomy revealed apparently non-viable remnant small intestine but with a moderate blood supply. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis was distributed in a patchy fashion, with non-viable and necrotic areas distributed so widely that no portion of the intestine could be resected. A section of full-th...

  1. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  2. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; Janssen, Wilbert M. T.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects on proteinuria and blood pressure of addition of dietary sodium restriction or angiotensin receptor blockade at maximum dose, or their combination, in patients with non-diabetic nephropathy receiving background treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhib

  3. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Waanders, Femke; Hemmelder, Marc H.; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; Janssen, Wilbert M. T.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects on proteinuria and blood pressure of addition of dietary sodium restriction or angiotensin receptor blockade at maximum dose, or their combination, in patients with non-diabetic nephropathy receiving background treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

  4. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  5. Características de los lesionados por accidente de tráfico con alcoholemia positiva Characteristics of road accident victims with positive blood alcohol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Martínez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar de las características diferenciales de positividad a alcohol en lesionados en accidentes de tráfico atendidos en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario. Métodos: Estudio transversal con sujetos de 18 años o mayores, lesionados en accidentes de tráfico, atendidos en el servicio de urgencias del Área de Traumatología del Hospital Vall d'Hebron, entre julio de 2001 y febrero de 2002. Resultados: La muestra incluyó a 431 pacientes. El 13,7% resultó positivo a la determinación de alcohol: se hallaron diferencias en los varones (odds ratio [OR] = 2,5; IC del 95%, 1,3-5,4 y los lesionados ingresados (OR = 2,7; IC del 95%, 1,3-5,4 y en los que fueron asistidos en fin de semana o festivo (OR = 3,7; IC del 95%, 2,0-6,9, de noche y madrugada (OR = 4,6; IC del 95%, 2,0-10,3 o durante la mañana (OR = 3,6; IC del 95%, 1,5-8,4. Conclusiones: Se ha determinado la existencia de subgrupos de lesionados en accidentes de tráfico con una mayor probabilidad de alcoholemia positiva, en los cuales deberían aplicarse programas de cribado y prevención secundaria más activos desde los servicios de urgencias y de traumatología.Objective: To identify the differential features of positive blood alcohol level (BAL in people injured in road crashes who were attended an acute care service. Methods: Cross-sectional study of persons aged 18 years old or older injured in motor vehicle crashes who were attended in the Traumatology Emergency Department of Vall d'Hebron Hospital (Spain between July 2001 and February 2002. Results: The study sample included 431 patients. A positive alcohol test was found in 13.7% of the sample. A statistically significant and independent association was found between positive BAL and male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5 [95% CI, 1.3-5.4], hospital admission (OR = 2.7 [95% CI, 1.3-5.4], being attended on a weekend (OR = 3.7 [95% CI, 2.0-6.9] and being attended during the night and early morning (OR = 4.6 [95% CI, 2

  6. Moderate Bravery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to act in a purposeful and effective way amid institutional tensions and paradoxes is, right now, a highly prized quality in public leadership. The purpose of this chapter is to qualify moderately brave acts as a learning format that combines the analytical and performative...... skills implied in this kind of agency. Design/methodology/approach: The chapter explores the engagement with paradoxes as a narrative praxis. From existing literature, it sums up an understanding of agency as a social process of mediating paradoxes in order to make action possible. Drawing on Northrop...

  7. A web application for moderation training: initial results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K; Delaney, Harold D; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-10-01

    Eighty-four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment advertisement were randomly assigned to receive either (a) training in a Moderate Drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM; www.moderation.org) or (b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3-month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week, percent days abstinent, and mean estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log drinks per drinking day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the Moderate Drinking Web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems.

  8. European multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Nilvadipine in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease-the substudy protocols: NILVAD frailty; NILVAD blood and genetic biomarkers; NILVAD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; NILVAD cerebral blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, O.V.; O'Dwyer, S.; Jong, D. de; Spijker, G.J. van; Kennelly, S.; Cregg, F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Abdullah, L.; Wallin, A.; Walsh, C.; Coen, R.; Kenny, R.A.; Daly, L.; Segurado, R.; Borjesson-Hanson, A.; Crawford, F.; Mullan, M.; Lucca, U.; Banzi, R.; Pasquier, F.; Breuilh, L.; Riepe, M.; Kalman, J.; Molloy, W.; Tsolaki, M.; Howard, R.; Adams, J.; Gaynor, S.; Lawlor, B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In conjunction with the NILVAD trial, a European Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo Controlled trial of Nilvadipine in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are four NILVAD substudies in which eligible NILVAD patients are also invited to participate. The main NILVAD protocol

