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Sample records for models typically involve

  1. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics (DLs) that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic...

  2. Eculizumab in Typical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) With Neurological Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Lars; Hartmann, Hans; Bange, Franz Christoph; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bueltmann, Eva; Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Thurid

    2015-06-01

    In typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) approximately 25% of patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement often leading to serious long-term disabilities. We used the C5-complement inhibitor Eculizumab as rescue therapy. From 2011 to 2014, 11 children (median age 22 months, range 11-175) with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-positive HUS requiring dialysis who had seizures (11/11) and/or were in a stupor or coma (10/11) were treated with Eculizumab. Two patients enrolled on the Safety and Efficacy Study of Eculizumab in Shiga-Toxin Producing E coli Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (STEC-HUS) each received 6 doses of Eculizumab, 3 patients 2 doses, and 6 patients 1 dose. Laboratory diagnostics of blood samples and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed as per center practice. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Cranial MRI was abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with findings in the basal ganglia and/or white matter. A 2-year-old boy with severe cardiac involvement and status epilepticus needed repeated cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. He died 8 days after start of Eculizumab treatment. Two patients with hemorrhagic colitis and repeated seizures required artificial ventilation for 6 and 16 days, respectively. At the time of discharge, 1 patient showed severe neurological impairment and 1 mild neurological impairment. The 8 surviving patients experienced no further seizures after the first dose of Eculizumab. Three patients showed mild neurological impairment at discharge, whilst the remaining 5 showed no impairment. The platelets normalized 4 days (median) after the first dose of Eculizumab (range 0-20 days). The mean duration of dialysis after the first dose of Eculizumab was 14.1 ± 6.1 days. In children with typical HUS and CNS involvement early use of Eculizumab appears to improve neurological outcome. In severe HUS cases which progress rapidly with multiple organ involvement, late treatment with Eculizumab seems

  3. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  4. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  5. Activity involvement among suicidal and nonsuicidal high-risk and typical adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, J J; Eggert, L L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare weekly activities among four groups of randomly selected high-risk and typical high school students: (1) potential dropouts at suicide risk, (2) typical youth at suicide risk, (3) potential dropouts not at suicide risk, and (4) typical youth not at suicide risk. Of the 1,286 participants, 39.4% of the high-risk and 30.1% of typical high school students screened in at suicide risk. Weekly activity comparisons across the four groups showed that suicide-risk adolescents, regardless of potential dropout status, engaged in more solitary activities on weekdays and weekends than did their nonsuicide risk peers. High-risk potential dropout youth engaged in less homework and more social activities during weekdays and weekends than did the typical high school students. These results provide important insight into the weekly activity involvement of at-risk youth while helping to gain a better understanding of suicide-risk adolescents. Implications of these findings are discussed for identifying youth at risk for suicidal behavior and for prevention programming.

  6. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....... are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...

  7. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  8. Improving Baseline Model Assumptions: Evaluating the Impacts of Typical Methodological Approaches in Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, R. L.; Kalcic, M. M.; Teshager, A. D.; Long, C. M.; Wang, Y. C.; Scavia, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability of open-source software, online tutorials, and advanced software capabilities, watershed modeling has expanded its user-base and applications significantly in the past thirty years. Even complicated models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are being used and documented in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications each year, and likely more applied in practice. These models can help improve our understanding of present, past, and future conditions, or analyze important "what-if" management scenarios. However, baseline data and methods are often adopted and applied without rigorous testing. In multiple collaborative projects, we have evaluated the influence of some of these common approaches on model results. Specifically, we examined impacts of baseline data and assumptions involved in manure application, combined sewer overflows, and climate data incorporation across multiple watersheds in the Western Lake Erie Basin. In these efforts, we seek to understand the impact of using typical modeling data and assumptions, versus using improved data and enhanced assumptions on model outcomes and thus ultimately, study conclusions. We provide guidance for modelers as they adopt and apply data and models for their specific study region. While it is difficult to quantitatively assess the full uncertainty surrounding model input data and assumptions, recognizing the impacts of model input choices is important when considering actions at the both the field and watershed scales.

  9. A typical case study involving bioassay measurements at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackett, E.M.; Babineau, G.; Hwang, H.S.; Laurenzo, E.; McCurdy, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    As a principal bioassay testing laboratory for multiple nuclear power facilities, the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory had the opportunity to evaluate the correlation between the temporal variation in in vitro and in vivo measurements and various models presented in ICRP Publications 2 and 30. Two contractors were involved in an incident which resulted in the intake of a number of radionuclides. Initial bioassay measurements, in the form of whole body counts, were conducted immediately after decontamination efforts. At this time it was requested that Yankee staff members take the necessary steps to perform a dose assessment. Extensive measurements, both in vivo and in vitro, were conducted on the individuals for several weeks following the incident. The three most prevalent gamma emitting nuclides (Cr-51, Co-58 and Co-60) found in fecal samples were also the nuclides detected in the highest quantities in the in vivo measurements. Nine gamma emitting nuclides found in Contractor A's fecal sample were not detected by in vivo measurements. The results suggest that the airborne radioactivity intake consisted of primarily nontransportable particles which were swallowed or translocated directly from the lungs to the gastrointestinal system. Results of the bioassay measurements are presented and comparison of the various analyses discussed

  10. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    Efficient and cost effective transportation and logistics plays a vital role in the supply chains of the modern world’s manufacturers. Global distribution of goods is a very complicated matter as it involves many different distinct planning problems. The focus of this presentation is to demonstrate...

  11. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  12. Generalized eigenstate typicality in translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Jonathon; Müller, Markus P.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a generalized notion of eigenstate thermalization for translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models: the vast majority of eigenstates satisfying a finite number of suitable constraints (e.g., fixed energy and particle number) have the property that their reduced density matrix on small subsystems approximates the corresponding generalized Gibbs ensemble. To this end, we generalize analytic results by H. Lai and K. Yang [Phys. Rev. B 91, 081110(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.081110] and illustrate the claim numerically by example of the Jordan-Wigner transform of the XX spin chain.

  13. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances

  14. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  15. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  16. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  17. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  18. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  19. A comparison of two typical multicyclic models used to forecast the world's conventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianliang; Feng Lianyong; Zhao Lin; Snowden, Simon; Wang Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces two typical multicyclic models: the Hubbert model and the Generalized Weng model. The model-solving process of the two is expounded, and it provides the basis for an empirical analysis of the world's conventional oil production. The results for both show that the world's conventional oil (crude+NGLs) production will reach its peak in 2011 with a production of 30 billion barrels (Gb). In addition, the forecasting effects of these two models, given the same URR are compared, and the intrinsic characteristics of these two models are analyzed. This demonstrates that for specific criteria the multicyclic Generalized Weng model is an improvement on the multicyclic Hubbert model. Finally, based upon the resultant forecast for the world's conventional oil, some suggestions are proposed for China's policy makers. - Highlights: ► Hubbert model and Generalized Weng model are introduced and compared in this article. ► We conclude each model's characteristic and scopes and conditions of applicable. ► We get the same peak production and time of world's oil by applying two models. ► Multicyclic Generalized Weng model is proven slightly better than Hubbert model.

  20. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  1. A planning model for a typical enrichement contract: a linear programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguez, J.D.G.; Barreto, P.M.S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The need to match the demand for enrichment services of a nuclear power plant program with the offer of a typical enrichment contract, taking into account all the existing constraints and flexibilities, implies in building up a mathematical model. For each set of demands, which can be fully supplied under contract, the model must furnish the best scheduling of the SWU quantities according to an economic criterium. Such schedulling consists of establishing the fractions of each SWU demand to be met and the respective dates. (Author) [pt

  2. An extended car-following model considering the acceleration derivative in some typical traffic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Chen, Dong; Liu, Weining

    2018-03-01

    Based on the full velocity difference and acceleration car-following model, an extended car-following model is proposed by considering the vehicle’s acceleration derivative. The stability condition is given by applying the control theory. Considering some typical traffic environments, the results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the extended model has a more actual acceleration of string vehicles than that of the previous models in starting process, stopping process and sudden brake. Meanwhile, the traffic jams more easily occur when the coefficient of vehicle’s acceleration derivative increases, which is presented by space-time evolution. The results confirm that the vehicle’s acceleration derivative plays an important role in the traffic jamming transition and the evolution of traffic congestion.

  3. Models for the estimation of diffuse solar radiation for typical cities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirci, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In solar energy applications, diffuse solar radiation component is required. Solar radiation data particularly in terms of diffuse component are not readily affordable, because of high price of measurements as well as difficulties in their maintenance and calibration. In this study, new empirical models for predicting the monthly mean diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface for typical cities in Turkey are established. Therefore, fifteen empirical models from studies in the literature are used. Also, eighteen diffuse solar radiation models are developed using long term sunshine duration and global solar radiation data. The accuracy of the developed models is evaluated in terms of different statistical indicators. It is found that the best performance is achieved for the third-order polynomial model based on sunshine duration and clearness index. - Highlights: • Diffuse radiation is given as a function of clearness index and sunshine fraction. • The diffuse radiation is an important parameter in solar energy applications. • The diffuse radiation measurement is for limited periods and it is very rare. • The new models can be used to estimate monthly average diffuse solar radiation. • The accuracy of the models is evaluated on the basis of statistical indicators

  4. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Randall L.; Pacini, Benjamin Robert; Roettgen, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  5. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  6. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  7. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi eZoccolotti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN. Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37% to 52% of the explained variance when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69% and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colours as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs distal causes to predict reading fluency is

  9. Cooperative Problem-Based Learning (CPBL: A Practical PBL Model for a Typical Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiyah Mohd-Yusof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an inductive learning approach that uses a realistic problem as the starting point of learning. Unlike in medical education, which is more easily adaptable to PBL, implementing PBL in engineering courses in the traditional semester system set-up is challenging. While PBL is normally implemented in small groups of up to ten students with a dedicated tutor during PBL sessions in medical education, this is not plausible in engineering education because of the high enrolment and large class sizes. In a typical course, implementation of PBL consisting of students in small groups in medium to large classes is more practical. However, this type of implementation is more difficult to monitor, and thus requires good support and guidance in ensuring commitment and accountability of each student towards learning in his/her group. To provide the required support, Cooperative Learning (CL is identified to have the much needed elements to develop the small student groups to functional learning teams. Combining both CL and PBL results in a Cooperative Problem-Based Learning (CPBL model that provides a step by step guide for students to go through the PBL cycle in their teams, according to CL principles. Suitable for implementation in medium to large classes (approximately 40-60 students for one floating facilitator, with small groups consisting of 3-5 students, the CPBL model is designed to develop the students in the whole class into a learning community. This paper provides a detailed description of the CPBL model. A sample implementation in a third year Chemical Engineering course, Process Control and Dynamics, is also described.

  10. Typical worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    2017-05-01

    Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.

  11. Adult-onset Alexander disease with typical "tadpole" brainstem atrophy and unusual bilateral basal ganglia involvement: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakoe Kumi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alexander disease (ALX is a rare neurological disorder characterized by white matter degeneration and cytoplasmic inclusions in astrocytes called Rosenthal fibers, labeled by antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Three subtypes are distinguished according to age at onset: infantile (under age 2, juvenile (age 2 to 12 and adult (over age 12. Following the identification of heterozygous mutations in GFAP that cause this disease, cases of adult-onset ALX have been increasingly reported. Case Presentation We present a 60-year-old Japanese man with an unremarkable past and no family history of ALX. After head trauma in a traffic accident at the age of 46, his character changed, and dementia and dysarthria developed, but he remained independent. Spastic paresis and dysphagia were observed at age 57 and 59, respectively, and worsened progressively. Neurological examination at the age of 60 revealed dementia, pseudobulbar palsy, left-side predominant spastic tetraparesis, axial rigidity, bradykinesia and gaze-evoked nystagmus. Brain MRI showed tadpole-like atrophy of the brainstem, caused by marked atrophy of the medulla oblongata, cervical spinal cord and midbrain tegmentum, with an intact pontine base. Analysis of the GFAP gene revealed a heterozygous missense mutation, c.827G>T, p.R276L, which was already shown to be pathogenic in a case of pathologically proven hereditary adult-onset ALX. Conclusion The typical tadpole-like appearance of the brainstem is strongly suggestive of adult-onset ALX, and should lead to a genetic investigation of the GFAP gene. The unusual feature of this patient is the symmetrical involvement of the basal ganglia, which is rarely observed in the adult form of the disease. More patients must be examined to confirm, clinically and neuroradiologically, extrapyramidal involvement of the basal ganglia in adult-onset ALX.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  13. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  14. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2018-01-01

    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  15. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94

  16. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  17. Looking around houses: attention to a model when drawing complex shapes in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-09-01

    Drawings by individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically lack cohesion. The popular hypothesis is that this is a result of excessive focus on local-level detail at the expense of global configuration. In this study, we explored a novel hypothesis that inadequate attention might underpin drawing in WS. WS and typically developing (TD) non-verbal ability matched groups copied and traced a house figure comprised of geometric shapes. The house was presented on a computer screen for 5-s periods and participants pressed a key to re-view the model. Frequency of key-presses indexed the looks to the model. The order that elements were replicated was recorded to assess hierarchisation of elements. If a lack of attention to the model explained poor drawing performance, we expected participants with WS to look less frequently to the model than TD children when copying. If a local-processing preference underpins drawing in WS, more local than global elements would be produced. Results supported the first, but not second hypothesis. The WS group looked to the model infrequently, but global, not local, parts were drawn first, scaffolding local-level details. Both groups adopted a similar order of drawing and tracing of parts, suggesting typical, although delayed strategy-use in the WS group. Additionally both groups drew larger elements of the model before smaller elements, suggested a size-bias when drawing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermohidraulic model for a typical steam generator of PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C.V.M.

    1980-06-01

    A model of thermohidraulic simulation, for steady state, considering the secondary flow divided in two parts individually homogeneous, and with heat and mass transferences between them is developed. The quality of the two-phase mixture that is fed to the turbine is fixed and, based on this value, the feedwater pressure is determined. The recirculation ratio is intrinsically determined. Based on this model it was developed the GEVAP code, in Fortran-IV language. The model is applied to the steam generator of the Angra II nuclear power plant and the results are compared with KWU'S design parameters, being considered satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  19. General model of wood in typical coupled tasks. Part I. – Phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is focused on FE modeling of wood structure. This task is conditioned mainly by different organized structures/regions (tissues, anomalies... and leads to homogenization process of multiphysics declaration of common scientific and engineering problems. The crucial role in this paper is played by derivation of coefficient form of general PDE which is solvable by nowadays numerical solvers. Generality of supposed model is given by wide range of coupled physical fields included in the model. Used approach summarizes and brings together models for various fields of matter and energy common in wood material in wood drying process, but is also suitable for a lot of different tasks of similar materials. Namely microwave drying of wood with orthotropic, visco-elastic material properties together with time, moisture and temperature dependency of structural strains by modified mechanical properties were included. Specific matrixes of elasticity for in­di­vi­dual fields were derived. Thermal field in wood was described by conduction type of spreading. Coupling of physical fields is based on diffusive character of temperature, moisture, static pressure fields movement.

  20. Numerical modeling for longwall pillar design: a case study from a typical longwall panel in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangchao; Liang, Saijiang; Tan, Yunliang; Xie, Fuxing; Chen, Shaojie; Jia, Hongguo

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new numerical modeling procedure and design principle for longwall pillar design with the assistance of numerical simulation of FLAC3D. A coal mine located in Yanzhou city, Shandong Province, China, was selected for this case study. A meticulously validated numerical model was developed to investigate the stress changes across the longwall pillar with various sizes. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical modeling, a calibration procedure is undertaken to match the Salamon and Munro pillar strength formula for the coal pillar, while a similar calibration procedure is used to estimate the stress-strain response of a gob. The model results demonstrated that when the coal pillar width was 7-8 m, most of the vertical load was carried by the panel rib, whilst the gateroad was overall in a relatively low stress environment and could keep its stability with proper supports. Thus, the rational longwall pillar width was set as 8 m and the field monitoring results confirmed the feasibility of this pillar size. The proposed numerical simulation procedure and design principle presented in this study could be a viable alternative approach for longwall pillar design for other similar projects.

  1. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  2. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl 2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO 4 layer formation. • MgSO 4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO 3 induced the formation of MgCO 3 as a degradation product

  3. Simplified CFD model of coolant channels typical of a plate-type fuel element: an exhaustive verification of the simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: javier.mantecon@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)

  4. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  5. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10 5 years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core

  6. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Paul R. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue # 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. [Ames Research Center, NASA, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morgan, Demitri A., E-mail: Paul.R.Estrada@nasa.gov [USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10{sup 5} years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core.

  7. The effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on the electrical activity of the brain in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oytun Erbaş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antipsychotic drugs are known to have strongeffect on the bioelectric activity in the brain. However,some studies addressing the changes on electroencephalography(EEG caused by typical and atypical antipsychoticdrugs are conflicting. We aimed to compare the effectsof typical and atypical antipsychotics on the electricalactivity in the brain via EEG recordings in a rat model.Methods: Thirty-two Sprague Dawley adult male ratswere used in the study. The rats were divided into fivegroups, randomly (n=7, for each group. The first groupwas used as control group and administered 1 ml/kg salineintraperitoneally (IP. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg (group 2,chlorpromazine (5 mg/kg (group 3, olanzapine (1 mg/kg(group 4, ziprasidone (1 mg/ kg (group 5 were injectedIP for five consecutive days. Then, EEG recordings ofeach group were taken for 30 minutes.Results: The percentages of delta and theta waves inhaloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine and ziprasidonegroups were found to have a highly significant differencecompared with the saline administration group (p<0.001.The theta waves in the olanzapine and ziprasidonegroups were increased compared with haloperidol andchlorpromazine groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The typical and atypical antipsychotic drugsmay be risk factor for EEG abnormalities. This studyshows that antipsychotic drugs should be used with caution.J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 279-284Key words: Haloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine,ziprasidone, EEG, rat

  8. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  9. Designing and testing lightweight shoulder prostheses with hybrid actuators for movements involved in typical activities of daily living and impact absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekine M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Masashi Sekine,1,2 Kahori Kita,1 Wenwei Yu1 1Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Unlike forearm amputees, transhumeral amputees have residual stumps that are too small to provide a sufficient range of operation for their prosthetic parts to perform usual activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is difficult for small residual stumps to provide sufficient impact absorption for safe manipulation in daily living, as intact arms do. Therefore, substitution of upper limb function in transhumeral amputees requires a sufficient range of motion and sufficient viscoelasticity for shoulder prostheses under critical weight and dimension constraints. We propose the use of two different types of actuators, ie, pneumatic elastic actuators (PEAs and servo motors. PEAs offer high power-to-weight performance and have intrinsic viscoelasticity in comparison with motors or standard industrial pneumatic cylinder actuators. However, the usefulness of PEAs in large working spaces is limited because of their short strokes. Servo motors, in contrast, can be used to achieve large ranges of motion. In this study, the relationship between the force and stroke of PEAs was investigated. The impact absorption of both types of actuators was measured using a single degree-of-freedom prototype to evaluate actuator compliance for safety purposes. Based on the fundamental properties of the actuators identified, a four degree-of-freedom robotic arm is proposed for prosthetic use. The configuration of the actuators and functional parts was designed to achieve a specified range of motion and torque calculated from the results of a simulation of typical movements performed in usual activities of daily living. Our experimental results showed that the requirements for the shoulder prostheses could be satisfied. Keywords: shoulder prosthesis, hybrid actuation, pneumatic elastic actuator, antagonistic

  10. Designing and testing lightweight shoulder prostheses with hybrid actuators for movements involved in typical activities of daily living and impact absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Masashi; Kita, Kahori; Yu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Unlike forearm amputees, transhumeral amputees have residual stumps that are too small to provide a sufficient range of operation for their prosthetic parts to perform usual activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is difficult for small residual stumps to provide sufficient impact absorption for safe manipulation in daily living, as intact arms do. Therefore, substitution of upper limb function in transhumeral amputees requires a sufficient range of motion and sufficient viscoelasticity for shoulder prostheses under critical weight and dimension constraints. We propose the use of two different types of actuators, ie, pneumatic elastic actuators (PEAs) and servo motors. PEAs offer high power-to-weight performance and have intrinsic viscoelasticity in comparison with motors or standard industrial pneumatic cylinder actuators. However, the usefulness of PEAs in large working spaces is limited because of their short strokes. Servo motors, in contrast, can be used to achieve large ranges of motion. In this study, the relationship between the force and stroke of PEAs was investigated. The impact absorption of both types of actuators was measured using a single degree-of-freedom prototype to evaluate actuator compliance for safety purposes. Based on the fundamental properties of the actuators identified, a four degree-of-freedom robotic arm is proposed for prosthetic use. The configuration of the actuators and functional parts was designed to achieve a specified range of motion and torque calculated from the results of a simulation of typical movements performed in usual activities of daily living. Our experimental results showed that the requirements for the shoulder prostheses could be satisfied.

  11. Competency modeling targeted on promotion of organizations towards VO involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermilova, E.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, a number of models is introduced in research, addressing different perspectives of the organizations’ competencies in collaborative networks. This paper introduces the "4C-model", developed to address competencies of organizations, involved in Virtual organizations Breeding

  12. Identification of a Typical CSTR Using Optimal Focused Time Lagged Recurrent Neural Network Model with Gamma Memory Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Naikwad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A focused time lagged recurrent neural network (FTLR NN with gamma memory filter is designed to learn the subtle complex dynamics of a typical CSTR process. Continuous stirred tank reactor exhibits complex nonlinear operations where reaction is exothermic. It is noticed from literature review that process control of CSTR using neuro-fuzzy systems was attempted by many, but optimal neural network model for identification of CSTR process is not yet available. As CSTR process includes temporal relationship in the input-output mappings, time lagged recurrent neural network is particularly used for identification purpose. The standard back propagation algorithm with momentum term has been proposed in this model. The various parameters like number of processing elements, number of hidden layers, training and testing percentage, learning rule and transfer function in hidden and output layer are investigated on the basis of performance measures like MSE, NMSE, and correlation coefficient on testing data set. Finally effects of different norms are tested along with variation in gamma memory filter. It is demonstrated that dynamic NN model has a remarkable system identification capability for the problems considered in this paper. Thus FTLR NN with gamma memory filter can be used to learn underlying highly nonlinear dynamics of the system, which is a major contribution of this paper.

  13. On the modelling of microsegregation in steels involving thermodynamic databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, D; Bernhard, C; Michelic, S; Wieser, G; Presoly, P

    2016-01-01

    A microsegregation model involving thermodynamic database based on Ohnaka's model is proposed. In the model, the thermodynamic database is applied for equilibrium calculation. Multicomponent alloy effects on partition coefficients and equilibrium temperatures are accounted for. Microsegregation and partition coefficients calculated using different databases exhibit significant differences. The segregated concentrations predicted using the optimized database are in good agreement with the measured inter-dendritic concentrations. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  15. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  16. Modeling of modification experiments involving neutral-gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many experiments involve the injection of neutral gases into the upper atmosphere. Examples are critical velocity experiments, MHD wave generation, ionospheric hole production, plasma striation formation, and ion tracing. Many of these experiments are discussed in other sessions of the Active Experiments Conference. This paper limits its discussion to: (1) the modeling of the neutral gas dynamics after injection, (2) subsequent formation of ionosphere holes, and (3) use of such holes as experimental tools

  17. Fires involving radioactive materials : transference model; operative recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In all aspects related to the nuclear activity, the occurrence of an explosion, fire or burst type accident, with or without victims, is directly related to the characteristics of the site. The present work analyses the different parameters involved, describing a transference model and recommendations for evaluation and control of the radiological risk for firemen. Special emphasis is placed on the measurement of the variables existing in this kind of operations

  18. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eFuelscher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level (i.e., motor imagery. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years and adults (18-34 years allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of motor imagery. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers.

  19. Research on Soft Reduction Amount Distribution to Eliminate Typical Inter-dendritic Crack in Continuous Casting Slab of X70 Pipeline Steel by Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Wang, Chang; Liu, Guo-liang; Ding, Ning; Sun, Qi-song; Tian, Zhi-hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the formation of one kind of typical inter-dendritic crack around triple point region in continuous casting(CC) slab during the operation of soft reduction, fully coupled 3D thermo-mechanical finite element models was developed, also plant trials were carried out in a domestic continuous casting machine. Three possible types of soft reduction amount distribution (SRAD) in the soft reduction region were analyzed. The relationship between the typical inter-dendritic cracks and soft reduction conditions is presented and demonstrated in production practice. Considering the critical strain of internal crack formation, a critical tolerance for the soft reduction amount distribution and related casing parameters have been proposed for better contribution of soft reduction to the internal quality of slabs. The typical inter-dendritic crack around the triple point region had been eliminated effectively through the application of proposed suggestions for continuous casting of X70 pipeline steel in industrial practice.

  20. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental simulation and numerical modeling of vapor shield formation and divertor material erosion for ITER typical plasma disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuerz, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INR, Postfach 36 40, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arkhipov, N.I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Bakhtin, V.P. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Konkashbaev, I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Landman, I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Toporkov, D.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The high divertor heat load during a tokamak plasma disruption results in sudden evaporation of a thin layer of divertor plate material, which acts as vapor shield and protects the target from further excessive evaporation. Formation and effectiveness of the vapor shield are theoretically modeled and are experimentally analyzed at the 2MK-200 facility under conditions simulating the thermal quench phase of ITER tokamak plasma disruptions. ((orig.)).

  2. Numerical modeling and experimental simulation of vapor shield formation and divertor material erosion for ITER typical plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Bakhin, V.P.; Goel, B.; Hoebel, W.; Konkashbaev, I.; Landman, I.; Piazza, G.; Safronov, V.M.; Sherbakov, A.R.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The high divertor heat load during a tokamak plasma disruption results in sudden evaporation of a thin layer of divertor plate material, which acts as vapor shield and protects the target from further excessive evaporation. Formation and effectiveness of the vapor shield are theoretically modeled and experimentally investigated at the 2MK-200 facility under conditions simulating the thermal quench phase of ITER tokamak plasma disruptions. In the optical wavelength range C II, C III, C IV emission lines for graphite, Cu I, Cu II lines for copper and continuum radiation for tungsten samples are observed in the target plasma. The plasma expands along the magnetic field lines with velocities of (4±1)x10 6 cm/s for graphite and 10 5 cm/s for copper. Modeling was done with a radiation hydrodynamics code in one-dimensional planar geometry. The multifrequency radiation transport is treated in flux limited diffusion and in forward reverse transport approximation. In these first modeling studies the overall shielding efficiency for carbon and tungsten defined as ratio of the incident energy and the vaporization energy for power densities of 10 MW/cm 2 exceeds a factor of 30. The vapor shield is established within 2 μs, the power fraction to the target after 10 μs is below 3% and reaches in the stationary state after about 20 μs a value of around 1.5%. ((orig.))

  3. The Optimal Price Ratio of Typical Energy Sources in Beijing Based on the Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.

  4. CMAQ Involvement in Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Different chemical transport models are applied by different groups over North America and Europe and evaluated against observations.

  5. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation: a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In authors' previous work (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi: 10.1007/s00339-016-0371-6, 2016), the nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy was investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The characters of unloading curves were discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model was proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior of the studied Ni-based superalloy. Still, the functional relationships between the deformation temperature, strain rate, pre-strain and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model need to be established. In this study, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain on the parameters of the new constitutive model proposed in authors' previous work (Chen et al. 2016) are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain.

  6. Hippocampal and striatal involvement in cognitive tasks: a computational model

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Chersi; Neil, Burgess

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum support episodic and procedural memory, respectively, and "place" and "response" learning within spatial navigation. Recently this dichotomy has been linked to "model-based" and "model-free" reinforcement learning. Here we present a well-constrained neural model of how both systems support spatial navigation, and apply the same model to more abstract problems such as sequential decision making. In particular, we show that if a task can be transformed into a Ma...

  7. Spatial Extent Models for Natural Language Phrases Involving Directional Containment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, G.; de By, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of assigning a spatial extent to a text phrase such as central northern California', with the objective of allowing spatial interpretations of natural language, and consistency testing of complex utterances that involve multiple phrases from which spatial extent can be derived.

  8. Involving stakeholders in building integrated fisheries models using Bayesian methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology...

  9. Involving stakeholders in building integrated fisheries models using Bayesian methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders...... on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame...... the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology...

  10. Constraining parameters in state-of-the-art marine pelagic biogeochemical models. Is it sufficient to use typical observations of standing-stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeptien, Ulrike; Dietze, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    In order to constrain potential feedbacks in the climate system, simple pelagic biogeochemical models (BGCMs) are coupled to 3-dimensional ocean-atmosphere models. These so-called earth system models are frequently applied to calculate climate projections. All BGCs rely on a set of rather uncertain parameters. Among them are generally the Michaelis Menten (MM) constants, utilized in the hyperbolic MM- formulation (which specifies the limiting effect of light and nutrients on carbon assimilation by autotrophic phytoplankton). All model parameters are typically tuned in rather subjective trial-and-error exercises where the parameters are changed manually until a "reasonable" similarity with observed standing stocks is achieved. In the present study, we explore with twin experiments (or synthetic ``observations") the demands on observations that would allow for a more objective estimation of model parameters. These parameter retrieval experiments are based on ``perfect" (synthetic) observations which we, step by step, distort to approach realistic conditions. Finally, we confirm our findings with real-world observations. In summary, we find that even modest noise (10%) inherent to observations may hinder the parameter retrieval already. Particularly, the MM constants are hard to constrain. This is of concern since the MM parameters are key to the model`s sensitivity to anticipated changes of the external conditions.

  11. Modeling of nonlinear responses for reciprocal transducers involving polarization switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Wang, Linxiang

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinearities and hysteresis effects in a reciprocal PZT transducer are examined by use of a dynamical mathematical model on the basis of phase-transition theory. In particular, we consider the perovskite piezoelectric ceramic in which the polarization process in the material can be modeled...... by Landau theory for the first-order phase transformation, in which each polarization state is associated with a minimum of the Landau free-energy function. Nonlinear constitutive laws are obtained by using thermodynamical equilibrium conditions, and hysteretic behavior of the material can be modeled...

  12. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  13. Temporal modeling of highway crash severity by involved person age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This project consisted of three studies, each described in the following sections. Three published documents were generated; these are listed in the last section. : Study 1: Temporal Modeling of Highway Crash Counts for Senior and Non-Senior Drivers;...

  14. The influence of climatic changes on distribution pattern of six typical Kobresia species in Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Guo, Ke; Jin, Shulan; Pan, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    The issue that climatic change has great influence on species distribution is currently of great interest in field of biogeography. Six typical Kobresia species are selected from alpine grassland of Tibetan Plateau (TP) as research objects which are the high-quality forage for local husbandry, and their distribution changes are modeled in four periods by using MaxEnt model and GIS technology. The modeling results have shown that the distribution of these six typical Kobresia species in TP was strongly affected by two factors of "the annual precipitation" and "the precipitation in the wettest and driest quarters of the year". The modeling results have also shown that the most suitable habitats of K. pygmeae were located in the area around Qinghai Lake, the Hengduan-Himalayan mountain area, and the hinterland of TP. The most suitable habitats of K. humilis were mainly located in the area around Qinghai Lake and the hinterland of TP during the Last Interglacial period, and gradually merged into a bigger area; K. robusta and K. tibetica were located in the area around Qinghai Lake and the hinterland of TP, but they did not integrate into one area all the time, and K. capillifolia were located in the area around Qinghai Lake and extended to the southwest of the original distributing area, whereas K. macrantha were mainly distributed along the area of the Himalayan mountain chain, which had the smallest distribution area among them, and all these six Kobresia species can be divided into four types of "retreat/expansion" styles according to the changes of suitable habitat areas during the four periods; all these change styles are the result of long-term adaptations of the different species to the local climate changes in regions of TP and show the complexity of relationships between different species and climate. The research results have positive reference value to the protection of species diversity and sustainable development of the local husbandry in TP.

  15. Approximate Model Checking of PCTL Involving Unbounded Path Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Samik; Ghosh, Arka P.; He, Ru

    We study the problem of applying statistical methods for approximate model checking of probabilistic systems against properties encoded as PCTL formulas. Such approximate methods have been proposed primarily to deal with state-space explosion that makes the exact model checking by numerical methods practically infeasible for large systems. However, the existing statistical methods either consider a restricted subset of PCTL, specifically, the subset that can only express bounded until properties; or rely on user-specified finite bound on the sample path length. We propose a new method that does not have such restrictions and can be effectively used to reason about unbounded until properties. We approximate probabilistic characteristics of an unbounded until property by that of a bounded until property for a suitably chosen value of the bound. In essence, our method is a two-phase process: (a) the first phase is concerned with identifying the bound k 0; (b) the second phase computes the probability of satisfying the k 0-bounded until property as an estimate for the probability of satisfying the corresponding unbounded until property. In both phases, it is sufficient to verify bounded until properties which can be effectively done using existing statistical techniques. We prove the correctness of our technique and present its prototype implementations. We empirically show the practical applicability of our method by considering different case studies including a simple infinite-state model, and large finite-state models such as IPv4 zeroconf protocol and dining philosopher protocol modeled as Discrete Time Markov chains.

  16. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  17. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  18. Modelling binaural processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking: limitations of current models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Masked thresholds were measured for a single test reflection, masked by the direct sound, as a function of the reflection delay. This was done for diotic as well as for dichotic stimulus presentations and all stimuli were presented via headphones. The input signal was a 200-ms long broadband noise......, such as normalized cross-correlation models (e.g., Bernstein et al., 1999, JASA, pp. 870-876), the power-addition model (Zurek, 1979, JASA, pp. 1750-1757), or Equalization-Cancellation-based models (e.g., Breebaart et al., 2001, JASA, pp. 1074-1088), cannot account for the psychoacoustical data. The present talk...... aims at understanding why these binaural models in their current form cannot describe the binaural mechanisms involved in reflection masking and a number of model-modifications are discussed that might help to overcome this deficiency....

  19. A Computational Modeling Mystery Involving Airfoil Trailing Edge Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yeunun; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    In a curious result, Fairman (2002) observed that steady RANS calculations predicted larger lift than the experimentally-measured data for six different airfoils with non-traditional trailing edge treatments, whereas the time average of unsteady RANS calculations matched the experiments almost exactly. Are these results reproducible? If so, is the difference between steady and unsteady RANS calculations a numerical artifact, or is there a physical explanation? The goals of this project are to solve this thirteen year old mystery and further to model viscous/load coupling for airfoils with non-traditional trailing edges. These include cupped, beveled, and blunt trailing edges, which are common anti-singing treatments for marine propeller sections. In this talk, we present steady and unsteady RANS calculations (ANSYS Fluent) with careful attention paid to the possible effects of asymmetric unsteady vortex shedding and the modeling of turbulence anisotropy. The effects of non-traditional trailing edge treatments are visualized and explained.

  20. Introducing an Intervention Model for Fostering Affective Involvement with Persons Who Are Congenitally Deafblind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.A.W.; Janssen, M.J.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presented here introduces the Intervention Model for Affective Involvement (IMAI), which was designed to train staff members (for example, teachers, caregivers, support workers) to foster affective involvement during interaction and communication with persons who have congenital

  1. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  2. A model of the supplier involvement in the product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the product innovation in a supply chain by a supplier and derive a model for a supplier’s product innovation policy. The product innovation of a supplier can contribute to the long-term competitiveness for the supply chain, and as it is for many supply chains a major factor, it should be considered in the development of strategies for a supplier. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of supplier product innovation as a strategic tool to enhance the competitiveness and viability of supply chain. This paper explores the dynamic research performance of a supplier with endogenous time preference under a given arrangement of product innovation. We find that the optimal effort level and the achieved product innovation obey a saddle point path, or show tremendous fluctuations even without introducing the stochastic nature of product innovative activity. We also find that the fluctuation frequency is largely dependent both on the supplier’s characteristics such as supplier’s product innovative ability and on the nature of product innovation process per se. Short-run analyses are also made on the effect of supply chain cooperation in the product innovation process.

  3. The independent spreaders involved SIR Rumor model in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhen; Tang, Shaoting; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies of rumor or information diffusion process in complex networks show that in contrast to traditional comprehension, individuals who participate in rumor spreading within one network do not always get the rumor from their neighbors. They can obtain the rumor from different sources like online social networks and then publish it on their personal sites. In our paper, we discuss this phenomenon in complex networks by adopting the concept of independent spreaders. Rather than getting the rumor from neighbors, independent spreaders learn it from other channels. We further develop the classic "ignorant-spreaders-stiflers" or SIR model of rumor diffusion process in complex networks. A steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the final spectrum of the rumor spreading under various spreading rate, stifling rate, density of independent spreaders and average degree of the network. Results show that independent spreaders effectively enhance the rumor diffusion process, by delivering the rumor to regions far away from the current rumor infected regions. And though the rumor spreading process in SF networks is faster than that in ER networks, the final size of rumor spreading in ER networks is larger than that in SF networks.

  4. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS Model for Predicting Runoff and Nutrient Export in a Typical Small Watershed in the Hilly Region of Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of hydrological and water quality models is an efficient approach to better understand the processes of environmental deterioration. This study evaluated the ability of the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS model to predict runoff, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP loading in a typical small watershed of a hilly region near Taihu Lake, China. Runoff was calibrated and validated at both an annual and monthly scale, and parameter sensitivity analysis was performed for TN and TP before the two water quality components were calibrated. The results showed that the model satisfactorily simulated runoff at annual and monthly scales, both during calibration and validation processes. Additionally, results of parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer organic, Canopy cover and Fertilizer inorganic were more sensitive to TN output. In terms of TP, the parameters Residue mass ratio, Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer inorganic and Canopy cover were the most sensitive. Based on these sensitive parameters, calibration was performed. TN loading produced satisfactory results for both the calibration and validation processes, whereas the performance of TP loading was slightly poor. The simulation results showed that AnnAGNPS has the potential to be used as a valuable tool for the planning and management of watersheds.

