WorldWideScience

Sample records for models typically focus

  1. Identification of a Typical CSTR Using Optimal Focused Time Lagged Recurrent Neural Network Model with Gamma Memory Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Naikwad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A focused time lagged recurrent neural network (FTLR NN with gamma memory filter is designed to learn the subtle complex dynamics of a typical CSTR process. Continuous stirred tank reactor exhibits complex nonlinear operations where reaction is exothermic. It is noticed from literature review that process control of CSTR using neuro-fuzzy systems was attempted by many, but optimal neural network model for identification of CSTR process is not yet available. As CSTR process includes temporal relationship in the input-output mappings, time lagged recurrent neural network is particularly used for identification purpose. The standard back propagation algorithm with momentum term has been proposed in this model. The various parameters like number of processing elements, number of hidden layers, training and testing percentage, learning rule and transfer function in hidden and output layer are investigated on the basis of performance measures like MSE, NMSE, and correlation coefficient on testing data set. Finally effects of different norms are tested along with variation in gamma memory filter. It is demonstrated that dynamic NN model has a remarkable system identification capability for the problems considered in this paper. Thus FTLR NN with gamma memory filter can be used to learn underlying highly nonlinear dynamics of the system, which is a major contribution of this paper.

  2. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics (DLs) that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic...

  3. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  4. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  5. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  6. Compression Models for Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Calusse, Alejandro; Ramos, Ruben; Rodriguez Palomino, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Using a numerical model that calculates the dynamics of Plasma Focus devices, we compared the results of three different compression models of the plasma pinch.One of the main objectives in this area is to develop a simplified model to calculate the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices, to study the influence of the main parameters in this neutron yield.The dynamics is thoroughly studied, and the model predicts fairly well values such as maximum currents and times for pinch collapse.Therefore, we evaluate here different models of pinch compression, to try to predict the neutron production with good agreement with the rest of the variables involved.To fulfill this requirement, we have experimental results of neutron production as a function of deuterium filling pressure in the chamber, and typical values of other main variables in the dynamics of the current sheet

  7. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....... are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...

  8. Engineering students at typically invisible transition points: A focus on admissions and the sophomore year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth M.

    As of 2012, women are approximately 19% of all engineering undergraduate students nationally (American Society for Engineering Education, 2012). Women's representation in engineering has not changed significantly over the last 20 years, despite increased attention, increased funding, and increased programmatic activities intended to encourage more women to become engineers. Research around the world continues to seek identification of the reasons for the underrepresentation of women in engineering. This prior work has focused primarily on two broad areas: recruiting, that is, preparation, socialization, exposure, and experiences prior to college; and retention, that is, experiences in higher education. Retention studies and programmatic responses to those studies mostly have been confined to the collegiate first year, a time of historically high attrition. Little attention has been paid to the university admissions process, one of the gateways to engineering studies. Little attention also has been paid to the experiences of college sophomores, whose attrition rates approach those of first-year college students. The first section of this dissertation presents a statistical analysis that indicated a bias in favor of men in the admission process. Success factor modeling suggested a different set of admission criteria could mitigate this bias. After recommendations to change admission criteria were implemented, the percent of female enrollment in engineering increased and statistical analysis confirmed that bias was substantially neutralized. The second section of this dissertation presents three frameworks for understanding how sophomores may be defined. The processes of conceptualizing and operationalizing what it means to be a sophomore impact the types of issues that can be investigated about student attrition, the findings that result from those investigations, and the ability to make cross institutional or programmatic comparisons using a clearly stated

  9. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  10. FOCUS: A Model of Sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    on this model in Year 2 as theories about sensemaking changed. The following is a description of sensemaking as it was described in Year 1 of this...frames, seeking a frame, and refraining. In relating the current work to earlier concepts by Piaget , we proposed ways in which cycles of assimilation...and accommodation encompass the six activities. " Possibility theory : Klein et al. (2002) referred to quasi-logical reasoning, which we extended into

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    Efficient and cost effective transportation and logistics plays a vital role in the supply chains of the modern world’s manufacturers. Global distribution of goods is a very complicated matter as it involves many different distinct planning problems. The focus of this presentation is to demonstrate...

  12. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...... of these utterances given focus information....

  13. Generalized eigenstate typicality in translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Jonathon; Müller, Markus P.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a generalized notion of eigenstate thermalization for translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models: the vast majority of eigenstates satisfying a finite number of suitable constraints (e.g., fixed energy and particle number) have the property that their reduced density matrix on small subsystems approximates the corresponding generalized Gibbs ensemble. To this end, we generalize analytic results by H. Lai and K. Yang [Phys. Rev. B 91, 081110(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.081110] and illustrate the claim numerically by example of the Jordan-Wigner transform of the XX spin chain.

  14. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brollo, Fabricio

    2005-01-01

    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  15. A lumped parameter model of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose H.; Florido, Pablo C.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    A lumped parameter model to estimate neutron emission of a plasma focus (PF) device is developed. The dynamic of the current sheet is calculated using a snowplow model, and the neutron production with the thermal fusion cross section for a deuterium filling gas. The results were contrasted as a function of the filling pressure with experimental measurements of a 3.68 KJ Mather-type PF. (author)

  16. Improving Baseline Model Assumptions: Evaluating the Impacts of Typical Methodological Approaches in Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, R. L.; Kalcic, M. M.; Teshager, A. D.; Long, C. M.; Wang, Y. C.; Scavia, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability of open-source software, online tutorials, and advanced software capabilities, watershed modeling has expanded its user-base and applications significantly in the past thirty years. Even complicated models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are being used and documented in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications each year, and likely more applied in practice. These models can help improve our understanding of present, past, and future conditions, or analyze important "what-if" management scenarios. However, baseline data and methods are often adopted and applied without rigorous testing. In multiple collaborative projects, we have evaluated the influence of some of these common approaches on model results. Specifically, we examined impacts of baseline data and assumptions involved in manure application, combined sewer overflows, and climate data incorporation across multiple watersheds in the Western Lake Erie Basin. In these efforts, we seek to understand the impact of using typical modeling data and assumptions, versus using improved data and enhanced assumptions on model outcomes and thus ultimately, study conclusions. We provide guidance for modelers as they adopt and apply data and models for their specific study region. While it is difficult to quantitatively assess the full uncertainty surrounding model input data and assumptions, recognizing the impacts of model input choices is important when considering actions at the both the field and watershed scales.

  17. S-layer and cytoplasmic membrane – exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKlingl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The common idea of typical cell wall architecture in archaea consists of a pseudo-crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer, situated upon the cytoplasmic membrane. This is true for the majority of described archaea, hitherto. Within the crenarchaea, the S-layer often represents the only cell wall component, but there are various exceptions from this wall architecture. Beside (glycosylated S-layers in (hyperthermophilic cren- and euryarchaea as well as halophilic archaea, one can find a great variety of other cell wall structures like proteoglycan-like S-layers (Halobacteria, glutaminylglycan (Natronococci, methanochondroitin (Methanosarcina or double layered cell walls with pseudomurein (Methanothermus and Methanopyrus. The presence of an outermost cellular membrane in the crenarchaeal species Ignicoccus hospitalis already gave indications for an outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria. Although there is just limited data concerning their biochemistry and ultrastructure, recent studies on the euryarchaeal methanogen Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, cells of the ARMAN group, and the SM1 euryarchaeon delivered further examples for this exceptional cell envelope type consisting of two membranes.

  18. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  19. Looking around houses: attention to a model when drawing complex shapes in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-09-01

    Drawings by individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically lack cohesion. The popular hypothesis is that this is a result of excessive focus on local-level detail at the expense of global configuration. In this study, we explored a novel hypothesis that inadequate attention might underpin drawing in WS. WS and typically developing (TD) non-verbal ability matched groups copied and traced a house figure comprised of geometric shapes. The house was presented on a computer screen for 5-s periods and participants pressed a key to re-view the model. Frequency of key-presses indexed the looks to the model. The order that elements were replicated was recorded to assess hierarchisation of elements. If a lack of attention to the model explained poor drawing performance, we expected participants with WS to look less frequently to the model than TD children when copying. If a local-processing preference underpins drawing in WS, more local than global elements would be produced. Results supported the first, but not second hypothesis. The WS group looked to the model infrequently, but global, not local, parts were drawn first, scaffolding local-level details. Both groups adopted a similar order of drawing and tracing of parts, suggesting typical, although delayed strategy-use in the WS group. Additionally both groups drew larger elements of the model before smaller elements, suggested a size-bias when drawing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  1. Simplified CFD model of coolant channels typical of a plate-type fuel element: an exhaustive verification of the simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: javier.mantecon@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)

  2. A comparison of two typical multicyclic models used to forecast the world's conventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianliang; Feng Lianyong; Zhao Lin; Snowden, Simon; Wang Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces two typical multicyclic models: the Hubbert model and the Generalized Weng model. The model-solving process of the two is expounded, and it provides the basis for an empirical analysis of the world's conventional oil production. The results for both show that the world's conventional oil (crude+NGLs) production will reach its peak in 2011 with a production of 30 billion barrels (Gb). In addition, the forecasting effects of these two models, given the same URR are compared, and the intrinsic characteristics of these two models are analyzed. This demonstrates that for specific criteria the multicyclic Generalized Weng model is an improvement on the multicyclic Hubbert model. Finally, based upon the resultant forecast for the world's conventional oil, some suggestions are proposed for China's policy makers. - Highlights: ► Hubbert model and Generalized Weng model are introduced and compared in this article. ► We conclude each model's characteristic and scopes and conditions of applicable. ► We get the same peak production and time of world's oil by applying two models. ► Multicyclic Generalized Weng model is proven slightly better than Hubbert model.