  9. 院外快速血糖检测在急性酒精中毒的应用%Application of fast blood glucose detection for acute alcohol intoxication patient In prehospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班宇侠; 蒋小燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨院外救治急性酒精中毒患者时,应用检测快速血糖的意义和必要性.方法 对108 例因"急性酒精中毒"呼叫120救护车的患者行快速血糖检测.结果 血糖正常者54例;血糖<2.8 mmol/L 者13例;血糖≧11.1 mmol/L 者36例;血糖结果提示"Hi测不出"者5例.结论 急性酒精中毒患者的血糖 复杂多变,院外救治中应常规检测血糖,对血糖变化异常患者给予正确的处理,为安全转运提供保障,更 为院内进一步系统治疗提供依据.%Objective To explore the application of fast blood glucose detection for acute alcohol intoxication patient in pre-hospital.Method 108 patients who called for 120 first aid ambulance for acute alcohol intoxication were analyzed. Result The normal blood glucose;in 108 cases were 54 cases,anb blood glucose<2.8 mmol/1 were 13 cases; blood glucose ≧ 11.1 mmol/lwere 36cases; and there 5 cases can' t be detected.. Conclusion The blood glucose of acute alcohol intoxication patient were complexity, blood detection should be used in prehospital rescue regularly, and give proper treatment to abnormal glucose patient for provide operational security, and offer a reference for systematical treatment in hospital.

  10. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  11. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  12. Heart failure patients demonstrate impaired changes in brachial artery blood flow and shear rate pattern during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Nathalie M M; Seeger, Joost P H; van Lier, Dirk P T; Bellersen, Louise; van Dijk, Arie P J; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2015-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate different exercise-induced brachial artery shear rate patterns compared with control subjects. What is the main finding and its importance? Moderate-intensity cycle exercise in HF patients is associated with an attenuated increase in brachial artery anterograde and mean shear rate and skin temperature. Differences between HF patients and control subjects cannot be explained fully by differences in workload. HF patients demonstrate a less favourable shear rate pattern during cycle exercise compared with control subjects. Repeated elevations in shear rate (SR) in conduit arteries, which occur during exercise, represent a key stimulus to improve vascular function. We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate distinct changes in SR in response to moderate-intensity cycle exercise compared with healthy control subjects. We examined brachial artery SR during 40 min of cycle exercise at a work rate equivalent to 65% peak oxygen uptake in 14 HF patients (65 ± 7 years old, 13 men and one woman) and 14 control subjects (61 ± 5 years old, 12 men and two women). Brachial artery diameter, SR and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were assessed using ultrasound at baseline and during exercise. The HF patients demonstrated an attenuated increase in mean and anterograde brachial artery SR during exercise compared with control subjects (time × group interaction, P = 0.003 and P exercise and remained increased throughout the exercise period in both groups (time × group interaction, P = 0.11). In control subjects, the immediate increase in OSI during exercise (time, P exercise did not normalize in HF patients (time × group interaction, P = 0.029). Subgroup analysis of five HF patients and five control subjects with comparable workload (97 ± 13 versus 90 ± 22 W, P = 0.59) confirmed the presence of distinct changes in mean SR during exercise (time × group

  13. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  14. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; A Wijers, Albertus; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. After administration of the compound, participants were viewing pictures from the International Affective Picture System that represented a systematic variation of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. The outcome measures were a cardiac evoked response (ECR) and a cortical evoked long latency parietal positivity (LPP). Males with ASD had significantly higher plasma baseline levels than the controls. In the absence of general treatment effects, higher baseline concentrations were found to be associated with larger treatment effects, particularly in the group of males with ASD. Higher post-treatment plasma OXT concentrations were found to be associated with smaller treatment effects and larger orienting responses in the placebo situation in the group of controls. We interpret our findings as suggesting that it is the central availability of OXT determining how much of the nasally administered OXT will become centrally absorbed and how much of it will become released into the bloodstream.