  5. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  6. Using a Person-Environment Fit Model to Predict Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a sample of registered nurses (N=228) from a large urban hospital, this longitudinal study tested the applicability of a person-environment fit model for predicting job involvement and organizational commitment. Results indicated the proposed person-environment fit model is useful for predicting job involvement, but not organizational…

  7. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation: a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy is investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The experimental results show that there are at least four types of unloading curves. However, it is found that there is no essential difference among four types of unloading curves. The variation curves of instantaneous Young's modulus with stress for all types of unloading curves include four segments, i.e., three linear elastic segments (segments I, II, and III) and one subsequent nonlinear elastic segment (segment IV). The instantaneous Young's modulus of segments I and III is approximately equal to that of reloading process, while smaller than that of segment II. In the nonlinear elastic segment, the instantaneous Young's modulus linearly decreases with the decrease in stress. In addition, the relationship between stress and strain rate can be accurately expressed by the hyperbolic sine function. This study includes two parts. In the present part, the characters of unloading curves are discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior based on the experimental findings. While in the latter part (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi: 10.1007/s00339-016-0385-0, 2016), the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain on the parameters of this new constitutive model are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain.

  8. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation. A new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy is investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The experimental results show that there are at least four types of unloading curves. However, it is found that there is no essential difference among four types of unloading curves. The variation curves of instantaneous Young's modulus with stress for all types of unloading curves include four segments, i.e., three linear elastic segments (segments I, II, and III) and one subsequent nonlinear elastic segment (segment IV). The instantaneous Young's modulus of segments I and III is approximately equal to that of reloading process, while smaller than that of segment II. In the nonlinear elastic segment, the instantaneous Young's modulus linearly decreases with the decrease in stress. In addition, the relationship between stress and strain rate can be accurately expressed by the hyperbolic sine function. This study includes two parts. In the present part, the characters of unloading curves are discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior based on the experimental findings. While in the latter part (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi:10.1007/s00339-016-0385-0, 2016), the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain on the parameters of this new constitutive model are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain. (orig.)

  9. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O 3 ) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O 3 . Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O 3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O 3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O 3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NO x control could slightly increase the ground O 3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O 3 under the high NO x abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O 3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O 3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Radiation induced muscositis as space flight risk. Model studies on X-ray and heavy ion irradiated typical oral mucosa models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschachojan, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Humans in exomagnetospheric space are exposed to highly energetic heavy ion radiation which can be hardly shielded. Since radiation-induced mucositis constitutes a severe complication of heavy ion radiotherapy, it would also implicate a serious medical safety risk for the crew members during prolonged space flights such as missions to Moon or Mars. For assessment of risk developing radiation-induced mucositis, three-dimensional organotypic cultures of immortalized human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with a 12 C particle beam at high energies or X-Rays. Immunofluorescence stainings were done from cryosections and radiation induced release of cytokines and chemokines was quantified by ELISA from culture supernatants. The major focuses of this study were on 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. The conducted analyses of our mucosa model showed many structural similarities with the native oral mucosa and authentic immunological responses to radiation exposure. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed about twice as many DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X-rays at definite doses and time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. Nuclear factor κB activation was observed after treatment with X-rays or 12 C particles. An activation of NF κB p65 in irradiated samples could not be detected. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels after irradiation with X-rays and 12 C particles compared to non-irradiated controls. However, only X-rays induced significantly higher levels of interleukin 1β. Analyses of TNF-α and IFN-γ showed no radiation-induced effects. Further analyses revealed a radiation-induced reduction in proliferation and loss of compactness in irradiated oral mucosa model, which would lead to local lesions in vivo. In this study we revealed that several pro-inflammatory markers and structural changes are induced by X-rays and heavy-ion irradiation

  11. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  12. Modeling the Relations among Parental Involvement, School Engagement and Academic Performance of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…

  13. The Development of a Structural Equation Model to Demonstrate the Correlations between Marijuana Use and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of marijuana on academic and social involvement in undergraduates using a structural equation model. The study was conducted at a midsized comprehensive community college in the Midwest and was guided by Astin's (1985) theory of student involvement. A survey link was e-mailed to all 4,527 eligible…

  14. Examining a Causal Model of Early Drug Involvement Among Inner City Junior High School Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; And Others

    Reflecting the need to construct more inclusive, socially and culturally relevant conceptions of drug use than currently exist, the determinants of drug involvement among inner-city youths within the context of a causal model were investigated. The drug involvement of the Black and Puerto Rican junior high school girls and boys was hypothesized to…

  15. Global processing speed in children with low reading ability and in children and adults with typical reading ability: exploratory factor analytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H

    2011-06-01

    To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and nonverbal processes, alphabet writing, and motor sequencing in the hand and oral motor system. FA was conducted in 4 cohorts (all children, a subset of children with low reading scores, a subset of children with typical reading scores, and adults with typical reading scores; total N = 829). Processing speed formed the first factor in all cohorts. Both measures of motor sequencing speed loaded on the speed factor with the other timed variables. Children with poor reading scores showed lower speed factor scores than did typical peers. The speed factor was negatively correlated with age in the adults. The speed dimension was observed independently of participant cohort, gender, and reading ability. Results are consistent with a unified theory of processing speed as a quadratic function of age in typical development and with slowed processing in poor readers.

  16. Teacher Retirement Systems. A Review of Patterns of Teacher Pension Systems in the Fifty States, with a Model Investment Portfolio for a Typical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Charles Edward

    This document is a study of teacher retirement systems of the United States. It also deals with the problems of improved management, particularly of how funds might be invested to increase benefits or reduce the required contributions. It sets up a hypothetically ideal pattern for the investment portfolio of typical State pension fund on the basis…

  17. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  18. Relationships among Adolescents' Leisure Motivation, Leisure Involvement, and Leisure Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Li, Ren-Hau; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting leisure satisfaction among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among leisure motivation, leisure involvement, and leisure satisfaction were explored. The study collected data from 701 adolescent…

  19. A Reformulated Model of Barriers to Parental Involvement in Education: Comment on Hornby and Lafaele (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Li, Nan; Sandoval, Jaime Robert

    2018-01-01

    In a 2011 article in this journal, Hornby and Lafaele provided a comprehensive model to understand barriers that may adversely impact effectiveness of parental involvement (PI) in education. The proposed explanatory model provides researchers with a new comprehensive and systematic perspective of the phenomenon in question with references from an…

  20. The Role of Student Involvement and Perceptions of Integration in a Causal Model of Student Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.

    1999-01-01

    This study refined and applied an integrated model of undergraduate persistence (accounting for both behavioral and perceptual components) to examine first-year retention at a private, highly selective research university. Results suggest that including behaviorally based measures of involvement improves the model's explanatory power concerning…

  1. Adolescents and Music Media: Toward an Involvement-Mediational Model of Consumption and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Michelle; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Power, Thomas; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hill, Laura Griner

    2010-01-01

    Using social cognitive theory and structural regression modeling, we examined pathways between early adolescents' music media consumption, involvement with music media, and 3 domains of self-concept (physical appearance, romantic appeal, and global self-worth; N=124). A mediational model was supported for 2 domains of self-concept. Music media…

  2. Customer involvement in greening the supply chain: an interpretive structural modeling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Haleem, Abid

    2013-04-01

    The role of customers in green supply chain management needs to be identified and recognized as an important research area. This paper is an attempt to explore the involvement aspect of customers towards greening of the supply chain (SC). An empirical research approach has been used to collect primary data to rank different variables for effective customer involvement in green concept implementation in SC. An interpretive structural-based model has been presented, and variables have been classified using matrice d' impacts croises- multiplication appliqué a un classement analysis. Contextual relationships among variables have been established using experts' opinions. The research may help practicing managers to understand the interaction among variables affecting customer involvement. Further, this understanding may be helpful in framing the policies and strategies to green SC. Analyzing interaction among variables for effective customer involvement in greening SC to develop the structural model in the Indian perspective is an effort towards promoting environment consciousness.

  3. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  4. Expanding the Work Phases Model: User and Expert Involvement in the Construction of Online Specialised Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    The purpose of this article is to establish new proposals for the lexicographic process and the involvement of experts and users in the construction of online specialised dictionaries. It is argued that the ENeL action should also have a view to the development of innovative theories...... and methodologies for the construction of online specialised dictionaries, and a new model for user and expert involvement is proposed....

  5. How and Why Fathers Are Involved in Their Children's Education: Gendered Model of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung won

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the unique contributions fathers make to their children's academic outcomes. However, the large body of multi-disciplinary literature on fatherhood does not address how fathers engage in specific practices relevant to education, while the educational research in the United States focused on parent involvement often…

  6. Hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.

  7. Job involvement of primary healthcare employees: does a service provision model play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Anne M; Laamanen, Ritva; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Sundell, Jari; Brommels, Mats; Suominen, Sakari

    2010-05-01

    To investigate whether the development of job involvement of primary healthcare (PHC) employees in Southern Municipality (SM), where PHC services were outsourced to an independent non-profit organisation, differed from that in the three comparison municipalities (M1, M2, M3) with municipal service providers. Also, the associations of job involvement with factors describing the psychosocial work environment were investigated. A panel mail survey 2000-02 in Finland (n=369, response rates 73% and 60%). The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate linear regression analysis. Despite the favourable development in the psychosocial work environment, job involvement decreased most in SM, which faced the biggest organisational changes. Job involvement decreased also in M3, where the psychosocial work environment deteriorated most. Job involvement in 2002 was best predicted by high baseline level of interactional justice and work control, positive change in interactional justice, and higher age. Also other factors, such as organisational stability, seemed to play a role; after controlling for the effect of the psychosocial work characteristics, job involvement was higher in M3 than in SM. Outsourcing of PHC services may decrease job involvement at least during the first years. A particular service provision model is better than the others only if it is superior in providing a favourable and stable psychosocial work environment.

  8. New Boundaries for School-Based Management: The High Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlstetter, Priscilla; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The utility of school-based management (SBM) as a means of generating school improvement is examined. A model of high-involvement management is applied to show what makes SBM work and under what conditions in four school districts. The definitions of SBM must be expanded to include organizational redesign. (SLD)

  9. Alcohol Involvement and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Thorsteinsson, Einar B.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantify the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of personality and alcohol involvement and to identify moderators of the relationship. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 119 effect sizes, and 7,886 participants. Possible moderators examined included: five-factor rating type (self vs. other);…

  10. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Fathers' Involvement, Internal Working Models, and Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Freeman, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, fathers' involvement (i.e. parenting behaviors and consistency) and fathering context (i.e. fathers' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a subsample of 102 fathers, taken from a larger sample of 235 culturally diverse US families. The authors predicted…

  11. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  12. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  13. Hydrological simulation in a basin of typical tropical climate and soil using the SWAT model part I: Calibration and validation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos R. Pereira

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights: The SWAT model was qualified for simulating the Pomba River sub-basin in the sites where rainfall representation was reasonable to good. The model can be used in the simulation of maximum, average and minimum annual daily streamflow based on the paired t-test, contributing with the water resources management of region, although the model still needs to be improved, mainly in the representativeness of rainfall, to give better estimates of extreme values.

  14. Toward a New Model of Fatherhood? Discourses on the Process of Paternal Involvement in Urban Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Barbeta-Viñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades quantitative studies have documented an increase in paternal involvement. These changes have led to hypotheses of a new model of fatherhood. The aim of this paper is to explore the discourses of Spanish fathers regarding paternal involvement, identifying its structure and changing tendencies. The analysis is based on eight focus groups conducted in Madrid and Barcelona. Among the main findings we emphasize that the transition of fatherhood,not without contradictions, is causing the traditional homogeneous fatherhood to evolve toward a more complex and multidimensional conceptualization.

  15. Total motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Zhou, Haitao; Dubose, Dewayne; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-01

    The proper prehospital and inpatient management of patients with unstable spinal injuries is critical for prevention of secondary neurological compromise. The authors sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation. Five fresh cadavers with surgically created unstable L-1 burst fractures were tested. The amount of angular motion between the T-12 and L-2 vertebral segments was measured using a 3D electromagnetic motion analysis device. A complete sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. These maneuvers and transfers included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, the authors performed what they believed to be the most commonly used versus the best techniques for preventing undesirable motion at the injury level. When placing a spine board there was more motion in all 3 planes with the log-roll technique, and this difference reached statistical significance for axial rotation (p = 0.018) and lateral bending (p = 0.003). Using logrolling for spine board removal resulted in increased motion again, and this was statistically significant for flexion-extension (p = 0.014). During the bed transfer and lateral therapy, the log-roll technique resulted in more motion in all 3 planes (p ≤ 0.05). When turning the cadavers prone for surgery there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for manually turning the patient versus the Jackson table turn (p ≤ 0.01). The total motion was decreased by almost 50% in each plane when using an alternative to the log-roll techniques during the complete sequence (p ≤ 0.007). Although it is unknown how much motion in the unstable spine is necessary to cause

  16. A two-dimensional analytical model of vapor intrusion involving vertical heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present an analytical chlorinated vapor intrusion (CVI) model that can estimate source-to-indoor air concentration attenuation by simulating two-dimensional (2-D) vapor concentration profile in vertically heterogeneous soils overlying a homogenous vapor source. The analytical solution describing the 2-D soil gas transport was obtained by applying a modified Schwarz-Christoffel mapping method. A partial field validation showed that the developed model provides results (especially in terms of indoor emission rates) in line with the measured data from a case involving a building overlying a layered soil. In further testing, it was found that the new analytical model can very closely replicate the results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models at steady state in scenarios involving layered soils overlying homogenous groundwater sources. By contrast, by adopting a two-layer approach (capillary fringe and vadose zone) as employed in the EPA implementation of the Johnson and Ettinger model, the spatially and temporally averaged indoor concentrations in the case of groundwater sources can be higher than the ones estimated by the numerical model up to two orders of magnitude. In short, the model proposed in this work can represent an easy-to-use tool that can simulate the subsurface soil gas concentration in layered soils overlying a homogenous vapor source while keeping the simplicity of an analytical approach that requires much less computational effort.

  17. A two-dimensional analytical model of vapor intrusion involving vertical heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present an analytical chlorinated vapor intrusion (CVI) model that can estimate source-to-indoor air concentration attenuation by simulating two-dimensional (2-D) vapor concentration profile in vertically heterogeneous soils overlying a homogenous vapor source. The analytical solution describing the 2-D soil gas transport was obtained by applying a modified Schwarz-Christoffel mapping method. A partial field validation showed that the developed model provides results (especially in terms of indoor emission rates) in line with the measured data from a case involving a building overlying a layered soil. In further testing, it was found that the new analytical model can very closely replicate the results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models at steady state in scenarios involving layered soils overlying homogenous groundwater sources. By contrast, by adopting a two-layer approach (capillary fringe and vadose zone) as employed in the EPA implementation of the Johnson and Ettinger model, the spatially and temporally averaged indoor concentrations in the case of groundwater sources can be higher than the ones estimated by the numerical model up to two orders of magnitude. In short, the model proposed in this work can represent an easy-to-use tool that can simulate the subsurface soil gas concentration in layered soils overlying a homogenous vapor source while keeping the simplicity of an analytical approach that requires much less computational effort.

  18. Canadian Whole-Farm Model Holos - Development, Stakeholder Involvement, and Model Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroebel, R.; Janzen, H.; Beauchemin, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Holos model, based mostly on emission factors, aims to explore the effect of management on Canadian whole-farm greenhouse gas emissions. The model includes 27 commonly grown annual and perennial crops, summer fallow, grassland, and 8 types of tree plantings, along with beef, dairy, sheep, swine and other livestock or poultry operations. Model outputs encompass net emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O (in CO2 equivalents), calculated for various farm components. Where possible, algorithms are drawn from peer-reviewed publications. For consistency, Holos is aligned with the Canadian sustainability indicator and national greenhouse gas inventory objectives. Although primarily an exploratory tool for research, the model's design makes it accessible and instructive also to agricultural producers, educators, and policy makers. Model development, therefore, proceeds iteratively, with extensive stakeholder feedback from training sessions or annual workshops. To make the model accessible to diverse users, the team developed a multi-layered interface, with general farming scenarios for general use, but giving access to detailed coefficients and assumptions to researchers. The model relies on extensive climate, soil, and agronomic databases to populate regionally-applicable default values thereby minimizing keyboard entries. In an initial application, the model was used to assess greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian beef production system; it showed that enteric methane accounted for 63% of total GHG emissions and that 84% of emissions originated from the cow-calf herd. The model further showed that GHG emission intensity per kg beef, nationally, declined by 14% from 1981 to 2011, owing to gains in production efficiency. Holos is now being used to consider further potential advances through improved rations or other management options. We are now aiming to expand into questions of grazing management, and are developing a novel carbon

  19. Total motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Dubose, Dewayne; Small, John; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Zhou, Haitao; Conrad, Bryan P; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-15

    Biomechanical cadaveric study. We sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation, using 2 different protocols. From the time of injury until the spine is adequately stabilized in the operating room, every step in management of the spine-injured patient can result in secondary injury to the spinal cord. The amount of angular motion between C5 and C6, after a surgically created unstable injury, was measured using an electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). A total sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. This included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, we performed what has been shown to be the best and commonly used (log-roll) techniques. During bed transfers and the turn prone for surgery, there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for traditional transfer with the spine board and manually turning the patient prone as commonly done (P patient from the field to stabilization in the operating room using the best compared with the most commonly used techniques. As previously reported, using log-roll techniques consistently results in unwanted motion at the injured spinal segment.

  20. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  1. Consumer input into health care: Time for a new active and comprehensive model of consumer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alix E; Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Proietto, Anthony M; Roos, Ian

    2018-03-07

    To ensure the provision of patient-centred health care, it is essential that consumers are actively involved in the process of determining and implementing health-care quality improvements. However, common strategies used to involve consumers in quality improvements, such as consumer membership on committees and collection of patient feedback via surveys, are ineffective and have a number of limitations, including: limited representativeness; tokenism; a lack of reliable and valid patient feedback data; infrequent assessment of patient feedback; delays in acquiring feedback; and how collected feedback is used to drive health-care improvements. We propose a new active model of consumer engagement that aims to overcome these limitations. This model involves the following: (i) the development of a new measure of consumer perceptions; (ii) low cost and frequent electronic data collection of patient views of quality improvements; (iii) efficient feedback to the health-care decision makers; and (iv) active involvement of consumers that fosters power to influence health system changes. © 2018 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Portraiture of constructivist parental involvement: A model to develop a community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Christopher Anthony

    This qualitative research study addressed the problem of the lack of parental involvement in secondary school science. Increasing parental involvement is vital in supporting student academic achievement and social growth. The purpose of this emergent phenomenological study was to identify conditions required to successfully construct a supportive learning environment to form partnerships between students, parents, and educators. The overall research question in this study investigated the conditions necessary to successfully enlist parental participation with students during science inquiry investigations at the secondary school level. One hundred thirteen pairs of parents and students engaged in a 6-week scientific inquiry activity and recorded attitudinal data in dialogue journals, questionnaires, open-ended surveys, and during one-one-one interviews conducted by the researcher between individual parents and students. Comparisons and cross-interpretations of inter-rater, codified, triangulated data were utilized for identifying emergent themes. Data analysis revealed the active involvement of parents in researching with their child during inquiry investigations, engaging in journaling, and assessing student performance fostered partnerships among students, parents, and educators and supported students' social skills development. The resulting model, employing constructivist leadership and enlisting parent involvement, provides conditions and strategies required to develop a community of practice that can help effect social change. The active involvement of parents fostered improved efficacy and a holistic mindset to develop in parents, students, and teachers. Based on these findings, the interactive collaboration of parents in science learning activities can proactively facilitate a community of practice that will assist educators in facilitating social change.

  3. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women.

  4. Simulation of changes in heavy metal contamination in farmland soils of a typical manufacturing center through logistic-based cellular automata modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2016-01-01

    A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.

  5. Estimation in a multiplicative mixed model involving a genetic relationship matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccleston John A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic models partitioning additive and non-additive genetic effects for populations tested in replicated multi-environment trials (METs in a plant breeding program have recently been presented in the literature. For these data, the variance model involves the direct product of a large numerator relationship matrix A, and a complex structure for the genotype by environment interaction effects, generally of a factor analytic (FA form. With MET data, we expect a high correlation in genotype rankings between environments, leading to non-positive definite covariance matrices. Estimation methods for reduced rank models have been derived for the FA formulation with independent genotypes, and we employ these estimation methods for the more complex case involving the numerator relationship matrix. We examine the performance of differing genetic models for MET data with an embedded pedigree structure, and consider the magnitude of the non-additive variance. The capacity of existing software packages to fit these complex models is largely due to the use of the sparse matrix methodology and the average information algorithm. Here, we present an extension to the standard formulation necessary for estimation with a factor analytic structure across multiple environments.

  6. System Model Bias Processing Approach for Regional Coordinated States Information Involved Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Kalman filtering applications, the conventional dynamic model which connects the states information of two consecutive epochs by state transition matrix is usually predefined and assumed to be invariant. Aiming to improve the adaptability and accuracy of dynamic model, we propose multiple historical states involved filtering algorithm. An autoregressive model is used as the dynamic model which is subsequently combined with observation model for deriving the optimal window-recursive filter formulae in the sense of minimum mean square error principle. The corresponding test statistics characteristics of system residuals are discussed in details. The test statistics of regional predicted residuals are then constructed in a time-window for model bias testing with two hypotheses, that is, the null and alternative hypotheses. Based on the innovations test statistics, we develop a model bias processing procedure including bias detection, location identification, and state correction. Finally, the minimum detectable bias and bias-to-noise ratio are both computed for evaluating the internal and external reliability of overall system, respectively.

  7. VCP associated inclusion body myopathy and paget disease of bone knock-in mouse model exhibits tissue pathology typical of human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Badadani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD. We have generated a knock-in mouse model with the common R155H mutation. Mice demonstrate progressive muscle weakness starting approximately at the age of 6 months. Histology of mutant muscle showed progressive vacuolization of myofibrils and centrally located nuclei, and immunostaining shows progressive cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 and ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in quadriceps myofibrils and brain. Increased LC3-II staining of muscle sections representing increased number of autophagosomes suggested impaired autophagy. Increased apoptosis was demonstrated by elevated caspase-3 activity and increased TUNEL-positive nuclei. X-ray microtomography (uCT images show radiolucency of distal femurs and proximal tibiae in knock-in mice and uCT morphometrics shows decreased trabecular pattern and increased cortical wall thickness. Bone histology and bone marrow derived macrophage cultures in these mice revealed increased osteoclastogenesis observed by TRAP staining suggestive of Paget bone disease. The VCP(R155H/+ knock-in mice replicate the muscle, bone and brain pathology of inclusion body myopathy, thus representing a useful model for preclinical studies.

  8. Simplified Model for the Population Dynamics Involved in a Malaria Crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Fotsa-Ngaffo, F.

    2009-12-01

    We adapt a simple model of predator-prey to the population involved in a crisis of malaria. The study is made only in the stream blood inside the human body except for the liver. Particularly we look at the dynamics of the malaria parasites 'merozoites' and their interaction with the blood components, more specifically the red blood cells (RBC) and the immune response grouped under the white blood cells (WBC). The stability analysis of the system reveals an important practical direction to investigate as regards the ratio WBC over RBC since it is a fundamental parameter that characterizes stable regions. The model numerically presents a wide range of possible features of the disease. Even with its simplified form, the model not only recovers well-known results but in addition predicts possible hidden phenomenon and an interesting clinical feature a malaria crisis. (author)

  9. A comparative modeling and molecular docking study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Zeynab; Naiker, Suhashni; Alves, Claudio N; Govender, Thavendran; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lameira, Jeronimo; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Kruger, Hendrik G; Honarparvar, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    An alarming rise of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and the continuous high global morbidity of tuberculosis have reinvigorated the need to identify novel targets to combat the disease. The enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan in M. tuberculosis are essential and noteworthy therapeutic targets. In this study, the biochemical function and homology modeling of MurI, MurG, MraY, DapE, DapA, Alr, and Ddl enzymes of the CDC1551 M. tuberculosis strain involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan cell wall are reported. Generation of the 3D structures was achieved with Modeller 9.13. To assess the structural quality of the obtained homology modeled targets, the models were validated using PROCHECK, PDBsum, QMEAN, and ERRAT scores. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate root mean square deviation (RMSD) and radius of gyration (Rg) of MurI and MurG target proteins and their corresponding templates. For further model validation, RMSD and Rg for selected targets/templates were investigated to compare the close proximity of their dynamic behavior in terms of protein stability and average distances. To identify the potential binding mode required for molecular docking, binding site information of all modeled targets was obtained using two prediction algorithms. A docking study was performed for MurI to determine the potential mode of interaction between the inhibitor and the active site residues. This study presents the first accounts of the 3D structural information for the selected M. tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  10. Modeling the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality in a typical highly intensive agricultural small watershed, Dongting lake basin, south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqing; Liu, Liming; Ji, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality is critically important for estimating pollution potential and reducing pollution risk. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality at both spatial and temporal scales. The study took place in the Jinjing River watershed in 2010; seven landscape types and four water quality pollutions were chosen as analysis parameters. Three different buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the relationship as a function of spatial scale. The results of a Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis suggest that "source" landscape, namely, tea gardens, residential areas, and paddy lands, have positive effects on water quality parameters, while forests exhibit a negative influence on water quality parameters because they represent a "sink" landscape and the sub-watershed level is identified as a suitable scale. Using the principal component analysis, tea gardens, residential areas, paddy lands, and forests were identified as the main landscape index. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality for each season. The results demonstrate that both landscape composition and configuration affect water quality. In summer and winter, the landscape metrics explained approximately 80.7 % of the variance in the water quality variables, which was higher than that for spring and fall (60.3 %). This study can help environmental managers to understand the relationships between landscapes and water quality and provide landscape ecological approaches for water quality control and land use management.

  11. Analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of dissolved organic matter in typical greenhouse soil of northern China using three dimensional fluorescence spectra technique and parallel factor analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-wei; Lei, Hong-jun; Han, Yu-ping; Xi, Bei-dou; He, Xiao-song; Xu, Qi-gong; Li, Dan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the soil DOM characteristics in the vegetable greenhouse with a long-term of cultivation. Results showed that the soil DOM mainly consisted of three components, fulvic acid-like (C1), humic acid-like (C2) and protein-like (C3), with C1 as the majority one. The distribution of DOM in space was also studied. In vertical direction, C1 and C2 decreased significantly with the increase in soil depth, while C3 component decreased after increased. The humification coefficient decreased fast from 0-20 to 30-40 cm, and then increased from 30-40 to 40-50 cm. In the horizontal direction, the level of C2 component varied greatly in space, while that of C1 component changed little, and that of C3 component fell in between the above two. The change in the humification degree of each soil layer significantly varied spatially. Humification process of soil organic matter mainly occurred in the surface soil layer. In addition, the humification degree in space also changed significantly. The new ideas of this study are: (1) Analyze the composition and spatial heterogeneity of soil DOM in the vegetable greenhouse; (2) Use three dimensional fluorescence spectra technology and parallel factor analysis model successfully to quantify the components of soil DOM, which provides a new method for the soil DOM analysis.

  12. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  13. Validating a Model of Motivational Factors Influencing Involvement for Parents of Transition-Age Youth with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kara A.; Shanley, Lina; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Rowe, Dawn A.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Leve, Leslie D.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement is a predictor of postsecondary education and employment outcomes, but rigorous measures of parent involvement for youth with disabilities are lacking. Hirano, Garbacz, Shanley, and Rowe adapted scales based on Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement for use with parents of youth with disabilities aged 14 to 23.…

  14. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  15. An explanatory model of maths achievement:Perceived parental involvement and academic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Gómez-Taibo, Mª L; Regueiro, Bibiana; Estévez, Iris; Valle, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Although numerous studies have tried to explain performance in maths very few have deeply explored the relationship between different variables and how they jointly explain mathematical performance. With a sample of 897 students in 5th and 6th grade in Primary Education and using structural equation modeling (SEM), this study analyzes how the perception of parents’ beliefs is related to children´s beliefs, their involvement in mathematical tasks and their performance. Perceived parental involvement contributes to the motivation of their children in mathematics. Direct supervision of students’ academic work by parents may increase students’ concerns about the image and rating of their children, but not their academic performance. In fact, maths achievement depends directly and positively on the parents’ expectations and children’s maths self-efficacy and negatively on the parents’ help in tasks and performance goal orientation. Perceived parental involvement contributes to children’s motivation in maths essentially conveying confidence in their abilities and showing interest in their progress and schoolwork.

  16. Using the Health Belief Model to explain patient involvement in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrea C; Baker, G Ross; Boyle, Todd A; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2015-12-01

    With the knowledge that patient safety incidents can significantly impact patients, providers and health-care organizations, greater emphasis on patient involvement as a means to mitigate risks warrants further research. To understand whether patient perceptions of patient safety play a role in patient involvement in factual and challenging patient safety practices and whether the constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) help to explain such perceptions. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis of survey data. Four inpatient units located in two tertiary hospitals in Atlantic Canada. Patients discharged from participating units between November 2010 and January 2011. None. A total of 217 of the 587 patient surveys were returned for a final response rate of 37.0%. The PLS analysis revealed relationships between patient perceptions of threat and self-efficacy and the performance of factual and challenging patient safety practices, explaining 46 and 42% of the variance, respectively. The results from this study provide evidence for the constructs and relationships set forth by the HBM. Perceptions of patient safety were shown to influence patient likelihood for engaging in selected patient safety practices. While perceptions of barriers and benefits and threats were found to be a contributing factor to patient involvement in patient safety practices, self-efficacy plays an important role as a mediating factor. Overall, the use of the HBM within patient safety provides for increased understanding of how such perceptions can be influenced to improve patient engagement in promoting safer health care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Typical IAEA inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, W.

    1984-01-01

    This session briefly refers to the legal basis for IAEA inspections and to their objectives. It describes in detail the planning and performance of IAEA inspections, including the examination of records, the comparison of facility records with State reports, flow and inventory verifications, the design of statistical sampling plans, and Agency's independent verification measurements. In addition, the session addresses the principles of Material Balance and MUF evaluation, as well as the content and format of summary statements and related problems

  18. Cadmium Handling, Toxicity and Molecular Targets Involved during Pregnancy: Lessons from Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jacobo-Estrada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element. To give the reader an overview of the possible mechanisms involved in the multiple organ toxic effects in fetuses after the exposure to Cd during pregnancy, we decided to compile some of the most relevant experimental studies performed in experimental models and to summarize the advances in this field such as the Cd distribution and the factors that could alter it (diet, binding-proteins and membrane transporters, the Cd-induced toxicity in dams (preeclampsia, fertility, kidney injury, alteration in essential element homeostasis and bone mineralization, in placenta and in fetus (teratogenicity, central nervous system, liver and kidney.

  19. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters

  20. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits modelling schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigano, Daniela; Guidali, Cinzia; Petrosino, Stefania; Realini, Natalia; Rubino, Tiziana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Recent advances in the neurobiology of cannabinoids have renewed interest in the association between cannabis and schizophrenia. Our studies showed that chronic-intermittent phencyclidine (PCP) treatment of rats, an animal model of schizophrenia-like cognitive deficit, impaired recognition memory in the novel object recognition (NOR) test and induced alterations in CB1 receptor functionality and in endocannabinoid levels mainly in the prefrontal cortex. In this region, we observed a significant reduction in GTPgammaS binding (-41%) accompanied by an increase in the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-AG (+38%) in PCP-treated rats, suggesting that a maladaptation of the endocannabinoid system might contribute to the glutamatergic-related cognitive symptoms encountered in schizophrenia disorders. Moreover, we evaluated the ability of the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to modulate the cognitive dysfunctions and neuroadaptations in the endocannabinoid system induced by PCP. Chronic THC co-treatment worsened PCP-induced cognitive impairment, without inducing any effect per se, and in parallel, it provoked a severe reduction in the levels of the other endocannabinoid, AEA, vs. either vehicle (-73%) or PCP (-64%), whereas it reversed the PCP-induced increase in 2-AG levels. These results point to the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in this pharmacological model of cognitive dysfunction, with a potentially different role of AEA and 2-AG in schizophrenia-like behaviours and suggest that prolonged cannabis use might aggravate cognitive performances induced by chronic PCP by throwing off-balance the endocannabinoid system.

  1. The Involvement of the Oxidative Stress in Murine Blue LED Light-Induced Retinal Damage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Maho; Kuse, Yoshiki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of study was to establish a mouse model of blue light emitting diode (LED) light-induced retinal damage and to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Mice were exposed to 400 or 800 lx blue LED light for 2 h, and were evaluated for retinal damage 5 d later by electroretinogram amplitude and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. Additionally, we investigated the effect of blue LED light exposure on shorts-wave-sensitive opsin (S-opsin), and rhodopsin expression by immunohistochemistry. Blue LED light induced light intensity dependent retinal damage and led to collapse of S-opsin and altered rhodopsin localization from inner and outer segments to ONL. Conversely, NAC administered at 100 or 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally twice a day, before dark adaptation and before light exposure. NAC protected the blue LED light-induced retinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Further, blue LED light-induced decreasing of S-opsin levels and altered rhodopsin localization, which were suppressed by NAC. We established a mouse model of blue LED light-induced retinal damage and these findings indicated that oxidative stress was partially involved in blue LED light-induced retinal damage.

  2. Involving mental health service users in suicide-related research: a qualitative inquiry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, David; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise; Handley, Christine

    2016-03-01

    To describe the research model developed and successfully deployed as part of a multi-method qualitative study investigating suicidal service-users' experiences of mental health nursing care. Quality mental health care is essential to limiting the occurrence and burden of suicide, however there is a lack of relevant research informing practice in this context. Research utilising first-person accounts of suicidality is of particular importance to expanding the existing evidence base. However, conducting ethical research to support this imperative is challenging. The model discussed here illustrates specific and more generally applicable principles for qualitative research regarding sensitive topics and involving potentially vulnerable service-users. Researching into mental health service users with first-person experience of suicidality requires stakeholder and institutional support, researcher competency, and participant recruitment, consent, confidentiality, support and protection. Research with service users into their experiences of sensitive issues such as suicidality can result in rich and valuable data, and may also provide positive experiences of collaboration and inclusivity. If challenges are not met, objectification and marginalisation of service-users may be reinforced, and limitations in the evidence base and service provision may be perpetuated.

  3. Methodology for Measurement the Energy Efficiency Involving Solar Heating Systems Using Stochastic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Menita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to evaluate gains through measurement and verification methodology adapted from the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol, from case studies involving Energy Efficiency Projects in the Goias State, Brazil. This paper also presents the stochastic modelling for the generation of future scenarios of electricity saving resulted by these Energy Efficiency Projects. The model is developed by using the Geometric Brownian Motion Stochastic Process with Mean Reversion associated with the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Results show that the electricity saved from the replacement of electric showers by solar water heating systems in homes of low-income families has great potential to bring financial benefits to such families, and that the reduction in peak demand obtained from this Energy Efficiency Action is advantageous to the Brazilian electrical system. Results contemplate also the future scenarios of electricity saving and a sensitivity analysis in order to verify how values of some parameters influence on the results, once there is no historical data available for obtaining these values.

  4. A structural model of customer satisfaction and trust in vendors involved in mobile commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of factors influencing customer satisfaction and trust in vendors involved in mobile commerce (m-commerce. The study sample consists of 200 respondents. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modelling (SEM supported by AMOS 5.0 with maximum likelihood estimation in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The proposed model was empirically tested and results confirmed that users’ satisfaction with vendors in m-commerce was not significantly influenced by two antecedents of the vendor’s website quality: interactivity and customisation, and also two antecedents of mobile technology quality: usefulness and ease-of-use. Meanwhile, users’ trust towards the vendor in m-commerce is affected by users’ satisfaction with the vendor. Interestingly, vendor quality dimensions such as responsiveness and brand image influence customer satisfaction with vendors in m-commerce. Based on the findings, vendors in m-commerce should focus on the factors which generate more satisfaction and trust among customers. For vendors in general, the results can help them to better develop customer trust in m-commerce. Vendors of m-commerce can provide a more satisfying experience for customers.

  5. Modeling economic costs of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction: analysis using a dynamic CGE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  6. Modelling atopic dermatitis during the morphogenetic process involved in reconstruction of a human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, É; Mound, A; Lambert de Rouvroit, C; Poumay, Y

    Most crucial role of epidermis is to maintain efficient barrier between the organism and its environment. This barrier is however perturbed in inflammatory skin conditions like atopic dermatitis (AD), one common chronic disease. This review depicts characteristics of a model intending to reproduce epidermal features of AD in vitro. Firstly, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) during reconstruction of epidermis was used to deplete cholesterol from plasma membrane because this condition reproduces characteristics of AD at transcriptomic level in monolayer cultures. Major changes are confirmed after same treatment inside reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). However, since early treatment do not reveal impairment to reconstruct a functional epidermal barrier and given the importance of the Th2 dysregulated immune response in AD, cholesterol-depleted RHE at day 11 of reconstruction were then incubated with three Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-13 and IL-25) previously reported as playing important roles in the development of AD, as well as altering overall function of epidermal barrier. When combining both treatments, essential epidermal features of AD are observed. Indeed, RHE then exhibit spongiosis, disappearing granular layer, alteration of barrier function, as well as dysregulated expression levels for genes involved in AD pathogenesis. Moreover, while trying to identify individual roles for each component used to create AD-like alterations, incubation with IL-4 following cholesterol depletion from plasma membrane was found inducing most of the reported alterations. This model suggests potential for better investigations of epidermal AD features and may be considered for eventual in vitro screening of cosmetics or therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The Oskarshamn model for public involvement in the siting of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahagen, H.; CarIsson, Torsten; Hallberg, K.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    The Oskarshamn model has so far worked extremely well as a tool to achieve openness and public participation. The municipality involvement has been successful in several aspects, e.g.: It has been possible to influence the program, to a large extent, to meet certain municipality conditions and to ensure the local perspective. The local competence has increased to a considerable degree. The activities generated by the six working groups with a total of 40 members have generated a large number of contacts with various organisations, schools, mass media, individuals in the general public and interest groups. For the future, clarification of the disposal method and site selection criteria as well as the site selection process as such is crucial. The municipality has also emphasised the importance of SKB having shown the integration between site selection criteria, the feasibility study and the safety assessment. Furthermore, the programs for the encapsulation facility and the repository must be co-ordinated. For Oskarshamn it will be of utmost importance that the repository is well under way to be realised before the encapsulation facility can be built

  8. Characterization of Pneumococcal Genes Involved in Bloodstream Invasion in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla K Mahdi

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus continues to account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, as well as less serious infections such as sinusitis, conjunctivitis and otitis media. Current polysaccharide vaccines are strictly serotype-specific and also drive the emergence of non-vaccine serotype strains. In this study, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression patterns of either serotype 4 or serotype 6A pneumococci in the nasopharynx and blood of mice, as a model to identify genes involved in invasion of blood in the context of occult bacteremia in humans. In this manner, we identified 26 genes that were significantly up-regulated in the nasopharynx and 36 genes that were significantly up-regulated in the blood that were common to both strains. Gene Ontology classification revealed that transporter and DNA binding (transcription factor activities constitute the significantly different molecular functional categories for genes up-regulated in the nasopharynx and blood. Targeted mutagenesis of selected genes from both niches and subsequent virulence and pathogenesis studies identified the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SodA as most likely to be essential for colonization, and the cell wall-associated serine protease (PrtA as important for invasion of blood. This work extends our previous analyses and suggests that both PrtA and SodA warrant examination in future studies aimed at prevention and/or control of pneumococcal disease.