  3. A planning model for a typical enrichement contract: a linear programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguez, J.D.G.; Barreto, P.M.S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The need to match the demand for enrichment services of a nuclear power plant program with the offer of a typical enrichment contract, taking into account all the existing constraints and flexibilities, implies in building up a mathematical model. For each set of demands, which can be fully supplied under contract, the model must furnish the best scheduling of the SWU quantities according to an economic criterium. Such schedulling consists of establishing the fractions of each SWU demand to be met and the respective dates. (Author) [pt

  4. An extended car-following model considering the acceleration derivative in some typical traffic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Chen, Dong; Liu, Weining

    2018-03-01

    Based on the full velocity difference and acceleration car-following model, an extended car-following model is proposed by considering the vehicle’s acceleration derivative. The stability condition is given by applying the control theory. Considering some typical traffic environments, the results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the extended model has a more actual acceleration of string vehicles than that of the previous models in starting process, stopping process and sudden brake. Meanwhile, the traffic jams more easily occur when the coefficient of vehicle’s acceleration derivative increases, which is presented by space-time evolution. The results confirm that the vehicle’s acceleration derivative plays an important role in the traffic jamming transition and the evolution of traffic congestion.

  5. Models for the estimation of diffuse solar radiation for typical cities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirci, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In solar energy applications, diffuse solar radiation component is required. Solar radiation data particularly in terms of diffuse component are not readily affordable, because of high price of measurements as well as difficulties in their maintenance and calibration. In this study, new empirical models for predicting the monthly mean diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface for typical cities in Turkey are established. Therefore, fifteen empirical models from studies in the literature are used. Also, eighteen diffuse solar radiation models are developed using long term sunshine duration and global solar radiation data. The accuracy of the developed models is evaluated in terms of different statistical indicators. It is found that the best performance is achieved for the third-order polynomial model based on sunshine duration and clearness index. - Highlights: • Diffuse radiation is given as a function of clearness index and sunshine fraction. • The diffuse radiation is an important parameter in solar energy applications. • The diffuse radiation measurement is for limited periods and it is very rare. • The new models can be used to estimate monthly average diffuse solar radiation. • The accuracy of the models is evaluated on the basis of statistical indicators

  6. A focus on building information modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alison

    2014-03-01

    With the Government Construction Strategy requiring a strengthening of the public sector's capability to implement Building Information Modelling (BIM) protocols, the goal being that all central government departments will be adopting, as a minimum, collaborative Level 2 BIM by 2016, Alison Ryan, of consulting engineers, DSSR, explains the principles behind BIM, its history and evolution, and some of the considerable benefits it can offer. These include lowering capital project costs through enhanced co-ordination, cutting carbon emissions, and the ability to manage facilities more efficiently.

  7. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Randall L.; Pacini, Benjamin Robert; Roettgen, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  8. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  9. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  10. Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hong; Sun, Sida; Fang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced air dispersion modelling scheme is proposed to cope with the building layout and complex terrain of a typical Chinese nuclear power plant (NPP) site. In this modelling, the California Meteorological Model (CALMET) and the Stationary Wind Fit and Turbulence (SWIFT) are coupled with the Risø Mesoscale PUFF model (RIMPUFF) for refined wind field calculation. The near-field diffusion coefficient correction scheme of the Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in the Building Wakes Computer Code (ARCON96) is adopted to characterize dispersion in building arrays. The proposed method is evaluated by a wind tunnel experiment that replicates the typical Chinese NPP site. For both wind speed/direction and air concentration, the enhanced modelling predictions agree well with the observations. The fraction of the predictions within a factor of 2 and 5 of observations exceeds 55% and 82% respectively in the building area and the complex terrain area. This demonstrates the feasibility of the new enhanced modelling for typical Chinese NPP sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MEMO Organisation Modelling Language (1): Focus on organisational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Organisation models are at the core of enterprise model, since they represent key aspects of a company's action system. Within MEMO, the Organisation Modelling Language (OrgML) supports the construction of organisation models. They can be divided into two main abstractions: a static abstraction is focusing on the structure of an organisation that reflects the division of labour with respect to static responsibilities and a dynamic abstraction that is focusing on models of business processes. ...

  12. A Deformable Model for Bringing Particles in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    We provide a deformable model for particle analysis. We in- vestigate particle images from a backlit microscope system where parti- cles suer from out-of-focus blur. The blur is a result of particles being in front or behind the focus plane, and the out-of-focus gives a bias towards overestimatin...

  13. Cooperative Problem-Based Learning (CPBL: A Practical PBL Model for a Typical Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiyah Mohd-Yusof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an inductive learning approach that uses a realistic problem as the starting point of learning. Unlike in medical education, which is more easily adaptable to PBL, implementing PBL in engineering courses in the traditional semester system set-up is challenging. While PBL is normally implemented in small groups of up to ten students with a dedicated tutor during PBL sessions in medical education, this is not plausible in engineering education because of the high enrolment and large class sizes. In a typical course, implementation of PBL consisting of students in small groups in medium to large classes is more practical. However, this type of implementation is more difficult to monitor, and thus requires good support and guidance in ensuring commitment and accountability of each student towards learning in his/her group. To provide the required support, Cooperative Learning (CL is identified to have the much needed elements to develop the small student groups to functional learning teams. Combining both CL and PBL results in a Cooperative Problem-Based Learning (CPBL model that provides a step by step guide for students to go through the PBL cycle in their teams, according to CL principles. Suitable for implementation in medium to large classes (approximately 40-60 students for one floating facilitator, with small groups consisting of 3-5 students, the CPBL model is designed to develop the students in the whole class into a learning community. This paper provides a detailed description of the CPBL model. A sample implementation in a third year Chemical Engineering course, Process Control and Dynamics, is also described.

  14. General model of wood in typical coupled tasks. Part I. – Phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is focused on FE modeling of wood structure. This task is conditioned mainly by different organized structures/regions (tissues, anomalies... and leads to homogenization process of multiphysics declaration of common scientific and engineering problems. The crucial role in this paper is played by derivation of coefficient form of general PDE which is solvable by nowadays numerical solvers. Generality of supposed model is given by wide range of coupled physical fields included in the model. Used approach summarizes and brings together models for various fields of matter and energy common in wood material in wood drying process, but is also suitable for a lot of different tasks of similar materials. Namely microwave drying of wood with orthotropic, visco-elastic material properties together with time, moisture and temperature dependency of structural strains by modified mechanical properties were included. Specific matrixes of elasticity for in­di­vi­dual fields were derived. Thermal field in wood was described by conduction type of spreading. Coupling of physical fields is based on diffusive character of temperature, moisture, static pressure fields movement.

  15. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  16. Typical worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    2017-05-01

    Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.

  17. Experimental validation of models for Plasma Focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Palomino, Luis; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Plasma Focus(PF) Devices are thermonuclear pulsators that produce short pulsed radiation (X-ray, charged particles and neutrons). Since Filippov and Mather, investigations have been used to study plasma properties. Nowadays the interest about PF is focused in technology applications, related to the use of these devices as pulsed neutron sources. In the numerical calculus the Inter institutional PLADEMA (PLAsmas DEnsos MAgnetizados) network is developing three models. Each one is useful in different engineering stages of the Plasma Focus design. One of the main objectives in this work is a comparative study on the influence of the different parameters involved in each models. To validate these results, several experimental measurements under different geometry and initial conditions were performed. (author)

  18. The Continuous Improvement Model: A K-12 Literacy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the eight steps of the Continuous Improvement Model (CIM) provided a framework to raise achievement and to focus educators in identifying high-yield literacy strategies. This study sought to determine if an examination of the assessment data in reading revealed differences among schools that fully,…

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  20. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S; Hall, Robert D; Junot, Christophe; Karp, Peter D; Kurland, Irwin J; Mistrik, Robert; Reed, Laura K; Saito, Kazuki; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph; Sumner, Lloyd W; Viant, Mark R

    2016-02-15

    Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  1. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Edison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  2. A model of visual, aesthetic communication focusing on web sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    design. With a point of departure in Roman Jakobson's linguistic communication model, the reader is introduced to a model which covers the communication aspects, the visual aspects, the aesthetic aspects and the net specific aspects of the analysis of media products. The aesthetic aspects rank low......Theory books and method books within the field of web design mainly focus on the technical and functional aspects of the construction of web design. There is a lack of a model which weighs the analysis of the visual and aesthetic aspects against the the functional and technical aspects of web...