  15. Combined effects of moderately elevated blood glucose and locally produced TGF-beta1 on glomerular morphology and renal collagen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Søren; Nyengaard, Jens R; Wogensen, Lise

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a correlation between renal graft rejection and blood glucose (BG) levels. Furthermore, diabetic patients may develop non-diabetic renal diseases, which in some circumstances progress rapidly. Since transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) levels are elevated in many renal...... diseases, the accelerated progression may be due to interactions between glucose and locally produced TGF-beta1. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mild hyperglycaemia on glomerular morphology and collagen production in TGF-beta1 transgenic mice. METHODS: To achieve BG concentrations of approximately...... is involved. This emphasizes the importance of strict BG control in renal transplant patients and diabetic patients with renal malfunctions unrelated to diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep...

  16. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Tolstrup, Janne S; Friberg, Jens

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship of the full range of alcohol consumption with risk of incident atrial fibrillation has been inconsistent in previous, mainly case-control studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort study, we studied the association between self-reported alcohol use...... not attenuate the association (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, at least among men. This relationship does not appear to be related to the adverse effects of heavy drinking on coronary heart disease or blood...... nationwide registry of all hospitalizations. A total of 1071 cases occurred during follow-up. Among both women and men, alcohol consumption throughout the moderate range was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation. However, consumption of 35 or more drinks per week among men was associated...

  18. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  19. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (Pswimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (Pswimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (Pswimming.

  20. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  1. Synthesis and Immunosuppressive Activity of New Amino Alcohol Derivatives(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Hao-yu; CUI Lin-lin; ZHANG Qun-li; LI Fang; JIANG Tao; LIANG Yong-tao; WANG En-si

    2011-01-01

    A series of new amino alcohol derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their immunosuppressive activity on mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes.The structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR,13C NMR,IR and MS.Most of the compounds display moderate to potent inhibitory activity.Compound 9d shows the most activity among them that are expected as a powerful candidate for safer immunosuppressant for organ transplantations and the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  2. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  3. Sensitive and precise monitoring of phosphatidylethanol in human blood as a biomarker for alcohol intake by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siming; Yang, Ruiyue; Ji, Fusui; Li, Hongxia; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenxiang

    2017-05-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a special phospholipid that is only formed in the presence of ethanol, and therefore, serves as a promising biomarker for alcohol intake. In this study, a simple, rapid and precise method based on LC-MS/MS combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed and validated for the measurements of PEth (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:1) in human blood. The influences of several variables for sample extraction and MS detection were carefully investigated. The extraction efficiencies for all the four PEth species were markedly increased compared with the traditional extractions. A limit of detection below 0.56ngmL(-1) was obtained. This high sensitivity makes it possible to monitor various alcohol consumption levels in light to heavy drinkers. Good linearity was obtained for all the analytes without interference from the sample matrix. The imprecisions of the intra-run and total assays were lower than 3.1% and 6.5%, respectively, with an average recovery of 99.87%. In addition, the utility of the method was evaluated in an alcohol intake status study. The results indicate that the developed protocol is simple, precise, and sensitive, and can be easily adapted for objective and reliable assessments of alcohol intake in clinical research.

  4. Relationship Between Smoking and Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure in Urban Residents in Hulunbeier%呼伦贝尔城镇居民吸烟、饮酒与血压水平的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏程; 林晓明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relationship between smoking and alcohol intake and blood pressure in urban residents in Hulun- beier. [Method] A total of 1 053 urban residents aged 18 and older in Hulunbeier were selected by cluster sampling. The data of basic sta- tus, smoking and alcohol intake were investigated by questionnaire survey, and the blood pressure was measured. Analysis of the relation- ship between smoking and alcohol intake and blood pressure was performed. [Result] The SBP and DBP of smokers were significantly higher than that of non-smokers, and the SBP increased with the smoking index. The SBP and DBP of drinkers were significantly higher than that of non-drinkers, and the SBP of male drinkers increased with the amount of alcohol intake from 0g/d group to 60g/d group. [Conclusion] Smoking and alcohol intake were the risk factors of blood pressure increasing.%目的:探讨呼伦贝尔城镇居民吸烟、饮酒与血压水平的关系。方法:采用整群抽样的方法抽取呼伦贝尔18岁及以上城镇居民1053人,问卷调查其基本信息和吸烟、饮酒状况,测量血压,对吸烟、饮酒与血压水平的关系进行统计学分析。结果:吸烟者收缩压(SBP)和舒张压(DBP)均高于不吸烟者,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05),随着吸烟指数的增长,吸烟者SBP呈上升趋势。饮酒者SBP和DBP均高于不饮酒者,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05),酒精摄入量在0-60g/d范围内,男性饮酒者SBP随酒精摄入量的增加而升高。结论:吸烟、饮酒是血压水平升高的影响因素。