  9. Spinal dopaminergic involvement in the antihyperalgesic effect of antidepressants in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mi; Hoshino, Hajime; Saito, Shigeru; Yang, Yang; Obata, Hideaki

    2017-05-10

    Antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors are a first-line treatment for neuropathic pain. Here, we aimed to determine the involvement of the spinal dopaminergic system in the antihyperalgesic effects of antidepressants in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The right L5 spinal nerve of male Sprague-Dawley rats was ligated under inhalation anesthesia to induce hyperalgesia. Behavioral testing was performed by measuring ipsilateral hindpaw withdrawal thresholds after intraperitoneal injection of amitriptyline, duloxetine, milnacipran, and fluoxetine. D2-like receptors were blocked by intrathecal administration of sulpiride. We also determined the concentrations of dopamine in the spinal cord using microdialysis after injection of antidepressants. The dopamine contents in the spinal dorsal horn were also measured in normal and SNL rats at 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after SNL surgery. Intraperitoneal injection of amitriptyline, duloxetine, milnacipran, and fluoxetine (3-30mg/kg) produced antihyperalgesic effects, and prevented by intrathecal pre-injection of sulpiride (30μg). Microdialysis revealed the dopamine levels in the spinal cord were increased after intraperitoneal injection of each antidepressant (10mg/kg). Furthermore, the dopamine content in homogenized spinal cord tissue were increased at 2 weeks after SNL and then subsequently declined. Our results suggest that the effect of antidepressants against neuropathic pain is related to modulation of not only noradrenalin and serotonin but also dopamine levels in the spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Brain’s sense of walking: a study on the intertwine between locomotor imagery and internal locomotor models in healthy adults, typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eIosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery and internal motor models have been deeply investigated in literature. It is well known that the development of motor imagery occurs during adolescence and it is limited in people affected by cerebral palsy. However, the roles of motor imagery and internal models in locomotion as well as their intertwine received poor attention. In this study we compared the performances of healthy adults (n=8, 28.1±5.1 years old, children with typical development (n=8, 8.1±3.8 years old and children with cerebral palsy (n=12, 7.5±2.9 years old, measured by an optoelectronic system and a trunk-mounted wireless inertial magnetic unit, during three different tasks. Subjects were asked to achieve a target located at 2 or 3m in front of them simulating their walking by stepping in place, or actually walking blindfolded or normally walking with open eyes. Adults performed a not significantly different number of steps (p=0.761 spending not significantly different time between tasks (p=0.156. Children with typical development showed task-dependent differences both in terms of number of steps (p=0.046 and movement time (p=0.002. However, their performance in simulated and blindfolded walking were strictly correlated (R=0.871 for steps, R=0.673 for time. Further, their error in blindfolded walking was in mean only of -2.2% of distance. Also children with cerebral palsy showed significant differences in number of steps (p=0.022 and time (p<0.001, but neither their number of steps nor their movement time recorded during simulated walking were found correlated with those of blindfolded and normal walking. Adults used a unique strategy among different tasks. Children with typical development seemed to be less reliable on their motor predictions, using a task-dependent strategy probably more reliable on sensorial feedback. Children with cerebral palsy showed less efficient performances, especially in simulated walking, suggesting an altered locomotor imagery.

  11. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  12. Study of the involvement of allogeneic MSCs in bone formation using the model of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Daria; Prodanets, Natalia; Rodimova, Svetlana; Antonov, Evgeny; Meleshina, Aleksandra; Timashev, Peter; Zagaynova, Elena

    2017-05-04

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to be the most attractive type of cells for bone repair. However, much still remains unknown about MSCs and needs to be clarified before this treatment can be widely applied in the clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to establish the involvement of allogeneic MSCs in the bone formation in vivo, using a model of transgenic mice and genetically labeled cells. Polylactide scaffolds with hydroxyapatite obtained by surface selective laser sintering were used. The scaffolds were sterilized and individually seeded with MSCs from the bone marrow of 5-week-old GFP(+) transgenic C57/Bl6 or GFP(-)C57/Bl6 mice. 4-mm-diameter critical-size defects were created on the calvarial bone of mice using a dental bur. Immediately after the generation of the cranial bone defects, the scaffolds with or without seeded cells were implanted into the injury sites. The cranial bones were harvested at either 6 or 12 weeks after the implantation. GFP(+) transgenic mice having scaffolds with unlabeled MSCs were used for the observation of the host cell migration into the scaffold. GFP(-) mice having scaffolds with GFP(+)MSCs were used to assess the functioning of the seeded MSCs. The obtained data demonstrated that allogeneic MSCs were found on the scaffolds 6 and 12 weeks post-implantation. By week 12, a newly formed bone tissue from the seeded cells was observed, without an osteogenic pre-differentiation. The host cells did not appear, and the control scaffolds without seeded cells remained empty. Besides, a possibility of vessel formation from seeded MSCs was shown, without a preliminary cell cultivation under controlled conditions.

  13. Risk of pneumonia in elderly nursing home residents using typical versus atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparasu, Rajender R; Chatterjee, Satabdi; Chen, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Antipsychotic medications are extensively used in nursing homes for management of behavioral and psychiatric disorders in the elderly. Prior research suggests that pneumonia is one of the common causes of anti psychotic-related mortality in this population. None of the studies compared typical and atypical antipsychotics with respect to pneumonia. To examine the risk of pneumonia with use of typical versus atypical antipsychotics in dual eligible elderly nursing home residents. The study involved a retrospective cohort design matched on propensity score using Medicare and Medicaid Analytical eXtract data from 4 US states. The study population included all elderly dual eligible (Medicaid and Medicare) nursing home residents (aged ≥65 years) who initiated antipsychotics any time between July 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003. The risk of pneumonia during the 6-month follow-up period was modeled using a Cox proportional model and extended Cox hazard model stratified on matched pairs based on propensity score, using atypical agents as the reference category. Analysis of Medicaid-Medicare data revealed that there were 49,904 new antipsychotic (46,293 atypical and 3611 typical) users in the unmatched cohort and 7218 (3609 atypical and 3609 typical) users in the matched cohort. The unadjusted rate of pneumonia was 8.17% (4.61 events per person year) for atypical users and 5.21% (5.21 events per person year) for typical users. HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.83-1.66; and 50-180 days: HR 1.36, 95% CI 0.87-2.14) suggest that there was no significant difference in the risk of pneumonia among typical and atypical users. The study found no differential risk of pneumonia between typical versus atypical antipsychotic use in dual eligible nursing home residents. Given the differential risk of mortality with typical and atypical antipsychotic use in nursing homes, more research is needed to evaluate other contributory factors of mortality with respect to these 2 antipsychotic classes.

  14. Going the extra mile - creating a co-operative model for supporting patient and public involvement in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Adele

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Chief Medical Officer and Director General of Research and Development commissioned a review of patient and public involvement in the National Institute for Health Research. The report on this review, entitled 'Going the Extra Mile' was published in March, 2015. It described the bold goal of expecting all people using health and social care, and increasing numbers of the public, to be aware of and choosing to be involved in research. This requires more effort to build public awareness of research and better support for the public and researchers to do patient and public involvement in research. The author has created a new way of providing support for patient and public involvement based on co-operation between organisations. Termed 'share-banking', this model pools limited resources across organisations to deliver a regional programme of support activities for patient and public involvement over the long term. This includes helping organisations to share and learn from each other to avoid 're-inventing wheels' (where separate organisations each develop the same thing from the beginning). The 'Going the Extra Mile' report recommends that local organisations should work together to deliver public involvement activities across a region. 'Share-banking' should help fulfil this recommendation. The 'Going the Extra Mile' final report opened with the ambition to increase the public's awareness, participation and involvement in research. It stated the need for public and researchers to be better supported to do public involvement. A new co-operative model, termed 'share-banking', has been developed whereby organisations pool limited resources to create and sustain support for patient and public involvement in research. This should fulfil the 'Going the Extra Mile' report's recommendation to take a collaborative, cross-organisational and regional approach to public involvement.

  15. Students’ Involvement in Authentic Modelling Practices as Contexts in Chemistry Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, G.T.; Bulte, A.M.W.; van Driel, J.H.; Pilot, A.

    2009-01-01

    In science education students should come to understand the nature and significance of models. A promising strategy to achieve this goal is using authentic modelling practices as contexts for meaningful learning of models and modelling. An authentic practice is defined as professionals working with

  16. Impact of resilience and job involvement on turnover intention of new graduate nurses using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi; Lee, Haeyoung

    2018-03-06

    Nurses' turnover intention is not just a result of their maladjustment to the field; it is an organizational issue. This study aimed to construct a structural model to verify the effects of new graduate nurses' work environment satisfaction, emotional labor, and burnout on their turnover intention, with consideration of resilience and job involvement, and to test the adequacy of the developed model. A cross-sectional study and a structural equation modelling approach were used. A nationwide survey was conducted of 371 new nurses who were working in hospitals for ≤18 months between July and October, 2014. The final model accounted for 40% of the variance in turnover intention. Emotional labor and burnout had a significant positive direct effect and an indirect effect on nurses' turnover intention. Resilience had a positive direct effect on job involvement. Job involvement had a negative direct effect on turnover intention. Resilience and job involvement mediated the effect of work environment satisfaction, emotional labor, and burnout on turnover intention. It is important to strengthen new graduate nurses' resilience in order to increase their job involvement and to reduce their turnover intention. © 2018 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  17. On a Numerical and Graphical Technique for Evaluating some Models Involving Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh

    Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model which consists of plotting the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give...

  18. On a numerical and graphical technique for evaluating some models involving rational expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh

    Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model which consists of plotting the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give...

  19. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  20. Modelling of phase equilibria and related properties of mixtures involving lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa

    Many challenges involving physical and thermodynamic properties in the production of edible oils and biodiesel are observed, such as availability of experimental data and realiable prediction. In the case of lipids, a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures in open...

  1. On the stability analysis of a general discrete-time population model involving predation and Allee effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdan, H.; Duman, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the stability analysis of equilibrium points of a general discrete-time population dynamics involving predation with and without Allee effects which occur at low population density. The mathematical analysis and numerical simulations show that the Allee effect has a stabilizing role on the local stability of the positive equilibrium points of this model.

  2. Assessing the economic impact of paternal involvement: a comparison of the generalized linear model versus decision analysis trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Salemi, Jason L; Nash, Michelle C; Chandler, Kristen; Mbah, Alfred K; Alio, Amina P

    2014-08-01

    Lack of paternal involvement has been shown to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including infant morbidity and mortality, but the impact on health care costs is unknown. Various methodological approaches have been used in cost minimization and cost effectiveness analyses and it remains unclear how cost estimates vary according to the analytic strategy adopted. We illustrate a methodological comparison of decision analysis modeling and generalized linear modeling (GLM) techniques using a case study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of potential father involvement interventions. We conducted a 12-year retrospective cohort study using a statewide enhanced maternal-infant database that contains both clinical and nonclinical information. A missing name for the father on the infant's birth certificate was used as a proxy for lack of paternal involvement, the main exposure of this study. Using decision analysis modeling and GLM, we compared all infant inpatient hospitalization costs over the first year of life. Costs were calculated from hospital charges using department-level cost-to-charge ratios and were adjusted for inflation. In our cohort of 2,243,891 infants, 9.2% had a father uninvolved during pregnancy. Lack of paternal involvement was associated with higher rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and infant morbidity and mortality. Both analytic approaches estimate significantly higher per-infant costs for father uninvolved pregnancies (decision analysis model: $1,827, GLM: $1,139). This paper provides sufficient evidence that healthcare costs could be significantly reduced through enhanced father involvement during pregnancy, and buttresses the call for a national program to involve fathers in antenatal care.

  3. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  4. On typical properties of Hilbert space operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, T.; Mátrai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We study the typical behavior of bounded linear operators on infinite-dimensional complex separable Hilbert spaces in the norm, strong-star, strong, weak polynomial and weak topologies. In particular, we investigate typical spectral properties, the problem of unitary equivalence of typical

  5. A Framework for Quantitative Modeling of Neural Circuits Involved in Sleep-to-Wake Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak eSorooshyari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the neuronal circuits and dynamics of sleep-to-wake transition is essential to understanding brain regulation of behavioral states, including sleep-wake cycles, arousal, and hyperarousal. Recent work by different laboratories has used optogenetics to determine the role of individual neuromodulators in state transitions. The optogenetically-driven data does not yet provide a multi-dimensional schematic of the mechanisms underlying changes in vigilance states. This work presents a modeling framework to interpret, assist, and drive research on the sleep-regulatory network. We identify feedback, redundancy, and gating hierarchy as three fundamental aspects of this model. The presented model is expected to expand as additional data on the contribution of each transmitter to a vigilance state becomes available. Incorporation of conductance-based models of neuronal ensembles into this model and existing models of cortical excitability will provide more comprehensive insight into sleep dynamics as well as sleep and arousal-related disorders.

  6. A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.…

  7. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  8. Malaysian University Student Learning Involvement Scale (MUSLIS): Validation of a Student Engagement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Fauziah Md.; Hashim, Rosna Awang; Ariffin, Tengku Faekah Tengku

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In western countries, a model to explain student engagement in college or university has long been established. However, there is a lack of research to develop and validate a model which may help to better understand student engagement in the local university context. There is currently no established instrument to measure student…

  9. Modeling and Parameter Identification Involving 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde Inhibitory Effects in Glycerol Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Gong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling and parameter estimation are critical steps in the optimization of biotechnological processes. In the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD production by glycerol fermentation process under anaerobic conditions, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA accumulation would arouse an irreversible cessation of the fermentation process. Considering 3-HPA inhibitions to cells growth and to activities of enzymes, we propose a novel mathematical model to describe glycerol continuous cultures. Some properties of the above model are discussed. On the basis of the concentrations of extracellular substances, a parameter identification model is established to determine the kinetic parameters in the presented system. Through the penalty function technique combined with an extension of the state space method, an improved genetic algorithm is then constructed to solve the parameter identification model. An illustrative numerical example shows the appropriateness of the proposed model and the validity of optimization algorithm. Since it is difficult to measure the concentrations of intracellular substances, a quantitative robustness analysis method is given to infer whether the model is plausible for the intracellular substances. Numerical results show that the proposed model is of good robustness.

  10. Testing a causal model of environmental influences on the early drug involvement of inner city junior high school youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, R; Farrow, D; Schmeidler, J; Burgos, W

    1979-01-01

    The present study examines a causal model explaining inner city youths' drug involvement using environmental variables which previously have been investigated singly or in various combinations and shown to influence drug use: the availability of drugs in the neighborhood and at school, a view of the neighborhood as tough, the esteem given to drug using, gang-involved persons by peers, friends' substance use, and participation in drug/street culture spare-time activities. The results show friends' use of alcohol and marijuana and participation in drug/street culture out-of-school activities have strong direct effects on personal drug involvement for the Black and Puerto Rican junior high school males and females who were studied; further, friends' use of alcohol and marijuana and the status peers give to drug using, gang-involved persons have respectable indirect effects on drug involvement for the four groups. In addition to these common features, a number of differences in the factors relating to drug involvement are found in the four groups. Implications of the results for alternative methods of drug abuse prevention and treatment are discussed, as is the necessity of utilizing an environmental, sociocultural view of drug use to adequately explain youth drug taking.

  11. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ache

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs. First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs 'coding-space' because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This

  12. One Model for Scientist Involvement in K-12 Education: Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, D.; Shipp, S. S.; Porter, M.; Bruccoli, A.

    2002-12-01

    Scientists involved in the NSF-funded Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) Program integrate a K-12 science teacher into their polar field project. Objectives of the program include: having the science teacher immersed in the experience of research; 2) through the teacher, leveraging the research experience to better inform teaching practices; and 3) sharing the experience with the broader educational and general community. The scientist - or qualified team member - stays involved with the teacher throughout the program as a mentor. Preparation of the teacher involves a week-long orientation presented by the TEA Program, and a two week pre-expedition visit at the scientist's institution. Orientation acquaints teachers with program expectations, logistical information, and an overview of polar science. While at the scientist's institution, the teacher meets the team, prepares for the field, and strengthens content knowledge. In the field, the teacher is a team member and educational liaison, responding to questions from students and colleagues by e-mail, and posting electronic journals describing the research experience. Upon return, the teachers work closely with colleagues to bring the experience of research into classrooms through creation of activities, design of longer-term student investigations, and presentations at scientific, educational, and community meetings. Interaction with the scientific team continues with a visit by the scientist to the teacher's classrooms, collaboration on presentations at scientific meetings, and consultation on classroom activities. In some cases, the teacher may participate in future expeditions. The involvement by scientists in mentor relationships, such as those of the TEA Program, is critical to improving science education. Many teachers of science have not had the opportunity to participate in field research, which offers valuable first-hand experience about the nature of science, as well as about specific

  13. Deformation analysis of polymers composites: rheological model involving time-based fractional derivative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog-bond-shaped......A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog......, is suggested to characterize the time-dependent behavior of GFRP composites by replacing Newtonian dashpot with the Abel dashpot in the classical Maxwell model. The analytic solution for the fractional derivative Maxwell model is given and the relative parameters are determined. The results estimated...

  14. Solubility of amino acids: a group-contribution model involving phase and chemical equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Simão; Silva, Carlos M.; Macedo, Eugénia A.

    1994-01-01

    A new model is proposed to represent the solubility behavior of 14 amino acids and 5 small peptides in water. The UNIFAC model is combined with a Debye-Huckel term to describe the activity coefficients of the species present in the biomolecule/water system. New groups have been defined according to the group-contribution concept, and chemical equilibrium is taken into account simultaneously with the physical equilibrium. To estimate the new interaction parameters, molal activity coefficien...

  15. Deformation analysis of polymers composites: rheological model involving time-based fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, L.; Wang, R.; Duan, Z. Q.; Chen, Q.

    2017-05-01

    A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog-bond-shaped GFRP composites at various stress level. A negative exponent function based on structural changes is introduced to describe the damage evolution of material properties in the process of creep test. Accordingly, a new creep constitutive equation, referred to fractional derivative Maxwell model, is suggested to characterize the time-dependent behavior of GFRP composites by replacing Newtonian dashpot with the Abel dashpot in the classical Maxwell model. The analytic solution for the fractional derivative Maxwell model is given and the relative parameters are determined. The results estimated by the fractional derivative Maxwell model proposed in the paper are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the new creep constitutive model proposed in the paper needs few parameters to represent various time-dependent behaviors.

  16. The productivity and cost-efficiency of models for involving nurse practitioners in primary care: a perspective from queueing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; D'Aunno, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    To develop simple stylized models for evaluating the productivity and cost-efficiencies of different practice models to involve nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care, and in particular to generate insights on what affects the performance of these models and how. The productivity of a practice model is defined as the maximum number of patients that can be accounted for by the model under a given timeliness-to-care requirement; cost-efficiency is measured by the corresponding annual cost per patient in that model. Appropriate queueing analysis is conducted to generate formulas and values for these two performance measures. Model parameters for the analysis are extracted from the previous literature and survey reports. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the model performance under different scenarios and to verify the robustness of findings. Employing an NP, whose salary is usually lower than a primary care physician, may not be cost-efficient, in particular when the NP's capacity is underutilized. Besides provider service rates, workload allocation among providers is one of the most important determinants for the cost-efficiency of a practice model involving NPs. Capacity pooling among providers could be a helpful strategy to improve efficiency in care delivery. The productivity and cost-efficiency of a practice model depend heavily on how providers organize their work and a variety of other factors related to the practice environment. Queueing theory provides useful tools to take into account these factors in making strategic decisions on staffing and panel size selection for a practice model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Mazindol and lidocaine are antinociceptives in the mouse formalin model: involvement of dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Takahashi, R N

    1997-07-09

    The antinociceptive potential of mazindol, an anorectic drug, and lidocaine, an amide-type local anesthetic, were investigated in the mouse formalin test with concurrent motor function assessment. In addition, the role of dopamine and opioid receptors in mediation of the antinociceptive action of these drugs was examined. The i.p. injection of mazindol (1.25-10 mg/kg) and lidocaine (10-30 mg/kg) induced significant antinociceptive responses in both phases of the test. Cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), used as positive control, also inhibited the pain responses caused by formalin. Haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), and sulpiride (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, reduced the antinociceptive actions of mazindol and cocaine, while SCH 23390, R(+)-7-chloro 8-hydroxy-3methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3 benzazepine (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.), a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, did not affect these responses. Only the antinociception associated with mazindol was reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The same pretreatments failed to modify lidocaine-induced antinociception. The drug conditions used in this study did not reveal any motor impairment in the rotarod test. These observations suggest an involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms, mainly via dopamine D2 receptors, in the antinociceptive action of mazindol in the formalin test, but the nature of mechanisms involved in the lidocaine responses remains unsolved.

  18. Extension of the time-average model to Candu refueling schemes involving reshuffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouben, Benjamin; Nichita, Eleodor

    2008-01-01

    Candu reactors consist of a horizontal non-pressurized heavy-water-filled vessel penetrated axially by fuel channels, each containing twelve 50-cm-long fuel bundles cooled by pressurized heavy water. Candu reactors are refueled on-line and, as a consequence, the core flux and power distributions change continuously. For design purposes, a 'time-average' model was developed in the 1970's to calculate the average over time of the flux and power distribution and to study the effects of different refueling schemes. The original time-average model only allows treatment of simple push-through refueling schemes whereby fresh fuel is inserted at one end of the channel and irradiated fuel is removed from the other end. With the advent of advanced fuel cycles and new Candu designs, novel refueling schemes may be considered, such as reshuffling discharged fuel from some channels into other channels, to achieve better overall discharge burnup. Such reshuffling schemes cannot be handled by the original time-average model. This paper presents an extension of the time-average model to allow for the treatment of refueling schemes with reshuffling. Equations for the extended model are presented, together with sample results for a simple demonstration case. (authors)

  19. The community environmental monitoring program: a model for stakeholder involvement in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, William T.; Shafer, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1981, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has involved stakeholders directly in its daily operation and data collection, as well as in dissemination of information on radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the primary location where the United States (US) conducted nuclear testing until 1992. The CEMP is funded by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, and is administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The CEMP provides training workshops for stakeholders involved in the program, and educational outreach to address public concerns about health risk and environmental impacts from past and ongoing NTS activities. The network includes 29 monitoring stations located across an approximately 160,000 km 2 area of Nevada, Utah and California in the southwestern US. The principal radiological instruments are pressurized ion chambers for measuring gamma radiation, and particulate air samplers, primarily for alpha/beta detection. Stations also employ a full suite of meteorological instruments, allowing for improved interpretation of the effects of meteorological events on background radiation levels. Station sensors are wired to state-of-the-art data-loggers that are capable of several weeks of on-site data storage, and that work in tandem with a communications system that integrates DSL and wireless internet, land line and cellular phone, and satellite technologies for data transfer. Data are managed through a platform maintained by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) that DRI operates for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The WRCC platform allows for near real-time upload and display of current monitoring information in tabular and graphical formats on a public web site. Archival data for each station are also available on-line, providing the ability to perform trending analyses or calculate site

  20. Queue-based modelling and detection of parameters involved in stroke outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Petersen, John Asger; Wienecke, Troels

    2017-01-01

    We designed a queue-based model, and investigated which parameters are of importance when predicting stroke outcome. Medical record forms have been collected for 57 ischemic stroke patients, including medical history and vital sign measurement along with neurological scores for the first twenty-f......, where outcome for patients were 36.75 ± 10.99. The queue-based model integrating multiple linear regression shows promising results for automatic selection of significant medically relevant parameters.......-four hours of admission. The importance of each parameter is identified using multiple regression combined with a circular queue to iteratively fit outcome. Out of 39 parameters, the model isolated 14 which combined could estimate outcome with a root mean square error of 1.69 on the Scandinavian Stroke Scale...

  1. Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasiński Marcin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships. Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2], then it is re-trained (calibrated with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

  2. Radiation induced muscositis as space flight risk. Model studies on X-ray and heavy ion irradiated typical oral mucosa models; Strahlungsinduzierte Mukositis als Risiko der Raumfahrt. Modelluntersuchungen an Roentgen- und Schwerionen-bestrahlten organotypischen Mundschleimhaut-Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschachojan, Viktoria

    2014-07-29

    Humans in exomagnetospheric space are exposed to highly energetic heavy ion radiation which can be hardly shielded. Since radiation-induced mucositis constitutes a severe complication of heavy ion radiotherapy, it would also implicate a serious medical safety risk for the crew members during prolonged space flights such as missions to Moon or Mars. For assessment of risk developing radiation-induced mucositis, three-dimensional organotypic cultures of immortalized human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with a {sup 12}C particle beam at high energies or X-Rays. Immunofluorescence stainings were done from cryosections and radiation induced release of cytokines and chemokines was quantified by ELISA from culture supernatants. The major focuses of this study were on 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. The conducted analyses of our mucosa model showed many structural similarities with the native oral mucosa and authentic immunological responses to radiation exposure. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed about twice as many DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X-rays at definite doses and time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. Nuclear factor κB activation was observed after treatment with X-rays or {sup 12}C particles. An activation of NF κB p65 in irradiated samples could not be detected. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels after irradiation with X-rays and {sup 12}C particles compared to non-irradiated controls. However, only X-rays induced significantly higher levels of interleukin 1β. Analyses of TNF-α and IFN-γ showed no radiation-induced effects. Further analyses revealed a radiation-induced reduction in proliferation and loss of compactness in irradiated oral mucosa model, which would lead to local lesions in vivo. In this study we revealed that several pro-inflammatory markers and structural changes are induced by X-rays and heavy

  3. A risk adjusted cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative models of nurse involvement in obesity management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, J; Ali Afzali, H Haji; Gray, J; Holton, C; Banham, D; Beilby, J

    2013-03-01

    Controlled evaluations are subject to uncertainty regarding their replication in the real world, particularly around systems of service provision. Using routinely collected data, we undertook a risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis of alternative applied models of primary health care for the management of obese adult patients. Models were based on the reported level of involvement of practice nurses (registered or enrolled nurses working in general practice) in the provision of clinical-based activities. Linked, routinely collected clinical data describing clinical outcomes (weight, BMI, and obesity-related complications) and resource use (primary care, pharmaceutical, and hospital resource use) were collected. Potential confounders were controlled for using propensity weighted regression analyses. Relative to low level involvement of practice nurses in the provision of clinical-based activities to obese patients, high level involvement was associated with lower costs and better outcomes (more patients losing weight, and larger mean reductions in BMI). Excluding hospital costs, high level practice nurse involvement was associated with slightly higher costs. Incrementally, the high level model gets one additional obese patient to lose weight at an additional cost of $6,741, and reduces mean BMI by an additional one point at an additional cost of $563 (upper 95% confidence interval $1,547). Converted to quality adjusted life year (QALY) gains, the results provide a strong indication that increased involvement of practice nurses in clinical activities is associated with additional health benefits that are achieved at reasonable additional cost. Dissemination activities and incentives are required to encourage general practices to better integrate practice nurses in the active provision of clinical services. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Integrated Inventory Model with Controllable Lead Time Involving Investment for Quality Improvement in Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vijayashree

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate a two-echelon supply chain inventory problem consisting of a single-vendor and a single-buyer with controllable lead time and investment for quality improvements. This paper presents an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model in order to minimize the sum of the ordering cost, holding cost, setup cost, investment for quality improvement and crashing cost by simultaneously optimizing the optimal order quantity, process quality, lead time and number of deliveries the vendor to the buyer in one production run with the objective of minimizing total relevant cost. Here the lead-time crashing cost has been assumed to be an exponentially function of the lead-time length. The main contribution of proposed model is an efficient iterative algorithm developed to minimize integrated total relevant cost for the single vendor and the single buyer systems with controllable lead time reduction and investment for quality improvements. Graphical representation is also presented to illustrate the proposed model. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures and results of the proposed algorithm. Matlab coding is also developed to derive the optimal solution and present numerical examples to illustrate the model.

  5. Recent advances in iPSC technologies involving cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Danišovič, Ľuboš; Polák, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are the most common health threats in developed countries. Limited cell derivation and cell number in cardiac tissue makes it difficult to study the cardiovascular disease using the existing cardiac cell model. Regarding the neurodegenerative disorders, the most potential sources of cell therapeutics such as fetal-derived primary neurons and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are associated with ethical or technical limitations. The successful derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by de-differentiation of somatic cells offers significant potential to overcome hurdles in the field of the replacement therapy. Human iPSCs are functionally similar to human embryonic stem cells, and can be derived autologously without the ethical challenges associated with human ESCs. The iPSCs can, in turn, be differentiated into all cell types including neurons, cardiac cells, blood and liver cells, etc. Recently, target tissues derived from human iPSCs such as cardiomyocytes (CMs) or neurons have been used for new disease modeling and regenerative medicine therapies. Diseases models could be advantageous in the development of personalized medicine of various pathological conditions. This paper reviews efforts aimed at both the practical development of iPSCs, differentiation to neural/cardiac lineages, and the further use of these iPSCs-derived cells for disease modeling, as well as drug toxicity testing.

  6. DNA databanks and consent: a suggested policy option involving an authorization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Upshur, Ross E G; Daar, Abdallah

    2003-01-03

    Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.

  7. DNA databanks and consent: A suggested policy option involving an authorization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. Discussion In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. Summary The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.

  8. Data, analysis and modeling of physical properties for process designof systems involving lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Pure component and mixture properties are necessary for synthesis, design, and analysis of processes forthe production of edible oils, fats, biodiesel, and other lipids. The lack of measured data for these systemsmakes it necessary to develop reliable predictive models based on limited data. We...

  9. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators–prey system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator–prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk–dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for

  10. A Predictive Model for Lymph Node Involvement with Malignancy on PET/CT in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D; Weber, Wolfgang A; Foster, Amanda; Moshchinsky, Ariella B; Ahsanuddin, Salma; Zhang, Zhigang; Shi, Weiji; Rizk, Nabil P; Wu, Abraham J; Ashamalla, Hani; Rimner, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of lymph node (LN) involvement with malignancy is critical to staging and management of non-small-cell lung cancer. The goal of this retrospective study was to determine the tumor and imaging characteristics independently associated with malignant involvement of LNs visualized on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). From 2002 to 2011, 172 patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer underwent PET/CT within 31 days before LN biopsy. Among these patients, 504 anatomically defined, pathology-confirmed LNs were visualized on PET/CT. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between nodal involvement with malignancy and several clinical and imaging variables, including tumor histology, tumor grade, LN risk category in relation to the primary tumor location, pathologic findings from additional biopsied LNs, interval between PET/CT and biopsy, primary tumor largest dimension, primary tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax), LN short-axis dimension, and LN SUVmax. On univariate analysis, adenocarcinoma histology (p = 0.010), high LN risk category (p involvement. On multivariate analysis, adenocarcinoma histology (p = 0.003), high LN risk category (p = 0.005), and higher LN SUVmax (p involvement, whereas LN short-axis dimension was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.180). A nomogram developed for clinical application based on this analysis had excellent concordance between predicted and observed results (concordance index, 0.95). Adenocarcinoma histology, higher LN SUVmax, and higher LN risk category independently correlate with nodal involvement with malignancy and may be used in a model to accurately predict the risk of a node's involvement with malignancy.

  11. Modelling of contact problems involved in ensuring the safety of rail transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rydygier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mathematical modelling aids diagnostics the track and rolling stock, as it often for technical reasons it is not possible to obtain a complete set of measurement data required to diagnose the rail and wheel deformation caused by the impact of a rail vehicle on the track. The important issue in a railway diagnostics is to study the effects of contact wheel and rail. Diagnostics investigations of track and rolling stock have a fundamental role in ensuring the safety of transport of passengers and goods. The aim of the study presented in the paper was to develop simulation methods of mathematical modelling of the wheel-rail system useful in the diagnostics of the track and a railway vehicle. Methods: In the paper two ways of modelling were presented and discussed. One of these ways is the method which consists in reducing the contact issue to field issue and solving the identification of the field source in 2-D system. Also presented a different method designed on the basis of the methods using one period energy concept. This method is adapted for modelling the dynamics of the contact wheel-rail for the normal force. It has been shown that the developed modelling methods to effectively support the study on the effects of mechanical and thermal of contact wheel-rail and contribute to the safety of operations.  Results and conclusions:  In the case of field sources identifications two specific issues were examined: the issue of rail torsion and the identification of heat sources in the rail due to exposure the rolling contact wheel-rail. In the case of the method using one period energy concept it was demonstrated the usefulness of this method to the study of energy processes in the contact wheel-rail under the normal periodic force. The future direction of research is to establish cooperation with research teams entrusted with the diagnostic measurements of track and rolling stock.  

  12. Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes.

  13. Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items Involving Fuzzy with Shortages and Exponential Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vijai Stanly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items for power demand under fully backlogged conditions. We define various factors which are affecting the inventory cost by using the shortage costs. An intention of this paper is to study the inventory modelling through fuzzy environment. Inventory parameters, such as holding cost, shortage cost, purchasing cost and deterioration cost are assumed to be the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. In addition, an efficient algorithm is developed to determine the optimal policy, and the computational effort and time are small for the proposed algorithm. It is simple to implement, and our approach is illustrated through some numerical examples to demonstrate the application and the performance of the proposed methodology.

  14. Beyond the Didactic Classroom: Educational Models to Encourage Active Student Involvement in Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeve, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    In a chiropractic college that utilizes a hybrid curriculum model composed of adult-based learning strategies along with traditional lecture-based course delivery, a literature search for educational delivery methods that would integrate the affective domain and the cognitive domain of learning provided some insights into the use of problem-based learning (PBL), experiential learning theory (ELT), and the emerging use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to enhance the learning experience. The purpos...

  15. Collaborative modelling for active involvement of stakeholders in urban flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to enhance the role of local stakeholders in dealing with urban floods. The concept is based on the DIANE-CM project (Decentralised Integrated Analysis and Enhancement of Awareness through Collaborative Modelling and Management of Flood Risk of the 2nd ERANET CRUE funding initiative. The main objective of the project was to develop and test an advanced methodology for enhancing the resilience of local communities to flooding. Through collaborative modelling, a social learning process was initiated that enhances the social capacity of the stakeholders due to the interaction process. The other aim of the project was to better understand how data from hazard and vulnerability analyses and improved maps, as well as from the near real-time flood prediction, can be used to initiate a public dialogue (i.e. collaborative mapping and planning activities in order to carry out more informed and shared decision-making processes and to enhance flood risk awareness. The concept of collaborative modelling was applied in two case studies: (1 the Cranbrook catchment in the UK, with focus on pluvial flooding; and (2 the Alster catchment in Germany, with focus on fluvial flooding. As a result of the interactive and social learning process, supported by sociotechnical instruments, an understanding of flood risk was developed amongst the stakeholders and alternatives for flood risk management for the respective case study area were jointly developed and ranked as a basis for further planning and management.

  16. Development of a Pharmacoeconomic Model to Demonstrate the Effect of Clinical Pharmacist Involvement in Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourth, Heather; Nelson, Jordan; Spoutz, Patrick; Morreale, Anthony P

    2018-05-01

    A data collection tool was developed and nationally deployed to clinical pharmacists (CPs) working in advanced practice provider roles within the Department of Veterans Affairs to document interventions and associated clinical outcomes. Intervention and short-term clinical outcome data derived from the tool were used to populate a validated clinical outcomes modeling program to predict long-term clinical and economic effects. To predict the long-term effect of CP-provided pharmacotherapy management on outcomes and costs for patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline patient demographics and biomarkers were extracted for type 2 diabetic patients having > 1 encounter with a CP using the tool between January 5, 2013, and November 20, 2014. Treatment biomarker values were extracted 12 months after the patient's initial visit with the CP. The number of visits with the CP was extracted from the electronic medical record, and duration of visit time was quantified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. Simulation modeling was performed on 3 patient cohorts-those with a baseline hemoglobin A1c of 8% to < 9%, 9% to < 10%, and ≥ 10%-to estimate long-term cost and clinical outcomes using modeling based on pivotal trial data (the Archimedes Model). A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the extent to which our results were dependent on assumptions related to program effectiveness and costs. A total of 7,310 patients were included in the analysis. Analysis of costs and events on 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year time horizons demonstrated significant reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), myocardial infarctions (MIs), episodes of acute heart failure, foot ulcers, and foot amputations in comparison with a control group receiving usual guideline-directed medical care. In the cohort with a baseline A1c of ≥ 10%, the absolute risk reduction was 1.82% for MACE, 1.73% for MI, 2.43% for acute heart failure, 5.38% for foot ulcers, and 2.03% for foot amputations. The

  17. A Hybrid Artificial Reputation Model Involving Interaction Trust, Witness Information and the Trust Model to Calculate the Trust Value of Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh Ransi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent interaction in a community, such as the online buyer-seller scenario, is often uncertain, as when an agent comes in contact with other agents they initially know nothing about each other. Currently, many reputation models are developed that help service consumers select better service providers. Reputation models also help agents to make a decision on who they should trust and transact with in the future. These reputation models are either built on interaction trust that involves direct experience as a source of information or they are built upon witness information also known as word-of-mouth that involves the reports provided by others. Neither the interaction trust nor the witness information models alone succeed in such uncertain interactions. In this paper we propose a hybrid reputation model involving both interaction trust and witness information to address the shortcomings of existing reputation models when taken separately. A sample simulation is built to setup buyer-seller services and uncertain interactions. Experiments reveal that the hybrid approach leads to better selection of trustworthy agents where consumers select more reputable service providers, eventually helping consumers obtain more gains. Furthermore, the trust model developed is used in calculating trust values of service providers.