  3. Thermohidraulic model for a typical steam generator of PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C.V.M.

    1980-06-01

    A model of thermohidraulic simulation, for steady state, considering the secondary flow divided in two parts individually homogeneous, and with heat and mass transferences between them is developed. The quality of the two-phase mixture that is fed to the turbine is fixed and, based on this value, the feedwater pressure is determined. The recirculation ratio is intrinsically determined. Based on this model it was developed the GEVAP code, in Fortran-IV language. The model is applied to the steam generator of the Angra II nuclear power plant and the results are compared with KWU'S design parameters, being considered satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  4. Solution-focused therapy. Counseling model for busy family physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, G.; Ganshorn, K.; Danilkewich, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide family doctors in busy office practices with a model for counseling compatible with patient-centred medicine, including the techniques, strategies, and questions necessary for implementation. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The MEDLINE database was searched from 1984 to 1999 using the terms psychotherapy in family practice, brief therapy in family practice, solution-focused therapy, and brief psychotherapy. A total of 170 relevant articles were identified; 75 abstracts were retriev...

  5. Numerical modeling for longwall pillar design: a case study from a typical longwall panel in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangchao; Liang, Saijiang; Tan, Yunliang; Xie, Fuxing; Chen, Shaojie; Jia, Hongguo

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new numerical modeling procedure and design principle for longwall pillar design with the assistance of numerical simulation of FLAC3D. A coal mine located in Yanzhou city, Shandong Province, China, was selected for this case study. A meticulously validated numerical model was developed to investigate the stress changes across the longwall pillar with various sizes. In order to improve the reliability of the numerical modeling, a calibration procedure is undertaken to match the Salamon and Munro pillar strength formula for the coal pillar, while a similar calibration procedure is used to estimate the stress-strain response of a gob. The model results demonstrated that when the coal pillar width was 7-8 m, most of the vertical load was carried by the panel rib, whilst the gateroad was overall in a relatively low stress environment and could keep its stability with proper supports. Thus, the rational longwall pillar width was set as 8 m and the field monitoring results confirmed the feasibility of this pillar size. The proposed numerical simulation procedure and design principle presented in this study could be a viable alternative approach for longwall pillar design for other similar projects.

  6. A model of visual, aesthetic communication focusing on web sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    in the eyes of the media producers even though the most outstanding media products often obtained their success due to aesthetic phenomena. The formal aesthetic function and the inexpressible aesthetic function have therefore been prioritised in the model in regard to the construction and analysis of media......Theory books and method books within the field of web design mainly focus on the technical and functional aspects of the construction of web design. There is a lack of a model which weighs the analysis of the visual and aesthetic aspects against the the functional and technical aspects of web...... design. With a point of departure in Roman Jakobson's linguistic communication model, the reader is introduced to a model which covers the communication aspects, the visual aspects, the aesthetic aspects and the net specific aspects of the analysis of media products. The aesthetic aspects rank low...

  7. Study of radon dispersion in typical dwelling using CFD modeling combined with passive-active measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2017-10-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence the indoor radon concentration. This study focuses on investigating both numerically and experimentally the influence of environmental conditions on the indoor radon concentration and spatial distribution. The numerical results showed that ventilation rate, temperature and humidity have significant impacts on both radon content and distribution. The variations of radon concentration with the ventilation, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. The measurement results show the diurnal variations of the indoor radon concentration are found to exhibit a positive correlation with relative humidity and negatively correlate with the air temperature. The analytic solution is used to validate the numeric results. The comparison amongst analytical, numerical and measurement results shows close agreement.

  8. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl 2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO 4 layer formation. • MgSO 4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO 3 induced the formation of MgCO 3 as a degradation product

  9. First Model of the Edge-Focusing Wiggler for SASE

    CERN Document Server

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kato, Ryukou; Kobayashi, Kenji; Noda, Takanori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new type of wiggler named the edge-focusing (EF) wiggler, which produces the strong transverse focusing field incorporated with the normal wiggler field. The idea of the EF wiggler* and development of permanent magnet blocks with small magnetization errors for the wiggler** were reported at the two preceding FEL conferences. We have fabricated the first model of the EF wiggler to evaluate its performance. It is a five-period planar wiggler with an edge angle of 2 degrees and a period length of 60 mm. The magnetic field in the wiggler is measured with a Hole probe at a magnet gap of 30 mm. It is experimentally confirmed that a high field gradient of 1.0 T /m is realized along the beam axis in the EF wiggler. In this paper, we will report results of the magnetic field measurement and its analysis for the first mode of the EF wiggler.

  10. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  11. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10 5 years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core

  12. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Paul R. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue # 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. [Ames Research Center, NASA, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morgan, Demitri A., E-mail: Paul.R.Estrada@nasa.gov [USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10{sup 5} years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core.

  13. MoPCoM Methodology: Focus on Models of Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudri, Ali; Champeau, Joël; Le Lann, Jean-Christophe; Leilde, Vincent

    Today, developments of Real Time Embedded Systems have to face new challenges. On the one hand, Time-To-Market constraints require a reliable development process allowing quick design space exploration. On the other hand, rapidly developing technology, as stated by Moore's law, requires techniques to handle the resulting productivity gap. In a previous paper, we have presented our Model Based Engineering methodology addressing those issues. In this paper, we make a focus on Models of Computation design and analysis. We illustrate our approach on a Cognitive Radio System development implemented on an FPGA. This work is part of the MoPCoM research project gathering academic and industrial organizations (http://www.mopcom.fr).

  14. The effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on the electrical activity of the brain in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oytun Erbaş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antipsychotic drugs are known to have strongeffect on the bioelectric activity in the brain. However,some studies addressing the changes on electroencephalography(EEG caused by typical and atypical antipsychoticdrugs are conflicting. We aimed to compare the effectsof typical and atypical antipsychotics on the electricalactivity in the brain via EEG recordings in a rat model.Methods: Thirty-two Sprague Dawley adult male ratswere used in the study. The rats were divided into fivegroups, randomly (n=7, for each group. The first groupwas used as control group and administered 1 ml/kg salineintraperitoneally (IP. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg (group 2,chlorpromazine (5 mg/kg (group 3, olanzapine (1 mg/kg(group 4, ziprasidone (1 mg/ kg (group 5 were injectedIP for five consecutive days. Then, EEG recordings ofeach group were taken for 30 minutes.Results: The percentages of delta and theta waves inhaloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine and ziprasidonegroups were found to have a highly significant differencecompared with the saline administration group (p<0.001.The theta waves in the olanzapine and ziprasidonegroups were increased compared with haloperidol andchlorpromazine groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The typical and atypical antipsychotic drugsmay be risk factor for EEG abnormalities. This studyshows that antipsychotic drugs should be used with caution.J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 279-284Key words: Haloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine,ziprasidone, EEG, rat

  15. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  16. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi eZoccolotti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN. Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37% to 52% of the explained variance when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69% and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colours as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs distal causes to predict reading fluency is

  17. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  18. Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri

    2012-01-01

    When providing effective reading and writing instruction, teachers need to provide explicit modeling. Modeling is particularly important when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Examples of how teachers can provide specific, explicit, and flexible instructional modeling is presented in the context of two evidence-based…

  19. Proposal for product development model focused on ce certification methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.

  20. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sleep and Obesity: A focus on animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007; Dixon et al., 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans. In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity. PMID:22266350

  2. Focus for 3D city models should be on interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars; Kjems, Erik; Jaegly, Marie Michele Helena

    2006-01-01

    3D city models have become a very popular commodity for cities in general. The politicians and/or the administrative management have in the last few years been very active when it comes to investments in dimensionality, and the models come in many different forms and for many specific or non...... developments in Geographical Exploration Systems. Centralized and proprietary Geographical Exploration Systems only give us their own perspective on the world. On the contrary, GRIFINOR is decentralized and available for everyone to use, empowering people to promote their own world vision....

  3. Preparing Secondary Mathematics Teachers: A Focus on Modeling in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunyi; Mintos, Alexia; Newton, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed the opportunities to learn (OTL) modeling in algebra provided to secondary mathematics pre-service teachers (PSTs). To investigate these OTL, we interviewed five instructors of required mathematics and mathematics education courses that had the potential to include opportunities for PSTs to learn algebra at three universities.…

  4. Integrating Emotion-Focused Therapy with the Satir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Lorrie

    2006-01-01

    The experiential humanistic family systems approach of Virginia Satir lacks a theoretical structure and is thus vulnerable to losing its experiential nature and being reduced to a mere collection of creative techniques. A way to effectively keep Satir's transformative presence alive is to integrate her approach with a model that is solidly…

  5. An industry-sponsored, school-focused model for continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increasingly buying into community development with corporate social investment, especially regarding technology ... HEIs and Departments of Education (DoE), could change the traditional concept that CPTD is the responsibility of DoEs into a new model where the business sector shares some of the responsibility for ...