  5. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); W.T. Meijer (Wouter); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractModerate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Data on alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis are scarce. To determine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease, the authors carried ou

  6. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse. PMID:26645625

  7. Antabuse treatment for excessive users of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, F

    1992-01-01

    Antabuse treatment has mostly been applied to alcohol dependent patients although the heavy users of alcohol are responsible for the major parts of alcohol related problems in our societies. The heavy users of alcohol should be identified both by the general practitioners and the hospital doctors...... in any field and the first intervention should be a health interview connected with a biological monitoring of alcohol damages and thereby many patients would be motivated for moderate drinking. If this is not the case, heavy users should be encouraged to a 6 or better a 12 months supervised treatment...... with Antabuse. This treatment has especially been effective in employees with work-related alcohol problems....

  8. Effects of a high-intensity interval training program versus a moderate-intensity continuous training program on maximal oxygen uptake and blood pressure in healthy adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Serna, Víctor Hugo; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Gómez Arias, Rubén Darío; Feito, Yuri

    2016-08-18

    Participation in aerobic exercise generates increased cardiorespiratory fitness, which results in a protective factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. High-intensity interval training might cause higher increases in cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training; nevertheless, current evidence is not conclusive. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the effect of high-intensity interval training with total load duration of 7.5 min per session. A randomized controlled trial will be performed on two groups of healthy, sedentary male volunteers (n = 44). The study protocol will include 24 exercise sessions, three times a week, including aerobic training on a treadmill and strength training exercises. The intervention group will perform 15 bouts of 30 s, each at an intensity between 90 % and 95 % of maximal heart rate. The control group will complete 40 min of continuous exercise, ranging between 65 % and 75 % of maximal heart rate. The primary outcome measure to be evaluated will be maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be evaluated as secondary outcome measures. Waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition will also be evaluated. Epidemiological evidence shows the link between VO2max and its association with chronic conditions that trigger CVD. Therefore, finding ways to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure it is of vital importance to public health. NCT02288403 . Registered on 4 November 2014.

  9. A comparison of breath- and blood-alcohol test results from real-life policing situations: a one-year study of data from the Central Hessian police district in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiu, Immanuel; Birngruber, Christoph G; Spencer, Victoria C; Wollersen, Heike; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2013-10-10

    So far, studies investigating the comparability of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) have focused on the accuracy of BrAC testing instruments. The presented study, conducted with cases from the district of the Middle Hessian Police Headquarters, is to the best of our knowledge the first to compare both methods under real-life conditions in normal policing situations. For a 1-year period, alcohol-impaired drunk-driving suspects, who were by criminal procedure required to give a blood sample, were offered a voluntary, additional BrAC test with a "Dräger Alcotest 7110 Evidential". The BrAC test was to be administered as soon as possible after the suspect had been apprehended, without, however, delaying the collection of the blood sample. Ninety-two cases could be included in our study. In 30 cases, a blood sample was not taken; in 11 cases, a BrAC test could not be performed. In the remaining 51 cases, we found the following pairings of BrAC and BAC results: BrAC≥0.55 mg/l and BAC≥1.1‰ (n=39); 0.25 mg/l≤BrAC<0.55 mg/l and 0.5‰≤BAC<1.1‰ (n=5); BrAC≥0.55 mg/l and BAC<1.1‰ (n=4); BrAC<0.55 mg/l and BAC≥1.1‰ (n=3). The mean value for the conversion factor, Q, was 2.12‰l/mg. In accord with numerous other studies, our study results would suggest a value of 2.1‰ l/mg to German legislature as a new statutory value for Q. In borderline cases, of which there were already 7 in our study with 51 cases, suspects could benefit both from a BrAC test or a BAC test, with the benefit lastly depending more on early testing time than on the test method used. Our results support the call for the earliest possible measurement of alcohol concentration values after a drunk driving offense was committed. In some situations, this can probably only be accomplished with BrAC testing. A supplementary blood sample and BAC testing could compensate for the known weaknesses of BrAC testing. Thus, the complementary use of both methods

  10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  11. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie:

  12. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims - This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design - A two (sex) x two (movie:

  13. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie: alcoh

  14. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  15. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  16. Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Americas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol problems in the Americas. This is followed by an analysis of 32 prevention strategies and interventions in terms of the evidence for their effectiveness, amount of research support, cost to implement, and other feasibility issues. Overall, the strategies and interventions with the greatest amount of empirical support are low blood alcohol concentration levels for driving while intoxicated, controls on alcohol availability, age limits on alcohol purchases, and relatively high alcohol prices. The implications of the evidence are next discussed in relation to alcohol policy initiatives in the Americas, based on an analysis of the extent to which strategies and interventions currently used in 25 countries of the Americas are likely to have a public health impact on alcohol-related problems. The countries that have adopted the policies with the highest expected impact overall are Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that almost all the countries of the Americas could improve the likelihood of preventing alcohol-related problems. Policy efforts in the developing countries of Latin America should focus on improving countermeasures against driving while intoxicated, measures that alter the drinking context, and limits on physical availability. For the developed, high-income countries of North America the goal should be to prevent deterioration of current drinking patterns and to reduce the overall volume of drinking. Given the low to moderate cost of many of the policies reviewed in this article, it now seems possible for communities and nations to substantially reduce the

  17. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  18. Variability of blood alcohol content (BAC) determinations: the role of measurement uncertainty, significant figures, and decision rules for compliance assessment in the frame of a multiple BAC threshold law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela; Zancanaro, Flavio; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of blood-alcohol content (BAC) is a crucial analytical determination required to assess if an offence (e.g. driving under the influence of alcohol) has been committed. For various reasons, results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. As a consequence, measurement uncertainty becomes a critical topic when assessing compliance with specification limits for forensic purposes. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate major sources of variability for BAC determinations; (2) to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine BAC determinations; (3) to discuss the role of measurement uncertainty in compliance assessment; (4) to set decision rules for a multiple BAC threshold law, as provided in the Italian Highway Code; (5) to address the topic of the zero-alcohol limit from the forensic toxicology point of view; and (6) to discuss the role of significant figures and rounding errors on measurement uncertainty and compliance assessment. Measurement variability was investigated by the analysis of data collected from real cases and internal quality control. The contribution of both pre-analytical and analytical processes to measurement variability was considered. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty was 8.0%. Decision rules for the multiple BAC threshold Italian law were set by adopting a guard-banding approach. 0.1 g/L was chosen as cut-off level to assess compliance with the zero-alcohol limit. The role of significant figures and rounding errors in compliance assessment was discussed by providing examples which stressed the importance of these topics for forensic purposes.

  19. The effect of alcohol priming on neural markers of alcohol cue-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Kelly E; Ghahremani, Dara G; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Priming doses of alcohol are associated with increased desire to drink and disinhibitory effects on subsequent control over drinking. Despite the importance of alcohol priming in the cue-reactivity literature, the effects of priming on brain responses to alcohol cues remains unclear. Furthermore, evidence suggests this relationship may be moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (six females; 90% Caucasian; mean age = 29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a priming dose of alcohol, each including a gustatory alcohol cue reactivity paradigm and self-reported craving measures. Self-reported alcohol craving generally increased and remained higher for alcohol versus water cue presentations across pre- and post-priming scans. Compared to alcohol cues delivered during the post-priming scan, alcohol cues delivered pre-priming were associated with greater activation in regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Controlling for alcoholism severity increased statistical significance of activation in these regions. Follow-up analyses revealed a positive correlation between alcoholism severity and pre- versus post-priming alcohol cue-reactivity primarily in frontal regions. OPRM1 genotype was also found to moderate alcohol cue-reactivity across scans. This study provides initial evidence of alcohol cue-elicited habituation in fronto-temporal regions, despite continued craving, following a priming dose of alcohol. Further, it provides preliminary evidence for moderating roles of alcoholism severity and OPRM1 genotype on priming-related changes in cue-reactivity, adding to our understanding of the function of alcohol priming in alcohol dependence.