  18. A risk-adjusted economic evaluation of alternative models of involvement of practice nurses in management of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, H; Gray, J; Beilby, J; Holton, C; Banham, D; Karnon, J

    2013-07-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in the management of type 2 diabetes within the primary care setting. Linked routinely collected clinical data and resource use (general practitioner visits, hospital services and pharmaceuticals) were used to undertake a risk-adjusted cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative models of care for the management of diabetes patients. These models were based on the reported level of involvement of practice nurses in the provision of clinical-based activities. Potential confounders were controlled for by using propensity score-weighted regression analyses. The impact of alternative models of care on outcomes and costs was measured and incremental cost-effectiveness estimated. The uncertainty around the estimates of cost-effectiveness was illustrated through bootstrapping. Although the difference in total cost between two models of care was not statistically significant, the high-level model was associated with better outcomes (larger mean reductions in HbA(1c)). The upper 95% confidence intervals showed that the incremental cost per 1% decrease in HbA(1c) is only $454, and per one additional patient to achieve an HbA(1c) value of less than 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) is $323. Further analyses showed little uncertainty surrounding the decision to adopt the high-level model. The results provide a strong indication that the high-level model is a cost-effective way of managing diabetes patients. Our findings highlight the need for effective incentives to encourage general practices to better integrate practice nurses in the provision of clinical services. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  19. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics.

  20. Brain mechanisms involved in predatory aggression are activated in a laboratory model of violent intra-specific aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulogdi, Aron; Toth, Mate; Halasz, Jozsef; Mikics, Eva; Fuzesi, Tamas; Haller, Jozsef

    2010-11-01

    Callous-unemotional violence associated with antisocial personality disorder is often called 'predatory' because it involves restricted intention signaling and low emotional/physiological arousal, including decreased glucocorticoid production. This epithet may be a mere metaphor, but may also cover a structural similarity at the level of the hypothalamus where the control of affective and predatory aggression diverges. We investigated this hypothesis in a laboratory model where glucocorticoid production is chronically limited by adrenalectomy with glucocorticoid replacement (ADXr). This procedure was proposed to model important aspects of antisocial violence. Sham and ADXr rats were submitted to resident/intruder conflicts, and the resulting neuronal activation patterns were investigated by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. In line with earlier findings, the share of attacks aimed at vulnerable targets (head, throat and belly) was dramatically increased by ADXr, while intention signaling by offensive threats was restricted. Aggressive encounters activated the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region involved in intra-specific aggression, but sham and ADXr rats did not differ in this respect. In contrast, the activation of the lateral hypothalamus that is tightly involved in predatory aggression was markedly larger in ADXr rats; moreover, c-Fos counts correlated positively with the share of vulnerable attacks and negatively with social signaling. Glucocorticoid deficiency increased c-Fos activation in the central amygdala, a region also involved in predatory aggression. In addition, activation patterns in the periaqueductal gray - involved in autonomic control - also resembled those seen in predatory aggression. These findings suggest that antisocial and predatory aggression are not only similar but are controlled by overlapping neural mechanisms. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing

  1. Involvement of immunologic mechanisms in a guinea pig model of western red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, H; Howard, S; Chan, H; Dryden, P; Chan-Yeung, M

    1994-05-01

    Western red cedar asthma is the most common form of occupational asthma in the Pacific Northwest. Plicatic acid (PA) is the chemical component of Western red cedar that causes asthma. The role of immunologic processes involved in the PA-induced asthmatic reaction has not been established. To characterize the mechanisms of PA-induced asthmatic reaction, guinea pigs were sensitized to PA through biweekly injection of PA-ovalbumin conjugate with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant for a period of 6 months. Specific IgG1 antibodies to PA were detected in the blood 3 months after sensitization of animals. The level of specific IgG1 antibodies to ovalbumin after 6 months was about two times the level of specific IgG1 to PA. At 6 months, tracheal tissue from PA-ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs contracted after exposure to either PA or ovalbumin in vitro. The degree of contraction induced by PA was two to three times less than the contraction induced by ovalbumin. PA caused histamine, prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene D4 release from both lung mast cells and blood basophils. The amount of histamine and eicosanoids released by PA was also two to three times less than the amount of mediators released by ovalbumin. When the trachea of normal guinea pigs was passively sensitized with serum from PA-ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs, it contracted in response to PA or ovalbumin in an organ bath. When the serum of PA-ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs was depleted of immunoglobulins and then used for passive sensitization of normal trachea, no contraction was observed when challenged with PA, suggesting that IgG1 antibodies mediate the tracheal reaction to PA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R.; Musumeci, T.; Basile, L.; Carbone, C.; Puglisi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy. PMID:21430952

  3. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Musumeci, T; Basile, L; Carbone, C; Puglisi, G

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy.

  4. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pignatello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy.

  5. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  6. Modelling of electrokinetic phenomena involving confined polymers: Applications to DNA separation and electroosmotic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frederic

    Microfluidic and nanofluidic technology is revolutionizing experimental practices in analytical chemistry, molecular biology and medicine. Indeed, the development of systems of small dimensions for the processing of fluids heralds the miniaturization of traditional, cumbersome laboratory equipment onto robust, portable and efficient microchip devices (similar to the electronic microchips found in computers). Moreover, the conjunction of scale between the smallest man-made device and the largest macromolecules evolved by Nature is fertile ground for the blooming of our knowledge about the key processes of life. In fact, the conjunction is threefold, because modern computational resources also allow us to contemplate a rather explicit modelling of physical systems between the nanoscale and the microscale. In the five articles comprising this thesis, we present the results of computer simulations that address specific questions concerning the operation of two different model systems relevant to the development of small-scale fluidic devices for the manipulation and analysis of biomolecules. First, we use a Bond-Fluctuation Monte Carlo approach to study the electrophoretic drift of macromolecules across an entropic trap array built for the length separation of long, double-stranded DNA molecules. We show that the motion of the molecules is consistent with a simple balance between electric and entropic forces, in terms of a single characteristic parameter. We also extract detailed information on polymer deformation during migration, predict the separation of topoisomers, and investigate innovative ratchet driving regimes. Secondly, we present theoretical derivations, numerical calculations and Molecular Dynamics simulation results for an electrolyte confined in a capillary of nanoscopic dimensions. In particular, we study the effectiveness of neutral grafted polymer chains in reducing the magnitude of electroosmotic flow (fluid flow induced by an external electric field

  7. Dendritic Cells Are Involved in the Effects of Exercise in a Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Breanne; Andrade-Sousa, Adilson Santos; Oliveira-Junior, Manoel Carneiro; Assumpção-Neto, Erasmo; Brandão-Rangel, Maysa Alves Rodrigues; Silva-Renno, Adriano; Santos-Dias, Alana; Cicko, Sanja; Grimm, Melanie; Müller, Tobias; Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Martins, Milton Arruda; Idzko, Marco; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) on both the maturation of dendritic cells (DC) and the activation of lymphocytes in a mouse model of chronic allergic airway inflammation. C57BL/6 mice distributed into control, exercise, ovalbumin (OVA), and OVA + exercise groups were submitted to OVA sensitization and challenge. Treadmill training was performed for 4 wk, and mice were assessed for classical features of chronic allergic airway inflammation as well as dendritic cell activation and T-lymphocyte response. AE reduced OVA-induced eosinophilic inflammation as observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.001), airway walls (P < 0001), and also reduced collagen deposition (P < 0.001). AE also reduced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, P < 0.001; IL-5, P < 0.01; IL-6, P < 0.001; IL-13, P < 0.01; and tumor necrosis factor α, P < 0.01). Cells derived from mediastinal lymphnodes of AE animals that were restimulated with OVA produced less IL-4 (P < 0.01), IL-5 (P < 0.01), and IL-13 (P < 0.001). In addition, AE reduced both DC activation, as demonstrated by reduced release of IL-6 (P < 0.001), CXCL1/KC (P < 0.01), IL-12p70 (P < 0.01), and tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.05) and DC maturation, as demonstrated by lower MCH-II expression (P < 0.001). AE attenuated dendritic cell and lymphocyte activation and maturation, which contributed to reduced airway inflammation and remodeling in the OVA model of chronic allergic airway inflammation.

  8. Circadian abnormalities in mouse models of Smith-Magenis syndrome: evidence for involvement of RAI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaria, Melanie; Gu, Wenli; Lupski, James R

    2013-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a genomic disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and disordered sleep resulting from an ~3.7 Mb deletion copy number variant (CNV) on chromosome 17p11.2 or from point mutations in the gene RAI1. The reciprocal duplication of this region results in another genomic disorder, Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; OMIM 610883), characterized by autism, intellectual disability, and congenital anomalies. We previously used chromosome-engineering and gene targeting to generate mouse models for PTLS (Dp(11)17/+), and SMS due to either deletion CNV or gene knock-out (Df(11)17-2/+ and Rai1(+/-) , respectively) and we observed phenotypes in these mouse models consistent with their associated human syndromes. To investigate the contribution of individual genes to the circadian phenotypes observed in SMS, we now report the analysis of free-running period lengths in Rai1(+/-) and Df(11)17-2/+ mice, as well as in mice deficient for another known circadian gene mapping within the commonly deleted/duplicated region, Dexras1, and we compare these results to those previously observed in Dp(11)17/+ mice. Reduced free-running period lengths were seen in Df(11)17-2/+, Rai1(+/-) , and Dexras1(-/-) , but not Dexras1(+/-) mice, suggesting that Rai1 may be the primary gene underlying the circadian defects in SMS. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that cis effects between multiple haploinsufficient genes in the SMS critical interval (e.g., RAI1 and DEXRAS1) either exacerbate the circadian phenotypes observed in SMS patients with deletions or increase their penetrance in certain environments. This study also confirms a previous report of abnormal circadian function in Dexras1(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The necessary burden of involving stakeholders in agent-based modelling for education and decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommel, P.; Bautista Solís, P.; Leclerc, G.

    2016-12-01

    We implemented a participatory process with water stakeholders for improving resilience to drought at watershed scale, and for reducing water pollution disputes in drought prone Northwestern Costa Rica. The purpose is to facilitate co-management in a rural watershed impacted by recurrent droughts related to ENSO. The process involved designing "ContaMiCuenca", a hybrid agent-based model where users can specify the decisions of their agents. We followed a Companion Modeling approach (www.commod.org) and organized 10 workshops that included research techniques such as participatory diagnostics, actor-resources-interaction and UML diagrams, multi-agents model design, and interactive simulation sessions. We collectively assessed the main water issues in the watershed, prioritized their importance, defined the objectives of the process, and pilot-tested ContaMiCuenca for environmental education with adults and children. Simulation sessions resulted in debates about the need to improve the model accuracy, arguably more relevant for decision-making. This helped identify sensible knowledge gaps in the groundwater pollution and aquifer dynamics that need to be addressed in order to improve our collective learning. Significant mismatches among participants expectations, objectives, and agendas considerably slowed down the participatory process. The main issue may originate in participants expecting technical solutions from a positivist science, as constantly promoted in the region by dole-out initiatives, which is incompatible with the constructivist stance of participatory modellers. This requires much closer interaction of community members with modellers, which may be hard to attain in the current research practice and institutional context. Nevertheless, overcoming these constraints is necessary for a true involvement of water stakeholders to achieve community-based decisions that facilitate integrated water management. Our findings provide significant guidance for

  10. Finding candidate genes under positive selection in Non-model species: examples of genes involved in host specialization in pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, G; Lengelle, J; Marthey, S; Chiapello, H; Rodolphe, F; Gendrault, A; Yockteng, R; Vercken, E; Devier, B; Fontaine, M C; Wincker, P; Dossat, C; Cruaud, C; Couloux, A; Giraud, T

    2010-01-01

    Numerous genes in diverse organisms have been shown to be under positive selection, especially genes involved in reproduction, adaptation to contrasting environments, hybrid inviability, and host-pathogen interactions. Looking for genes under positive selection in pathogens has been a priority in efforts to investigate coevolution dynamics and to develop vaccines or drugs. To elucidate the functions involved in host specialization, here we aimed at identifying candidate sequences that could have evolved under positive selection among closely related pathogens specialized on different hosts. For this goal, we sequenced c. 17,000-32,000 ESTs from each of four Microbotryum species, which are fungal pathogens responsible for anther smut disease on host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. Forty-two of the 372 predicted orthologous genes showed significant signal of positive selection, which represents a good number of candidate genes for further investigation. Sequencing 16 of these genes in 9 additional Microbotryum species confirmed that they have indeed been rapidly evolving in the pathogen species specialized on different hosts. The genes showing significant signals of positive selection were putatively involved in nutrient uptake from the host, secondary metabolite synthesis and secretion, respiration under stressful conditions and stress response, hyphal growth and differentiation, and regulation of expression by other genes. Many of these genes had transmembrane domains and may therefore also be involved in pathogen recognition by the host. Our approach thus revealed fruitful and should be feasible for many non-model organisms for which candidate genes for diversifying selection are needed.

  11. Involvement of spinal orexin A in the electroacupuncture analgesia in a rat model of post-laparotomy pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao-Ming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orexin A (OXA, hypocretin/hcrt 1 is a newly discovered potential analgesic substance. However, whether OXA is involved in acupuncture analgesia remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of spinal OXA in electroacupuncture (EA analgesia. Methods A modified rat model of post-laparotomy pain was adopted and evaluated. Von Frey filaments were used to measure mechanical allodynia of the hind paw and abdomen. EA at 2/15 Hz or 2/100 Hz was performed once on the bilateral ST36 and SP6 for 30 min perioperatively. SB-334867, a selective orexin 1 receptor (OX1R antagonist with a higher affinity for OXA than OXB, was intrathecally injected to observe its effect on EA analgesia. Results OXA at 0.3 nmol and EA at 2/15 Hz produced respective analgesic effects on the model (P0.05. In addition, naloxone, a selective opioid receptor antagonist, failed to antagonize OXA-induced analgesia (P>0.05. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate the involvement of OXA in EA analgesia via OX1R in an opioid-independent way.

  12. Role of religious involvement and spirituality in functioning among African Americans with cancer: testing a mediational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wang, Min Qi; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a mediational model of the role of religious involvement, spirituality, and physical/emotional functioning in a sample of African American men and women with cancer. Several mediators were proposed based on theory and previous research, including sense of meaning, positive and negative affect, and positive and negative religious coping. One hundred patients were recruited through oncologist offices, key community leaders and community organizations, and interviewed by telephone. Participants completed an established measure of religious involvement, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-SP-12 version 4), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Meaning in Life Scale, the Brief RCOPE, and the SF-12, which assesses physical and emotional functioning. Positive affect completely mediated the relationship between religious behaviors and emotional functioning. Though several other constructs showed relationships with study variables, evidence of mediation was not supported. Mediational models were not significant for the physical functioning outcome, nor were there significant main effects of religious involvement or spirituality for this outcome. Implications for cancer survivorship interventions are discussed. PMID:21222026

  13. Beyond the didactic classroom: educational models to encourage active student involvement in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    In a chiropractic college that utilizes a hybrid curriculum model composed of adult-based learning strategies along with traditional lecture-based course delivery, a literature search for educational delivery methods that would integrate the affective domain and the cognitive domain of learning provided some insights into the use of problem-based learning (PBL), experiential learning theory (ELT), and the emerging use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to enhance the learning experience. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a brief overview of key components of PBL, ELT, and AI in educational methodology and to discuss how these might be used within the chiropractic curriculum to supplement traditional didactic lecture courses. A growing body of literature describes the use of PBL and ELT in educational settings across many disciplines, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The use of appreciative inquiry as an instructional methodology presents a new area for exploration and study in the academic environment. Educational research in the chiropractic classroom incorporating ELT and appreciative inquiry might provide some valuable insights for future curriculum development.

  14. Beyond the Didactic Classroom: Educational Models to Encourage Active Student Involvement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    In a chiropractic college that utilizes a hybrid curriculum model composed of adult-based learning strategies along with traditional lecture-based course delivery, a literature search for educational delivery methods that would integrate the affective domain and the cognitive domain of learning provided some insights into the use of problem-based learning (PBL), experiential learning theory (ELT), and the emerging use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to enhance the learning experience. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a brief overview of key components of PBL, ELT, and AI in educational methodology and to discuss how these might be used within the chiropractic curriculum to supplement traditional didactic lecture courses. A growing body of literature describes the use of PBL and ELT in educational settings across many disciplines, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The use of appreciative inquiry as an instructional methodology presents a new area for exploration and study in the academic environment. Educational research in the chiropractic classroom incorporating ELT and appreciative inquiry might provide some valuable insights for future curriculum development. PMID:18483586

  15. The Impact of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in Original Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danch, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement original scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.

  16. The leech nervous system: a valuable model to study the microglia involvement in regenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  17. The Leech Nervous System: A Valuable Model to Study the Microglia Involvement in Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Le Marrec-Croq

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS. During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  18. Modeling the mechanism involved during the sorption of methylene blue onto fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Ramamurthi, V; Sivanesan, S

    2005-04-01

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove methylene blue from its aqueous solutions using fly ash as an adsorbent. Operating variables studied were initial dye concentration, fly ash mass, pH, and contact time. Maximum color removal was observed at a basic pH of 8. Equilibrium data were represented well by a Langmuir isotherm equation with a monolayer sorption capacity of 5.718 mg/g. Sorption data were fitted to both Lagergren first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the data were found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. Rate constants at different initial concentrations were estimated. The process mechanism was found to be complex, consisting of both surface adsorption and pore diffusion. The effective diffusion parameter D(i) values were estimated at different initial concentrations and the average value was determined to be 2.063 x 10(-9)cm2/s. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the particle diffusion as the rate-limiting step for the dye concentration ranges studied in the present investigation (20 to 60 mg/L).

  19. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  20. Involvement of high mobility group box-1 in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Fu, Li-Xin; Guo, Zai-Pei; Yin, Bin; Cao, Na; Qin, Sha

    2017-05-01

    In the previous work, we have indicated that HMGB1, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is closely associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To further clarify the role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we investigated the direct function of HMGB1 application and HMGB1 blockade in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriatic mouse model in this study. Mice were treated with imiquimod (IMQ) to induce psoriasis-like inflammation, and consecutively injected with recombinant HMGB1 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) i.d. Abundant cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in lesional skin from IMQ-treated skin. The injection of HMGB1 into the IMQ-treated skin further aggravated the psoriasis-like disease, enhanced the infiltration of CD3 + T cells, myeloperoxidase + neutrophils and CD11c + dendritic cells, increased the number of γδ T cells, and upregulated the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17 compared with the PBS injection. Finally, by using anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody or HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin, we indicated that HMGB1 blockade reduced the number of γδ T cells, suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17, and moderated clinical and histological evolvement in the IMQ-treated skin. Our data suggest that HMGB1 may act as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and contribute to the development of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation. HMGB1 blockade may represent a new direction in the suppression of psoriasis. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Evolution of portal hypertension and mechanisms involved in its maintenance in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikuler, E.; Kravetz, D.; Groszmann, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In rats with portal hypertension induced by partial ligation of the portal vein, the authors have recently demonstrated an increased portal venous inflow that becomes an important factor in the maintenance of portal hypertension. The sequence of events that leads into this circulatory disarray is unknown. The authors evaluated chronologically the chain of hemodynamic changes that occurred after portal hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the portal vein. In this model it is possible to follow, from the initiation of the portal-hypertensive state, the interaction between blood flow and resistance in the portal system as well as the relation between the development of portal-systemic shunting and the elevated portal venous inflow. The study was performed in 45 portal-hypertensive rats and in 29 sham-operated rats. Blood flow and portal-systemic shunting were measured by radioactive microsphere techniques. The constriction of the portal vein was immediately followed by a resistance-induced portal hypertension characterized by increased portal resistance (9.78 +/- 0.89 vs. 4.18 +/- 0.71 dyn X s X cm-5 X 10(4), mean +/- SE, P less than 0.01), increased portal pressure (17.7 +/- 0.9 vs. 9.5 +/- 0.6 mmHg, P less than 0.001), and decreased portal venous inflow (3.93 +/- 0.26 vs. 6.82 +/- 0.49 ml X min-1 X 100 g body wt-1, P less than 0.001)

  2. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  3. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  4. Thermodynamic consistency of viscoplastic material models involving external variable rates in the evolution equations for the internal variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, T.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study is to derive and investigate thermodynamic restrictions for a particular class of internal variable models. Their evolution equations consist of two contributions: the usual irreversible part, depending only on the present state, and a reversible but path dependent part, linear in the rates of the external variables (evolution equations of ''mixed type''). In the first instance the thermodynamic analysis is based on the classical Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality and the Coleman-Noll argument. The analysis is restricted to infinitesimal strains and rotations. The results are specialized and transferred to a general class of elastic-viscoplastic material models. Subsequently, they are applied to several viscoplastic models of ''mixed type'', proposed or discussed in the literature (Robinson et al., Krempl et al., Freed et al.), and it is shown that some of these models are thermodynamically inconsistent. The study is closed with the evaluation of the extended Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality (concept of Mueller) where the entropy flux is governed by an assumed constitutive equation in its own right; also the constraining balance equations are explicitly accounted for by the method of Lagrange multipliers (Liu's approach). This analysis is done for a viscoplastic material model with evolution equations of the ''mixed type''. It is shown that this approach is much more involved than the evaluation of the classical Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality with the Coleman-Noll argument. (orig.) [de

  5. Models of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article a literacy lead teacher tells the story what happened when kindergarteners were taught to link certain sounds with particular hand and body gestures. Many children were so intrigued with "using the motions" that they shared these procedures with their parents. Terry Kindervater explains how this happened and describes some of the…

  6. Entrance and escape dynamics for the typical set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Greenberg, Jonah S.; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    According to the asymptotic equipartition property, sufficiently long sequences of random variables converge to a set that is typical. While the size and probability of this set are central to information theory and statistical mechanics, they can often only be estimated accurately in the asymptotic limit due to the exponential growth in possible sequences. Here we derive a time-inhomogeneous dynamics that constructs the properties of the typical set for all finite length sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables. These dynamics link the finite properties of the typical set to asymptotic results and allow the typical set to be applied to small and transient systems. The main result is a geometric mapping—the triangle map—relating sequences of random variables of length n to those of length n +1 . We show that the number of points in this map needed to quantify the properties of the typical set grows linearly with sequence length, despite the exponential growth in the number of typical sequences. We illustrate the framework for the Bernoulli process and the Schlögl model for autocatalytic chemical reactions and demonstrate both the convergence to asymptotic limits and the ability to reproduce exact calculations.

  7. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  8. Reservoir souring: Problems, uncertainties and modelling. Part I: Problems and uncertainty involved in prediction. Part II: Preliminary investigations of a computational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, J.E.; Read, P.A.; Thompson, C.P.; Jelley, C.; Lezeau, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques by mathematical modelling. The uncertainty involved in modelling of reservoir souring is discussed. IOR processes are speculated to influence a souring process in a positive direction. Most models do not take into account pH in reservoir fluids, and thus do not account for partitioning behaviour of sulfide. Also, sulfide is antagonistic to bacterial metabolism and impedes to bacterial metabolism and impedes the sulfate reduction rate, this may be an important factor in modelling. Biofilms are thought to play a crucial role in a reservoir souring process. Biofilm in a reservoir matrix is different from biofilm in open systems. This has major impact on microbial impact on microbial transport and behaviour. Studies on microbial activity in reservoir matrices must be carried out with model cores, in order to mimic a realistic situation. Sufficient data do not exist today. The main conclusion is that a model does not reflect a true situation before the nature of these elements is understood. A simplified version of an Norwegian developed biofilm model is discussed. The model incorporates all the important physical phenomena studied in the above references such as bacteria growth limited by nutrients and/or energy sources and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  10. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  11. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Involvement of microRNA-181a and Bim in a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Liu, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Jun-Jun; Fan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the expression of microRNA-181a (miR-181a) and Bim in a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR), to explore their target relationship in RIR and their involvement in regulating apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Target gene prediction for miR-181a was performed with the aid of bioinformatics and Bim was identified as a potential target gene of miR-181a. A rat model of RIR was created by increasing the intraocular pressure. RGCs in the flatmounted retinas were labeled with Brn3, a marker for alive RGCs, by immunofluorescent staining. The changes in the number of RGCs after RIR were recorded. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression level of miR-181a in the retina. Bim/Brn3 double immunofluorescence was used to detect the localization of Bim. The expression of Bim in the retina was determined with the aids of Western blot and qRT-PCR. Compared with the negative control group, the density of RGCs was significantly lower in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-24h and I/R-72h groups (PBim was significantly upregulated at 12h after RIR (PBim was negatively correlated with the expression level of miR-181a and the density of RGCs. Bim may be a potential target gene of miR-181a. Both miR-181a and Bim are involved in RGCs death in RIR. RIR may promote RGCs apoptosis in the retina via downregulation of miR-181a and its inhibition on Bim expression.

  13. Newt tail regeneration: a model for gravity-dependent morphogenesis and clues to the molecular mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora

    factors and are expressed during development, we hypothesized they may play a role newt tail regenerative morphogenesis under altered g-levels. Specifically there is increasing evidence for HSPs expression changes as a result of hyper-and microgravity. HSPs are also expressed throughout regeneration, rather than just after surgery. To test this hypothesis we performed heat shock on intact and regenerating newts and collected tail tissues. In these experiments we observed that some tails had uplifted tips while others mimicked hook-like regenerates at 1g or 2g. These findings suggest that heat shock, and HSPs induction, may be involved in the mechanism responsible for gravity effects on morphogenesis, or at least interact with them. Current work underway is focused on analyzing the expression of mRNA and localization of proteins for two members of the group, Hsp70 and Hsp90. In summary, we developed and characterized a new practical animal model in which gravity mechanostimulation at 1g, versus unloading in aquaria, causes prominent effects on newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. This model can be achieved without the use of a centrifuge, significantly simplifying its research applications. Initial results using this model suggest that induction of HSPs may be involved in gravity regulation of newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. Further research based on this simple model may help to unravel mechanisms of gravity influence relevant not only to newt tail regeneration, but also to a broad range of other biological processes in amphibian models.

  14. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involvement in the hesperidin antihyperalgesic effects at peripheral and central levels in a neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Villalobos, A I; González-Trujano, M E; Alvarado-Vázquez, N; López-Muñoz, F J

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence proposes a link between immune changes and pain, which is consistent with the inflammation theory and the increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids have long been used because of their anti-inflammatory potential activity and they are considered a promising alternative to alleviate neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihyperalgesic effect of hesperidin and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines evaluated at peripheral and central levels in the chronic constriction injury as model of neuropathic pain in rats. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed in the aesthesiometer and plantar tests, respectively, as related to the presence of cytokines concentrations (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in sciatic nerve and segments of the spinal cord after 15 days chronic constriction injury model in rats receiving vehicle or hesperidin. Antihyperalgesic response of hesperidin (100 mg/kg) was associated to the presence of cytokines mainly at several sections of the spinal cord suggesting not only peripheral but also its involvement in central sensitization in the experimental neuropathic pain.

  16. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  17. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Discriminating grotesque from typical faces: evidence from the Thatcher illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Nick; Zürcher, Nicole R; Cornes, Katherine; Snyder, Josh; Naik, Paulami; Hadwin, Julie; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2011-01-01

    The discrimination of thatcherized faces from typical faces was explored in two simultaneous alternative forced choice tasks. Reaction times (RTs) and errors were measured in a behavioural task. Brain activation was measured in an equivalent fMRI task. In both tasks, participants were tested with upright and inverted faces. Participants were also tested on churches in the behavioural task. The behavioural task confirmed the face specificity of the illusion (by comparing inversion effects for faces against churches) but also demonstrated that the discrimination was primarily, although not exclusively, driven by attending to eyes. The fMRI task showed that, relative to inverted faces, upright grotesque faces are discriminated via activation of a network of emotion/social evaluation processing areas. On the other hand, discrimination of inverted thatcherized faces was associated with increased activation of brain areas that are typically involved in perceptual processing of faces.

  19. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  20. Computational modeling of chemical reactions and interstitial growth and remodeling involving charged solutes and solid-bound molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Nims, Robert J; Maas, Steve; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Mechanobiological processes are rooted in mechanics and chemistry, and such processes may be modeled in a framework that couples their governing equations starting from fundamental principles. In many biological applications, the reactants and products of chemical reactions may be electrically charged, and these charge effects may produce driving forces and constraints that significantly influence outcomes. In this study, a novel formulation and computational implementation are presented for modeling chemical reactions in biological tissues that involve charged solutes and solid-bound molecules within a deformable porous hydrated solid matrix, coupling mechanics with chemistry while accounting for electric charges. The deposition or removal of solid-bound molecules contributes to the growth and remodeling of the solid matrix; in particular, volumetric growth may be driven by Donnan osmotic swelling, resulting from charged molecular species fixed to the solid matrix. This formulation incorporates the state of strain as a state variable in the production rate of chemical reactions, explicitly tying chemistry with mechanics for the purpose of modeling mechanobiology. To achieve these objectives, this treatment identifies the specific theoretical and computational challenges faced in modeling complex systems of interacting neutral and charged constituents while accommodating any number of simultaneous reactions where reactants and products may be modeled explicitly or implicitly. Several finite element verification problems are shown to agree with closed-form analytical solutions. An illustrative tissue engineering analysis demonstrates tissue growth and swelling resulting from the deposition of chondroitin sulfate, a charged solid-bound molecular species. This implementation is released in the open-source program FEBio ( www.febio.org ). The availability of this framework may be particularly beneficial to optimizing tissue engineering culture systems by examining the

  1. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A. T.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Mikkonen, S.; Lipponen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. Regression dilution occurs when the ordinary least squares regression method is used on a predictor with random data uncertainty, which causes the slope to become biased towards zero. RTM on the other hand happens when an extreme observation is accompanied by a less extreme follow-up observation. These biases both originate from random uncertainties of the reference data, which is typically not taken into account and discussed in atmospheric sciences. This is crucial, since essentially all typical atmospheric data have some level of uncertainty. We use synthetic observations of aerosol optical thickness and UV index mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics, but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus we argue, that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider features in research.

  2. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  3. A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL), a logic for reasoning about typicality. We do so by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator of which the intuition is to capture the most typical (or normal) situations...

  4. Involvement of neuronal IL-1β in acquired brain lesions in a rat model of neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Alexandre; Lavoie, Karine; Brochu, Marie-Elsa; Grbic, Djordje; Lepage, Martin; Gris, Denis; Sebire, Guillaume

    2013-09-05

    Infection-inflammation combined with hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is the most prevalent pathological scenario involved in perinatal brain damage leading to life-long neurological disabilities. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or HI aggression, different patterns of inflammatory responses have been uncovered according to the brain differentiation stage. In fact, LPS pre-exposure has been reported to aggravate HI brain lesions in post-natal day 1 (P1) and P7 rat models that are respectively equivalent - in terms of brain development - to early and late human preterm newborns. However, little is known about the innate immune response in LPS plus HI-induced lesions of the full-term newborn forebrain and the associated neuropathological and neurobehavioral outcomes. An original preclinical rat model has been previously documented for the innate neuroimmune response at different post-natal ages. It was used in the present study to investigate the neuroinflammatory mechanisms that underline neurological impairments after pathogen-induced inflammation and HI in term newborns. LPS and HI exerted a synergistic detrimental effect on rat brain. Their effect led to a peculiar pattern of parasagittal cortical-subcortical infarcts mimicking those in the human full-term newborn with subsequent severe neurodevelopmental impairments. An increased IL-1β response in neocortical and basal gray neurons was demonstrated at 4 h after LPS + HI-exposure and preceded other neuroinflammatory responses such as microglial and astroglial cell activation. Neurological deficits were observed during the acute phase of injury followed by a recovery, then by a delayed onset of profound motor behavior impairment, reminiscent of the delayed clinical onset of motor system impairments observed in humans. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) reduced the extent of brain lesions confirming the involvement of IL-1β response in their pathophysiology. In rat pups at a neurodevelopmental age

  5. Molecular modeling and simulation of FabG, an enzyme involved in the fatty acid pathway of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafreen, Rajamohmed Beema; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (SP) is the major cause of pharyngitis accompanied by strep throat infections in humans. 3-keto acyl reductase (FabG), an important enzyme involved in the elongation cycle of the fatty acid pathway of S. pyogenes, is essential for synthesis of the cell-membrane, virulence factors and quorum sensing-related mechanisms. Targeting SPFabG may provide an important aid for the development of drugs against S. pyogenes. However, the absence of a crystal structure for FabG of S. pyogenes limits the development of structure-based drug designs. Hence, in the present study, a homology model of FabG was generated using the X-ray crystallographic structure of Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 2PNF). The modeled structure was refined using energy minimization. Furthermore, active sites were predicted, and a large dataset of compounds was screened against SPFabG. The ligands were docked using the LigandFit module that is available from Discovery Studio version 2.5. From this list, 13 best hit ligands were chosen based on the docking score and binding energy. All of the 13 ligands were screened for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) properties. From this, the two best descriptors, along with one descriptor that lay outside the ADMET plot, were selected for molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. In vitro testing of the ligands using biological assays further substantiated the efficacy of the ligands that were screened based on the in silico methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Decrease of serum adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in an irritant contact dermatitis mice model: potential P2X7R involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, R F; da Silva, G L; Erig, T; Sperotto, N D M; Leite, C E; Coutinho-Silva, R; Batastini, A M O; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

    2015-06-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) has significant effects on a variety of pathological conditions and it is the main physiological agonist of P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R). It is known that ATP acting via purinergic receptors plays a relevant role on skin inflammation, and P2X7R is required to neutrophil recruitment in a mice model of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).The present study investigated the effects of chemical irritant croton oil (CrO) upon ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in mice blood serum, and the potential involvement of P2X7R. The topical application CrO induced a decrease on soluble ATP/ADPase activities (~50 %), and the treatment with the selective P2X7R antagonist, A438079, reversed these effects to control level. Furthermore, we showed that CrO decreased cellular viability (52.6 % ± 3.9) in relation to the control and caused necrosis in keratinocytes (PI positive cells). The necrosis induced by CrO was prevented by the pre-treatment with the selective P2X7R antagonist A438079. The results presented herein suggest that CrO exerts an inhibitory effect on the activity of ATPDase in mouse serum, reinforcing the idea that ICD has a pathogenic mechanism dependent of CD39. Furthermore, it is tempting to suggest that P2X7R may act as a controller of the extracellular levels of ATP.

  9. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  10. Applying Pleck's Model of Paternal Involvement to the Study of Preschool Attachment Quality: A Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy; Dunn, Thomas; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Underwood, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Recent re-conceptualisation of paternal involvement (Pleck, J. H. (2010). Paternal involvement: Revised conceptualization and theoretical linkages with child outcomes. In M. Lamb (Ed.), "The role of the father in child development" (5th ed., pp. 67-107). London: Wiley), while proving fruitful, has yet to be applied to investigations into…

  11. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  12. Modafinil Improves Catalepsy in a Rat 6-Hydroxydopamine Model of Parkinson's Disease; Possible Involvement of Dopaminergic Neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdi-Hokmabad, Reza; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Mahmoudi, Javad

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: Modafinil is a vigilance-enhancing drug licensed for narcolepsy. The use of modafinil leads to various neuromodulatory effects with very low abuse potential. A body of evidence suggested that modafinil may have anti-parkinsonian effects. This study was designed to evaluate whether modafinil could improve motor dysfunction in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: Male Wistar rats (180-220 g, n= 98) were used in this study. Parkinsonism was induced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (10 μg/2μl in 0.2 % ascorbic acid-saline) into the right striatum. Parkinsonian rats received intraperitoneal (ip) injections of modafinil (50, 75, and 100 mg/kg) and catalepsy-like immobility was assessed by the bar test (BT). Furthermore, involvement of dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in modafinil's anti-parkinsonian effects was studied. For this purpose, parkinsonian animals were pretreated with SCH23390 and raclopride (the dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptor anatgonists, respectively) or SCH23390 + raclopride, and then assessed by the BT. Results: Modafinil (100 mg/kg) showed anti-cataleptic effects in the BT. Notably, the effect of modafinil in the BT was reversed in parkinsonian rats pretreated with raclopride (1.25 mg/kg) and/or SCH23390 + raclopride (0.75 and 1.25 mg/kg, respectively), but not in those pretreated with SCH23390 (0.75 mg/kg). Conclusion: Acute administration of modafinil improves 6-OHDA-induced motor impairment possibly through activation of dopamine D 2 receptors.