  6. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of “craving”) show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences. PMID:26772794

  7. The transformational model for professional practice: a system integration focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail A; Hayden, Margaret; Bradle, Judith A

    2004-04-01

    Healthcare organizations face the increasingly difficult challenge of providing services that are of high quality, reasonable cost, and easy accessibility for their constituents. Mergers and acquisitions are one strategy for accomplishing this, but in doing so it is critical to have a "road map" to create an integrated system, rather than merely a consortium of hospitals. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has successfully created an integrated healthcare system of 19 hospitals. The authors describe the professional practice model used as a framework for success in integrating patient care.

  8. Regulatory odour model development: Survey of modelling tools and datasets with focus on building effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H. R.; Løfstrøm, P.; Berkowicz, R.

    A project within the framework of a larger research programme, Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment III (VMP III) aims towards improving an atmospheric dispersion model (OML). The OML model is used for regulatory applications in Denmark, and it is the candidate model to be used also in future...... in relation to odour problems due to animal farming. However, the model needs certain improvements and validation in order to be fully suited for that purpose. The report represents a survey of existing literature, models and data sets. It includes a brief overview of the state-of-the-art of atmospheric...... dispersion models for estimating local concentration levels in general. However, the report focuses on some particular issues, which are relevant for subsequent work on odour due to animal production. An issue of primary concern is the effect that buildings (stables) have on flow and dispersion. The handling...

  9. Porcine models of biofilm infections with focus on pathomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Johansen, Anne Sofie Boyum; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation is one of the main reasons for a negative treatment outcome and a high recurrence rate for many chronic infections in humans. The optimal way to study both the biofilm forming bacteria and the host response simultaneously is by using discriminative, reliable, and repro......Bacterial biofilm formation is one of the main reasons for a negative treatment outcome and a high recurrence rate for many chronic infections in humans. The optimal way to study both the biofilm forming bacteria and the host response simultaneously is by using discriminative, reliable......, physiology, and immune system to humans. Furthermore, conventional pigs spontaneously develop many of the same chronic bacterial infections as seen in humans. Therefore, in this review porcine models of five different infectious diseases all associated with biofilm formation and chronicity in humans...... are described. The infectious diseases are: chronic wounds, endocarditis, pyelonephritis, hematogenous osteomyelitis, and implant-associated osteomyelitis (IAO)....

  10. Generation of Humanized Mouse Models with Focus on Antithrombin Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Astrid Bøgh

    2015-01-01

    transgene. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a relatively new and innovative method for targeted mutagenesis. The Cas9 nuclease introduces a double stranded break in the DNA, which can be repaired through homologous recombination of a targeting vector. A mutated Cas9n (Cas9 nickase) has been designed, which only...... cuts one of the DNA strands. With this enzyme, two target sites have to be located close to each other in order to create double strand break. This will lower the risk for off target mutations, but might reduce the efficiency of targeting. In order to control the expression of the human antithrombin...... found that homozygous knockout embryos have a significantly increased level of systemic inflammation, around their time of death. Furthermore, the embryos show signs of hypertension, already at day 12 of gestation, possible due to kidney failure. A humanized mouse model for antithrombin deficiency can...

  11. Translational value of animal models of obesity-Focus on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osto, Melania; Lutz, Thomas A

    2015-07-15

    A prolonged imbalance between a relative increase in energy intake over a decrease in energy expenditure results in the development of obesity; extended periods of a positive energy balance eventually lead to the accumulation of abnormally high amounts of fat in adipose tissue but also in other organs. Obesity is considered a clinical state of impaired general heath in which the excessive increase in adipose tissue mass may be associated with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses briefly the use of animal models for the study of obesity and its comorbidities. Generally, most studies are performed with rodents, such as diet induced obesity and genetic models. Here, we focus specifically on two different species, namely dogs and cats. Obese dogs and cats show many features of human obesity. Interestingly, however, dogs and cats differ from each other in certain aspects because even though obese dogs may become insulin resistant, this does not result in the development of diabetes mellitus. In fact, diabetes in dogs is typically not associated with obesity because dogs present a type 1 diabetes-like syndrome. On the other hand, obese cats often develop diabetes mellitus which shares many features with human type 2 diabetes; feline and human diabetes are similar in respect to their pathophysiology, underlying risk factors and treatment strategies. Our review discusses genetic and endocrine factors in obesity, discusses obesity induced changes in lipid metabolism and includes some recent findings on the role of gut microbiota in obesity. Compared to research in rodent models, the array of available techniques and tools is unfortunately still rather limited in dogs and cats. Hence, even though physiological and pathophysiological phenomena are well described in dogs and cats, the underlying mechanisms are often not known and studies investigating causality specifically are

  12. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eFuelscher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level (i.e., motor imagery. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years and adults (18-34 years allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of motor imagery. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers.

  13. Research on Soft Reduction Amount Distribution to Eliminate Typical Inter-dendritic Crack in Continuous Casting Slab of X70 Pipeline Steel by Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Wang, Chang; Liu, Guo-liang; Ding, Ning; Sun, Qi-song; Tian, Zhi-hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the formation of one kind of typical inter-dendritic crack around triple point region in continuous casting(CC) slab during the operation of soft reduction, fully coupled 3D thermo-mechanical finite element models was developed, also plant trials were carried out in a domestic continuous casting machine. Three possible types of soft reduction amount distribution (SRAD) in the soft reduction region were analyzed. The relationship between the typical inter-dendritic cracks and soft reduction conditions is presented and demonstrated in production practice. Considering the critical strain of internal crack formation, a critical tolerance for the soft reduction amount distribution and related casing parameters have been proposed for better contribution of soft reduction to the internal quality of slabs. The typical inter-dendritic crack around the triple point region had been eliminated effectively through the application of proposed suggestions for continuous casting of X70 pipeline steel in industrial practice.

  14. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus on methodology of coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Morozova, Polina; Nevecherja, Artiom

    2018-03-01

    Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we apply two different approaches for the incorporation of ice sheets into an ESM. Coupling of the Antarctic ice sheet model (AISM) to the AOGCM is accomplished via using procedures of resampling, interpolation and assigning to the AISM grid points annually averaged meanings of air surface temperature and precipitation fields generated by the AOGCM. Surface melting, which takes place mainly on the margins of the Antarctic peninsula and on ice shelves fringing the continent, is currently ignored. AISM returns anomalies of surface topography back to the AOGCM. To couple the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM) to the AOGCM, we use a simple buffer energy- and water-balance model (EWBM-G) to account for orographically-driven precipitation and other sub-grid AOGCM-generated quantities. The output of the EWBM-G consists of surface mass balance and air surface temperature to force the GrISM, and freshwater run-off to force thermohaline circulation in the oceanic block of the AOGCM. Because of a rather complex coupling procedure of GrIS compared to AIS, the paper mostly focuses on Greenland.

  15. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental simulation and numerical modeling of vapor shield formation and divertor material erosion for ITER typical plasma disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuerz, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INR, Postfach 36 40, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arkhipov, N.I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Bakhtin, V.P. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Konkashbaev, I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Landman, I. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Toporkov, D.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The high divertor heat load during a tokamak plasma disruption results in sudden evaporation of a thin layer of divertor plate material, which acts as vapor shield and protects the target from further excessive evaporation. Formation and effectiveness of the vapor shield are theoretically modeled and are experimentally analyzed at the 2MK-200 facility under conditions simulating the thermal quench phase of ITER tokamak plasma disruptions. ((orig.)).

  17. Numerical modeling and experimental simulation of vapor shield formation and divertor material erosion for ITER typical plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Bakhin, V.P.; Goel, B.; Hoebel, W.; Konkashbaev, I.; Landman, I.; Piazza, G.; Safronov, V.M.; Sherbakov, A.R.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The high divertor heat load during a tokamak plasma disruption results in sudden evaporation of a thin layer of divertor plate material, which acts as vapor shield and protects the target from further excessive evaporation. Formation and effectiveness of the vapor shield are theoretically modeled and experimentally investigated at the 2MK-200 facility under conditions simulating the thermal quench phase of ITER tokamak plasma disruptions. In the optical wavelength range C II, C III, C IV emission lines for graphite, Cu I, Cu II lines for copper and continuum radiation for tungsten samples are observed in the target plasma. The plasma expands along the magnetic field lines with velocities of (4±1)x10 6 cm/s for graphite and 10 5 cm/s for copper. Modeling was done with a radiation hydrodynamics code in one-dimensional planar geometry. The multifrequency radiation transport is treated in flux limited diffusion and in forward reverse transport approximation. In these first modeling studies the overall shielding efficiency for carbon and tungsten defined as ratio of the incident energy and the vaporization energy for power densities of 10 MW/cm 2 exceeds a factor of 30. The vapor shield is established within 2 μs, the power fraction to the target after 10 μs is below 3% and reaches in the stationary state after about 20 μs a value of around 1.5%. ((orig.))