  20. Increased behavioral economic demand and craving for alcohol following a laboratory alcohol challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; McCarty, Kayleigh N; Morris, David H; Tsai, Chia-Lin; McCarthy, Denis M

    2015-09-01

    Although increases in subjective alcohol craving have been observed following moderate doses of alcohol (e.g. priming effects), the effects of alcohol consumption on behavioral economic demand for alcohol are largely unstudied. This study examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on alcohol demand and craving. A between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to either an alcohol (n = 31), placebo (n = 29) or control (n = 25) condition. A laboratory setting at the University of Missouri, USA. Eighty-five young adult moderate drinkers were recruited from the University of Missouri and surrounding community. Change in demand for alcohol across time was measured using three single items: alcohol consumption at no cost (i.e. intensity), maximum price paid for a single drink (i.e. breakpoint) and total amount spent on alcohol (i.e. Omax). Alcohol demand at baseline was also assessed using an alcohol purchase task (APT). Craving was assessed using a single visual analog scale item. In the alcohol group compared with the combined non-alcohol groups, intensity, breakpoint and craving increased from baseline to the ascending limb and decreased thereafter (Ps craving following alcohol consumption was significantly associated with change in each of the demand indices (Ps craving as measures of moment-to-moment fluctuations in drinking motivation following intoxication. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Plasma circulating fibrinogen stability and moderate beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Caspi, Abraham; Zemser, Marina; Libman, Imanuel; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2003-12-01

    MODERATE BEER CONSUMPTION (MBC) IS CARDIOPROTECTIVE: it positively influences plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in beer-consuming individuals. The connection between MBC and blood coagulation is not clearly defined. Forty-two volunteers were equally divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups following coronary bypass surgery. For 30 consecutive days, only patients of the EG consumed 330 mL of beer per day (about 20 g of alcohol). A comprehensive clinical investigation of 42 patients was done. Blood samples were collected before and after the investigation for a wide range of laboratory tests. The plasma fibrinogen was denatured with 8 M urea and intrinsic fluorescence (IF), hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to reveal possible qualitative changes. After 30 days of moderate beer consumption, positive changes in the plasma lipid levels, plasma anticoagulant and plasma antioxidant activities were registered in patients of the EG group. In 17 out of 21 patients of the same group, differences in plasma circulating fibrinogen's (PCF), secondary and tertiary structures were found. The stability of fibrinogen, expressed in thermodynamic parameters, has shown that the loosening of the structure takes place under ethanol and urea denaturation. Also fluorescence stability of PCF was decreased. No changes in the lipid levels, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity or changes in PCF were detected in patients of CG. In conclusion, for the first time after a short term of moderate beer consumption some qualitative changes in the plasma circulating fibrinogen were detected: differences in the emission peak response, fluorescence intensity and all thermodynamic data. Together, with the decrease in the PCF concentration it may lead to an elevation of the blood anticoagulant activity.

  2. Cycling under the influence of alcohol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, D. de & Houwing, S.

    2014-01-01

    Accident statistics suggest that alcohol plays an important role in fatal accidents of bicycle riders. However, with which Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) cyclists ride their bike is not known. In particular on nights out cycling under influence of alcohol seems common. To evaluate prevalence of

  3. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders.

  4. Moderate drinking : No impact on female fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Looman, C.W.N.; Velde, E.R. te; Habbema, J.D.F.; Karbaat, J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of moderate alcohol intake on probability of conception. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Normal healthy women enrolled in an artificial donor insemination program. Patients: Women starting artificial donor insemination for the very first time were select

  5. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  6. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  7. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  8. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  9. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  10. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  11. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B;

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... without liver diseases. For comparison a control group of eight previous drinkers was tested. The skin test responses were modest initially with a median area of response of 12 mm2 (range 0-31) in the heavy alcoholics and 3 mm2 (0-15) in the moderate drinkers. It improved significantly in both groups...... after two weeks of sobriety. The responses stabilized after 8 weeks at 74 mm2 (54-102) in the heavy alcoholics and after 9 weeks at 63 mm2 (42-76) in the moderate drinking group. The control group had skin test responses of 70 mm2 (46-87), not different from the responses of the alcohol groups after two...

  12. Alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure as independent predictors of social drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Cox, W Miles

    2008-10-01

    Prior studies aimed at explaining cognitive-motivational reasons for drinking have focused on either cognitive or motivational factors, but not on both. This study examined the ability of both alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure to predict alcohol consumption. Participants were university students (N=87) who completed a battery of tests, including the Personal Concerns Inventory (a measure of adaptive and maladaptive motivation), an alcohol Stroop test (a measure of alcohol-attentional bias), and an alcohol-use inventory. Regression, moderation, and mediation analyses showed that (a) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias were positive predictors of alcohol consumption after participants' age, gender, and executive cognitive functioning had been controlled, and (b) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias independently predicted alcohol consumption. The implications of the results for both theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men). A randomi...... of moderate alcohol intoxication (1,4 g/l) does not impair motor performance, and no accelerated exercise-induced muscle damage is seen. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov......Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo...