  13. Protective effect of Galectin-9 in murine model of lung emphysema: Involvement of neutrophil migration and MMP-9 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yuko; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Kojima, Keisuke; Saita, Naoki; Migiyama, Yohei; Iriki, Toyohisa; Fujii, Kazuhiko; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and pulmonary emphysema. Persistent inflammation and remodeling of the lungs and airways result in reduced lung function and a lower quality of life. Galectin (Gal)-9 plays a crucial role as an immune modulator in various diseases. However, its role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema is unknown. This study investigates whether Gal-9 is involved in pulmonary inflammation and changes in emphysema in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model. Materials and methods Gal-9 was administered to mice subcutaneously once daily from 1 day before PPE instillation to day 5. During the development of emphysema, lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. Histological and cytological findings, concentrations of chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the BALF, and the influence of Gal-9 treatment on neutrophils were analyzed. Results Gal-9 suppressed the pathological changes of PPE-induced emphysema. The mean linear intercept (Lm) of Gal-9-treated emphysema mice was significantly lower than that of PBS-treated emphysema mice (66.1 ± 3.3 μm vs. 118.8 ± 14.8 μm, respectively; p emphysema progressed significantly compared with that in wild–type (WT) mice (108.7 ± 6.58 μm vs. 77.19 ± 6.97 μm, respectively; p emphysema by inhibiting the infiltration of neutrophils and decreasing MMPs levels. Exogenous Gal-9 could be a potential therapeutic agent for COPD. PMID:28704475

  14. Unraveling estradiol metabolism and involvement in the reproductive cycle of non-vertebrate animals: The sea urchin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Mercurio; Paolo, Tremolada; Nobile, Maria; Denise, Fernandes; Cinta, Porte; Michela, Sugni

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2) is a well-known hormone in vertebrates whereas in invertebrates its unambiguous presence was verified only in some species. Weather this presence is also associated to similarly conserved roles in animal phylogeny is similarly uncertain. Due to their phylogenetic position, echinoderms represent ideal experimental models to provide evolutionary insights into estrogen appearance and function. Therefore, in this research, we investigated if E2 is truly present and has a role in the reproductive biology of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Presence of 17β estradiol in body fluids was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. By immunological methods (RIA) we evaluated the physiological circulating E2 levels of adult specimens and, on the basis of these, we directly administered E2 to study its metabolism and its putative effects on gonad development at physiological doses. Although different E2 tested concentrations, a correspondent dose-dependent increase of hormone levels was not found in both body fluids and gonads, suggesting the presence of potent homeostatic/detoxification mechanisms. These latter do not involve enzymes such as aromatase-like, sulfotransferase-like and acyltransferase-like, whose activities were not affected by E2 administration. Despite the increase of endogenous E2, the treatment did not induce significant variations in none of the considered reproductive parameters. Overall, this research (1) provides definitive evidence of E2 presence in sea urchin tissues and (2) demonstrate that, differently from vertebrates and starfish, E2 does not play a key role in sea urchins reproductive processes. Intra-phylum differences suggest the existence of class-specific hormonal mechanisms and highlight the risk of Phylum generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Transition to Kindergarten for Typically Developing Children: A Survey of School Psychologists' Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Eckert, Tanya L.; Arbolino, Lauren A.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that a large percentage of kindergarten children do not successfully transition to school (Rimm-Kaufman et al. 2000). As a result, a number of school transition initiatives have been developed by educators and policy makers to address the difficulties young children may experience upon kindergarten entry. Despite this attention,…

  16. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.

  17. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  18. Evaluation of Factors Affecting E-Bike Involved Crash and E-Bike License Plate Use in China Using a Bivariate Probit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanyong; Zhou, Jibiao; Wu, Yao; Chen, Jingxu

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate factors affecting e-bike involved crash and license plate use in China. E-bike crashes data were collected from police database and completed through a telephone interview. Noncrash samples were collected by a questionnaire survey. A bivariate probit (BP) model was developed to simultaneously examine the significant factors associated with e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate and to account for the correlations between them. Margina...

  19. Patient Involvement in Geriatric Care – Results and Experiences from a Mixed Models Design Study within Project INTEGRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Kiselev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient involvement is a core component of an integrated care approach. While the benefits and prerequisites of patient involvement have been described in general and additionally for some target populations, little is known about the views and experiences of older people regarding this matter. Methods: A study with a mixed-methods design was conducted to gain a better understanding about patient involvement in geriatric care. A questionnaire on shared decision-making was administered within a group of older adults in Germany. Additionally, 7 focus groups with health professionals and geriatric patients in Germany and Estonia were held to deepen the insight of the questionnaire and discussing experiences and barriers of patient involvement. Results: Older people without an actual medical problem expressed a significantly higher desire to participate in shared decisions than those requiring actual medical care. No significant differences could be found for the desire to be informed as part of the care process. No correlation between patients’ desire and experiences on shared decision-making could be observed. In the focus groups, patients demanded a comprehensive and understandable information and education process while the health professionals’ view was very task-specific. This conflict led to a loss of trust by the patients. Conclusions: There is a gap between patients’ and health professionals’ views on patient involvement in older people. The involvement process should therefore be comprehensive and should take into account different levels of health literacy.

  20. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  1. Investigation of mechanisms involved in regulation of progesterone catabolism using an overfed versus underfed ewe-lamb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, F C S Z; Canavessi, A M O; Wiltbank, M C; Bastos, M R; Lemes, A P; Mourão, G B; Susin, I; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, R

    2017-12-01

    Alterations in progesterone (P4) catabolism due to high feed intake underlie some effects of nutrition on reproduction. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that high feed intake could potentially increase P4 catabolism, likely due to increased liver blood flow. However, there could also be an opposing action due to increased circulating insulin, which has been shown to inhibit hepatic expression of key enzymes involved in P4 catabolism. To test which effect would have the greatest impact on circulating P4 during a 1- and 2 -mo time frame, we used a noncyclic ewe model. The plane of nutrition was controlled, and effects on circulating insulin, P4 catabolism in response to exogenous P4, and steady state mRNA for key hepatic enzymes were evaluated. Twenty-four F Dorper × Santa Inês ewe lambs (5 mo old and approximately 25 kg BW) were used. After 14 d of adaptation, ewes were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum fed (Ad), with intake of 3.8% DM/kg BW, or restricted feed intake (R), with 2% DM/kg BW, for 8 wk. At wk 4 and 8, ewes received an intravaginal P4 implant to evaluate P4 catabolism. As designed, Ad ewes had greater daily feed intake than R ewes (means of 1.8 [SE 0.03] and 0.6 kg/ewe [SE 0.01]; ewe [SE 0.03]; ewes than in R ewes (least squares means of 8.2 [SE 0.93] vs. 1.5 μIU/mL [SE 0.16], respectively, at wk 4 and 12.0 [SE 1.02] vs. 2.2 μIU/mL [SE 0.18], respectively, at wk 8; ewes than in R ewes (least squares means of 3.2 [SE 0.32] vs. 5.5 ng/mL [SE 0.32], respectively, at wk 4 and 2.8 [SE 0.28] vs. 5.2 ng/mL [SE 0.28], respectively, at wk 8; ewes with high feed intake. Unexpectedly, there was no effect of diet on hepatic mRNA concentrations for , , , or at wk 4 or 8 in spite of dramatically elevated insulin. Therefore, high energy/feed intake primarily increased P4 catabolism with no evidence for offsetting effects due to insulin-induced changes in hepatic P4 metabolizing enzymes.

  2. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  3. Simulation of laser scattering by typical marine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-wei; Wang, Biao; Li, Xian-tao

    2017-10-01

    Maritime environment own numerous models of the aerosols which are typically comprised of dust, water-soluble aerosol and sea salt aerosol. A Maritime environment aerosol model is developed in the simulation for laser beam from visible to near infrared. Mie theory is used to calculate optical parameters, such as scattering coefficient, Aledo and average asymmetry factor, for different models of aerosols of variable size with gamma distribution. The simulation results show that dust aerosol and water-soluble aerosol have the largest absorption coefficient. Aged Sea-salt aerosol and near-surface Sea-salt aerosol have the largest scattering coefficient. The model solving the optical properties of marine aerosol problem is capable of handling light detection and ranging.

  4. Finding biomarkers in non-model species: literature mining of transcription factors involved in bovine embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turenne Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    factors identified therein, half belonged to the gold standard (ASCL2, c-FOS, ETS2, GATA3, HAND1 and half did not (ESR1, HES1, ID2, NANOG, PHB2, TP53, STAT3. Conclusions A workflow providing search for transcription factors acting in bovine elongation was developed. The model assumed that proteins sharing the same protein domains in closely related species had the same protein functionalities, even if they were differently regulated among species or involved in somewhat different pathways. Under this assumption, we merged the information on different mammalian species from different databases (literature and biology and proposed 489 TF as potential participants of embryo proliferation and differentiation, with (i a recall of 95% with regard to a biological gold standard defined in 2011 and (ii an extension of more than 3 times the gold standard of TF detected so far in elongating tissues. The working capacity of the workflow was supported by the manual expertise of the biologists on the results. The workflow can serve as a new kind of bioinformatics tool to work on fused data sources and can thus be useful in studies of a wide range of biological processes.

  5. An MCDA and GIS coupling conceptual model to be used in a circular decision process by stakeholders involved in large wind farm projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne; Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). GEIGER; Waaub, J.P. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). GEIGER; Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    This poster presentation described an MCDA and geographic information system (GIS) coupling conceptual model designed for use in stakeholder decision-making processes for large wind farm projects. The model was comprised of 4 modules and 4 stakeholder categories that considered the environment and communities involved in the project. The integrated modelling approach was designed to ensure a transparent decision-making process. The modules included: (1) an MCDA module, (2) a local expertise and scientific knowledge module, (3) a stakeholder involvement module, and (4) a participatory GIS module. The model can be used to structure issues during consultation procedures, as well as to conduct preference analyses and to identify indicators. Examples of stakeholder weighting were included. tabs., figs.

  6. Exploring the Influence of Parental Involvement and Socioeconomic Status on Teen Digital Citizenship: A Path Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhui; Xing, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    One important aspect of digital citizenship, defined as "the norms of appropriate, responsible behavior with regard to technology use," is to reinforce ethical online behavior and discourage risky conduct. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental involvement and socioeconomic status on teens digital citizenship,…

  7. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ali Maher; Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood; Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad; Mahmoud Mohamed Younes

    2017-01-01

    In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m...

  8. Exploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazzoleni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve hydrological predictions, real-time measurements derived from traditional physical sensors are integrated within mathematic models. Recently, traditional sensors are being complemented with crowdsourced data (social sensors. Although measurements from social sensors can be low cost and more spatially distributed, other factors like spatial variability of citizen involvement, decreasing involvement over time, variable observations accuracy and feasibility for model assimilation play an important role in accurate flood predictions. Only a few studies have investigated the benefit of assimilating uncertain crowdsourced data in hydrological and hydraulic models. In this study, we investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of static physical, static social and dynamic social sensors. We assess improvements in the model prediction performance for different spatial–temporal scenarios of citizen involvement levels. To that end, we simulate an extreme flood event that occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment  (Italy in May 2013 using a semi-distributed hydrological model with the station at Ponte degli Angeli (Vicenza as the prediction–validation point. A conceptual hydrological model is implemented by the Alto Adriatico Water Authority and it is used to estimate runoff from the different sub-catchments, while a hydraulic model is implemented to propagate the flow along the river reach. In both models, a Kalman filter is implemented to assimilate the crowdsourced observations. Synthetic crowdsourced observations are generated for either static social or dynamic social sensors because these measures were not available at the time of the study. We consider two sets of experiments: (i assuming random probability of receiving crowdsourced observations and (ii using theoretical scenarios of citizen motivations, and consequent involvement levels, based on population distribution. The

  9. Exploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Cortes Arevalo, Vivian Juliette; Wehn, Uta; Alfonso, Leonardo; Norbiato, Daniele; Monego, Martina; Ferri, Michele; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2018-01-01

    To improve hydrological predictions, real-time measurements derived from traditional physical sensors are integrated within mathematic models. Recently, traditional sensors are being complemented with crowdsourced data (social sensors). Although measurements from social sensors can be low cost and more spatially distributed, other factors like spatial variability of citizen involvement, decreasing involvement over time, variable observations accuracy and feasibility for model assimilation play an important role in accurate flood predictions. Only a few studies have investigated the benefit of assimilating uncertain crowdsourced data in hydrological and hydraulic models. In this study, we investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of static physical, static social and dynamic social sensors. We assess improvements in the model prediction performance for different spatial-temporal scenarios of citizen involvement levels. To that end, we simulate an extreme flood event that occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy) in May 2013 using a semi-distributed hydrological model with the station at Ponte degli Angeli (Vicenza) as the prediction-validation point. A conceptual hydrological model is implemented by the Alto Adriatico Water Authority and it is used to estimate runoff from the different sub-catchments, while a hydraulic model is implemented to propagate the flow along the river reach. In both models, a Kalman filter is implemented to assimilate the crowdsourced observations. Synthetic crowdsourced observations are generated for either static social or dynamic social sensors because these measures were not available at the time of the study. We consider two sets of experiments: (i) assuming random probability of receiving crowdsourced observations and (ii) using theoretical scenarios of citizen motivations, and consequent involvement levels, based on population distribution. The results demonstrate the

  10. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  11. A Modified Model of College Student Persistence: Exploring the Relationship between Astin's Theory of Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Provides insight into first-year undergraduate persistence by using behavioral measures--based on Alexander Astin's theory of involvement--to further understanding of Tinto's theory of student departure. Findings support the use of an integrated model in which student behaviors and perceptions interact to influence the development of academic and…

  12. Dosimetry of typical transcranial magnetic stimulation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2010-05-01

    The therapeutic staff using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices could be exposed to magnetic pulses. In this paper, dependence of induced currents in real human man model on different coil shapes, distance between the coil and man model as well as the rotation of the coil in space have been investigated by employing impedance method. It was found that the figure-of-eight coil has less leakage magnetic field and low current density induced in the body compared with the round coil. The TMS power supply cables play an important role in the induced current density in human body. The induced current density in TMS operator decreased as the coil rotates from parallel position to perpendicular position. Our present study shows that TMS operator should stand at least 110 cm apart from the coil.

  13. Ambiguous involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida

    2016-01-01

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  14. Evaluation of Factors Affecting E-Bike Involved Crash and E-Bike License Plate Use in China Using a Bivariate Probit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyong Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to evaluate factors affecting e-bike involved crash and license plate use in China. E-bike crashes data were collected from police database and completed through a telephone interview. Noncrash samples were collected by a questionnaire survey. A bivariate probit (BP model was developed to simultaneously examine the significant factors associated with e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate and to account for the correlations between them. Marginal effects for contributory factors were calculated to quantify their impacts on the outcomes. The results show that several contributory factors, including gender, age, education level, driver license, car in household, experiences in using e-bike, law compliance, and aggressive driving behaviors, are found to have significant impacts on both e-bike involved crash and license plate use. Moreover, type of e-bike, frequency of using e-bike, impulse behavior, degree of riding experience, and risk perception scale are found to be associated with e-bike involved crash. It is also found that e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate use are strongly correlated and are negative in direction. The result enhanced our comprehension of the factors related to e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate use.

  15. Mother-Child Play: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bentenuto, Arianna; De Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze mother-child collaborative play in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) compared to children with Down Syndrome (DS) and typical developing children (TD). Children with ASD are often described as having deficient play skills, particularly in the symbolic domain. Caregivers’ involvement in child play activities increases the structural complexity of playing in both typically developing children and children with disabilities. Participant...

  16. Environmental impact analysis for typical office facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotroni, M.; Robinson-Gayle, S.; Tanno, S.; Cripps, A.

    2004-02-01

    The design of a building facade influences internal thermal and lighting conditions and use associated with the provision of these conditions. Key decisions about the building are usually taken during the concept design stage of a building, while decisions about method of providing the environmental conditions are often made later in the design. This dilemma is addressed by the development of a concept design tool that allows the team to investigate the effect of facade design on the resulting internal environmental conditions, energy use and environmental impact. The concept design tool was developed performing detailed thermal, lighting and environmental modelling for a number of office building facade designs and a range of parameters that affect directly the environmental performance of an office building. The results are presented in a user-friendly interface as a minimum number of inputs. Key parameter outputs (such as temperature, lighting, heating/cooling energy demand, embodied energy and eco-points) can then be viewed, more detailed analysis can also be created for specified facade designs. A parametric analysis of the summary result outputs for selected facade parameters indicates that natural ventilation and cooling can reduce the environmental impact of offices by up to 16%, although the energy demand could increase significantly. Improving the construction standard and reducing the internal heat loads can reduce the environmental impact by up to 2 this tool at early design stages will benefit the design team through an improved understanding of the dynamics between facade design and building services and assist with a more integrated approach. (author)

  17. A new model for the membrane topology of glucose-6-phosphatase: the enzyme involved in von Gierke disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrika, W; Wever, R

    1997-06-16

    Very recently we have proposed [Hemrika et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 2145-2149] that the active site of the vanadate-containing chloroperoxidase from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis, of which the tertiary structure is known, is structurally very similar to that of the membrane-bound mammalian glucose-6-phosphatases for which no structural data are available. The proposed active site of glucose-6-phosphatase, however, is incompatible with the six transmembrane-helix topology model that is currently used. Here we present a new topology model for glucose-6-phosphatase which is in agreement with all available data.

  18. Involvement of FLIP in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced tumor regression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Manonmani; Ghosh, Rita; Jianping, Xie; Zhang, Xiaoping; Bedolla, Roble; Schoolfield, John; Yeh, I-Tien; Troyer, Dean A; Olumi, Aria F; Kumar, Addanki P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Fas-associated death domain interleukin-1 converting enzyme like inhibitory protein (FLIP) inhibition is a therapeutic target associated with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2)-mediated tumor regression. Expression and levels of FLIP were analyzed using (a) real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis in androgen-independent PC-3 cells treated with the newly formulated 2-ME2 and (b) immunohistochemistry in different Gleason pattern human prostate tumors. Transient transfections and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to identify the transcription factors that regulate FLIP. Involvement of FLIP in 2-ME2-induced tumor regression was evaluated in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. High Gleason pattern (5+5) human prostate tumors exhibit significant increase in FLIP compared with low Gleason pattern 3+3 (P=ormanagement.

  19. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Project Management: A Model for Active Participation and Involvement: Insights from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam A. Hussein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates and evaluates the effectiveness of a blended learning approach to create a meaningful learning environment. We use the term blended learning approach in this paper to refer to the use of multiple or hybrid instructional methods that emphasize the role of learners as contributors to the learning process rather than recipients of learning. Contribution to learning is attained by using in class gaming as pathways that ensure active involvement of learners. Using a blended learning approach is important in order to be able to address different learning styles of the target group. The approach was also important in order to be able to demonstrate different types of challenges, issues and competences needed in project management. Student evaluations of the course confirmed that the use of multiple learning methods and, in particular, in class gaming was beneficial and contributed to a meaningful learning experience.

  20. Comparison of three different risk-stratification models for predicting lymph node involvement in endometrioid endometrial cancer clinically confined to the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Vakkas; Meydanli, Mehmet Mutlu; Yalçın, Ibrahim; Sarı, Mustafa Erkan; Sahin, Hanifi; Kocaman, Eda; Haberal, Ali; Dursun, Polat; Güngör, Tayfun; Ayhan, Ali

    2017-11-01

    To compare the clinical validity of the Gynecologic Oncology Group-99 (GOG-99), the Mayo-modified and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)-modified criteria for predicting lymph node (LN) involvement in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) clinically confined to the uterus. A total of 625 consecutive women who underwent comprehensive surgical staging for endometrioid EC clinically confined to the uterus were divided into low- and high-risk groups according to the GOG-99, the Mayo-modified, and the ESMO-modified criteria. Lymphovascular space invasion is the cornerstone of risk stratification according to the ESMO-modified criteria. These 3 risk stratification models were compared in terms of predicting LN positivity. Systematic LN dissection was achieved in all patients included in the study. LN involvement was detected in 70 (11.2%) patients. LN involvement was correctly estimated in 51 of 70 LN-positive patients according to the GOG-99 criteria (positive likelihood ratio [LR+], 3.3; negative likelihood ratio [LR-], 0.4), 64 of 70 LN-positive patients according to the ESMO-modified criteria (LR+, 2.5; LR-, 0.13) and 69 of the 70 LN-positive patients according to the Mayo-modified criteria (LR+, 2.2; LR-, 0.03). The area under curve of the Mayo-modified, the GOG-99 and the ESMO-modified criteria was 0.763, 0.753, and 0.780, respectively. The ESMO-modified classification seems to be the risk-stratification model that most accurately predicts LN involvement in endometrioid EC clinically confined to the uterus. However, the Mayo-modified classification may be an alternative model to achieve a precise balance between the desire to prevent over-treatment and the ability to diagnose LN involvement. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  1. Towards a Model of Teacher Well-Being: Personal and Job Resources Involved in Teacher Burnout and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Toro, Laura; Prieto-Ursúa, María; Hernández, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the role of job demands and job resources in teacher well-being, few studies have targeted the function of personal variables. The aim of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of teacher well-being, using burnout and engagement in order to reflect, not only job demands and professional resources, but…

  2. Modeling Growth in Boys' Aggressive Behavior across Elementary School: Links to Later Criminal Involvement, Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2003-01-01

    The present study used general growth mixture modeling to identify pathways of antisocial behavior development within an epidemiological sample of urban, primarily African American boys. Teacher-rated aggression, measured longitudinally from 1st to 7th grade, was used to define growth trajectories. Three high-risk trajectories (chronic high,…

  3. An Online Causal Inference Framework for Modeling and Designing Systems Involving User Preferences: A State-Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Delibalta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a causal inference framework to model the effects of machine learning algorithms on user preferences. We then use this mathematical model to prove that the overall system can be tuned to alter those preferences in a desired manner. A user can be an online shopper or a social media user, exposed to digital interventions produced by machine learning algorithms. A user preference can be anything from inclination towards a product to a political party affiliation. Our framework uses a state-space model to represent user preferences as latent system parameters which can only be observed indirectly via online user actions such as a purchase activity or social media status updates, shares, blogs, or tweets. Based on these observations, machine learning algorithms produce digital interventions such as targeted advertisements or tweets. We model the effects of these interventions through a causal feedback loop, which alters the corresponding preferences of the user. We then introduce algorithms in order to estimate and later tune the user preferences to a particular desired form. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms through experiments in different scenarios.

  4. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities. PMID:27030784

  5. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  6. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  7. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Proteomic analysis of germinal vesicles in the domestic cat model reveals candidate nuclear proteins involved in oocyte competence acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P-C; Wildt, D E; Comizzoli, P

    2018-01-01

    Do nuclear proteins in the germinal vesicle (GV) contribute to oocyte competence acquisition during folliculogenesis? Proteomic analysis of GVs identified candidate proteins for oocyte competence acquisition, including a key RNA processing protein-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2B1). The domestic cat GV, which is physiologically similar to the human GV, gains the intrinsic ability to resume meiosis and support early embryo development during the pre-antral-to-antral follicle transition. However, little is known about nuclear proteins that contribute to this developmental process. GVs were enriched from pre-antral (incompetent) and antral (competent) follicles from 802 cat ovaries. Protein lysates were subjected to quantitative proteomic analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins in GVs from the two follicular categories. Two biological replicates (from independent pools of ovaries) of pre-antral versus antral samples were labeled by tandem mass tags and then assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic data were analyzed according to gene ontology and a protein-protein interaction network. Immunofluorescent staining and protein inhibition assays were used for validation. A total of 174 nuclear proteins was identified, with 54 being up-regulated and 22 down-regulated (≥1.5-fold) after antrum formation. Functional protein analysis through gene ontology over-representation tests revealed that changes in molecular network within the GVs during this transitional phase were related to chromatin reorganization, gene transcription, and maternal RNA processing and storage. Protein inhibition assays verified that hnRNPA2B1, a key nuclear protein identified, was required for oocyte meiotic maturation and subsequent blastocyst formation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007211. Proteins identified by proteomic comparison may (i) be involved in processes other than competence acquisition

  9. Exact solutions to traffic density estimation problems involving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model using mixed integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Learning from discrete-event simulation: exploring the high involvement hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Monks, Thomas; Robinson, Stewart; Kotiadis, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Discussion of learning from discrete-event simulation often takes the form of a hypothesis stating that involving clients in model building provides much of the learning necessary to aid their decisions. Whilst practitioners of simulation may intuitively agree with this hypothesis they are simultaneously motivated to reduce the model building effort through model reuse. As simulation projects are typically limited by time, model reuse offers an alternative learning route for clients as the ti...

  11. Opioid Mechanism Involvement in the Synergism Produced by the Combination of Diclofenac and Caffeine in the Formalin Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Ramos, Jos? Mar?a; D?az-Reval, M. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics can be administered in combination with caffeine for improved analgesic effectiveness in a process known as synergism. The mechanisms by which these combinations produce synergism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the administration of diclofenac combined with caffeine produced antinociceptive synergism and whether opioid mechanisms played a role in this event. The formalin model was used to evaluate the antinociception produced by the oral ...

  12. A cellular model of memory reconsolidation involves reactivation-induced destabilization and restabilization at the sensorimotor synapse in Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Kwak, Chuljung; Shim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hyoung F.; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Kyungmin; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don; Miniaci, Maria Concetta; Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2012-01-01

    The memory reconsolidation hypothesis suggests that a memory trace becomes labile after retrieval and needs to be reconsolidated before it can be stabilized. However, it is unclear from earlier studies whether the same synapses involved in encoding the memory trace are those that are destabilized and restabilized after the synaptic reactivation that accompanies memory retrieval, or whether new and different synapses are recruited. To address this issue, we studied a simple nonassociative form of memory, long-term sensitization of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, and its cellular analog, long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse. We found that after memory retrieval, behavioral long-term sensitization in Aplysia becomes labile via ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent protein degradation and is reconsolidated by means of de novo protein synthesis. In parallel, we found that on the cellular level, long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse that mediates long-term sensitization is also destabilized by protein degradation and is restabilized by protein synthesis after synaptic reactivation, a procedure that parallels memory retrieval or retraining evident on the behavioral level. These results provide direct evidence that the same synapses that store the long-term memory trace encoded by changes in the strength of synaptic connections critical for sensitization are disrupted and reconstructed after signal retrieval. PMID:22893682

  13. INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF TYPICAL CURVED AND SKEWED BRIDGES IN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-15

    This report summarizes the analytical studies on the seismic performance of typical Colorado concrete bridges, particularly those with curved and skewed configurations. A set of bridge models with different geometric configurations derived from a pro...

  14. Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    A typical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). “Neurally impaired” versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands, and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable’s motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286

  15. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language: Computational techniques are presented to analyze and model expressed and perceived human behavior-variedly characterized as typical, atypical, distressed, and disordered-from speech and language cues and their applications in health, commerce, education, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G

    2013-02-07

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion.

  16. Murine neural stem cells model Hunter disease in vitro: glial cell-mediated neurodegeneration as a possible mechanism involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar Poli, E; Zalfa, C; D'Avanzo, F; Tomanin, R; Carlessi, L; Bossi, M; Nodari, L Rota; Binda, E; Marmiroli, P; Scarpa, M; Delia, D; Vescovi, A L; De Filippis, L

    2013-11-07

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII or Hunter Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficit of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) activity and characterized by progressive systemic and neurological impairment. As the early mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration remain elusive, we chose to examine the properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from an animal model of the disease in order to evaluate whether their neurogenic potential could be used to recapitulate the early phases of neurogenesis in the brain of Hunter disease patients. Experiments here reported show that NSCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of early symptomatic IDS-knockout (IDS-ko) mouse retained self-renewal capacity in vitro, but differentiated earlier than wild-type (wt) cells, displaying an evident lysosomal aggregation in oligodendroglial and astroglial cells. Consistently, the SVZ of IDS-ko mice appeared similar to the wt SVZ, whereas the cortex and striatum presented a disorganized neuronal pattern together with a significant increase of glial apoptotic cells, suggesting that glial degeneration likely precedes neuronal demise. Interestingly, a very similar pattern was observed in the brain cortex of a Hunter patient. These observations both in vitro, in our model, and in vivo suggest that IDS deficit seems to affect the late phases of neurogenesis and/or the survival of mature cells rather than NSC self-renewal. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFR-α+) glial progenitors appeared reduced in both the IDS-ko NSCs and in the IDS-ko mouse and human Hunter brains, compared with the respective healthy controls. Treatment of mutant NSCs with IDS or PDGF throughout differentiation was able to increase the number of PDGFR-α+ cells and to reduce that of apoptotic cells to levels comparable to wt. This evidence supports IDS-ko NSCs as a reliable in vitro model of the disease, and suggests the rescue of PDGFR-α+ glial cells as a

  17. Antinociceptive Effect of Ghrelin in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Involves TRPV1/Opioid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, defined as recurrent abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, seriously affects quality of life and ability to work. Ghrelin is a brain-gut hormone, which has been reported to show antinociceptive effects in peripheral pain. We investigated the effect of ghrelin on visceral hypersensitivity and pain in a rat model of IBS. Methods: Maternal deprivation (MD was used to provide a stress-induced model of IBS in Wistar rats. Colorectal distension (CRD was used to detect visceral sensitivity, which was evaluated by abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR scores. Rats that were confirmed to have visceral hypersensitivity after MD were injected with ghrelin (10 µg/kg subcutaneously twice a week from weeks 7 to 8. [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (100 nmol/L and naloxone (100 nmol/L were administered subcutaneously to block growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHS-R1α and opioid receptors, respectively. Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and µ and κ opioid receptors (MOR and KOR in colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG and cerebral cortex tissues were detected by western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical analyses and immunofluorescence. Results: Ghrelin treatment increased expression of opioid receptors and inhibited expression of TRPV1 in colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG and cerebral cortex. The antinociceptive effect of ghrelin in the rat model of IBS was partly blocked by both the ghrelin antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Conclusion: The results indicate that ghrelin exerted an antinociceptive effect, which was mediated via TRPV1/opioid systems, in IBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Ghrelin might potentially be used as a new treatment for IBS.

  18. Novel therapeutic targets in osteoarthritis: Narrative review on knock-out genes involved in disease development in mouse animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Francesca; Della Bella, Elena; Cepollaro, Simona; Brogini, Silvia; Martini, Lucia; Fini, Milena

    2016-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) can affect every joint, especially the knee. Given the complexity of this pathology, OA is difficult to treat with current therapies, which only relieve pain and inflammation and are not capable of restoring tissues once OA has started. Currently, researchers focus on finding a therapeutic strategy that may help to arrest disease progression. The present narrative review gives an overview of the genes involved in the development and progression of OA, assessing in vivo studies performed in knock-out mice affected by OA, to suggest new therapeutic strategies. The article search was performed on the PubMed database and www.webofknowledge.com website with the following keywords: "knee osteoarthritis" AND "knockout mice". The included studies were in English and published from 2005 to 2015. Additional papers were found within the references of the selected articles. In the 55 analyzed in vivo studies, genes mainly affected chondrocyte homeostasis, inflammatory processes, extracellular matrix and the relationship between obesity and OA. Genes are defined as inducing, preventing and not influencing OA. This review shows that joint homeostasis depends on a variety of genetic factors, and preventing or restoring the loss of a gene encoding for protective proteins, or inhibiting the expression of proteins that induce OA, might be a potential therapeutic approach. However, conclusions cannot be drawn because of the wide variability concerning the technique used for OA induction, the role of the genes, the method for tissue evaluations and the lack of assessments of all joint tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond the MHC: A canine model of dermatomyositis shows a complex pattern of genetic risk involving novel loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jacquelyn M; Noorai, Rooksana E; Tsai, Kate L; Starr-Moss, Alison N; Hill, Cody M; Anderson, Kendall J; Famula, Thomas R; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2017-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a chronic inflammatory myopathy and vasculopathy driven by genetic and environmental influences. Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of an analogous, spontaneous disease of dogs also termed dermatomyositis (DMS). As in JDM, we observed a significant association with a haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (DLA-DRB1*002:01/-DQA1*009:01/-DQB1*001:01), particularly in homozygosity (P-val = 0.0001). However, the high incidence of the haplotype among healthy dogs indicated that additional genetic risk factors are likely involved in disease progression. We conducted genome-wide association studies in two modern breeds having common ancestry and detected strong associations with novel loci on canine chromosomes 10 (P-val = 2.3X10-12) and 31 (P-val = 3.95X10-8). Through whole genome resequencing, we identified primary candidate polymorphisms in conserved regions of PAN2 (encoding p.Arg492Cys) and MAP3K7CL (c.383_392ACTCCACAAA>GACT) on chromosomes 10 and 31, respectively. Analyses of these polymorphisms and the MHC haplotypes revealed that nine of 27 genotypic combinations confer high or moderate probability of disease and explain 93% of cases studied. The pattern of disease risk across PAN2 and MAP3K7CL genotypes provided clear evidence for a significant epistatic foundation for this disease, a risk further impacted by MHC haplotypes. We also observed a genotype-phenotype correlation wherein an earlier age of onset is correlated with an increased number of risk alleles at PAN2 and MAP3K7CL. High frequencies of multiple genetic risk factors are unique to affected breeds and likely arose coincident with artificial selection for desirable phenotypes. Described herein is the first three-locus association with a complex canine disease and two novel loci that provide targets for exploration in JDM and related immunological dysfunction.

  20. Beyond the MHC: A canine model of dermatomyositis shows a complex pattern of genetic risk involving novel loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn M Evans

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM is a chronic inflammatory myopathy and vasculopathy driven by genetic and environmental influences. Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of an analogous, spontaneous disease of dogs also termed dermatomyositis (DMS. As in JDM, we observed a significant association with a haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC (DLA-DRB1*002:01/-DQA1*009:01/-DQB1*001:01, particularly in homozygosity (P-val = 0.0001. However, the high incidence of the haplotype among healthy dogs indicated that additional genetic risk factors are likely involved in disease progression. We conducted genome-wide association studies in two modern breeds having common ancestry and detected strong associations with novel loci on canine chromosomes 10 (P-val = 2.3X10-12 and 31 (P-val = 3.95X10-8. Through whole genome resequencing, we identified primary candidate polymorphisms in conserved regions of PAN2 (encoding p.Arg492Cys and MAP3K7CL (c.383_392ACTCCACAAA>GACT on chromosomes 10 and 31, respectively. Analyses of these polymorphisms and the MHC haplotypes revealed that nine of 27 genotypic combinations confer high or moderate probability of disease and explain 93% of cases studied. The pattern of disease risk across PAN2 and MAP3K7CL genotypes provided clear evidence for a significant epistatic foundation for this disease, a risk further impacted by MHC haplotypes. We also observed a genotype-phenotype correlation wherein an earlier age of onset is correlated with an increased number of risk alleles at PAN2 and MAP3K7CL. High frequencies of multiple genetic risk factors are unique to affected breeds and likely arose coincident with artificial selection for desirable phenotypes. Described herein is the first three-locus association with a complex canine disease and two novel loci that provide targets for exploration in JDM and related immunological dysfunction.

  1. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg −1 . The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol −1 , while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol −1 . The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  2. Neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning involves upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in a prenatal model of acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Sebastián; Fiszer de Plazas, Sara

    2012-02-01

    The molecular pathways underlying the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning are promising, potentially drugable targets to promote cell survival. However, these pathways are complex and are not yet fully understood. In this study we have established a paradigm of hypoxic preconditioning based on a chick embryo model of normobaric acute hypoxia previously developed by our group. With this model, we analyzed the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization during preconditioning in HIF-1 signaling after the hypoxic injury and in the development of a neuroprotective effect against the insult. To this end, we used a pharmacological approach, based on the in vivo administration of positive (Fe(2+), ascorbate) and negative (CoCl(2)) modulators of the activity of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), the main regulators of HIF-1. We have found that preconditioning has a reinforcing effect on HIF-1 accumulation during the subsequent hypoxic injury. In addition, we have also demonstrated that HIF-1 induction during hypoxic preconditioning is necessary to obtain an enhancement in HIF-1 accumulation and to develop a tolerance against a subsequent hypoxic injury. We provide in vivo evidence that administration of Fe(2+) and ascorbate modulates HIF accumulation, suggesting that PHDs might be targets for neuroprotection in the CNS. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chromosomal regions involved in hybrid performance and heterosis: their AFLP(R)-based identification and practical use in prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, M; Kuiper, M; Stam, P

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a novel approach towards the prediction of hybrid performance and heterosis is presented. Here, we describe an approach based on: (i) the assessment of associations between AFLP(R) markers and hybrid performance and specific combining ability (SCA) across a set of hybrids; and (ii) the assumption that the joint effect of genetic factors (loci) determined this way can be obtained by addition. Estimated gene effects for grain yield varied from additive, partial dominance to overdominance. This procedure was applied to 53 interheterotic hybrids out of a 13 by 13 half-diallel among maize inbreds, evaluated for grain yield. The hybrid value, representing the joint effect of the genetic factors, accounted for up to 62.4% of the variation in the hybrid performance observed, whereas the corresponding efficiency of the SCA model was 36.8%. Efficiency of the prediction for hybrid performance was evaluated by means of a cross-validation procedure for grain yield of (i) the 53 interheterotic hybrids and (ii) 16 hybrids partly related to the 13 by 13 half-diallel. Comparisons in prediction efficiency with the 'distance' model were made. Because the map position of the selected markers is known, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting grain yield, in terms of hybrid performance or heterosis, are identified. Some QTL of grain yield detected in the present study were located in the vicinity of loci reported earlier as having quantitative effects on grain yield.

  4. Monoarticular Hip Involvement in Pseudogout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kocyigit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout.

  5. Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Michelle Prioli Miranda; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Ana Carolina Quirino; Dos Santos Cristino, Alexandre; de Paula Freitas, Flávia Cristina; Canhos, Luísa Lange; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2013-08-28

    The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the exoskeleton. A

  6. Radiosensitivity of a epithelial cell model from an embryonic rat lung involving in particular the status of p53 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Francois

    1998-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author presents ionizing radiations and their effects on living matter (damages to DNA, cell response to irradiation, proteins activated by radio-induced DNA breaks), the p53 protein (p53 mutation in cancers, structure), and the effect of ionizing radiation on this protein (expression and activation). Then this thesis addresses the study of a set of sister line of epithelial cells obtained from an embryonic rat lung treated with benzo(a)pyrene, a mutagenic agent notably present in cigarette smoke, in hydrocarbon combustion and in atmospheric pollution, and therefore responsible of cancers. This thesis thus reports the development of an experimental model allowing transformed cells to be studied [fr

  7. A theory involving a two electron group model for radio frequency ionization of helium with turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talaat, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    A two electron group model (bulk and tail electrons) is used to devise a theory for predicting current-voltage characteristic curves of RF discharges in helium with flow, which would agree with the experimental results of an 11 MHz RF axial discharge tests with helium flow inside a quartz tube, having an ID of 2.2 cms, at flow velocities up to μ = 485 m/s, (at reduced pressures p/sub o/ from 217 to 362 torrs). The theory assumes that the bulk electrons are Maxwellian, at a temperature T/sub b/, and have kinetic energies (1/2 mv/sup 2/ = eV) between o and eV/sub l/ (V/sub l/ = the helium metastable potential). The electrons of the depressed tail of the distribution function are also Maxwellian, at another temperature T/sub t/, and have eV > eV/sub l/

  8. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative modeling of HEN1, a methyltransferase involved in plant microRNA biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obarska Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide of miRNA/miRNA* duplexes produced by the nuclease Dicer. Previously it was found that HEN1 possesses a Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM domain and a long N-terminal extension including a putative double-stranded RNA-binding motif (DSRM. However, little is known about the details of the structure and the mechanism of action of this enzyme, and about its phylogenetic origin. Results Extensive database searches were carried out to identify orthologs and close paralogs of HEN1. Based on the multiple sequence alignment a phylogenetic tree of the HEN1 family was constructed. The fold-recognition approach was used to identify related methyltransferases with experimentally solved structures and to guide the homology modeling of the HEN1 catalytic domain. Additionally, we identified a La-like predicted RNA binding domain located C-terminally to the DSRM domain and a domain with a peptide prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase fold, but without the conserved PPIase active site, located N-terminally to the catalytic domain. Conclusion The bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain of HEN1 is not closely related to any known RNA:2'-OH methyltransferases (e.g. to the RrmJ/fibrillarin superfamily, but rather to small-molecule methyltransferases. The structural model was used as a platform to identify the putative active site and substrate-binding residues of HEN and to propose its mechanism of action.