  18. Maximum Potential Score (MPS: An operating model for a successful customer-focused strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello González, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of marketers’ chief objectives is to achieve customer loyalty, which is a key factor for profitable growth. Therefore, they need to develop a strategy that attracts and maintains customers, giving them adequate motives, both tangible (prices and promotions and intangible (personalized service and treatment, to satisfy a customer and make him loyal to the company. Finding a way to accurately measure satisfaction and customer loyalty is very important. With regard to typical Relationship Marketing measures, we can consider listening to customers, which can help to achieve a competitive sustainable advantage. Customer satisfaction surveys are essential tools for listening to customers. Short questionnaires have gained considerable acceptance among marketers as a means to achieve a customer satisfaction measure. Our research provides an indication of the benefits of a short questionnaire (one/three questions. We find that the number of questions survey is significantly related to the participation in the survey (Net Promoter Score or NPS. We also prove that a the three question survey is more likely to have more participants than a traditional survey (Maximum Potential Score or MPS . Our main goal is to analyse one method as a potential predictor of customer loyalty. Using surveys, we attempt to empirically establish the causal factors in determining the satisfaction of customers. This paper describes a maximum potential operating model that captures with a three questions survey, important elements for a successful customer-focused strategy. MPS may give us lower participation rates than NPS but important information that helps to convert unhappy customers or just satisfied customers, into loyal customers.

  19. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  20. The Optimal Price Ratio of Typical Energy Sources in Beijing Based on the Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.

  1. Focus on connections for successful organizational transformation to model based engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babineau, Guy L.

    2015-05-01

    Organizational Transformation to a Model Based Engineering Culture is a significant goal for Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems in order to achieve objectives of increased engineering performance. While organizational change is difficult, a focus on connections is creating success. Connections include model to model, program phase to program phase and organization to organization all through Model Based techniques. This presentation will address the techniques employed by Northrop Grumman to achieve these results as well as address continued focus and efforts. Model to model connections are very effective in automating implicit linkages between models for the purpose of ensuring consistency across a set of models and also for rapidly assessing impact of change. Program phase to phase connections are very important for reducing development time as well as reducing potential errors in moving from one program phase to another. Organization to organization communication is greatly facilitated using model based techniques to eliminate ambiguity and drive consistency and reuse.

  2. The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Mustafa, Zainol; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Idris, Fazli; Abdullah, Mokhtar

    2013-04-01

    Culture and employee-focused criteria are important factors for the success of any organization. These factors have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to gear ahead for excellence. Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values. The hypothesized relationship was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the PLS estimation technique. 429 questionnaires were returned from the target population. The results of the modelling revealed that the PLS estimation confirmed all the hypotheses tested as in the hypothesized model. The results generally support significant relationships between culture values, employee-focused values and productivity-focused values. The study also confirmed the mediating role of employee-focused values for the relationship between culture values and productivity-focused values. In conclusion, the empirically validated results supported the adequacy of the hypothezised model of the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in HEI through value-based indicators.

  3. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation: a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In authors' previous work (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi: 10.1007/s00339-016-0371-6, 2016), the nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy was investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The characters of unloading curves were discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model was proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior of the studied Ni-based superalloy. Still, the functional relationships between the deformation temperature, strain rate, pre-strain and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model need to be established. In this study, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain on the parameters of the new constitutive model proposed in authors' previous work (Chen et al. 2016) are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain.

  4. Radiation induced muscositis as space flight risk. Model studies on X-ray and heavy ion irradiated typical oral mucosa models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschachojan, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Humans in exomagnetospheric space are exposed to highly energetic heavy ion radiation which can be hardly shielded. Since radiation-induced mucositis constitutes a severe complication of heavy ion radiotherapy, it would also implicate a serious medical safety risk for the crew members during prolonged space flights such as missions to Moon or Mars. For assessment of risk developing radiation-induced mucositis, three-dimensional organotypic cultures of immortalized human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with a 12 C particle beam at high energies or X-Rays. Immunofluorescence stainings were done from cryosections and radiation induced release of cytokines and chemokines was quantified by ELISA from culture supernatants. The major focuses of this study were on 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. The conducted analyses of our mucosa model showed many structural similarities with the native oral mucosa and authentic immunological responses to radiation exposure. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed about twice as many DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X-rays at definite doses and time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. Nuclear factor κB activation was observed after treatment with X-rays or 12 C particles. An activation of NF κB p65 in irradiated samples could not be detected. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels after irradiation with X-rays and 12 C particles compared to non-irradiated controls. However, only X-rays induced significantly higher levels of interleukin 1β. Analyses of TNF-α and IFN-γ showed no radiation-induced effects. Further analyses revealed a radiation-induced reduction in proliferation and loss of compactness in irradiated oral mucosa model, which would lead to local lesions in vivo. In this study we revealed that several pro-inflammatory markers and structural changes are induced by X-rays and heavy-ion irradiation

  5. Evaluating chemical exposure and effect models for aquatic species with a focus on crude oil constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, L. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate a suite of exposure and effect models on their applicability in ecological risk assessment for aquatic species and ecosystems. The focus is on oil constituents, as it is largely unknown whether current ecological models are applicable to crude oil and its

  6. A Model for Ubiquitous Serious Games Development Focused on Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Sandro Oliveira; da Costa, Cristiano André; Rigo, Sandro José

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using serious games with problem-based learning opens up huge opportunities to connect the experiences of daily life of students with learning. In this context, this article presents a model for serious and ubiquitous games development, focusing on problem based learning methodology. The model allows teachers to create games…

  7. A model for plasma evolution in Filipov type plasma focus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Sobhanian, S.; Tafreshi, M. A.; Lamehi, M.

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented in this paper for the evolution of plasma in Filipov type plasma focus facilities. With the help of this model, one can predict some of the main parameters of the produced plasma and obtain the optimized geometrical an physical properties (anode radius and length, gas pressure, capacitance, bank energy etc) for the primary design purposes. The results obtained by this model will be compared with the experimental data obtained from the 90 kJ plasma focus facility D ena

  8. Focused information criterion and model averaging based on weighted composite quantile regression

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2013-08-13

    We study the focused information criterion and frequentist model averaging and their application to post-model-selection inference for weighted composite quantile regression (WCQR) in the context of the additive partial linear models. With the non-parametric functions approximated by polynomial splines, we show that, under certain conditions, the asymptotic distribution of the frequentist model averaging WCQR-estimator of a focused parameter is a non-linear mixture of normal distributions. This asymptotic distribution is used to construct confidence intervals that achieve the nominal coverage probability. With properly chosen weights, the focused information criterion based WCQR estimators are not only robust to outliers and non-normal residuals but also can achieve efficiency close to the maximum likelihood estimator, without assuming the true error distribution. Simulation studies and a real data analysis are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. © 2013 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics..

  9. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth System model: focus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    55

    2008, 2010; Robinson et al. 2010; Fyke et al. 2011; Roche et al. 2014; Thoma et al. 2015). Reviewing of them is out of the scope of this paper. We focus on the. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 .... not in the focus of the research). Assumed ..... Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel.

  10. A focus area maturity model for a statewide master person index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jeffrey; Xu, Wu; Narus, Scott P; Clyde, Stephen; Nangle, Barry; Thornton, Sid; Facelli, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The sharing of personally identifiable information across organizational boundaries to facilitate patient identification in Utah presents significant policy challenges. Our objective was to create a focus area maturity model to describe and evaluate our progress in developing a policy framework to support a statewide master person index (sMPI) for healthcare and public health operations and research in Utah. We used various artifacts, including minutes from policy guidance committee meetings over a span of 18 months, a report from Utah's Digital Health Services Commission, and a draft technical requirements document to retrospectively analyze our work and create a focus area maturity model describing the domain of policy needed to support the sMPI. We then used our model to assess our progress and future goals. The focus area maturity model provides an orderly path that can guide the complex process of developing a functional statewide master person index among diverse, autonomous partners. While this paper focuses on our experience in Utah, we believe that the arguments for using a focus area maturity model to guide the development of state or regional MPIs is of general interest.

  11. Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.