  14. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines, Your Health ResourcesTags: alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcoholism, craving, Depade, drunk, hepatoxicity, intoxication, naltrexone, narcotic antagonist, opiate ...

  15. Exploring causal associations of alcohol with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in a Chinese population using Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Lu, Feng; Carslake, David; Hu, Zhibin; Qian, Yun; Liu, Sijun; Chen, Jiaping; Shen, Hongbing; Smith, George Davey

    2015-09-14

    Observational studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective for cardiovascular disease, but results may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. Mendelian randomization, which uses genetic variants as proxies for exposures, can minimise these biases and therefore strengthen causal inference. Using a genetic variant in the ALDH2 gene associated with alcohol consumption, rs671, we performed a Mendelian randomization analysis in 1,712 diabetes cases and 2,076 controls from Nantong, China. Analyses were performed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by sex and diabetes status. The A allele of rs671 was strongly associated with reduced odds of being an alcohol drinker in all groups, but prevalence of alcohol consumption amongst females was very low. The A allele was associated with reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased total and HDL cholesterol in males. The A allele was also associated with decreased triglyceride levels, but only robustly in diabetic males. There was no strong evidence for associations between rs671 and any outcomes in females. Our results suggest that associations of alcohol consumption with blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol are causal. Alcohol also appeared to have adverse effects on triglyceride levels, although this may be restricted to diabetics.

  16. Are alcohol policies associated with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2014-07-01

    To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling. Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) data set. Individuals aged 18-65 years. Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency and total drinking volume; gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates. Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were associated inversely with all drinking variables (P legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not associated significantly with alcohol consumption. Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. 乙醇所致精神障碍患者血细胞参数的研究%Research of blood cell parameters in alcohol-induced mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梦心; 何柯新; 麦静雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore changes of blood cell parameters in alcohol-induced mental disorders ,so as to provide a monitoring parameter for alcohol-induced mental disorders .Methods 120 cases of healthy people and 113 cases of alcohol-induced mental disorders were selected in our hospital from February 2011 to August 2013 ,the 113 cases of alcohol-induced mental disorders were taken to be research group ,and the 120 cases of healthy people were taken to be control group .Then blood cell parameters were measured by Mindray BC-6800 Automated Hematology Analyzer ,and then the results of the both groups were analyzed and compared .Results There were significant differ-ence of RBC ,Hb ,HCT ,PLT ,MPV ,LYMPH # ,MCV、MCH、RDW、NEUT # and MONO # between alcohol-in-duced mental disorders and healthy people ,and there were no statistically significant difference in MCHC and WBC between two groups .Conclusion MCV and MCHC level can be used as a monitoring parameter for alcohol-induced mental disorders .%目的:探讨乙醇所致精神障碍患者血细胞参数的变化,从而为乙醇所致精神障碍患者提供一个实验室参考指标。方法选取广州医科大学附属脑科医院2011年2月至2013年8月收治的113例乙醇所致精神障碍患者(患者组)和120例健康体检者(健康对照组),分别检测两组血细胞参数指标,并对两组数据进行分析和比较。结果乙醇所致精神障碍患者血液红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血小板(PLT)、平均血小板容积(MPV)、淋巴细胞计数(LYMPH#)明显降低,平均红细胞体积(MCV)、平均红细胞血红蛋白含量(MCH)、红细胞分布宽度、中性粒细胞计数和单核细胞计数明显升高,平均血红蛋白浓度和白细胞无明显变化。结论红细胞的MCV、MCH 的检测可以作为乙醇所致精神障碍的一个监测指标。

  18. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  19. Protection motivation theory and alcohol use attitudes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, C; Prentice-Dunn, S; Scogin, F

    1993-08-01

    Responses of 17 elderly persons and 20 VA inpatients with alcohol-abuse problems (all 60 yr. or older) to an Alcohol Attitude Survey administered by telephone and interview were examined. Inpatients felt more vulnerable, perceived higher costs in moderating drinking, and showed lower response efficacy. Inpatients consumed substantially more alcohol than the community-dwelling elders. Hypotheses for study were generated.

  20. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces......Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...