  9. Application of a random effects negative binomial model to examine tram-involved crash frequency on route sections in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a key concern in the design, operation and development of light rail systems including trams or streetcars as they impose crash risks on road users in terms of crash frequency and severity. The aim of this study is to identify key traffic, transit and route factors that influence tram-involved crash frequencies along tram route sections in Melbourne. A random effects negative binomial (RENB) regression model was developed to analyze crash frequency data obtained from Yarra Trams, the tram operator in Melbourne. The RENB modelling approach can account for spatial and temporal variations within observation groups in panel count data structures by assuming that group specific effects are randomly distributed across locations. The results identify many significant factors effecting tram-involved crash frequency including tram service frequency (2.71), tram stop spacing (-0.42), tram route section length (0.31), tram signal priority (-0.25), general traffic volume (0.18), tram lane priority (-0.15) and ratio of platform tram stops (-0.09). Findings provide useful insights on route section level tram-involved crashes in an urban tram or streetcar operating environment. The method described represents a useful planning tool for transit agencies hoping to improve safety performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  11. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  12. Damage of polyesters by the atmospheric free radical oxidant NO3•: a product study involving model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin Goeschen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufactured polymer materials are used in increasingly demanding applications, but their lifetime is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. In particular, weathering and ageing leads to dramatic changes in the properties of the polymers, which results in decreased service life and limited usage. Despite the heavy reliance of our society on polymers, the mechanism of their degradation upon exposure to environmental oxidants is barely understood. In this work, model systems of important structural motifs in commercial high-performing polyesters were used to study the reaction with the night-time free radical oxidant NO3• in the absence and presence of other radical and non-radical oxidants. Identification of the products revealed ‘hot spots’ in polyesters that are particularly vulnerable to attack by NO3• and insight into the mechanism of oxidative damage by this environmentally important radical. It is suggested that both intermediates as well as products of these reactions are potentially capable of promoting further degradation processes in polyesters under environmental conditions.

  13. Lay Health Worker Involvement in Evidence-Based Treatment Delivery: A Conceptual Model to Address Disparities in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Lau, Anna S; Miranda, Jeanne

    2018-01-31

    Mobilizing lay health workers (LHWs) to deliver evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is a workforce strategy to address mental health disparities in underserved communities. LHWs can be leveraged to support access to EBTs in a variety of ways, from conducting outreach for EBTs delivered by professional providers to serving as the primary treatment providers. This critical review provides an overview of how LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs have been leveraged in low-, middle-, and high-income countries (HICs). We propose a conceptual model for LHWs to address drivers of service disparities, which relate to the overall supply of the EBTs provided and the demand for these treatments. The review provides illustrative case examples that demonstrate how LHWs have been leveraged globally and domestically to increase access to mental health services. It also discusses challenges and recommendations regarding implementing LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  14. Riluzole neuroprotection in a parkinson's disease model involves suppression of reactive astrocytosis but not GLT-1 regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone Marica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Riluzole is a neuroprotective drug used in the treatment of motor neurone disease. Recent evidence suggests that riluzole can up-regulate the expression and activity of the astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT-1. Given that regulation of glutamate transport is predicted to be neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease, we tested the effect of riluzole in parkinsonian rats which had received a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the median forebrain bundle. Results Rats were treated with intraperitoneal riluzole (4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg, 1 hour before the lesion then once daily for seven days. Riluzole produced a modest but significant attenuation of dopamine neurone degeneration, assessed by suppression of amphetamine-induced rotations, preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta and attenuation of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase protein loss. Seven days after 6-hydroxydopamine lesion, reactive astrocytosis was observed in the striatum, as determined by increases in expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, however the glutamate transporter, GLT-1, which is also expressed in astrocytes was not regulated by the lesion. Conclusions The results confirm that riluzole is a neuroprotective agent in a rodent model of parkinson's disease. Riluzole administration did not regulate GLT-1 levels but significantly reduced GFAP levels, in the lesioned striatum. Riluzole suppression of reactive astrocytosis is an intriguing finding which might contribute to the neuroprotective effects of this drug.

  15. Sexual Orientation as a Peripheral Cue in Advertising: Effects of Models' Sexual Orientation, Argument Strength, and Involvement on Responses to Magazine Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Adrienne Holz

    2017-10-12

    This study examines how sexual orientation of couples featured in magazine advertisements affects heterosexual viewers' responses using the elaboration likelihood model as a framework. A 3 × 2 × 2 × 3 experiment tested effects of sexual orientation, argument strength, involvement, and attitudes toward homosexuality on heterosexuals' attitudes toward the couple, advertisement, brand, and product, purchase intentions, and recall. Results indicate that consumers were accepting of ads with lesbian portrayals. Participants showed more negative attitudes toward gay male portrayals, but attitudes toward heterosexual and lesbian ads were similar. This effect was moderated by participants' attitudes toward homosexuals. Low-involvement consumers showed more negative attitudes toward homosexual portrayals than toward heterosexual portrayals, indicating that sexual orientation may have served as a peripheral cue negatively impacting attitudes toward the couple and ad under low elaboration. These effects were not observed for attitudes toward the brand and product, purchase intentions, or recall.

  16. A model of involvement in work-related learning and development activity: the effects of individual, situational, motivational, and age variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Todd J; Weiss, Elizabeth M; Barbeite, Francisco G

    2003-08-01

    Eight hundred employees from across the U.S. work force participated in a detailed 13-month longitudinal study of involvement in learning and development activities. A new model was posited and tested in which the hypothesized sequence was as follows: worker age --> individual and situational antecedents --> perceived benefits of participation and self-efficacy for development --> attitudes toward development --> intentions to participate --> participation. The results depict a person who is oriented toward employee development as having participated in development activities before, perceiving themselves as possessing qualities needed for learning, having social support for development at work and outside of work, being job involved, having insight into his or her career, and believing in the need for development, in his or her ability to develop skills and to receive intrinsic benefits from participating. Given the aging work force, a detailed treatment of age differences in development is presented. Implications for new ideas in practice and future research are discussed.

  17. Involvement of the agmatinergic system in the depressive-like phenotype of the Crtc1 knockout mouse model of depression

    KAUST Repository

    Meylan, E M

    2016-07-12

    Recent studies implicate the arginine-decarboxylation product agmatine in mood regulation. Agmatine has antidepressant properties in rodent models of depression, and agmatinase (Agmat), the agmatine-degrading enzyme, is upregulated in the brains of mood disorder patients. We have previously shown that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) associate behavioral and molecular depressive-like endophenotypes, as well as blunted responses to classical antidepressants. Here, the molecular basis of the behavioral phenotype of Crtc1−/− mice was further examined using microarray gene expression profiling that revealed an upregulation of Agmat in the cortex of Crtc1−/− mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses confirmed Agmat upregulation in the Crtc1−/− prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, which were further demonstrated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy to comprise an increased number of Agmat-expressing cells, notably parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons. Acute agmatine and ketamine treatments comparably improved the depressive-like behavior of male and female Crtc1−/− mice in the forced swim test, suggesting that exogenous agmatine has a rapid antidepressant effect through the compensation of agmatine deficit because of upregulated Agmat. Agmatine rapidly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels only in the PFC of wild-type (WT) females, and decreased eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation in the PFC of male and female WT mice, indicating that agmatine might be a fast-acting antidepressant with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist properties. Collectively, these findings implicate Agmat in the depressive-like phenotype of Crtc1−/− mice, refine current understanding of the agmatinergic system in the brain and highlight its putative role in major depression.

  18. Disruption of social cognition in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia: Possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that social withdrawal in the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia results from deficient endocannabinoid-induced activation of CB1 receptors. To understand the underlying cognitive mechanisms of the social deficit in PCP-treated rats, we examined the impact of pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on sociability (i.e. social approach) and social novelty preference (which relies on social recognition). Control rats showed a clear preference for a "social" cage (i.e. unfamiliar stimulus rat placed under a wire mesh cage) versus an "empty" cage, and spent more time exploring a "novel" cage (i.e. new stimulus rat) versus a "familiar" cage. In contrast, rats receiving PCP (5 mg/kg, b.i.d. for 7 days, followed by a 7 day-washout period) showed intact sociability, but lacked social novelty preference. This PCP-induced deficit was due to increased activity at CB1 receptors as it was reversed by systemic administration of the CB1 antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg). In agreement with this hypothesis, the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 (0.003-0.03 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed social novelty preference in control animals without affecting sociability. Taken together, these data suggest that PCP-treated rats have a deficit in social cognition, possibly induced by increased stimulation of CB1 receptors. This deficit, however, is distinct from the social withdrawal previously observed in these animals, as the latter is due to deficient, rather than increased, CB1 stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Moving from theory to practice: experience of implementing a learning supporting model designed to increase patient involvement and autonomy in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanström, Rune; Andersson, Susanne; Rosén, Helena; Berglund, Mia

    2016-07-23

    In implementing new programs of care, such as person-centered care, there is a risk that the focus will be at an organizational level, instead of a level that describes what happens in the personal development among staff. The aim of this study was to describe experiences of the implementation process of a learning supporting model designed to increase patient involvement and autonomy in care. The project, which lasted 2 years, involved training sessions, supervision and reflective meetings. Over the period, the staff who participated focused on developing their dialogues with patients to make the patients aware of their own capabilities and to encourage them to be fully involved in the treatment. A reflective lifeworld approach was used. Data were collected through interviews, notes and written stories, and analyzed using hermeneutic analysis with a focus on meanings. At the beginning of the project, the participants perceived the model as abstract and difficult to understand but supervision and reflection sessions enabled understanding and changed the participants' approach to caring. The participants described the model as an approach used in challenging patients to become involved in their care and to take charge of their lives when living with a chronic life-threatening disease. The participants' experience of implementing the model has not been easy but has led to increased self-confidence and feelings of improved competence in dialogue with patients. Using the PARISH model when critically examining the results shows that in the implementation process there were some difficulties, e.g. the context was supportive and facilitating but there was no appointed facilitator. By making participation in improvement work voluntary, the impact of such work becomes less efficient, less cost-effective and probably less sustainable. Furthermore, implementation needs encouragement since changing approaches takes time and requires patience. Group supervision sessions seem

  20. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  1. Training Class Inclusion Responding in Typically Developing Children and Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Siri; Mulhern, Teresa; Stewart, Ian; Moran, Laura; Bynum, Kellie

    2018-01-01

    In a "class inclusion" task, a child must respond to stimuli as being involved in two different though hierarchically related categories. This study used a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) paradigm to assess and train this ability in three typically developing preschoolers and three individuals with autism spectrum disorder, all of whom had…

  2. Differences in Interpersonal Reasoning among Intellectually Talented and Intellectually Typical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A study involving 46 intellectually talented and 46 typical third graders was undertaken to assess differences in psychosocial maturity across the groups. Focus was on examining psychosocial maturity through assessment of interpersonal reasoning, which is defined as the ways children exhibit sensitivity to the feelings of others and assume…

  3. "One day I might find myself HIV-positive like her": audience involvement and identification with role models in an entertainment-education radio drama in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Camille Collins; Pappas-Deluca, Katina A; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne K; Koppenhaver, Todd; Kong, Sandra; Mooki, Maungo; Galavotti, Christine

    Entertainment-education programs promote health and development goals throughout the world. This study looks specifically at a radio serial drama designed to provide behavioral role models for HIV prevention and reproductive health in Botswana as part of the behavior-change strategy, Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV/AIDS (MARCH). The purpose of this qualitative study is to elucidate regular listeners' involvement and identification with three different types of fictional characters in the drama. Regular listeners were interviewed using a semi-structured guide; 31 interviews were analyzed to assess respondents' reactions to three female characters. The findings suggest that characters designed to be "negative," "positive," and "transitional" (i.e., moving from negative to positive) role models were generally perceived as such and that the type of behavior modeled influenced whether a character was perceived to be transitional or positive. Audience members discussed the implications of specific behaviors by contrasting the different character types. Although characters modeled behaviors within distinct but interrelated storylines, the respondents spontaneously compared characters' ways of confronting similar dilemmas across storylines, suggesting that listeners perceived the drama as a unified whole rather than as a series of parallel stories. The use of more than one transitional character for each behavioral objective might be beneficial for improving audience identification with agents of behavior change by providing several models to which the audience can relate.

  4. BDNF prevents NMDA-induced toxicity in models of Huntington's disease: the effects are genotype specific and adenosine A2A receptor is involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ferrante, Antonella; Chiodi, Valentina; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is also highly involved in HD and whose effects are modulated by adenosine A2 ARs, influences the activity and expression of striatal NMDA receptors. In electrophysiology experiments, we investigated the role of BDNF toward NMDA-induced effects in HD models, and the possible involvement of A2ARs. In corticostriatal slices from wild-type mice and age-matched symptomatic R6/2 mice (a model of HD), NMDA application (75 μM) induced a transient or a permanent (i.e., toxic) reduction of field potential amplitude, respectively. BDNF (10 ng/mL) potentiated NMDA effects in wild-type, while it protected from NMDA toxicity in R6/2 mice. Both effects of BDNF were prevented by A2 AR blockade. The protective effect of BDNF against NMDA-induced toxicity was reproduced in a cellular model of HD. These findings may have very important implications for the neuroprotective potential of BDNF and A2 AR ligands in HD. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Identification of a quinone dehydrogenase from a Bacillus sp. involved in the decolourization of the lignin-model dye, Azure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandounas, Luaine; Pinkse, Martijn; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2013-01-25

    In this study we have investigated the molecular background of the previously reported dye decolourization potential of Bacillus sp. LD003. Strain LD003 was previously isolated on Kraft lignin and was able to decolourize various lignin model dyes. Specifically Azure B (AB) was decolourized efficiently. Proteins possibly involved in AB decolourization were partially purified, fractionated by gel electrophoresis and identified via mass spectrometry. Five candidate enzymes were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of these, only a quinone dehydrogenase was shown to decolourize AB. Thus, this quinone dehydrogenase was identified as an AB decolourizing enzyme of Bacillus sp. LD003. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of death in dual-eligible nursing home residents using typical or atypical antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparasu, Rajender R; Chatterjee, Satabdi; Mehta, Sandhya; Chen, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Antipsychotic use among dual-eligible nursing home residents is a concern for cost and safety considerations. To examine the comparative risk of death in dual-eligible elderly nursing home residents using typical and atypical agents. A retrospective cohort design matched on propensity score was used to examine the risk of death due to antipsychotic use among dual-eligible nursing home residents 65 years or older from four states. New typical and atypical users in nursing homes were followed for 6 months after the exposure without any censoring. The risk of death was modeled using the Cox proportional model and the extended Cox hazard model stratified on matched pairs based on propensity score. The unadjusted mortality rate was 18.42% for atypical antipsychotic users and 24.06% for typical antipsychotic users. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model revealed significant increased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR), 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-1.57] among typical users when compared with atypical users. The extended Cox model, used due to the violation of proportional hazards assumption, revealed that risk of death was nearly twice as great among typical antipsychotic users within 40 days of antipsychotic treatment (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.49-2.18) when compared with atypical users. However, moderate increase in risk (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42] was observed for 40-180 days of typical antipsychotic exposure. The use of typical antipsychotic agents was associated with highest risk of all-cause mortality within 40 days of typical antipsychotic use when compared with atypical use, and the risk decreased after 40 days among dual-eligible elderly nursing home residents.

  7. Determination of the Support Level of Local Organizations in a Model Forest Initiative: Do Local Stakeholders Have Willingness to Be Involved in the Model Forest Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the theme of this study. Within this scope, the views of the stakeholders comprising local government units (LGUs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, village councils (VCs, professional organizations (POs and forest products enterprises (FPEs located in the district of Bucak were collected by utilizing a survey technique. The data were analysed by using non-parametric statistical analyses due to the absence of a normal distribution. The results show that the information provided about the Model Forest concept to the stakeholders located in the district on the Bucak Model Forest initiative was identified as a factor impacting the support level. Moreover, it was also observed that the stakeholders were more willing to provide advisory support rather than financial support. NGOs and VCs were identified as stakeholders who could not provide financial support due to their restricted budgets. We discuss the benefits for a Model Forest initiative of establishing international cooperation to strengthen the local and regional sustainable development process.

  8. IKAP deficiency in an FD mouse model and in oligodendrocyte precursor cells results in downregulation of genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheishvili, David; Dietrich, Paula; Maayan, Channa; Even, Aviel; Weil, Miguel; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Razin, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    The splice site mutation in the IKBKAP gene coding for IKAP protein leads to the tissue-specific skipping of exon 20, with concomitant reduction in IKAP protein production. This causes the neurodevelopmental, autosomal-recessive genetic disorder - Familial Dysautonomia (FD). The molecular hallmark of FD is the severe reduction of IKAP protein in the nervous system that is believed to be the main reason for the devastating symptoms of this disease. Our recent studies showed that in the brain of two FD patients, genes linked to oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or myelin formation are significantly downregulated, implicating IKAP in the process of myelination. However, due to the scarcity of FD patient tissues, these results awaited further validation in other models. Recently, two FD mouse models that faithfully recapitulate FD were generated, with two types of mutations resulting in severely low levels of IKAP expression. Here we demonstrate that IKAP deficiency in these FD mouse models affects a similar set of genes as in FD patients' brains. In addition, we identified two new IKAP target genes involved in oligodendrocyte cells differentiation and myelination, further underscoring the essential role of IKAP in this process. We also provide proof that IKAP expression is needed cell-autonomously for the regulation of expression of genes involved in myelin formation since knockdown of IKAP in the Oli-neu oligodendrocyte precursor cell line results in similar deficiencies. Further analyses of these two experimental models will compensate for the lack of human postmortem tissues and will advance our understanding of the role of IKAP in myelination and the disease pathology.

  9. IKAP Deficiency in an FD Mouse Model and in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Results in Downregulation of Genes Involved in Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheishvili, David; Dietrich, Paula; Maayan, Channa; Even, Aviel; Weil, Miguel; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Razin, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    The splice site mutation in the IKBKAP gene coding for IKAP protein leads to the tissue-specific skipping of exon 20, with concomitant reduction in IKAP protein production. This causes the neurodevelopmental, autosomal-recessive genetic disorder - Familial Dysautonomia (FD). The molecular hallmark of FD is the severe reduction of IKAP protein in the nervous system that is believed to be the main reason for the devastating symptoms of this disease. Our recent studies showed that in the brain of two FD patients, genes linked to oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or myelin formation are significantly downregulated, implicating IKAP in the process of myelination. However, due to the scarcity of FD patient tissues, these results awaited further validation in other models. Recently, two FD mouse models that faithfully recapitulate FD were generated, with two types of mutations resulting in severely low levels of IKAP expression. Here we demonstrate that IKAP deficiency in these FD mouse models affects a similar set of genes as in FD patients' brains. In addition, we identified two new IKAP target genes involved in oligodendrocyte cells differentiation and myelination, further underscoring the essential role of IKAP in this process. We also provide proof that IKAP expression is needed cell-autonomously for the regulation of expression of genes involved in myelin formation since knockdown of IKAP in the Oli-neu oligodendrocyte precursor cell line results in similar deficiencies. Further analyses of these two experimental models will compensate for the lack of human postmortem tissues and will advance our understanding of the role of IKAP in myelination and the disease pathology. PMID:24760006

  10. IKAP deficiency in an FD mouse model and in oligodendrocyte precursor cells results in downregulation of genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheishvili

    Full Text Available The splice site mutation in the IKBKAP gene coding for IKAP protein leads to the tissue-specific skipping of exon 20, with concomitant reduction in IKAP protein production. This causes the neurodevelopmental, autosomal-recessive genetic disorder - Familial Dysautonomia (FD. The molecular hallmark of FD is the severe reduction of IKAP protein in the nervous system that is believed to be the main reason for the devastating symptoms of this disease. Our recent studies showed that in the brain of two FD patients, genes linked to oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or myelin formation are significantly downregulated, implicating IKAP in the process of myelination. However, due to the scarcity of FD patient tissues, these results awaited further validation in other models. Recently, two FD mouse models that faithfully recapitulate FD were generated, with two types of mutations resulting in severely low levels of IKAP expression. Here we demonstrate that IKAP deficiency in these FD mouse models affects a similar set of genes as in FD patients' brains. In addition, we identified two new IKAP target genes involved in oligodendrocyte cells differentiation and myelination, further underscoring the essential role of IKAP in this process. We also provide proof that IKAP expression is needed cell-autonomously for the regulation of expression of genes involved in myelin formation since knockdown of IKAP in the Oli-neu oligodendrocyte precursor cell line results in similar deficiencies. Further analyses of these two experimental models will compensate for the lack of human postmortem tissues and will advance our understanding of the role of IKAP in myelination and the disease pathology.

  11. Multidimensional family therapy HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention: an integrative family-based model for drug-involved juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Francoise; Rowe, Cynthia L; Colon-Perez, Lissette; DiClemente, Ralph J; Liddle, Howard A

    2009-03-01

    Drug and juvenile justice involved youths show remarkably high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors. However, existing interventions aimed at reducing adolescent HIV risk behavior have rarely targeted these vulnerable young adolescents, and many approaches focus on individual-level change without attention to family or contextual influences. We describe a new, family-based HIV/ STD prevention model that embeds HIV/STD focused multifamily groups within an adolescent drug abuse and delinquency evidence-based treatment, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). The approach has been evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial with juvenile justice involved youths in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (www.cjdats.org). Preliminary baseline to 6-month outcomes are promising. We describe research on family risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors, and offer a rationale for family-based approaches to reduce HIV/STD risk in this population. We describe the development and implementation of the Multidimensional Family Therapy HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention (MDFT-HIV/ STD) in terms of using multifamily groups and their integration in standard MDFT and also offers a clinical vignette. The potential significance of this empirically based intervention development work is high; MDFT-HIV/STD is the first model to address largely unmet HIV/STD prevention and sexual health needs of substance abusing juvenile offenders within the context of a family-oriented evidence-based intervention.

  12. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ran; Yang, Mingkun; Chen, Zhuo; Cheng, Zhongyi; Yi, Xingling; Li, Chongyang; He, Chenliu; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ge, Feng

    2015-02-06

    Cyanobacteria are the oldest known life form inhabiting Earth and the only prokaryotes capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) is a model cyanobacterium used extensively in research on photosynthesis and environmental adaptation. Posttranslational protein modification by lysine acetylation plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, its extent and function in cyanobacteria remain unexplored. Herein, we performed a global acetylome analysis on Synechocystis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and high accuracy LC-MS/MS analysis; identified 776 acetylation sites on 513 acetylated proteins; and functionally categorized them into an interaction map showing their involvement in various biological processes. Consistent with previous reports, a large fraction of the acetylation sites are present on proteins involved in cellular metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, many proteins involved in photosynthesis, including the subunits of phycocyanin (CpcA, CpcB, CpcC, and CpcG) and allophycocyanin (ApcA, ApcB, ApcD, ApcE, and ApcF), were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation may play regulatory roles in the photosynthesis process. Six identified acetylated proteins associated with photosynthesis and carbon metabolism were further validated by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Our data provide the first global survey of lysine acetylation in cyanobacteria and reveal previously unappreciated roles of lysine acetylation in the regulation of photosynthesis. The provided data set may serve as an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in cyanobacteria and facilitate the elucidation of the entire metabolic networks and photosynthesis process in this model cyanobacterium.

  13. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior.

  14. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior. PMID

  15. Substantial Integration of Typical Educational Games into Extended Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas B.; Tanner-Smith, Emily; Hostetler, Andrew; Fradkin, Aryah; Polikov, Vadim

    2018-01-01

    Much research focuses on what might be possible with digital games in the classroom. This study focuses on what is currently probable and typical. It uses a controlled quasi-experimental design to compare outcomes for students of 13 teachers in 10 diverse urban, suburban, and rural schools. The teachers integrated a set of 55 typical educational…

  16. Lack of Generalization of Auditory Learning in Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Taylor, Jenny L.; Millward, Kerri E.; Moore, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the components of auditory learning in typically developing children by assessing generalization across stimuli, across modalities (i.e., hearing, vision), and to higher level language tasks. Method: Eighty-six 8- to 10-year-old typically developing children were quasi-randomly assigned to 4 groups. Three of the groups…

  17. Universal Breadwinner Versus Universal Caregiver Model: Fathers' Involvement in Caregiving and Well-Being of Mothers of Offspring with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo; Pu, Cheng-yun

    2016-01-01

    The universal breadwinner model means both parents are employed; while the universal caregiver model implies that the father's hours of caregiving are equal or higher to those of the mother. This study aims to examine the hypothesis that the universal caregiver model is more related to the overall well-being of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities than the universal breadwinner model. Face-to-face interview surveys were conducted in 2011 in Taiwan with 876 working-age mothers who had an offspring with intellectual disabilities. The survey included 574 mothers living with their husbands who became our participants. Both anova and regression analyses indicated that, compared with mothers in the universal breadwinner group, mothers in the universal caregiver group had higher levels of maternal marital and family life satisfaction, but not of work satisfaction and quality of life. An incentive policy is critical for supporting the fathers involved in lifelong caregiving and to promote the mothers' quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Typical Periods for Two-Stage Synthesis by Time-Series Aggregation with Bounded Error in Objective Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, Björn; Söhler, Theo; Hennen, Maike; Bardow, André, E-mail: andre.bardow@ltt.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2018-01-08

    Two-stage synthesis problems simultaneously consider here-and-now decisions (e.g., optimal investment) and wait-and-see decisions (e.g., optimal operation). The optimal synthesis of energy systems reveals such a two-stage character. The synthesis of energy systems involves multiple large time series such as energy demands and energy prices. Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. To reduce the problem size without loosing solution quality, we propose a method for time-series aggregation to identify typical periods. Typical periods retain the chronology of time steps, which enables modeling of energy systems, e.g., with storage units or start-up cost. The aim of the proposed method is to obtain few typical periods with few time steps per period, while accurately representing the objective function of the full time series, e.g., cost. Thus, we determine the error of time-series aggregation as the cost difference between operating the optimal design for the aggregated time series and for the full time series. Thereby, we rigorously bound the maximum performance loss of the optimal energy system design. In an initial step, the proposed method identifies the best length of typical periods by autocorrelation analysis. Subsequently, an adaptive procedure determines aggregated typical periods employing the clustering algorithm k-medoids, which groups similar periods into clusters and selects one representative period per cluster. Moreover, the number of time steps per period is aggregated by a novel clustering algorithm maintaining chronology of the time steps in the periods. The method is iteratively repeated until the error falls below a threshold value. A case study based on a real-world synthesis problem of an energy system shows that time-series aggregation from 8,760 time steps to 2 typical periods with each 2 time steps results in an error smaller than the optimality gap of

  19. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  20. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  1. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  2. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  3. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaminis, Themelis; Neil, Louise; Manning, Catherine; Turi, Marco; Fiorentini, Chiara; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a) an 'ensemble' emotion discrimination task; b) a baseline (single-face) emotion discrimination task; and c) a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themelis Karaminis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b a baseline (single-face emotion discrimination task; and c a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average.

  5. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  6. Contributory fault and level of personal injury to drivers involved in head-on collisions: Application of copula-based bivariate ordinal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Behram; Khattak, Asad J; Xu, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to simultaneously investigate the degree of injury severity sustained by drivers involved in head-on collisions with respect to fault status designation. This is complicated to answer due to many issues, one of which is the potential presence of correlation between injury outcomes of drivers involved in the same head-on collision. To address this concern, we present seemingly unrelated bivariate ordered response models by analyzing the joint injury severity probability distribution of at-fault and not-at-fault drivers. Moreover, the assumption of bivariate normality of residuals and the linear form of stochastic dependence implied by such models may be unduly restrictive. To test this, Archimedean copula structures and normal mixture marginals are integrated into the joint estimation framework, which can characterize complex forms of stochastic dependencies and non-normality in residual terms. The models are estimated using 2013 Virginia police reported two-vehicle head-on collision data, where exactly one driver is at-fault. The results suggest that both at-fault and not-at-fault drivers sustained serious/fatal injuries in 8% of crashes, whereas, in 4% of the cases, the not-at-fault driver sustained a serious/fatal injury with no injury to the at-fault driver at all. Furthermore, if the at-fault driver is fatigued, apparently asleep, or has been drinking the not-at-fault driver is more likely to sustain a severe/fatal injury, controlling for other factors and potential correlations between the injury outcomes. While not-at-fault vehicle speed affects injury severity of at-fault driver, the effect is smaller than the effect of at-fault vehicle speed on at-fault injury outcome. Contrarily, and importantly, the effect of at-fault vehicle speed on injury severity of not-at-fault driver is almost equal to the effect of not-at-fault vehicle speed on injury outcome of not-at-fault driver. Compared to traditional ordered probability

  7. Subjectivity of typical experiments used to investigate the existence of mirror neurons - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolo, Paola B; Pagnacco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Typical experiments used in investigating the mirror neuron theory involve a person executing a task, and an animal (usually a rhesus or nemestrina macaque primate), instrumented or under observation in some other manner, that is supposed to imitate the task. To evaluate if in fact the animal imitates the person and not the opposite, we asked a group of 70 first year veterinary medicine students with no experience with these type of experiments to evaluate two publicly available movies of two such experiments and to answer a multiple-choice questionnaire. They were asked to judge if, in their opinion, the animal imitated the person or if it appeared that the person imitated or followed the animal. The order of the multiple choices was randomized to avoid biases. In one movie, the majority of the subjects found that the person seemed to follow the animal and not the opposite as it should have been. For the other movie, about 14% of the subjects also answered that the person followed the animal. This suggests there is a great deal of subjectivity in how these experiments are conducted and evaluated that might affect the conclusion of the investigations, raising doubts on their validity. We also raise some other questions about the validity of the experimental model in relation to other experiments used investigations about the hypothesized mirror neurons. This work is an invitation to caution with regards to proposing and accepting the mirror neuron theory based on the experiments conducted thus far.

  8. Combining modelling and mutagenesis studies of synaptic vesicle protein 2A to identify a series of residues involved in racetam binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiye; Anderson, Dina; Lynch, Berkley A; Castaigne, Jean-Gabriel; Foerch, Patrik; Lebon, Florence

    2011-10-01

    LEV (levetiracetam), an antiepileptic drug which possesses a unique profile in animal models of seizure and epilepsy, has as its unique binding site in brain, SV2A (synaptic vesicle protein 2A). Previous studies have used a chimaeric and site-specific mutagenesis approach to identify three residues in the putative tenth transmembrane helix of SV2A that, when mutated, alter binding of LEV and related racetam derivatives to SV2A. In the present paper, we report a combined modelling and mutagenesis study that successfully identifies another 11 residues in SV2A that appear to be involved in ligand binding. Sequence analysis and modelling of SV2A suggested residues equivalent to critical functional residues of other MFS (major facilitator superfamily) transporters. Alanine scanning of these and other SV2A residues resulted in the identification of residues affecting racetam binding, including Ile273 which differentiated between racetam analogues, when mutated to alanine. Integrating mutagenesis results with docking analysis led to the construction of a mutant in which six SV2A residues were replaced with corresponding SV2B residues. This mutant showed racetam ligand-binding affinity intermediate to the affinities observed for SV2A and SV2B.

  9. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera's 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs' male clients.

  10. Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Systems with Typical Nonlinear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The task was to synthesise an adjustable hydraulic system structure, the mathematical model of which takes into account its inherent nonlinearity. Its solution suggests using a successive computer simulations starting with a structure of the linearized stable hydraulic system, which is then complicated by including the essentially non-linear elements. The hydraulic system thus obtained may be unable to meet the Lyapunov stability criterion and be unstable. This can be eliminated through correcting elements. Control of correction results is provided according to the form of transition processes due to stepwise variation of the control signal.Computer simulation of a throttle-controlled electrohydraulic servo drive with the rotary output element illustrates the proposed method application. A constant pressure power source provides fluid feed for the drive under pressure.For drive simulation the following models were involved: the linear model, the model taking into consideration a non-linearity of the flow-dynamic characteristics of a spool-type valve, and the non-linear models that take into account the dry friction in the spool-type valve, the backlash in the steering angle sensor of the motor shaft.The paper shows possibility of damping oscillation caused by variable hydrodynamic forces through introducing a correction device.The list of references attached contains 16 sources, which were used to justify and explain certain factors of the automatic control theory and the fluid mechanics of unsteady flows.The article presents 6 block-diagrams of the electrohydraulic servo drive and their appropriate transition processes, which have been studied.

  11. Determination of the phenomena involved when de-energing transformers for wind-farms. Modelling, residual fluxes calculation and validation by on site tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioual, Michel [Societe Electricite de France (EDF) (France). Themis Dept.; Reveret, Jean-Christophe [Ecole Speciale de Mecanique et d' Electricite, Ivry-sur-Seine (France)

    2009-07-01

    The energization of the main transformers for wind-farms is an important issue, as it has a major impact on the voltage dips at the Delivery Point and consequently on the power delivery. One of the main point is the determination of the phenomena at the transformer energizing prior its energization, which are described in the paper, and mainly the residual fluxes circulating in the iron core. The residual fluxes have been determined in the case of the de-energization of the main transformers for wind-farms, with a detailed modelling of the equipment under the phenomena involved. A methodology is presented to obtain those fluxes; the values obtained have then be considered as initial conditions for the transformers energization, the inrush currents and overvoltages determined by the EMTP-RV program, and finally validated by on site tests. (orig.)

  12. Clustering consumers based on trust, confidence and giving behaviour: data-driven model building for charitable involvement in the Australian not-for-profit sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Jane de Vries

    Full Text Available Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score. A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  13. Clustering consumers based on trust, confidence and giving behaviour: data-driven model building for charitable involvement in the Australian not-for-profit sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  14. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  15. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  16. Effects of role typicality on processing person information in German: evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmen, Lisa; Holt, Daniel V; Weisbrod, Matthias

    2010-09-24

    The present ERP study investigated how reference resolution is affected by semantic cues to referent gender such as the gender typicality of role names. Participants read general statements about social and occupational groups denoted by a role name (e.g., pilots, florists), which was followed by a co-referring NP with masculine, feminine or neutral lexical gender (e.g., these men/women/people) that could either semantically match, mismatch or be neutral to the role name's gender typicality. The study was run in German. Between 300 and 400 ms (N400) responses to all anaphors were more negative after typically male than after typically female antecedents. Between 500 and 700 ms (P600) role name typicality interacted with the lexical gender of the anaphor. Responses to feminine anaphors were more positive in case of incongruent compared to congruent typicality of the antecedent. The effects suggest that participants anticipate a possible semantic incongruity before the anaphor is actually resolved. They, furthermore show that different cues to referent gender are conceptually integrated after 500 ms following the onset of the anaphoric noun. Results are discussed with regard to two-stage models of reference resolution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R

    2018-01-28

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences-the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate-increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  18. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences—the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate—increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  19. A new model involving ethylene, nitric oxide and Fe to explain the regulation of Fe-acquisition genes in Strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; Suárez, Vicente; Romera, Francisco J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    In previous work it has been shown that both ethylene and NO (nitric oxide) participate in a similar way in the up-regulation of several Fe-acquisition genes of Arabidopsis and other Strategy I plants. This raises the question as to whether NO acts through ethylene or ethylene acts through NO, or whether both act in conjunction. One possibility is that NO could increase ethylene production. Conversely, ethylene could increase NO production. By using Arabidopsis and cucumber plants, we have found that both possibilities occur: NO greatly induces the expression in roots of genes involved in ethylene synthesis: AtSAM1, AtSAM2, AtACS4, AtACS6, AtACO1, AtACO2, AtMTK; CsACS2 and CsACO2; on the other hand, ethylene greatly enhances NO production in the subapical region of the roots. These results suggest that each substance influences the production of the other and that both substances could be necessary for up-regulation of Fe-acquisition genes. This has been further confirmed in experiments with simultaneous application of the NO donor GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) and ethylene inhibitors; or with simultaneous application of the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and an NO scavenger. Both GSNO and ACC enhanced ferric reductase activity in control plants, but not in those plants simultaneously treated with the ethylene inhibitors or the NO scavenger, respectively. To explain all these results and previous ones we have proposed a new model involving ethylene, NO, and Fe in the up-regulation of Fe-acquisition genes of Strategy I plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Sub-Chronic Treatment with Pioglitazone on the Septic Mice Mortality in the Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Shafaroodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection and remains as a major challenge in health care. Many studies have reported that pioglitazone may display anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of subchronic treatment with pioglitazone on high-grade septic mice survival and nitrergic system involvement. Diffused sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP surgery in male NMRI mice (20-30 g. Pioglitazone (5,10 and 20 mg/kg was administered by gavage daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Nitric oxide involvement was assessed by sub-chronic administration of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME and a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine. TNF-α  and IL-1β plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Pioglitazone (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly improved survival rate in septic mice. The chronic intraperitoneally co-administration of L-NAME (0.5 mg/kg, daily or aminoguanidine (1 mg/kg, daily with a daily dose of pioglitazone, 5 mg/kg, significantly increased the survival rate. This survival improving effect was accompanied by a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β plasma levels. In conclusion, sub-chronic pioglitazone treatment can improve survival in mouse sepsis model by CLP. Inhibition of nitric oxide release, probably through inducible nitric oxide synthase at least in part is responsible for this effect. Suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β could be another mechanism in pioglitazone-induced survival improving effect in septic mice.