    2012-09-01

    The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that the soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of P o , Z o and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing L o , varying L o and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its properties on soft x-ray emission and its properties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus, in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 kA. The results show that the line radiation emission and tube voltages have

  12. Constraining parameters in state-of-the-art marine pelagic biogeochemical models. Is it sufficient to use typical observations of standing-stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeptien, Ulrike; Dietze, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    In order to constrain potential feedbacks in the climate system, simple pelagic biogeochemical models (BGCMs) are coupled to 3-dimensional ocean-atmosphere models. These so-called earth system models are frequently applied to calculate climate projections. All BGCs rely on a set of rather uncertain parameters. Among them are generally the Michaelis Menten (MM) constants, utilized in the hyperbolic MM- formulation (which specifies the limiting effect of light and nutrients on carbon assimilation by autotrophic phytoplankton). All model parameters are typically tuned in rather subjective trial-and-error exercises where the parameters are changed manually until a "reasonable" similarity with observed standing stocks is achieved. In the present study, we explore with twin experiments (or synthetic ``observations") the demands on observations that would allow for a more objective estimation of model parameters. These parameter retrieval experiments are based on ``perfect" (synthetic) observations which we, step by step, distort to approach realistic conditions. Finally, we confirm our findings with real-world observations. In summary, we find that even modest noise (10%) inherent to observations may hinder the parameter retrieval already. Particularly, the MM constants are hard to constrain. This is of concern since the MM parameters are key to the model`s sensitivity to anticipated changes of the external conditions.

  13. Generalized Empirical Likelihood-Based Focused Information Criterion and Model Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Sueishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops model selection and averaging methods for moment restriction models. We first propose a focused information criterion based on the generalized empirical likelihood estimator. We address the issue of selecting an optimal model, rather than a correct model, for estimating a specific parameter of interest. Then, this study investigates a generalized empirical likelihood-based model averaging estimator that minimizes the asymptotic mean squared error. A simulation study suggests that our averaging estimator can be a useful alternative to existing post-selection estimators.

  14. Adaptation of Sing Lee's model to the Filippov type plasma focus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V; Tafreshi, M A; Sobhanian, S; Khorram, S

    2005-01-01

    A new model for plasma behaviour in Filippov type plasma focus (PF) systems has been described and used. This model is based on the so-called slug model and Sing Lee's model for Mather type PF devices. Using the model, the discharge current and its derivative as a function of time, and the pinch time and the maximum discharge current as a function of pressure, have been predicted. At the end, the predicted data are compared with the experimental data obtained through a Filippov type PF facility with a nominal maximum energy of 90 kJ

  15. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  16. Introduction to focus issue: Synchronization in large networks and continuous media—data, models, and supermodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Gregory S.; Grabow, Carsten; Selten, Frank; Ghil, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The synchronization of loosely coupled chaotic systems has increasingly found applications to large networks of differential equations and to models of continuous media. These applications are at the core of the present Focus Issue. Synchronization between a system and its model, based on limited observations, gives a new perspective on data assimilation. Synchronization among different models of the same system defines a supermodel that can achieve partial consensus among models that otherwise disagree in several respects. Finally, novel methods of time series analysis permit a better description of synchronization in a system that is only observed partially and for a relatively short time. This Focus Issue discusses synchronization in extended systems or in components thereof, with particular attention to data assimilation, supermodeling, and their applications to various areas, from climate modeling to macroeconomics.

  17. Introduction to focus issue: Synchronization in large networks and continuous media-data, models, and supermodels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Gregory S; Grabow, Carsten; Selten, Frank; Ghil, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The synchronization of loosely coupled chaotic systems has increasingly found applications to large networks of differential equations and to models of continuous media. These applications are at the core of the present Focus Issue. Synchronization between a system and its model, based on limited observations, gives a new perspective on data assimilation. Synchronization among different models of the same system defines a supermodel that can achieve partial consensus among models that otherwise disagree in several respects. Finally, novel methods of time series analysis permit a better description of synchronization in a system that is only observed partially and for a relatively short time. This Focus Issue discusses synchronization in extended systems or in components thereof, with particular attention to data assimilation, supermodeling, and their applications to various areas, from climate modeling to macroeconomics.

  18. The influence of climatic changes on distribution pattern of six typical Kobresia species in Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Guo, Ke; Jin, Shulan; Pan, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    The issue that climatic change has great influence on species distribution is currently of great interest in field of biogeography. Six typical Kobresia species are selected from alpine grassland of Tibetan Plateau (TP) as research objects which are the high-quality forage for local husbandry, and their distribution changes are modeled in four periods by using MaxEnt model and GIS technology. The modeling results have shown that the distribution of these six typical Kobresia species in TP was strongly affected by two factors of "the annual precipitation" and "the precipitation in the wettest and driest quarters of the year". The modeling results have also shown that the most suitable habitats of K. pygmeae were located in the area around Qinghai Lake, the Hengduan-Himalayan mountain area, and the hinterland of TP. The most suitable habitats of K. humilis were mainly located in the area around Qinghai Lake and the hinterland of TP during the Last Interglacial period, and gradually merged into a bigger area; K. robusta and K. tibetica were located in the area around Qinghai Lake and the hinterland of TP, but they did not integrate into one area all the time, and K. capillifolia were located in the area around Qinghai Lake and extended to the southwest of the original distributing area, whereas K. macrantha were mainly distributed along the area of the Himalayan mountain chain, which had the smallest distribution area among them, and all these six Kobresia species can be divided into four types of "retreat/expansion" styles according to the changes of suitable habitat areas during the four periods; all these change styles are the result of long-term adaptations of the different species to the local climate changes in regions of TP and show the complexity of relationships between different species and climate. The research results have positive reference value to the protection of species diversity and sustainable development of the local husbandry in TP.

  19. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  20. Animal Models of Schizophrenia with a Focus on Models Targeting NMDA Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svojanovská, Markéta; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2015), s. 3-18 ISSN 1805-7225 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal models * pharmacological models * genetic models * neurodevelopmental models * preclinical studies Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  1. Customer focus level following implementation of quality improvement model in Tehran social security hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, F; Nasiripour, A; Delgoshaei, B

    2008-01-01

    The key factor for the success of total quality management programs in an organization is focusing on the customer. The purpose of this paper is to assess customer focus level following implementation of a quality improvement model in social security hospitals in Tehran Province. This research was descriptive-comparative in nature. The study population consisted of the implementers of quality improvement model in four Tehran social security hospitals. The data were gathered through a checklist addressing customer knowledge and customer satisfaction. The research findings indicated that the average scores on customer knowledge in Shahriar, Alborz, Milad, and Varamin hospitals were 64.1, 61.2, 54.1, and 46.6, respectively. The average scores on customer satisfaction in Shahriar, Alborz, Milad, and Varamin hospitals were 67.7, 65, 59.4, and 50, respectively. The customer focus average scores in Shahriar, Alborz, Milad, and Varamin hospitals were 66.3, 63.3, 57.3, and 48.6, respectively. The total average scores on customer knowledge, satisfaction and customer focus in the investigated hospitals proved to be 56.4, 60.5, and 58.9, respectively. The paper is of value in showing that implementation of the quality improvement model could considerably improve customer focus level.

  2. Study on cooling model for debris in lower plenum and countermeasures for prevention of focusing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zhonghua; Yu Hongxing; Jiang Guangming

    2008-01-01

    From the basic energy conservation equations and experimental or empirical correlations, an intact model is constructed for the thermal calculation of the core debris in the lower plenum. For verification of this model, the results of two calculations for AP600 and AP1000 plants are compared with those presented in relevant literature. The analysis highlights on the impact of the decay heat power density and the focusing effect. In order to mitigate the focusing effect, it is proposed in this paper to change the lower head profile from hemisphere to parabola. The results show that this change of lower head profile can change the heat flux distribution of the debris, and mitigate the focusing effect. (authors)

  3. Model of the nonhydrodynamic stage of a plasma focus (z pinch sausage-type instability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zueva, N.M.; Imshennik, V.S.; Lokutsievskii, O.V.; Mikhailova, M.S.

    A nonhydrodynamic two-dimensional plasma model convenient for describing a later stage of development of a plasma focus (sausage-type instability) is given. In this model, ions are described by the Vlasov collisionless equation, and electrons are treated in the MHD approximation. More accurately, for electrons, use is made of generalized Ohm's law and the entropy equation, and the condition of quasi-neutrality of the plasma is also adopted

  4. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

      We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from cran.r-project.org . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms in the form......  We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from cran.r-project.org . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms...

  5. Using the Improvement-Focused Model to Evaluate an Online Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of an online reading teacher and literacy instructor training program. A mixed-method research design was used in conjunction with the improvement-focused model of program evaluation to help the researcher identify strengths and weaknesses of the program. Overall, data showed the…

  6. Exploring How Usage-Focused Business Models Enable Circular Economy through Digital Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Bressanelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies advocate that digital technologies are key enabling factors for the introduction of servitized business models. At the same time, these technologies support the implementation of the circular economy (CE paradigm into businesses. Despite this general agreement, the literature still overlooks how digital technologies enable such a CE transition. To fill the gap, this paper develops a conceptual framework, based on the literature and a case study of a company implementing a usage-focused servitized business model in the household appliance industry. This study focuses on the Internet of Things (IoT, Big Data, and analytics, and identifies eight specific functionalities enabled by such technologies (improving product design, attracting target customers, monitoring and tracking product activity, providing technical support, providing preventive and predictive maintenance, optimizing the product usage, upgrading the product, enhancing renovation and end-of-life activities. By investigating how these functionalities affect three CE value drivers (increasing resource efficiency, extending lifespan, and closing the loop, the conceptual framework developed in this paper advances knowledge about the role of digital technologies as an enabler of the CE within usage-focused business models. Finally, this study shows how digital technologies help overcome the drawback of usage-focused business models for the adoption of CE pointed out by previous literature.