  1. Melatonin alleviates brain and peripheral tissue edema in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage: the involvement of edema related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Xiao; Lv, Yuan; Li, Yan-Hong; Ding, Xin; Wang, Ying; Han, Xing; Liu, Ming-Hua; Sun, Bin; Feng, Xing

    2017-03-28

    Previous studies have indicated edema may be involved in the pathophysiology following hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and melatonin may exhibit neuro-protection against brain insults. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms that involve the protective effects of melatonin in the brain and peripheral tissues after HIE. The present study aimed to examine the effects of melatonin on multiple organs, and the expression of edema related proteins in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). One hundred ninety-two neonatal rats were randomly divided into three subgroups that underwent a sham surgery or HIBD. After the HIBD or sham-injury, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin or an equal volume vehicle, respectively. We investigated the effects of melatonin on brain, kidney, and colon edema via histological examination and the expression of edema related proteins, including AQP-4, ZO-1 and occludin, via qPCR and western blot. Our data indicated (1) Melatonin reduced the histological injury in the brain and peripheral organs induced by HIBD as assessed via H-E staining and transmission electron microscopy. (2) Melatonin alleviated the HIBD-induced cerebral edema characterized by increased brain water content. (3) HIBD induced significant changes of edema related proteins, such as AQP-4, ZO-1 and occludin, and these changes were partially reversed by melatonin treatment. These findings provide substantial evidence that melatonin treatment has protective effects on the brain and peripheral organs after HIBD, and the edema related proteins, AQP4, ZO-1, and occludin, may indirectly contribute tothe mechanism of the edema protection by melatonin.

  2. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  3. Superoxide and Nitric Oxide Involvement in Enhancing of N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Central Sensitization in the Chronic Post-ischemia Pain Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tae Ha; Jung, Kyung Young; Ha, Mi Jin; Kwak, Kyung Hwa; Lim, Dong Gun; Hong, Jung Gil

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in persistent pain, including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Since the data suggest that ROS are involved in central sensitization, the present study examines the levels of activated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsal horn after an exogenous supply of three antioxidants in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). This serves as an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome type-I induced by hindpaw ischemia/reperfusion injury. The application of tight-fitting O-rings for a period of three hours produced CPIP in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Allopurinol 4 mg/kg, allopurinol 40 mg/kg, superoxide dismutase (SOD) 4,000 U/kg, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 10 mg/kg and SOD 4,000 U/kg plus L-NAME 10 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally just after O-ring application and on the first and second days after reperfusion. Mechanical allodynia was measured, and activation of the NMDA receptor subunit 1 (pNR1) of the lumbar spinal cord (L4-L6) was analyzed by the Western blot three days after reperfusion. Allopurinol reduced mechanical allodynia and attenuated the enhancement of spinal pNR1 expression in CPIP rats. SOD and L-NAME also blocked spinal pNR1 in accordance with the reduced mechanical allodynia in rats with CPIP. The present data suggest the contribution of superoxide, produced via xanthine oxidase, and the participation of superoxide and nitric oxide as a precursor of peroxynitrite in NMDA mediated central sensitization. Finally, the findings support a therapeutic potential for the manipulation of superoxide and nitric oxide in ischemia/reperfusion related pain conditions.

  4. Glial Alterations From Early to Late Stages in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence of Autophagy Involvement in Aβ Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1 + cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. PMID:26235241

  5. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  6. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  7. Framework for Construction of Multi-scale Models for Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes - Case Study: Autotrophic Nitrogen Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    In wastewater treatment technologies, employing biofilms or granular biomass, processes might occur at very different spatial and temporal scales. Model development for such systems is typically a tedious, complicated, and time consuming task, which involves selecting appropriate model equations...

  8. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, A.; Huniche, L.

    2015-01-01

    , and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  9. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Involvement of the skeleton in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirschel, J.; Ozdoba, C.

    1987-01-01

    Of 114 patients with Hodgkin's disease reviewed, 13 (11%) had bone involvement. The typical osseous lesion in Hodgkin's desease is a secondary manifestation in the axial skeleton. The lesions are mainly lytic; there is no relation between the site of the affection and the character of the lesion. Of 261 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 19 (7,3%) had bone involvement. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma very rarely affects the bone primarily; these lesions are lytic. Involvement of the appendicular skeleton is reported to be typical; this cannot be confirmed by our study. Most secondary osseous lesions in non-Hodgkin lymphoma are found in the cranium, the spine and the sternum; this pattern of distribution as well as the mainly lytic appearance can be considered typical. (orig.) [de

  11. Nonlinear Behavior of a Typical Airfoil Section with Control Surface Freeplay: A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, M. D.; Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.; Virgin, L. N.

    1997-01-01

    A three degree-of-freedom aeroelastic typical section with control surface freeplay is modeled theoretically as a system of piecewise linear state-space models. The system response is determined by time marching of the governing equations using a standard Runge-Kutta algorithm in conjunction with Henon's method for integrating a system of equations to a prescribed surface of phase space section. Henon's method is used to locate the "switching points" accurately and efficiently as the system moves from one linear region into another. An experimental model which closely approximates the three degree-of-freedom, typical section in two-dimensional, incompressible flow has been created to validate the theoretical model. Consideration is given to modeling realistically the structural damping present in the experimental system. The effect of the freeplay on the system response is examined numerically and experimentally. The development of the state-space model offers a low-order, computationally efficient means of modeling fully the freeplay nonlinearity and may offer advantages in future research which will investigate the effects of freeplay on the control of flutter in the typical section.

  12. Model of socio-cultural dimensions involved in adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in public health care centers in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuardo Ávila, Valeria; Manriquez Urbina, Jose Manuel; Fajreldin Chuaqui, Valentina; Belmar Prieto, Julieta; Valenzuela Santibáñez, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    In Chile, over 14,000 adults are living with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adequate adherence to HAART has a major impact on survival. There is little consensus on the causes of poor adherence, due to the unique and diverse sociocultural parameters involved in the issue. The objective of this study was to identify sociocultural dimensions that serve as barriers or facilitators to HAART adherence among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Chile. A qualitative study design, with an exploratory followed by a descriptive phase was conducted. The study population consisted of adults living with HIV/AIDS, with and without HAART. A theoretical sample was designed and three gender profiles defined: women, men, and transwomen. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews by anthropologists in seven public health care centers for PLHIV. The model of sociocultural dimensions indicated that factors associated with family, expectations, gender/sexuality, affect, relationship with HIV, HAART, work, social support and networks, and stigma and discrimination influenced adherence, with different patterns among profiles. This study found that adherence is a dynamic category. It is crucial to consider sociocultural factors in developing strategies to improve HAART adherence.

  13. Involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin in Kainic Acid-Induced Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Kiasalari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with neuronal apoptosis. Curcumin has antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities, therefore this study was conducted to assess involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in protective effect of curcumin in epileptic rats. Methods: 28 rats were divided into sham, curcumin-pretreated sham, epileptic (kainate, and curcumin-pretreated epileptic groups. Experimental model of epilepsy was induced by intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid. Rats received curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Finally, Nissl staining and Bax and Bcl2 immunohistochemistry were conducted on hippocampal sections and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and unpaired t-test. The p-value less than 0.05was considered statistically significant. Results: Induction of epilepsy was followed by a significant seizure and curcumin pretreatment significantly reduced seizure intensity (p<0.01. In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups in Nissl staining of CA3 area neurons. In addition, Bax positive neurons were observed in CA3 area in kainate group and significantly decreased in curcumin pretreated rats (p<0.05. Meanwhile, Bcl2 positive neurons were also moderately observed in kainate group and curcumin pretreatment significantly increased it (p<0.05. Conclusion: Curcumin pretreatment exhibits anticonvulsant activity in epileptic rats. It also decreases the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and significantly enhances the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and hence could reduce neuronal apoptosis.

  14. Involvement of F-Actin in Chaperonin-Containing t-Complex 1 Beta Regulating Mouse Mesangial Cell Functions in a Glucose-Induction Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shuen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 beta (CCT2 in the regulation of mouse mesangial cell (mMC contraction, proliferation, and migration with filamentous/globular-(F/G- actin ratio under high glucose induction. A low CCT2 mMC model induced by treatment of small interference RNA was established. Groups with and without low CCT2 induction examined in normal and high (H glucose conditions revealed the following major results: (1 low CCT2 or H glucose showed the ability to attenuate F/G-actin ratio; (2 groups with low F/G-actin ratio all showed less cell contraction; (3 suppression of CCT2 may reduce the proliferation and migration which were originally induced by H glucose. In conclusion, CCT2 can be used as a specific regulator for mMC contraction, proliferation, and migration affected by glucose, which mechanism may involve the alteration of F-actin, particularly for cell contraction.

  15. Receptor for advanced glycation end products involved in lung ischemia reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass attenuated by controlled oxygen reperfusion in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Liang, Meng-ya; Chen, Guang-xian; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Wu, Zhong-kai

    2013-01-01

    Controlled oxygen reperfusion could protect the lung against ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by downregulating high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a high affinity receptor of HMGB1. This study investigated the effect of controlled oxygen reperfusion on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression and its downstream effects on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Fourteen canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. Animals were randomized to receive 80% FiO2 during the entire procedure (control group) or to a test group receiving a controlled oxygen reperfusion protocol. Pathologic changes in lung tissues, RAGE expression, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The lung pathologic scores after 25 and 90 minutes of reperfusion were significantly lower in the test group compared with the control group (p RAGE expression, TNF-α, and IL-6 were downregulated by controlled oxygen treatment (p RAGE might be involved in the lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model of CPB, which was downregulated by controlled oxygen reperfusion.

  16. Rearrangements of the beta-globin gene cluster in apparently typical betaS haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Gualandro, S; Yokomizu, I K; Araujo, A G; Tavela, M H; Gerard, N; Krishnamoorthy, R; Elion, J

    2001-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the betaS gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as atypical haplotypes. We have demonstrated that most atypical haplotypes are generated by recombinations. The present study was carried out in order to explore whether recombination also occurs in chromosomes with the common (or typical) haplotypes. We screened the HS-2 region of the beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR) in 244 sickle cell patients who had typical restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-defined haplotypes of the betaS-gene cluster. For 14 cases in which the expected and the observed LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, the analysis was extended to other unexplored polymorphic markers of the bS-globin gene cluster, i.e.: pre-Ggamma framework, pre-Ggamma 6-bp deletion, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta(AT)xTy repeats, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. In all 14 cases (15 chromosomes) in which the LCR repeat-sequence sizes were discrepant, a recombination involving a typical 3' segment of the betaS globin gene cluster was demonstrated. In most of the cases, the recombination site was located between the beta-globin gene and the betaLCR. Nine cases involving recombination were detected among 156 Brazilian HbS homozygotes and five among 88 African patients homozygotes for the Benin haplotype. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS. Thus, 3.1% of apparently typical haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene involve recombinations similar to those that generate the atypical haplotypes, a finding that reinforces the picture of the beta-globin gene cluster as highly dynamic.

  17. The typicality of academic discourse and its relevance for constructs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructs of academic literacy are used both for test and course design. While the discussion is relevant to both, the focus of this article will be on test design. Constructs of academic literacy necessarily depend on definitions that assume that academic discourse is typically different from other kinds of discourse. The more ...

  18. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Memory for Sequences of Events Impaired in Typical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to…

  20. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  1. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  2. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  3. Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not…

  4. Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in Ajaokuta, southwestern Nigeria. CC Osadebe, JO Fatoba, S Obrike. Abstract. No Abstract. Ife Journal of Science Vol. 7(2) 2005: 297-303. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Changes in some physical properties of a typic haplorthox in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the impacts of different crop rotations on soil physical properties is needed to identify those with the potential to improve such properties which enhance crops´ responses to soil nutrients. The effects of eight crop rotations on physical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox) were assessed in ...

  6. Children's Typically-Perceived-Situations of Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Yong Jae

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore children's typically-perceived-situations (TPS) of "floating" and "sinking". TPS refers to the situation rising spontaneously in an individual's mind when they first think of a phenomenon or concept. Data were collected from 148 Year 5 Korean children. As a result of analysing the data…

  7. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  8. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  9. NOUN DERIVATION OF THE TYPICAL MINAHASA FOOD AND BEVERAGE NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina P Pamantung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivation of the name of typical Minahasa food and beverage is a change or replacement of the word class of verbs, adverbs, and adjectives into nouns. It occurs through the process of compounding, affixation, and reduplication. Free morpheme which appears is ransak, tei, tu'tu, tape, segor, sende ', rica, fresh, rukus. Conversely, some morphemes or bound forms (affixes are the prefix /pe-/,/wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; suffix /-en/, and confixes /-in- + -an/ and  /ka- + -an/ . Prefixes /pe-/, /wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; sufi x-en/, andconfixes /-in- + -an/ occur in the formation of derivational words of  food, while  drinks contain two morphemes (affixes, the infix / -in- / and confix (ka + -an. Thus, the derivation of the typical Minahasa food naming is called derivational affixes such as derivational prefix, infix, and confix. Meanwhile, derivational infix, and confix occur in a typical Minahasa drink. Empty derivation is not found in the typical Minahasa food and beverage since a single form, for example, pangi, sa’ut, paniki, kawok, dan sopi have a meaning that does not change the word class. In addition, the characteristics of the structure of itscompounding: root + base (base + roots, that have a sense of the endocentric and exocentric compound words. Endocentric ompounding is the most frequent.

  10. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  11. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  12. Regular Strongly Typical Blocks of {mathcal{O}^{mathfrak {q}}}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Anders; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2009-10-01

    We use the technique of Harish-Chandra bimodules to prove that regular strongly typical blocks of the category {mathcal{O}} for the queer Lie superalgebra {mathfrak{q}_n} are equivalent to the corresponding blocks of the category {mathcal{O}} for the Lie algebra {mathfrak {gl}_n}.

  13. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  14. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  15. Use of the Structured Descriptive Assessment with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; English, Carie L.; Hedrick, Theresa M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, only a limited number of studies have focused on functional assessment with typically developing populations. The most commonly reported method of functional assessment with this population seems to be descriptive assessment; however, the methods used in the descriptive assessment often are unclear. This is unfortunate as researchers and…

  16. Typical-medium multiple-scattering theory for disordered systems with Anderson localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, H.; Zhang, Y.; Chioncel, L.; Vollhardt, D.; Jarrell, M.

    2017-04-01

    The typical medium dynamical cluster approximation (TMDCA) is reformulated in the language of multiple scattering theory to make possible first-principles calculations of the electronic structure of substitutionally disordered alloys including the effect of Anderson localization. The TMDCA allows for a systematic inclusion of nonlocal multisite correlations and at the same time provides an order parameter, the typical density of states, for the Anderson localization transition. The relation between the dynamical cluster approximation and the multiple scattering theory is analyzed, and is illustrated for a tight-binding model.

  17. Generation of typical solar radiation data for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Haixiang; Xu, Qingshan; Bian, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, typical solar radiation data are generated from both measured data and synthetic generation for 35 stations in six different climatic zones of China. (1) By applying the measured weather data during at least 10 years from 1994 to 2009, typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 35 cities are generated using the Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of daily global solar radiation (DGSR) for each year is compared with the CDF of DGSR for the long-term years in six different climatic stations (Sanya, Shanghai, Zhengzhou, Harbin, Mohe and Lhasa). The daily global solar radiation as typical data obtained from the TMYs are presented in the Table. (2) Based on the recorded global radiation data from at least 10 years, a new daily global solar radiation model is developed with a sine and cosine wave (SCW) equation. The results of the proposed model and other empirical regression models are compared with measured data using different statistical indicators. It is found that solar radiation data, calculated by the new model, are superior to these from other empirical models at six typical climatic zones. In addition, the novel SCW model is tested and applied for 35 stations in China. -- Highlights: ► Both TMY method and synthetic generation are used to generate solar radiation data. ► The latest and accurate long term weather data in six different climates are applied. ► TMYs using new weighting factors of 8 weather indices for 35 regions are obtained. ► A new sine and cosine wave model is proposed and utilized for 35 major stations. ► Both TMY method and the proposed regression model perform well on monthly bases.

  18. Waking Up in Prison: Critical Discussions Between Typical College Students and Their Incarcerated Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Dell'Angelo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a typical college course that was taught in a youth correctional facility. The course combined traditional college students and inmates from the prison. Over the course of 15 weeks both groups grew to understand one another and themselves. The article seeks to illustrate the realities related both to fear and success in such an undertaking. This collaborative model between colleges and correctional facilities has promise as a model for prison education.

  19. The proinflammatory RAGE/NF-κB pathway is involved in neuronal damage and reactive gliosis in a model of sleep apnea by intermittent hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Florencia Angelo

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea (SA causes long-lasting changes in neuronal circuitry, which persist even in patients successfully treated for the acute effects of the disease. Evidence obtained from the intermittent hypoxia (IH experimental model of SA has shown neuronal death, impairment in learning and memory and reactive gliosis that may account for cognitive and structural alterations observed in human patients. However, little is known about the mechanism controlling these deleterious effects that may be useful as therapeutic targets in SA. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE and its downstream effector Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB have been related to neuronal death and astroglial conversion to the pro-inflammatory neurodegenerative phenotype. RAGE expression and its ligand S100B were shown to be increased in experimental models of SA. We here used dissociated mixed hippocampal cell cultures and male Wistar rats exposed to IH cycles and observed that NF-κB is activated in glial cells and neurons after IH. To disclose the relative contribution of the S100B/RAGE/NF-κB pathway to neuronal damage and reactive gliosis after IH we performed sequential loss of function studies using RAGE or S100B neutralizing antibodies, a herpes simplex virus (HSV-derived amplicon vector that induces the expression of RAGEΔcyto (dominant negative RAGE and a chemical blocker of NF-κB. Our results show that NF-κB activation peaks 3 days after IH exposure, and that RAGE or NF-κB blockage during this critical period significantly improves neuronal survival and reduces reactive gliosis. Both in vitro and in vivo, S100B blockage altered reactive gliosis but did not have significant effects on neuronal survival. We conclude that both RAGE and downstream NF-κB signaling are centrally involved in the neuronal alterations found in SA models, and that blockage of these pathways is a tempting strategy for preventing neuronal degeneration and reactive gliosis in SA.

  20. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  1. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  2. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  3. CJ2 Icing Effects Simulator. Delivery Order 0019: Development of an Icing Effects Simulation for a Typical Business Jet Configuration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnhart, Billy

    2007-01-01

    In this effort, Cessna Aircraft Company and Bihrle Applied Research teamed to develop and validate flight simulation models of a typical business jet incorporating the effects of various forms of ice...

  4. Modelling of the blood-brain barrier transport of morphine-3-glucuronide studied using microdialysis in the rat: involvement of probenecid-sensitive transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rujia; Bouw, M René; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of probenecid on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G). Two groups of rats received an exponential infusion of M3G over 4 h to reach a target plasma concentration of 65 μM on two consecutive days. Probenecid was co-administered in the treatment group on day 2. Microdialysis was used to estimate unbound M3G concentrations in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and blood. In vivo recovery of M3G was calculated with retrodialysis by drug, preceding the drug administration. The BBB transport was modelled using NONMEM. In the probenecid group, the ratio of the steady-state concentration of unbound M3G in brain ECF to that in blood was 0.08±0.02 in the absence and 0.16±0.05 in the presence of probenecid (P=0.001). In the control group, no significant difference was found in this ratio between the 2 days (0.11±0.05 and 0.10±0.02, respectively). The process that appears to be mainly influenced by probenecid is influx clearance into the brain (0.11 μl min−1 g-brain−1 vs 0.17 μl min−1 g-brain−1, in the absence vs presence of probenecid, Pprobenecid. In conclusion, a probenecid-sensitive transport system is involved in the transport of M3G across the BBB. PMID:11139459

  5. Involvement of Interleukin-10 in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Sanyinjiao (SP6 Acupuncture in a Mouse Model of Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Duarte da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effect of manual acupuncture at the Sanyinjiao or Spleen 6 (SP6 point on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice and investigated mechanisms that may underlie this effect. In the first set of experiments, male Swiss mice were allocated into five groups: the control (sterile saline, dexamethasone (DEXA, invasive sham-acupuncture (non-acupoint, SP6 acupuncture and carrageenan-treated groups. Ten minutes after needle retention or 30 min after DEXA treatment, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan (750 μg/mouse. After 4 h, total leukocyte and differential cell counts (neutrophils and mononuclear, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, vascular permeability and cytokine levels were evaluated. In another set of experiments, adrenalectomized (ADX mice were used to study the involvement of the adrenal gland on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Mice were allocated into two groups: the ADX and sham-operated animals (Sham ADX that were subdivided into four subgroups each: the control (sterile saline, DEXA, SP6 acupuncture and carrageenan-treated groups. The SP6 and DEXA treatments inhibited the inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular permeability and MPO activity in carrageenan-injected mice. In addition, the SP6 treatment also increased interleukin (IL-10 levels. In contrast, when the animals were adrenalectomized, the SP6 treatment failed to reduce total leukocyte and the plasma extravasation. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of SP6 acupuncture in a model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Our results demonstrated that SP6 acupuncture depends of the adrenal glands and increased IL-10 levels to produce its anti-inflammatory action.

  6. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  7. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  8. Neural Correlates of Reward Processing in Typical and Atypical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. Duerden PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypically developing children including those born preterm or who have autism spectrum disorder can display difficulties with evaluating rewarding stimuli, which may result from impaired maturation of reward and cognitive control brain regions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 58 typically and atypically developing children (6-12 years participated in a set-shifting task that included the presentation of monetary reward stimuli. In typically developing children, reward stimuli were associated with age-related increases in activation in cognitive control centers, with weaker changes in reward regions. In atypically developing children, no age-related changes were evident. Maturational disturbances in the frontostriatal regions during atypical development may underlie task-based differences in activation.

  9. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  10. Relations between a typical scale and averages in the breaking of fractal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atushi; Suzuki, Tadao

    2004-11-01

    We study distributions which have both fractal and non-fractal scale regions by introducing a typical scale into a scale invariant system. As one of models in which distributions follow power law in the large-scale region and deviate further from the power law in the smaller-scale region, we employ 2-dim quantum gravity modified by the R2 term. As examples of distributions in the real world which have similar property to this model, we consider those of personal income in Japan over latest twenty fiscal years. We find relations between the typical scale and several kinds of averages in this model, and observe that these relations are also valid in recent personal income distributions in Japan with sufficient accuracy. We show the existence of the fiscal years so called bubble term in which the gap has arisen in power law, by observing that the data are away from one of these relations. We confirm, therefore, that the distribution of this model has close similarity to those of personal income. In addition, we can estimate the value of Pareto index and whether a big gap exists in power law by using only these relations. As a result, we point out that the typical scale is an useful concept different from average value and that the distribution function derived in this model is an effective tool to investigate these kinds of distributions.

  11. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem.

  12. TYPICAL LEISHMANIOSIS IN A DOG REGULARLY VACCINATED WITH CANILEISH®

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Gavazza; Anyela Andrea Medina Valentin; George Lubas

    2016-01-01

    The vaccine Canileish® is distributed in Europe to reduce the risk of developing an active infection and clinical leishmaniosis. An English Setter dog vaccinated with Canileish® and treated with anti-feeding and repellent medications showed typical clinical signs of leishmaniosis. The dog was presented with dysorexia, weight loss, fever and forelimb lameness. The physical exam revealed moderate generalized external lymph node enlargement, sero-purulent ocular discharge, photophobia, and swoll...

  13. The role of emotionality and typicality in speechreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Rönnberg, J

    1995-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate how emotionality and typicality could influence speechreading performance. Typical and atypical sentences for a certain script, and emotional sentences (happy and sad content, presented with happy, sad or neutral facial expression) were shown without sound on a TV-screen. Two different scripts (restaurant and doctor) were used. In Experiment 1, hearing-impaired subjects participated and in Experiment 2, normal-hearing subjects participated. Experiment 2 also evaluated the effects of tactile information. The results from both experiments showed that typical restaurant sentences were the easiest to speechread of all sentence-types, in line with script-theory (Abelson, 1981; Anderson, 1983; Bellezza & Bower, 1981; Nottenburg & Shoben, 1980; Yekovich & Walker, 1986). For the doctor script, sad sentences were better speechread than happy sentences, also according to script-theory. In addition, perception of emotional content was enhanced by tactile information. Generally, both the cognitive and emotional effects are script-dependent, suggesting important social constraints on speechreading accuracy.

  14. Brain mechanisms for social perception: lessons from autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelphrey, Kevin A; Carter, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-01

    In this review, we summarize our research program, which has as its goal charting the typical and atypical development of the social brain in children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism. We highlight recent work using virtual reality stimuli, eye tracking, and functional magnetic resonance imaging that has implicated the superior temporal sulcus (STS) region as an important component of the network of brain regions that support various aspects of social cognition and social perception. Our work in typically developing adults has led to the conclusion that the STS region is involved in social perception via its role in the visual analysis of others' actions and intentions from biological-motion cues. Our work in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism has implicated the STS region as a mechanism underlying social perception dysfunction in this neurodevelopmental disorder. We also report novel findings from a study of biological-motion perception in young children with and without autism.

  15. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  16. Typical vs. atypical: Combining auditory Gestalt perception and acoustic analysis of early vocalisations in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Florian B; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Einspieler, Christa; Zhang, Dajie; Vollmann, Ralf; Bölte, Sven; Gugatschka, Markus; Schuller, Björn W; Marschik, Peter B

    2018-03-15

    Early speech-language development of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been repeatedly characterised by a co-occurrence of apparently typical and atypical vocalisations. To describe specific features of this intermittent character of typical versus atypical early RTT-associated vocalisations by combining auditory Gestalt perception and acoustic vocalisation analysis. We extracted N = 363 (pre-)linguistic vocalisations from home video recordings of an infant later diagnosed with RTT. In a listening experiment, all vocalisations were assessed for (a)typicality by five experts on early human development. Listeners' auditory concepts of (a)typicality were investigated in context of a comprehensive set of acoustic time-, spectral- and/or energy-related higher-order features extracted from the vocalisations. More than half of the vocalisations were rated as 'atypical' by at least one listener. Atypicality was mainly related to the auditory attribute 'timbre', and to prosodic, spectral, and voice quality features in the acoustic domain. Knowledge gained in our study shall contribute to the generation of an objective model of early vocalisation atypicality. Such a model might be used for increasing caregivers' and healthcare professionals' sensitivity to identify atypical vocalisation patterns, or even for a probabilistic approach to automatically detect RTT based on early vocalisations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  18. Kinetic properties of Cellulomonas sp. purine nucleoside phosphorylase with typical and non-typical substrates: implications for the reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Bzowska, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorolysis catalyzed by Cellulomonas sp. PNP with typical nucleoside substrate, inosine (Ino), and non-typical 7-methylguanosine (m7Guo), with either nucleoside or phosphate (Pd) as the varied substrate, kinetics of the reverse synthetic reaction with guanine (Gua) and ribose-1-phosphate (R1P) as the varied substrates, and product inhibition patterns of synthetic and phosphorolytic reaction pathways were studied by steady-state kinetic methods. It is concluded that, like for mammalian trimeric PNP, complex kinetic characteristics observed for Cellulomonas enzyme results from simultaneous occurrence of three phenomena. These are sequential but random, not ordered binding of substrates, tight binding of one substrate purine bases, leading to the circumstances that for such substrates (products) rapid-equilibrium assumptions do not hold, and a dual role of Pi, a substrate, and also a reaction modifier that helps to release a tightly bound purine base.

  19. Dysfunctional metacognition and drive for thinness in typical and atypical anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Emily; Rushford, Nola; Soon, Siew; McDermott, Cressida

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and drive for thinness across groups and relationships within groups is also unclear. Main objectives were to determine whether metacognitive factors differ across typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and a non-clinical community sample, and to explore a process model by determining whether drive for thinness is concurrently predicted by metacognitive factors. Women receiving treatment for anorexia nervosa (n = 119) and non-clinical community participants (n = 100), aged between 18 and 46 years, completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (3(rd) Edition) and Metacognitions Questionnaire (Brief Version). Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) differentiated between typical (n = 75) and atypical (n = 44) anorexia nervosa. Multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted. Metacognitive profiles were similar in both typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and confirmed as more dysfunctional than in the non-clinical group. Drive for thinness was concurrently predicted in the typical patients by the metacognitive factors, positive beliefs about worry, and need to control thoughts; in the atypical patients by negative beliefs about worry and, inversely, by cognitive self-consciousness, and in the non-clinical group by cognitive self-consciousness. Despite having a healthier weight, the atypical group was as severely affected by dysfunctional metacognitions and drive for thinness as the typical group. Because metacognition concurrently predicted drive for thinness

  20. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression during immunisation trial against Fasciola hepatica: identification of genes and pathways involved in conferring immunoprotection in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin Andrés; Vicente, Belén; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Del Olmo, Esther; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Muro, Antonio

    2017-01-23

    Fasciolosis remains a significant food-borne trematode disease causing high morbidity around the world and affecting grazing animals and humans. A deeper understanding concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Fasciola hepatica infection occurs, as well as the molecular basis involved in acquiring protection is extremely important when designing and selecting new vaccine candidates. The present study provides a first report of microarray-based technology for describing changes in the splenic gene expression profile for mice immunised with a highly effective, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, subunit-based, chemically-synthesised vaccine candidate against F. hepatica. The mice were immunised with synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitopes, which are derived from F. hepatica cathepsin B and amoebapore proteins, as novel vaccine candidates against F. hepatica formulated in an adjuvant adaptation vaccination system; they were experimentally challenged with F. hepatica metacercariae. Spleen RNA from mice immunised with the highest protection-inducing synthetic peptides was isolated, amplified and labelled using Affymetrix standardised protocols. Data was then background corrected, normalised and the expression signal was calculated. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool was then used for analysing differentially expressed gene identifiers for annotating bio-functions and constructing and visualising molecular interaction networks. Mice immunised with a combination of three peptides containing T-cell epitopes induced high protection against experimental challenge according to survival rates and hepatic damage scores. It also induced differential expression of 820 genes, 168 genes being up-regulated and 652 genes being down-regulated, p value <0.05, fold change ranging from -2.944 to 7.632. A functional study of these genes revealed changes in the pathways related to nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production, Interleukin-12 signalling and production

  1. Temporomandibular Joint Involvement in Psoriatic Arthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PA, 50 mg of diclofenac sodium 3 times daily was prescribed to patient, and used for one month at the same time with occlusal splint therapy. Occlusal splint was ... is multifactorial and results in an autoimmune mechanism with inflammatory and destructive features. The joint involvements are typically asymmetrical and ...

  2. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  3. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lyme disease: A case report with typical and atypical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the spirochete “Borrelia burgdorferi,” which is transmitted by “Ixodes” tick, with skin being the most common and earliest organ to be affected. Diagnosis of erythema chronicum migrans (ECM, which is the characteristic lesion of early disease, may help in early treatment and prevention of complications. Here, we are reporting a case of Lyme disease in a 10-year-old young boy from a non-endemic zone of Himachal Pradesh, who presented with typical as well as atypical ECM lesions. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed serologically, and the child was treated successfully with doxycycline.

  5. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  6. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  7. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  8. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  9. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  10. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  11. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  12. TYPICAL LEISHMANIOSIS IN A DOG REGULARLY VACCINATED WITH CANILEISH®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gavazza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vaccine Canileish® is distributed in Europe to reduce the risk of developing an active infection and clinical leishmaniosis. An English Setter dog vaccinated with Canileish® and treated with anti-feeding and repellent medications showed typical clinical signs of leishmaniosis. The dog was presented with dysorexia, weight loss, fever and forelimb lameness. The physical exam revealed moderate generalized external lymph node enlargement, sero-purulent ocular discharge, photophobia, and swollen and painful right carpal joint. Clinico-pathological findings revealed moderate microcytic-hypochromic non-regenerative anemia, mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, hematuria and mild elevation of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, polyclonal peak in the gamma globulins, Leishmania spp. amastigotes in lymph nodes and bone marrow, and immunofluorescence antibody titer (IFAT of 1:5120. The successful treatment included meglumine antimonate and allopurinol for 40 days, and metronidazole-spyramicin for 24 days. The dog was monitored up to 9 months and normalization of most hemato-biochemical abnormalities was achieved. The bone marrow qPCR for Leishmania infantum was negative, while IFAT was 1:160. Despite the systematic leishmaniosis prevention, the typical clinical disease can occur.

  13. Quantitative Drought Monitoring in a Typical Cold River Basin over Tibetan Plateau: an integration of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Makokha, Godfrey

    2017-04-01

    We have introduced a Rainfall, Snow and Glacier melt (RSG) standardized anomaly (SA) index to reflect water availability in cold river basins by taking into account snow and glacier melt that influence seasonal water availability. The study takes advantage of a high-resolution Water and Energy Budget-Based Hydrological Distributed Model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) at a grid size of 5 km to quantify hydrological regimes in a typical cold river basin in the Tibetan Plateau (Lhasa River basin as a demonstration site) from 1983 to 2012. Standardized anomaly index was utilized as drought Indicator whereby each meteo-hydrological parameter involved in drought quantification was fitted to a distribution pattern on a monthly basis. Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion were used as selection criteria. Drought indices were computed from the model inputs and outputs, which included RSG for meteorological drought, soil moisture (surface and root-zone) for agricultural drought and discharge and groundwater level for hydrological drought. From spatial and temporal analyses, drought occurred in 1984, 1988, 1995, 1997, 2009 and 2010, with the highest severity in August, September, July, August, June and June, respectively. This study addresses the glacierized cold river basin's dryness by considering the contribution of snow and glacier in drought quantification, an integration of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological was performed to highlight drought hotspots in the Lhasa River Basin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first drought study in Lhasa River Basin.

  14. A Hybrid Method for Generation of Typical Meteorological Years for Different Climates of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since a representative dataset of the climatological features of a location is important for calculations relating to many fields, such as solar energy system, agriculture, meteorology and architecture, there is a need to investigate the methodology for generating a typical meteorological year (TMY. In this paper, a hybrid method with mixed treatment of selected results from the Danish method, the Festa-Ratto method, and the modified typical meteorological year method is proposed to determine typical meteorological years for 35 locations in six different climatic zones of China (Tropical Zone, Subtropical Zone, Warm Temperate Zone, Mid Temperate Zone, Cold Temperate Zone and Tibetan Plateau Zone. Measured weather data (air dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed, pressure, sunshine duration and global solar radiation, which cover the period of 1994–2015, are obtained and applied in the process of forming TMY. The TMY data and typical solar radiation data are investigated and analyzed in this study. It is found that the results of the hybrid method have better performance in terms of the long-term average measured data during the year than the other investigated methods. Moreover, the Gaussian process regression (GPR model is recommended to forecast the monthly mean solar radiation using the last 22 years (1994–2015 of measured data.

  15. Cognitive and emotional empathy in typical and impaired readers and its relationship to reading competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Goldfarb, Liat

    2016-12-01

    Studies indicate a strong relationship between empathy and language skills, but the relationship between reading and empathy remains elusive, although a shared neural substrate (the temporoparietal junction; TPJ) has been implicated in both reading and empathy. Motivated by these observations, the purpose of the current study was to examine empathic skills in a large spectrum of reading abilities, including typical readers and individuals with dyslexia, and their relationship to reading competence. We administered the Intrapersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) test, which differentiates between two subscales of empathy (cognitive and emotional empathy), to a group of participants with dyslexia and typical readers. Results indicate that the general reading score (average z scores of all reading tests) was significantly positively correlated with empathic scores. In addition, tests of specific reading abilities-decoding, reading fluency, and reading-related measures of phonological awareness-were significantly positively correlated with empathic scores. Finally, participants with dyslexia who showed low reading abilities had significantly lower scores in total empathy and cognitive empathy, as measured by the IRI test, than did typical participants with high reading abilities. Taken together, these results indicate a strong association between reading-related skills and empathic abilities and may point to involvement of the TPJ in both empathy and reading.

  16. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  17. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  18. Validation of Rheological Models of Typical Structures : an Attempt to Work Out an Insurance-Quality Procedure Validation des modèles rhéologiques sur ouvrages types : une tentative de démarche d'assurance-qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimon Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For four years now, a validation of models for typical structuresgroup has been constituted inside the GRECO group on Rheology of Geomaterialssponsored by CNRS (French National Research Council. It has been working on the development of a methodology for validating rheological models of geomaterials. The aim was to reduce the gap between the theory and the practice of geomechanical computing. In a first step, the group work has been applied to shallow fondations. A complete validation process, which can be understood as an insurance-quality procedure, has been worked out, ranging from validation on the basis of homogeneous laboratory tests to validation based on boundary problems. Partial computerization of validation has been achieved with the help of a suitable software environment. A databank of laboratory and centrifuge tests has been created. An attempt has been made to define qualification criteria for models. Numerous rheological models have been applied, including some relatively sophisticated ones. This work has reached the point where the generalization of the procedure can been foreseen within the wider setting of the validation of geomechanical programs. Les travaux de validation Durant quatre ans (1986-1989, le groupe Validation des Modèles sur Ouvrages Typesdu GRECO CNRS Rhéologie des Géomatériaux , s'est efforcé de développer une méthodologie de validation des modèles rhéologiques de géomatériaux dans le but de réduire le décalage entre théorie et pratique des calculs en géomécanique, en appuyant son travail sur l'ouvrage type fondation superficielleet sur une collaboration étroite entre des équipes universitaires et des centres techniques et industriels. Les principaux travaux du groupe, constitué, d'une part de laboratoires universitaires français ou européen (École Centrale de Lyon (ECL, École Centrale de Paris (ECP, École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, Institut de Mécanique de

  19. Aquifer characteristics and groundwater recharge pattern in a typical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    A geophysical survey involving thirty four vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out at Federal. College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, ... This study presents the use of electrical resistivity method in the delineation of ... makes for susceptibility to surface contaminants; and (iii) the low storage capacity of fractured ...

  20. On the nature of a 'typical' pulsars radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazbegi, A.Z.; Machabeli, G.Z.; Melikdze, G.I.; Usov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of the excitation of electromagnetic (t) as well as of longitudinal-transverse (lt) waves in the magnetosphere of a 'typical' pulsar is discussed. Two mechanisms of the t-waves excitation excist. Th first mechanism is connected with the cyclotron resonance between t-waves and high-energy particles of the both: the 'tail' of the distribution function and the primary beam. Th second mechanism is conditiond by the particles drift motion and needs to safety a Cherenkov resonance condition. Due to the second mechamism the lt-waves excitation is olso possible. The waves excited due to the cyclotron instability cause the diffusion of particles across the magnetic field. For the sufficiently large pitch angles the aditional possibility of t-waves excitation appears. (author). 25 refs

  1. Typical conservation problems of polychrome wooden sculptures in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovene ethnic territory lies at the contact of Italian and German cultural influences, which can also be traced in gilded works of art. The majority of wooden Gothic art heritage has been lost for good, but a great number of wooden "golden altars" from the 17th century and large 18th century baroque altarpieces with outstanding sculptures survive. Conservators-restorers face great problems resulting from repeated restoration interventions of a great deal of these works of art. The paper describes a recent treatment undertaken at the National Gallery of Slovenia of an 18th century water gilded sculpture from no more existing altar, which was subsequently and typically overpainted several times. The case study is used to illustrate the problems encountered in overpaint removal from gilded areas.

  2. Typical and atypical radiological manifestations of renal oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaldez, P.; Iriborreu, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. L.; Martinez-Moya, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, S.

    2001-01-01

    Asses the Radiologic findings [ conventional X-ray, intravenous urography (IU), ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) ] of the renal oncocytomas and determine if there are characteristics that allow us to differentiate them from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed a retrospective study of eight patients diagnosed of renal oncocytoma, analyzing the characteristics found in the plain radiography and IVU, ultrasonography and CT without and with i. v. contrast. The masses were well defined in seven cases and poorly defined in one, and were homogeneous on four occasions and heterogeneous on two. The remaining two were homogeneous, except for the presence of a central scar. Two lesions showed and aggressive biological behavior, coinciding with signs suggestive of malignancy from the radiological point of view. The fibrous scar is a typical but infrequent findings in renal oncocytoma that we can only detect by CT. It is not possible to differentiate it from aggressive lesions with imaging techniques, although orientative findings exist. (Author) 17 refs

  3. Typical and atypical clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex, systemic inflammatory disorder associated with a variety of clinical features. The original criteria of Hanifin and Rajka include major criteria and a list of about two dozen minor criteria however, even the minor criteria do not include some features of atopic dermatitis noted less commonly but still seen with some frequency. This contribution first reviews the common clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis in infancy, childhood, and adulthood, as well as the less typical appearances, including lichenoid atopic dermatitis; juvenile plantar dermatosis; nummular-type atopic dermatitis; follicular atopic dermatitis; alopecia of atopic dermatitis; eczema coxsackium; and psoriasiform, perineal, and lip licker's dermatitis. The clinician will be able to recognize and treat rarer forms of atopic dermatitis and incorporate this into their daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  5. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  6. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T Hiller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a conditioned place preference, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with conditioned place preference was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, indicating that conditioned place preference can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  7. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  8. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  10. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  11. Typical external skull beveling wound unlinked with a gunshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Y; Colard, T; Becart, A; Tournel, G; Gosset, D; Hedouin, V

    2013-03-10

    Lesions of the cranial vault resulting from firearms are traditionally described in forensic medical literature with many reports illustrating atypical bone lesions carried out to the skull by gunshot wounds. The authors present this report which illustrates an external beveled skull wound, associated with internal beveling damage, caused by a stabbing injury. A partially buried human skeleton was found in a forest. The examining of the skull revealed a hole resembling the exit wound caused by a bullet and two other smaller stab wounds. No typical entering bullet wound and no other bone lesions were found. During the course of the investigation, one of the perpetrators admitted to hitting the victim, using a sickle, and to hiding the body. For this purpose, he dragged the corpse with the sickle still implanted in the skull, using it as a hook. Upon retrieving the sickle, a piece of cranial vault was removed, thus creating an external beveled wound. In order to identify the mechanism which brought about this kind of lesion, experimental work was carried out on a human skull. In this particular case, the tip of the sickle penetrated into the bone, creating a lesion that would typically be produced with a stabbing instrument when applied with vertical force. When the body was dragged, using the sickle as a hook, this was a hand-produced vertical force, which was applied in the opposite direction. It caused the tearing of a piece of bone and the creation of an outer bevel. This atypical lesion should be made known to medical examiners and pathologists in order to help investigating and understanding of the circumstances of injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disruption of conditioned reward association by typical and atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, C L; Elmer, G I

    2010-07-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward-predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100microg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3-30microg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward-predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward-predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  13. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    Patient involvement has become a part of the political agenda in Danish healthcare. Patients are to be involved not only in questions and decisions relating to their own treatment and care – to involve patients in quality improvement has also become a political expectation of quality work in Danish...... hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...

  14. Do we know the actual magnetopause position for typical solar wind conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. A.; Gordeev, E.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Å afránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Å imůnek, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tóth, G.; Merkin, V. G.; Raeder, J.

    2016-07-01

    We compare predicted magnetopause positions at the subsolar point and four reference points in the terminator plane obtained from several empirical and numerical MHD models. Empirical models using various sets of magnetopause crossings and making different assumptions about the magnetopause shape predict significantly different magnetopause positions (with a scatter >1 RE) even at the subsolar point. Axisymmetric magnetopause models cannot reproduce the cusp indentations or the changes related to the dipole tilt effect, and most of them predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than nonaxisymmetric models for typical solar wind conditions and zero tilt angle. Predictions of two global nonaxisymmetric models do not match each other, and the models need additional verification. MHD models often predict the magnetopause closer to the Earth than the nonaxisymmetric empirical models, but the predictions of MHD simulations may need corrections for the ring current effect and decreases of the solar wind pressure that occur in the foreshock. Comparing MHD models in which the ring current magnetic field is taken into account with the empirical Lin et al. model, we find that the differences in the reference point positions predicted by these models are relatively small for Bz=0. Therefore, we assume that these predictions indicate the actual magnetopause position, but future investigations are still needed.

  15. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    This report is part of the work performed under the project “Natural cooling and Ventilation through Diffuse Ceiling Supply and Thermally Activated Building Constructions”. In this project, a new system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated...... the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom......, and find the potential of energy saving for the proposed new system solution. In this report, a typical room is selected according to the previous study, but the occupation is different for the purpose of the office and the classroom. Energy performance of these two types of room under different internal...

  16. Learning Styles of Typical Readers and Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Vlachos, Filippos

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between learning styles and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic (VAK) learning styles model. According to the VAK model, most people possess a dominant or preferred learning style, however some people have a mixed and evenly balanced blend of the three styles. Our…

  17. Gender Gap in the National College Entrance Exam Performance in China: A Case Study of a Typical Chinese Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to investigate gender achievement gap in the National College Entrance Exam in a typical municipality in China, which is the crucial examination for the transition from high school to higher education in that country. Using ordinary least square model and quantile regression model, the study consistently finds that…

  18. Directional waves simulated for a severe cyclone and a typical monsoon season in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sudheesh, K.

    A second generation wave model has been used to simulate waves generated in the north Indian Ocean during (1) an exceptional severe cyclone which occurred in November 1977 and (2) a typical monsoon month of July 1987. The model has been formulated...

  19. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  20. Typical and unusual findings in MR mammography - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, U.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, MR mammography has gained increasing importance in breast diagnostics. The main advantage of this technique is its high sensitivity for invasive breast cancer. The two main indications for MR mammography are preoperative staging of breast cancer and the differentiation between postoperative changes and recurrent tumor. In addition, MR mammography is increasingly used for problem solving in cases of questionable clinical, mammographic or sonographic findings. At this it is important to know not only the different manifestations of breast cancer, but also important benign and malignant diagnostic alternatives. Furthermore, it is necessary to be familiar with therapy-related changes. The most important criterion to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions in MR mammography is the extent and temporal course of contrast enhancement. In addition, the lesion morphology and the signal intensity on T 2 -weighted images can be used to distinguish between different disease entities. The following review article will discuss typical and unusual findings in breast MRI, including rare entities as well as changes after breast conserving therapy and chemotherapy. (orig.) [de

  1. Facial affect recognition in autism, ADHD and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Steve; Engström, Ann-Charlotte; Bölte, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been associated with facial affect recognition (FAR) alterations. This study examined accuracy and response times for general and specific FAR in whole face and eye-region stimuli. FAR was assessed in matched samples of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 35), ADHD (n = 32), and typical development (TD) (n = 32) aged 8.6-15.9 years (M = 11.6; SD = 2.0). Compared to TD, the ASD group performed less accurate and showed longer response times for general and specific FAR, mostly driven by problems in neutral and happy face identification. The ADHD group responded faster than the ASD group for global FAR. No differences between ADHD and TD were found. Attentional distractibility had a significant effect on FAR performance in ASD and ADHD. Findings confirm FAR alterations in ASD, but not ADHD, and endorse effects of attentional distractibility on FAR in ASD and ADHD. FAR and attention function training is clinically meaningful in ASD. Future studies should include control for visual attention and facial configuration skills, use naturalistic FAR material and also investigate implicit FAR.

  2. Development of Visuospatial Attention in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickx, Gaétan; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Hatem, Samar M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the development of visuospatial attention in typically developing children and to propose reference values for children for the following six visuospatial attention tests: star cancellation, Ogden figure, reading test, line bisection, proprioceptive pointing and visuo-proprioceptive pointing. Data of 159 children attending primary or secondary school in the Fédération Wallonie Bruxelles (Belgium) were analyzed. Results showed that the children's performance on star cancellation, Ogden figure and reading test improved until the age of 13 years, whereas their performance on proprioceptive pointing, visuo-proprioceptive pointing and line bisection was stable with increasing age. These results suggest that the execution of different types of visuospatial attention tasks are not following the same developmental trajectories. This dissociation is strengthened by the lack of correlation observed between tests assessing egocentric and allocentric visuospatial attention, except for the star cancellation test (egocentric) and the Ogden figure copy (ego- and allocentric). Reference values are proposed that may be useful to examine children with clinical disorders of visuospatial attention.

  3. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  4. 3D Multi-segment foot kinematics in children: A developmental study in typically developing boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Christel; Hermans, Cedric; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between age and 3D rotations objectivized with multisegment foot models has not been quantified until now. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between age and multi-segment foot kinematics in a cross-sectional database. Barefoot multi-segment foot kinematics of thirty two typically developing boys, aged 6-20 years, were captured with the Rizzoli Multi-segment Foot Model. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping linear regression was used to examine the relationship between age and 3D inter-segment rotations of the dominant leg during the full gait cycle. Age was significantly correlated with sagittal plane kinematics of the midfoot and the calcaneus-metatarsus inter-segment angle (pplane kinematics of the calcaneus-metatarsus angle (pfoot models, however, the current study highlights that this is of particular relevance for foot models which incorporate a separate midfoot segment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential striatal levels of TNF-alpha, NFkappaB p65 subunit and dopamine with chronic typical and atypical neuroleptic treatment: role in orofacial dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Mahendra; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K

    2008-08-01

    Long term use of typical neuroleptics such as haloperidol may be limited by unwanted motor side effects like tardive dyskinesia characterized by repetitive involuntary movements, involving the mouth, face and trunk. Atypical neuroleptics, such as clozapine and risperidone are devoid of these side effects. However the precise mechanisms of the neuronal toxicity induced by haloperidol are poorly understood. It is possible that typical and atypical antipsychotic differently affects neuronal survival and death and that these effects considerably contribute to the differences in the development of TD. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of TNF-alpha and NFkappaB on the toxicity induced by chronic haloperidol administration in an animal model of tardive dyskinesia. Rats were treated for 21 days with: haloperidol (5 mg/kg), clozapine (5 and 10 mg/kg), risperidone (5 mg/kg) or saline. Orofacial dyskinetic movements and total locomotor activity was evaluated. Striatal levels of dopamine were measure by HPLC/ED whereas striatal levels of TNF-alpha and NFkappaB p65 subunit were measured by ELISA technique. Haloperidol increased orofacial dyskinetic movements and total locomotor activity (on day 22) (PClozapine and risperidone also increased the orofacial dyskinetic movements but that significantly less than haloperidol (Pclozapine and risperidone did not. Haloperidol but not clozapine and risperidone significantly increased the levels of TNF-alpha and NFkappaB p65 subunit (Pdyskinesia in rats, an animal model for human tardive dyskinesia.

  6. Thermal comfort optimisation of vernacular rural buildings: passive solutions to retrofit a typical farmhouse in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Menconi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An adequate retrofitting of traditional rural buildings requires to preserve their formal characteristics and to understand the constructive elements that compose them and which are different in different geographical areas. This paper analyses the typical farmhouses in central Italy. Starting from the definition of a vernacular building model, the paper analyses its performance in terms of thermal comfort and energy efficiency. The methodology involves the use of energy dynamic simulations coupled with optimisation techniques aimed to identify the best combinations of insulating materials in terms of choice of material and its optimal location in the envelope. The paper demonstrates the good thermal and energy performance of farmhouses in central Italy. The results of the optimisation process showed that in these buildings, with the addition of insulation materials with low conductivity the perceived discomfort in the inhabited areas of the building can be reduced by 79% and the energy consumption related to heating can be reduced by 77%. The level of insulation of the pavement that separates the ground and first floor needs to be more moderate to promote the heat flow between floors during summer. The sensitivity analysis shows that the most influential component for thermal comfort is the roof insulation.

  7. Meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules as an alternative to improve memory decline in an Alzheimer's disease model in mice: involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiski, Francine R; Alves, Catiane B; Ferreira, Carla F; Rech, Virginia C; Savegnago, Lucielli; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Luchese, Cristiane

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules (M-NC) on the treatment of the memory impairment induced by amyloid β-peptide (aβ) in mice. The involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was also evaluated. Mice received aβ (3 nmol/ 3 μl/ per site, intracerebroventricular) or vehicle (3 μl/ per site, i.c.v.). The next day, the animals were treated with blank nanocapsules (17 mL/kg) or M-NC (5 mg/kg) or free meloxicam (M-F) (5 mg/kg). Treatments were performed every other day, until the twelfth day. Animals were submitted to the behavioral tasks (open-field, object recognition, Y-maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks) from the twelfth day. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and COX-2 activities were performed in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. aβ caused a memory deficit, an inhibition of the hippocampal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and an increase in the hippocampal COX-2 activity. M-NC were effective against all behavioral and biochemical alterations, while M-F restored only the COX-2 activity. In conclusion, M-NC were able to reverse the memory impairment induced by aβ, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is involved in the effect of M-NC.

  8. A standardized fold change method for microarray differential expression analysis used to reveal genes involved in acute rejection in murine allograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weichen; Wang, Yi; Fujino, Masayuki; Shi, Leming; Jin, Li; Li, Xiao-Kang; Wang, Jiucun

    2018-03-01

    Murine transplantation models are used extensively to research immunological rejection and tolerance. Here we studied both murine heart and liver allograft models using microarray technology. We had difficulty in identifying genes related to acute rejections expressed in both heart and liver transplantation models using two standard methodologies: Student's t test and linear models for microarray data (Limma). Here we describe a new method, standardized fold change (SFC), for differential analysis of microarray data. We estimated the performance of SFC, the t test and Limma by generating simulated microarray data 100 times. SFC performed better than the t test and showed a higher sensitivity than Limma where there is a larger value for fold change of expression. SFC gave better reproducibility than Limma and the t test with real experimental data from the MicroArray Quality Control platform and expression data from a mouse cardiac allograft. Eventually, a group of significant overlapping genes was detected by SFC in the expression data of mouse cardiac and hepatic allografts and further validated with the quantitative RT-PCR assay. The group included genes for important reactions of transplantation rejection and revealed functional changes of the immune system in both heart and liver of the mouse model. We suggest that SFC can be utilized to stably and effectively detect differential gene expression and to explore microarray data in further studies.

  9. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  10. The development of prospective memory in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-xiao; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to use specifically designed tasks to capture time-based, activity-based, and event-based prospective memory (PM) performance in typically developing school-age children. Two PM tasks (Fishing Game & Happy Week) were used to examine the developmental patterns of PM in these children. Retrospective memory (RM) was also examined in these tasks. A total of 120 children aged between 7 and 12 years (10 girls and 10 boys in each age band) were recruited. Tests of working memory, inhibition, and IQ were also administered. The age effect on PM accuracy was significant, with improvements identified between ages 7 to 8 and 10 to 11 years. For both tasks, performance on the time-based PM task was significantly poorer than that on the event-based PM task, which in turn was significantly poorer than that on the activity-based PM task. In terms of errors, results indicated that while errors associated with the PM component of the tasks decreased with age, errors associated with the RM component showed an inverted-U shape. The different patterns of errors suggest qualitative as well as quantitative differences in PM development in children. Finally, IQ, working memory, and inhibition were found to relate to PM when age was partialed out. Results of the study highlight the importance of contextual cues, such as activities and events, for prospective remembering in children. In addition, they have provided a general picture of PM development in school-age children and have implications for educators and parents.

  11. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  12. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7typical mass and SFR are linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  14. Optimal replenishment and credit policy in supply chain inventory model under two levels of trade credit with time- and credit-sensitive demand involving default risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Puspita; Mahata, Gour Chandra; Kumar De, Sujit

    2018-03-01

    Traditional supply chain inventory modes with trade credit usually only assumed that the up-stream suppliers offered the down-stream retailers a fixed credit period. However, in practice the retailers will also provide a credit period to customers to promote the market competition. In this paper, we formulate an optimal supply chain inventory model under two levels of trade credit policy with default risk consideration. Here, the demand is assumed to be credit-sensitive and increasing function of time. The major objective is to determine the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time such that the total profit per unit time is maximized. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution to the presented model are examined, and an easy method is also shown to find the optimal inventory policies of the considered problem. Finally, numerical examples and sensitive analysis are presented to illustrate the developed model and to provide some managerial insights.

  15. Childhood apraxia of speech: A survey of praxis and typical speech characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmenholt, Ann; Lohmander, Anette; McAllister, Anita

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current knowledge of the diagnosis childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) in Sweden and compare speech characteristics and symptoms to those of earlier survey findings in mainly English-speakers. In a web-based questionnaire 178 Swedish speech-language pathologists (SLPs) anonymously answered questions about their perception of typical speech characteristics for CAS. They graded own assessment skills and estimated clinical occurrence. The seven top speech characteristics reported as typical for children with CAS were: inconsistent speech production (85%), sequencing difficulties (71%), oro-motor deficits (63%), vowel errors (62%), voicing errors (61%), consonant cluster deletions (54%), and prosodic disturbance (53%). Motor-programming deficits described as lack of automatization of speech movements were perceived by 82%. All listed characteristics were consistent with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) consensus-based features, Strand's 10-point checklist, and the diagnostic model proposed by Ozanne. The mode for clinical occurrence was 5%. Number of suspected cases of CAS in the clinical caseload was approximately one new patient/year and SLP. The results support and add to findings from studies of CAS in English-speaking children with similar speech characteristics regarded as typical. Possibly, these findings could contribute to cross-linguistic consensus on CAS characteristics.

  16. Caregiver burden and sibling relationships in families raising children with disabilities and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Allred, Diane W; Mandleco, Barbara; Freeborn, Donna; Dyches, Tina

    2014-06-01

    Using family systems theory as a theoretical framework, we investigated direct and indirect associations between type of disability, caregiver burden, and sibling relationships with structural equation modeling. We recruited 172 families raising typically developing children or a child with a disability. Participants volunteered at meetings and workshops for families of children with disabilities and were also recruited through snowball sampling. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-report questionnaires on caregiver burden and perceptions of the sibling relationship. Mothers experienced higher levels of caregiver burden than fathers. Parents of children with autism reported higher levels of caregiver burden than parents of typically developing children. Mothers of children with Down syndrome and multiple disabilities reported more positive sibling relationships than mothers of typically developing children. Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of caregiver burden were negatively related to their perceptions of the sibling relationship. Caregiver burden mediated the relationship between having a child with autism and positive sibling relationships. Results indicate the benefits of using a systems framework in examining families raising children with disabilities. Future research should focus on interventions for families of children with disabilities that help alleviate parental burden and foster positive sibling relationships.

  17. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  18. MyD88-dependent immunity to a natural model of vaccinia virus infection does not involve Toll-like receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael L; Sei, Janet J; Siciliano, Nicholas A; Xu, Ren-Huan; Roscoe, Felicia; Sigal, Luis J; Eisenlohr, Laurence C; Norbury, Christopher C

    2014-03-01

    Although the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is typically thought to recognize bacterial components, it has been described to alter the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity to a number of viruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV). However, many pathogens that reportedly encode TLR2 agonists may actually be artifactually contaminated during preparation, possibly with cellular debris or merely with molecules that sensitize cells to be activated by authentic TLR2 agonists. In both humans and mice, the most relevant natural route of infection with VACV is through intradermal infection of the skin. Therefore, we examined the requirement for TLR2 and its signaling adaptor MyD88 in protective immunity to VACV after intradermal infection. We find that although TLR2 may recognize virus preparations in vitro and have a minor role in preventing dissemination of VACV following systemic infection with large doses of virus, it is wholly disposable in both control of virus replication and induction of adaptive immunity following intradermal infection. In contrast, MyD88 is required for efficient induction of CD4 T cell and B cell responses and for local control of virus replication following intradermal infection. However, even MyD88 is not required to induce local inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, or recruitment of cells that restrict virus from spreading systemically after peripheral infection. Thus, an effective antiviral response does require MyD88, but TLR2 is not required for control of a peripheral VACV infection. These findings emphasize the importance of studying relevant routes of infection when examining innate sensing mechanisms. Vaccinia virus (VACV) provides the backbone for some of the most widely used and successful viral vaccine vectors and is also related to the human pathogens Cantagalo virus and molluscum contagiosum virus that infect the skin of patients. Therefore, it is vital to understand the mechanisms that

  19. Iron in typical and atypical parkinsonism – Mössbauer spectroscopy and MRI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliński, R. [Bródno Hospital, MRI Lab (Poland); Bauminger, E. R. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics (Israel); Friedman, A. [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Neurology (Poland); Duda, P.; Gałązka-Friedman, J., E-mail: jgfrie@if.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Iron may play important role in neurodegeneration. The results of comparative studies of human brain areas (control and pathological) performed by Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy demonstrated a higher concentration of iron in atypical parkinsonism (progressive supranuclear palsy PSP) in the brain areas Substantia Nigra (SN) and Globus Pallidus (GP) involved in this pathological process, compared to control, while the concentration of iron in pathological tissues in typical parkinsonism (Parkinson’s disease - PD) did not differ from that in control. These results were compared with the changes in 1/T1 and 1/T2 (T1 and T2 being the relaxation times determined by MRI). A good linear correlation curve was found between the concentration of iron as determined by MS in different areas of control human brains and between 1/T1 and 1/T2. Whereas the finding in PSP-GP (the brain area involved in PSP) also fitted to such a correlation, this was not so for the correlation between pathological SN – the brain area involved in both diseases – and 1/T2, indicating a dependence of T2 on other factors than just the concentration of iron.

  20. The Application of the Stufflebeam Educational Decision-Making Model to the Evaluation of a Dental Team Training Program Involving Use of Paraprofessionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, John M.; Michael, William B.

    The results from application of Stufflebeam's comprehensive decision-making methodology--the context-input-process-product (CIPP) evaluation model--to the evaluation of a dental team training program with expanded functions of auxiliary personnel (paraprofessionals) at a school of dentistry are described. In view of the expectations of health care…

  1. The effect of childhood emotional maltreatment on romantic relationships in young adulthood: A double mediation model involving self-criticism and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassri, Dana; Luyten, Patrick; Cohen, Guina; Shahar, Golan

    2016-07-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) on the development of psychopathology, very few studies have addressed its impact on adult romantic relationship functioning, particularly among otherwise relatively well-functioning individuals. In an attempt to further elucidate the mechanism underlying the negative impact of CEM on romantic relationships, we tested an integrative mediational model linking CEM to romantic relationships through the impact of CEM on the development of self-criticism and adult attachment. Recent work in this context suggests that while self-criticism concerns broad cognitive-affective schemas related to achievement and failure, attachment avoidance assesses the expression of these broad schemas in close relationships (Luyten & Blatt, 2011; Sibley & Overall, 2008, 2010). This hypothesized mediational model was examined in a sample of young adult undergraduates (N = 99, 85 female), using structural equation modeling. The mediational model was in large part supported. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, fully accounted for the mediating role of self-criticism in the relationship between CEM and romantic relationship satisfaction, even when controlling for the potential role of concurrent levels of posttraumatic stress disorder severity. Understanding the long-term psychological dynamics related to CEM and identifying mediating vulnerability factors-self-criticism and attachment avoidance-might have implications for both the assessment and treatment of individuals with a history of CEM, particularly as effective interventions to address self-criticism and attachment issues are available. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Identification of a quinone dehydrogenase from a Bacillus sp. involved in the decolourization of the lignin-model dye, Azure B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandounas, L.; Pinkse, M.; Winde, J.H. de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the molecular background of the previously reported dye decolourization potential of Bacillus sp. LD003. Strain LD003 was previously isolated on Kraft lignin and was able to decolourize various lignin model dyes. Specifically Azure B (AB) was decolourized

  3. Preventive Effect of TU-100 on a Type-2 Model of Colitis in Mice: Possible Involvement of Enhancing Adrenomedullin in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kaneko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, have histopathologically and immunologically different characteristics. We previously reported that a traditional Japanese medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100, ameliorated a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced type-1 model colitis exhibiting histopathological features of CD through adrenomedullin (ADM enhancement. Our current aims were to examine whether TU-100 ameliorates a type-2 model colitis that histologically resembles UC and identify the active ingredients. Methods. TU-100 was administered orally to mice with oxazolone- (OXN- induced type-2 model colitis. The morbidity was evaluated by body weight loss and the macroscopic score of colonic lesions. ADM was quantified using an EIA kit. Results. TU-100 prevented weight loss and colon ulceration. ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was increased by TU-100 addition. Screening to identify active ingredients showed that [6]-shogaol and hydroxy α-sanshool enhanced ADM production. Conclusions. TU-100 exerted a protective effect in OXN-induced type-2 model colitis, indicating that TU-100 may be a beneficial agent for treatment of UC.

  4. Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Gerry

    Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

  5. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  6. Atypical and typical neuroleptic treatments induce distinct programs of transcription factor expression in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, N; Graybiel, A M

    1996-10-07

    Atypical and typical neuroleptics, when administered chronically, can bring about profound but contrasting changes in schizophrenic symptoms and motor activation and dramatically modulate brain neurochemistry. To explore the transcriptional events that might be involved in this neurochemical regulation, we used immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to examine the expression patterns of two bZip transcription factors, c-Fos and FosB, in the striatum of rats treated acutely and chronically with neuroleptic drugs of different classes. Typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs produced contrasting regulatory effects on a FosB-like protein of ca. 36-39 kDa, the molecular weight of truncated FosB (delta FosB). Chronic treatments with two typical neuroleptics, haloperidol and metoclopramide, but not with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine, led to markedly enhanced FosB-like immunoreactivity in the caudoputamen. Further, c-Fos-like protein in the striatum, considered a marker for the induction of antipsychotic actions by neuroleptic treatments, was downregulated by chronic treatment with the two potent antipsychotic drugs tested, but not by chronic treatment with metoclopramide, which has low antipsychotic efficacy but induces extrapyramidal side effects. These results suggest that chronic treatments with neuroleptics having different effects on cognitive and motor behavior induce different long-term changes in transcription factor expression in the striatum. Nevertheless, we found that neuroleptics of both classes regulated transcription factor expression in overlapping populations of striatal neurons expressing enkephalin or DARPP-32. Contrasting patterns of transcriptional regulation in these neurons may thus contribute to the distinct neurochemical and behavioral effects that characterize neuroleptics of different classes.

  7. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  8. Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 μg m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 μg m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 μg m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 μg m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 μg m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

  9. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  10. SARDAN- A program for the transients simulation in a typical PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos Santos, R.L.P. de.

    1979-10-01

    A program in FORTRAN-IV language was developed that simulates the behaviour of the primary circuit in a typical PWR plant during condition II transients, in particular uncontrolled withdrawal of a control rod set, control rod set drops and uncontrolled boron dilution. It the mathematical model adopted the reactor core, the hot piping to which a pressurizer is coupled, the steam generator and the cold piping are considered. The results obtained in the analysis of the mentioned accidents are compared to those present at the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the Angra-1 reactor and are considered satisfactory. (F.E.) [pt

  11. Typical Relaxation of Isolated Many-Body Systems Which Do Not Thermalize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Ben N.; Reimann, Peter

    2017-05-01

    We consider isolated many-body quantum systems which do not thermalize; i.e., expectation values approach an (approximately) steady longtime limit which disagrees with the microcanonical prediction of equilibrium statistical mechanics. A general analytical theory is worked out for the typical temporal relaxation behavior in such cases. The main prerequisites are initial conditions which appreciably populate many energy levels and do not give rise to significant spatial inhomogeneities on macroscopic scales. The theory explains very well the experimental and numerical findings in a trapped-ion quantum simulator exhibiting many-body localization, in ultracold atomic gases, and in integrable hard-core boson and X X Z models.

  12. Plume Characterization of a Typical South African Braai

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    (air-dried basis) was performed to obtain moisture (SANS. 5925:2007) .... with a TSI condensation particle counter (CPC) (model 3010, TSI .... Table 1 The chemical characterization of the briquettes and meat used during the braai experiments. Charcoal. Proximate analysis. %. Ultimate analysis. %. Inherent moisture. 5.40.

  13. Internal representation of hierarchical sequences involves the default network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Baxter P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The default network is a set of brain regions that exhibit a reduction in BOLD response during attention-demanding cognitive tasks, and distinctive patterns of functional connectivity that typically include anti-correlations with a fronto-parietal network involved in attention, working memory, and executive control. The function of the default network regions has been attributed to introspection, self-awareness, and theory of mind judgments, and some of its regions are involved in episodic memory processes. Results Using the method of psycho-physiological interactions, we studied the functional connectivity of several regions in a fronto-parietal network involved in a paired image discrimination task involving transitive inference. Some image pairs were derived from an implicit underlying sequence A>B>C>D>E, and some were independent (F>G, H>J, etc. Functional connectivity between the fronto-parietal regions and the default network regions depended on the presence of the underlying sequence relating the images. When subjects viewed learned and novel pairs from the sequence, connectivity between these two networks was higher than when subjects viewed learned and novel pairs from the independent sets. Conclusions These results suggest that default network regions were involved in maintaining the internal model that subserved discrimination of image pairs derived from the implicit sequence, and contributed to introspective access of an internal sequence model built during training. The default network may not be a unified entity with a specific function, but rather may interact with other functional networks in task-dependent ways.

  14. Putative role of ischemic postconditioning in a rat model of limb ischemia and reperfusion: involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. [Department of Anesthesiology, Shuyang People' s Hospital, JiangSu (China); Zhou, Y.T. [Department of General Surgery, Shuyang People' s Hospital, JiangSu (China); Chen, X.N. [Institute of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, LanZhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Zhu, A.X. [Department of Pharmacy, Shuyang People' s Hospital, JiangSu (China)

    2014-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is one of the most potent angiogenic growth factors. It improves angiogenesis and tissue perfusion in ischemic skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ischemic postconditioning is effective for salvaging ischemic skeletal muscle resulting from limb ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that the mechanism involves expression of HIF-1α. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=36 each): sham-operated (group S), hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (group IR), and ischemic postconditioning (group IPO). Each group was divided into subgroups (n=6) according to reperfusion time: immediate (0 h, T{sub 0}), 1 h (T{sub 1}), 3 h (T{sub 3}), 6 h (T{sub 6}), 12 h (T{sub 12}), and 24 h (T{sub 24}). In the IPO group, three cycles of 30-s reperfusion and 30-s femoral aortic reocclusion were carried out before reperfusion. At all reperfusion times (T{sub 0}-T{sub 24}), serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations, were measured in rats after they were killed. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess the skeletal muscle damage and HIF-1α expression in skeletal muscle ischemia. In groups IR and IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were all significantly increased compared to group S, and HIF-1α expression was up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In group IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were significantly decreased, IL-10 concentration was increased, HlF-1α expression was down-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the pathological changes were reduced compared to group IR. The present study suggests that ischemic postconditioning can reduce skeletal muscle damage caused by limb ischemia-reperfusion and that its mechanisms may be related to the involvement of HlF-1α in the limb ischemia-reperfusion injury

  15. Putative role of ischemic postconditioning in a rat model of limb ischemia and reperfusion: involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α is one of the most potent angiogenic growth factors. It improves angiogenesis and tissue perfusion in ischemic skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ischemic postconditioning is effective for salvaging ischemic skeletal muscle resulting from limb ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that the mechanism involves expression of HIF-1α. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=36 each: sham-operated (group S, hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (group IR, and ischemic postconditioning (group IPO. Each group was divided into subgroups (n=6 according to reperfusion time: immediate (0 h, T0, 1 h (T1, 3 h (T3, 6 h (T6, 12 h (T12, and 24 h (T24. In the IPO group, three cycles of 30-s reperfusion and 30-s femoral aortic reocclusion were carried out before reperfusion. At all reperfusion times (T0-T24, serum creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, as well as interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations, were measured in rats after they were killed. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess the skeletal muscle damage and HIF-1α expression in skeletal muscle ischemia. In groups IR and IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were all significantly increased compared to group S, and HIF-1α expression was up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01. In group IPO, serum LDH and CK activities and TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were significantly decreased, IL-10 concentration was increased, HlF-1α expression was down-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01, and the pathological changes were reduced compared to group IR. The present study suggests that ischemic postconditioning can reduce skeletal muscle damage caused by limb ischemia-reperfusion and that its mechanisms may be related to the involvement of HlF-1α in the limb ischemia-reperfusion injury-triggered inflammatory response.

  16. Involvement of oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activation in the development of cardiovascular complications in a model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbosc, Sandrine; Paizanis, Eleni; Magous, Richard; Araiz, Caroline; Dimo, Théophile; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cros, Gerard; Azay, Jacqueline

    2005-03-01

    Growing evidences suggest a role of oxidative stress in hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. The fructose (60%)-fed rat represents a model of metabolic syndrome, associating insulin resistance and high blood pressure. In this model, hypertension, cardiac and vessels hypertrophy and markers of oxidative stress were determined. In addition, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated at different times after the initiation of fructose-enriched diet in aorta, heart and polymorphonuclear cells. High fructose feeding was associated with an early (1-week) increase in ROS production by aorta, heart and circulatory polymorphonuclear cells, in association with enhanced markers of oxidative stress. Vascular and cardiac hypertrophy was also rapidly observed, while the rise in blood pressure was significant only after 3 weeks. In summary, our study suggests that the production of reactive oxygen species can be a key-event in the initiation and development of cardiovascular complications associated with insulin resistance.

  17. Diffusion properties of major white matter tracts in young, typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan T; Yeatman, Jason D; Wandell, Brian A; Buonocore, Michael H; Amaral, David G; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2014-03-01

    Brain development occurs rapidly during the first few years of life involving region-specific changes in both gray matter and white matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in acquiring magnetic resonance imaging data in young children, little is known about the properties of white matter in typically developing toddlers. In the context of an ongoing study of young children with autism spectrum disorder, we collected diffusion-weighted imaging data during natural nocturnal sleep in a sample of young (mean age=35months) typically developing male and female (n=41 and 25, respectively) children. Axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured at 99 points along the length of 18 major brain tracts. Influences of hemisphere, age, sex, and handedness were examined. We find that diffusion properties vary significantly along the length of the majority of tracks. We also identify hemispheric and sex differences in diffusion properties in several tracts. Finally, we find the relationship between age and diffusion parameters changes along the tract length illustrating variability in age-related white-matter development at the tract level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylissa M. Slane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G and rs53576(G/G confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  19. Neuropsychological stimulation of executive functions in children with typical development: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira; Dias, Natália; Senger, Joana; Colling, Ana Paula Cervi; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to characterize empirical studies on neuropsychological interventions to stimulate executive functions in children with typical development. Searches were conducted according to the PRISMA method. Nineteen (19) studies on the analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in pre-school and school children were obtained. There was a predominance of studies that used computerized cognitive training, most of them involving the stimulation of working memory. Others used pen and paper forms, or hybrid tasks, and some programs used a school curriculum approach aiming to improve self-regulation. Results provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of such on the executive performance in children with typical development. Each executive component, as well as each type of intervention has its peculiarities. Computerized trainings and pen and paper tasks tend to improve the targeted executive functions, but transfer effects are still inconsistent. Regarding the effects of programs using school curriculum approach, they seem to be more generalizable, with functionality gains accomplishing mainly socio-emotional regulation. Multimodal approaches may be even more effective. Follow-up studies should be targeted in order to track the maintenance of direct and transfer effects regarding mainly cognitive and social development associated to school achievement.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Johan AA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly understood. Herein, we present a hypothesis of the generic relationships of this group based on Bayesian inference analyses of two nuclear introns and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The level of phylogenetic congruence between the individual genes has been investigated utilizing Bayes factors. We also explore how changes in the substitution models affected the observed incongruence between partitions of our data set. Results The phylogenetic analysis supports both novel relationships, as well as traditional groupings. Among the more interesting novel relationship suggested is that the Terenura antwrens, the wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata, the spot-winged antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris and the russet antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus are sisters to all other typical antbirds. The remaining genera fall into two major clades. The first includes antshrikes, antvireos and the Herpsilochmus antwrens, while the second clade consists of most antwren genera, the Myrmeciza antbirds, the "professional" ant-following antbirds, and allied species. Our results also support previously suggested polyphyly of Myrmotherula antwrens and Myrmeciza antbirds. The tests of phylogenetic incongruence, using Bayes factors, clearly suggests that allowing the gene partitions to have separate topology parameters clearly increased the model likelihood. However, changing a component of the nucleotide substitution model had much higher impact on the model likelihood. Conclusions The phylogenetic results are in broad agreement with traditional classification of the typical antbirds, but some relationships are unexpected based on external morphology. In these cases their true affinities may have been obscured by convergent evolution and