  7. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models with response densities within the exponential family. The described methodology is implemented in the R-package sspir. A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R, and then the time-varying terms...

  8. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  9. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS Model for Predicting Runoff and Nutrient Export in a Typical Small Watershed in the Hilly Region of Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of hydrological and water quality models is an efficient approach to better understand the processes of environmental deterioration. This study evaluated the ability of the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS model to predict runoff, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP loading in a typical small watershed of a hilly region near Taihu Lake, China. Runoff was calibrated and validated at both an annual and monthly scale, and parameter sensitivity analysis was performed for TN and TP before the two water quality components were calibrated. The results showed that the model satisfactorily simulated runoff at annual and monthly scales, both during calibration and validation processes. Additionally, results of parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer organic, Canopy cover and Fertilizer inorganic were more sensitive to TN output. In terms of TP, the parameters Residue mass ratio, Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer inorganic and Canopy cover were the most sensitive. Based on these sensitive parameters, calibration was performed. TN loading produced satisfactory results for both the calibration and validation processes, whereas the performance of TP loading was slightly poor. The simulation results showed that AnnAGNPS has the potential to be used as a valuable tool for the planning and management of watersheds.

  10. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oleg Rybak

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we ...

  11. Undergraduate student nurses' perceptions of two practice learning models: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Phase 1 of this study examined student, mentor and clinical manager's perceptions of a 'Hub and Spoke' practice learning model in year 1 of an undergraduate nursing programme. Findings from Phase 1 suggested that the model had significant educational merit in orientating students to clinical learning and emphasising the primacy of the mentor relationship in developing and supporting students. Following the students through year 2 of their programme, wherein they experienced a 'rotational' practice learning model, which provided an opportunity to explore student perceptions of both models. To explore undergraduate nurses' perceptions of two experienced practice learning models: hub and spoke model, and the classical rotational model. In a previous study the hub and spoke model appeared to develop 1st year students' sense of belongingness, continuity and quality of practice learning, there for it was important to understand what students reported about these issues when recounting their 2nd year experience in the clinical setting that was organised according to a classical rotational model. Qualitative approach utilising focus groups. 10 under-graduate student nurses at the end of 2nd year. Focus group interviews. Students responded in ways that indicate they believed the experiences of year 1 had raised their faith in their ability to cope with the practice learning and educational demands of nursing. They saw themselves as being better prepared for year 2 as a result of their exposure to hubs and spokes. The study has identified traits of resilience, continued belongingness and self-confidence in orientation to learning in clinical practice in hub and spoke experienced students. The student nurses found the hub and spoke model valid in 1st year, whilst stating that for 2nd year the rotational model can be valid. This supports earlier findings that student nurses require a structured and supportive 1st year learning environment to enable development of resilience

  12. The effect of functionality-focused and appearance-focused images of models of mixed body sizes on women's state-oriented body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gina; Karazsia, Bryan T

    2018-01-20

    Research demonstrates that exposure to appearance-focused images of models depicting societal standards of beauty negatively affect women's state-oriented body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this research was to extend this experimental research to women's state-oriented body appreciation. The 374 women participants were randomly assigned to view images that were either depicting a model who was representative or not representative of the thin ideal (body size), while this model was in either an appearance-focused pose or a function-oriented pose (pose type). State body appreciation increased significantly after viewing images depicting models who did not conform to societal standards of thinness (p body appreciation (p = 0.049). These findings provide insight into the construct of state body appreciation and offer implications for future positive body image research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validating the FOCUS Model Through an Analysis of Identity Fragmentation in Nigerian Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Social Media . Monterey, CA: Department of Defense Analysis Naval Postgraduate School, 2015. 15 APPENDIX A. “MAPPING THE RHETORIC OF VIOLENCE...along a number of dimensions . It is well known that use of social media correlates with a number of demographic characteristics, including age and...TRAC-M-TM-15-032 September 2015 Validating the FOCUS Model Through an Analysis of Identity Fragmentation in Nigerian Social Media

  14. Ghana integrated to the world economy : focus on Ghana-UK-Germany trade linkage model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    1998-01-01

    In this study of Ghana integrated to the world economy, we focus primarily on Ghana-UK-Germany trade axis partly because of Ghana?s relative dependence on the EU for her international trade. The study employs ?representative? country macroeconometric models of these economies, using data over 1970-1991, including bilateral trade links among them and with the USA and Japan, to quantitatively analyze and draw policy inference of the international transmission mechanism of macroeconomic disturba...

  15. A boundary condition to the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation for modeling strongly focused nonlinear ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnitskiy, P., E-mail: pavrosni@yandex.ru; Yuldashev, P., E-mail: petr@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Khokhlova, V., E-mail: vera@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    An equivalent source model was proposed as a boundary condition to the nonlinear parabolic Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya (KZ) equation to simulate high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields generated by medical ultrasound transducers with the shape of a spherical shell. The boundary condition was set in the initial plane; the aperture, the focal distance, and the initial pressure of the source were chosen based on the best match of the axial pressure amplitude and phase distributions in the Rayleigh integral analytic solution for a spherical transducer and the linear parabolic approximation solution for the equivalent source. Analytic expressions for the equivalent source parameters were derived. It was shown that the proposed approach allowed us to transfer the boundary condition from the spherical surface to the plane and to achieve a very good match between the linear field solutions of the parabolic and full diffraction models even for highly focused sources with F-number less than unity. The proposed method can be further used to expand the capabilities of the KZ nonlinear parabolic equation for efficient modeling of HIFU fields generated by strongly focused sources.

  16. Strategy-focused writing instruction: just observing and reflecting on a model benefits 6th grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidalgo, R.; Torrance, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; van den Bergh, H.; Álvarez, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Three groups of typically-developing 6th grade students (total N = 62) each completed strategy-focused writing training. Using a combined lagged-group and cross-panel design we assessed the effectiveness of a sequence of four different instructional components: observation and group reflection on a

  17. An auto-focusing heuristic model to increase the reliability of a scientific mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdesi, Lavinio

    2006-01-01

    Researchers invest a lot of time and effort on the design and development of components used in a scientific mission. To capitalize on this investment and on the operational experience of the researchers, it is useful to adopt a quantitative data base to monitor the history and usage of the components. This work describes a model to monitor the reliability level of components. The model is very flexible and allows users to compose systems using the same components in different configurations as required by each mission. This tool provides availability and reliability figures for the configuration requested, derived from historical data of the components' previous performance. The system is based on preliminary checklists to establish standard operating procedures (SOP) for all components life phases. When an infringement to the SOP occurs, a quantitative ranking is provided in order to quantify the risk associated with this deviation. The final agreement between field data and expected performance of the component makes the model converge onto a heuristic monitoring system. The model automatically focuses on points of failure at the detailed component element level, calculates risks, provides alerts when a demonstrated risk to safety is encountered, and advises when there is a mismatch between component performance and mission requirements. This model also helps the mission to focus resources on critical tasks where they are most needed

  18. An auto-focusing heuristic model to increase the reliability of a scientific mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdesi, Lavinio

    2006-11-01

    Researchers invest a lot of time and effort on the design and development of components used in a scientific mission. To capitalize on this investment and on the operational experience of the researchers, it is useful to adopt a quantitative data base to monitor the history and usage of the components. This work describes a model to monitor the reliability level of components. The model is very flexible and allows users to compose systems using the same components in different configurations as required by each mission. This tool provides availability and reliability figures for the configuration requested, derived from historical data of the components' previous performance. The system is based on preliminary checklists to establish standard operating procedures (SOP) for all components life phases. When an infringement to the SOP occurs, a quantitative ranking is provided in order to quantify the risk associated with this deviation. The final agreement between field data and expected performance of the component makes the model converge onto a heuristic monitoring system. The model automatically focuses on points of failure at the detailed component element level, calculates risks, provides alerts when a demonstrated risk to safety is encountered, and advises when there is a mismatch between component performance and mission requirements. This model also helps the mission to focus resources on critical tasks where they are most needed.

  19. APPLYING THE EFQM EXCELLENCE MODEL AT THE GERMAN STUDY LINE WITH FOCUS ON THE CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIES LIVIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a stage of the implementation process of the EFQM Model in a higher education institution, namely at the German study line within the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, “Babeș - Bolyai” University, Cluj –Napoca. Actually, designing this model for the higher education sector means highlighting the basis for the implementation of a Total Quality Management model, seen as a holistic dimension for the perception of quality in an organization. By means of the EFQM method, the authors try to identify the performance degree of the criterion ,,Customer Results”, related to the students’ satisfaction level. The students are seen as primary customers of the higher education sector and have an essential role in defining the quality dimensions. On the one hand, the customers of the higher education sector can surface the status quo of the quality in the institution and on the other hand they can improve the quality. Actually, the continuous improvement of quality is highly linked to performance. From this point of view, the European Foundation for Quality Management model is a practical tool in order to support the analysis of the opportunities within higher education institutions. Therefore, this model offers a customer focused approach, because many higher education institutions consider the students to be the heart of teaching and researching. Further, the fundamental concepts are defined and the focus is pointed in the direction of customer approach, which highlight the idea that excellence is creating added value for customers. Anticipating and identifying the current and the future needs of the students by developing a balanced range of relevant dimensions and indicators means taking an appropriate action based on the holistic view of quality in an organization. Focusing and understanding students’ and other customers’ requirements, their needs and expectations, follows the idea that performance can

  20. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation: a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy is investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The experimental results show that there are at least four types of unloading curves. However, it is found that there is no essential difference among four types of unloading curves. The variation curves of instantaneous Young's modulus with stress for all types of unloading curves include four segments, i.e., three linear elastic segments (segments I, II, and III) and one subsequent nonlinear elastic segment (segment IV). The instantaneous Young's modulus of segments I and III is approximately equal to that of reloading process, while smaller than that of segment II. In the nonlinear elastic segment, the instantaneous Young's modulus linearly decreases with the decrease in stress. In addition, the relationship between stress and strain rate can be accurately expressed by the hyperbolic sine function. This study includes two parts. In the present part, the characters of unloading curves are discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior based on the experimental findings. While in the latter part (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi: 10.1007/s00339-016-0385-0, 2016), the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain on the parameters of this new constitutive model are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain.

  1. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation. A new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy is investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The experimental results show that there are at least four types of unloading curves. However, it is found that there is no essential difference among four types of unloading curves. The variation curves of instantaneous Young's modulus with stress for all types of unloading curves include four segments, i.e., three linear elastic segments (segments I, II, and III) and one subsequent nonlinear elastic segment (segment IV). The instantaneous Young's modulus of segments I and III is approximately equal to that of reloading process, while smaller than that of segment II. In the nonlinear elastic segment, the instantaneous Young's modulus linearly decreases with the decrease in stress. In addition, the relationship between stress and strain rate can be accurately expressed by the hyperbolic sine function. This study includes two parts. In the present part, the characters of unloading curves are discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior based on the experimental findings. While in the latter part (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi:10.1007/s00339-016-0385-0, 2016), the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain on the parameters of this new constitutive model are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain. (orig.)

  2. Focused ultrasound for treatment of uterine myoma: From experimental model to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that focused ultrasound has a biologic effect on tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU on a small target area raises the temperature of the tissue enough to denaturate proteins and cause irreversible cell damage. The tight focus of the ultrasound energy allows delivery of the intended dose to a very precise location. The resulting coagulation necrosis is relatively painless. The application of this method in the human clinical setting has required pilot studies on an animal model. Although the treatment had a high success rate, there was a significant percentage of complications, mainly attributed to the technical drawbacks of the procedure. Therefore, this method has been modified for use in humans, and the HIFU is now guided, monitored and controlled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In October 2004, Food and Drug Adiministration (FDA approved MRI guided focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids in humans. Since then, successful treatment of uterine myomas by HIFU has been performed in thousands of women.

  3. A Comprehensive Fluid Dynamic-Diffusion Model of Blood Microcirculation with Focus on Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Francois; Harris, Wesley L.

    2009-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to address sickle cell disease, based on highly descriptive mathematical models for blood flow in the capillaries. Our investigations focus on the coupling between oxygen delivery and red blood cell dynamics, which is crucial to understanding sickle cell crises and is unique to this blood disease. The main part of our work is an extensive study of blood dynamics through simulations of red cells deforming within the capillary vessels, and relies on the use of a large mathematical system of equations describing oxygen transfer, blood plasma dynamics and red cell membrane mechanics. This model is expected to lead to the development of new research strategies for sickle cell disease. Our simulation model could be used not only to assess current researched remedies, but also to spur innovative research initiatives, based on our study of the physical properties coupled in sickle cell disease.

  4. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O 3 ) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O 3 . Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O 3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O 3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O 3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NO x control could slightly increase the ground O 3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O 3 under the high NO x abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O 3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O 3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  6. A Critical Overview of Models of Reading Comprehension with a Focus on Cognitive Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Shahnazari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reading is a cognitive activity involving skills, strategies, attentional resources, knowledge resources and their integration. The reader’s role is to decode the written symbols to allow for the recovery of information from long-term memory to construct a plausible interpretation of the writer’s message. Various number of reading models have been proposed by researchers among which some focus on motivational and emotional aspects of reading. Others highlight the cognitive aspects of reading. In this study, the models characterizing reading in terms of cognitive aspects are revieweded, and different viewpoints on the reading process are described. This may help EFL/ESL teachers to improve their understanding of the reading process, update their perspectives on teaching reading tasks which in turn might result in more efficient learning by not putting too much cognitively demanding reading tasks on EFL/ESL learners.

  7. 2D Global Rayleigh Wave Attenuation Model Using Finite Frequency Focusing and Defocusing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Masters, G.; Dalton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed an efficient technique to process and measure surface-wave amplitude and phase from a large collection of seismic waveforms. These amplitude and phase data sets are used to jointly invert for 2D phase velocity and attenuation maps. As demonstrated by Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), correcting for the effects of focusing and defocusing by elastic structure is crucial in order to obtain reliable attenuation structures. A robust theory that can reliably predict focusing-defocusing effects and is insensitive to the details of making the phase velocity maps is preferred. Great circle ray theory can give useful predictions for the focusing-defocusing effects if careful attention is paid to how the phase velocity model is smoothed. However, the predictions of the finite frequency kernels are more robust at the low-intermediate frequency range (below 25mHz) and suggest that they are better suited as a basis for inversion.We invert for the phase velocity, attenuation, source, and receiver terms simultaneously. Our models provide 60-70% variance reduction to the raw data though the source terms are the biggest contribution to the fit of the data. The attenuation maps show structures that correlate well with surface tectonics and the age-dependent trend of attenuation is clearly seen in the ocean basins. We have also identified problematic stations and earthquake sources as a by-product of our data selection process. Although our approach was developed for a global study, it can be extended to regional studies. Our first regional-scale application of this approach is to the Atlantic upper mantle.

  8. External circuit integration with electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    The pinch performance of a plasma focus (PF) device is sensitive to the physical conditions of the breakdown phase. It is therefore essential to model and study the initial phase in order to optimize device performance. An external circuit is self consistently coupled to the electromagnetic particle in cell code to model the breakdown and initial lift phase of the United Nations University/International Centre for Theoretical Physics (UNU-ICTP) plasma focus device. Gas breakdown during the breakdown phase is simulated successfully, following a drop in the applied voltage across the device and a concurrent substantial rise in the circuit current. As a result, the plasma becomes magnetized, with the growing value of the magnetic field over time leading to the gradual lift off of the well formed current sheath into the axial acceleration phase. This lifting off, with simultaneous outward sheath motion along the anode and vertical cathode, and the strong magnetic fields in the current sheath region, was demonstrated in this work, and hence validates our method of coupling the external circuit to PF devices. Our method produces voltage waveforms that are qualitatively similar to the observed experimental voltage profiles of the UNU-ICTP device. Values of the mean electron energy before and after voltage breakdown turned out to be different, with the values after breakdown being much lower. In both cases, the electron energy density function turned out to be non-Maxwellian

  9. Numerical Simulation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy with Volume Model of Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Ono, Kenji; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2010-03-01

    The development of the HIFU therapy for the deeply placed cancer has been desired. On problem is the displacement of the focal point due to the inhomogeneity of human body. The objectives are to realize the appropriate phase control of an array transducer and to support the preoperative planning of HIFU therapy by the computational prediction of treatment regions. Our approach is to solve the mass and momentum equations for mixture with the equation of state of media. The heat equation with a heat source of a viscous dissipation is solved to estimate the ablation region of tissue. The ablation, i.e., the heat denaturation of protein, is modeled as a phase transition by the phase field model. The HIFU therapy with a bowl-shape array transducer for a liver cancer is simulated. As the result with a phase control, we obtain a clear focus which is closer to a target point than the focus without a phase control, when the ultrasound propagates through lib bones. In addition, the development of the ablation region is reproduced numerically.

  10. Drosophila as a Model for Human Diseases-Focus on Innate Immunity in Barrier Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, P; Seyedoleslami Esfahani, S; Engström, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila. This review describes the current knowledge on Drosophila as a model for human diseases, with a special focus on innate immune-related disorders of the gut, lung, and skin. The discovery of antimicrobial peptides, the crucial role of Toll and Toll-like receptors, and the evolutionary conservation of signaling to the immune systems of both human and Drosophila are described in a historical perspective. Similarities and differences between human and Drosophila are discussed; current knowledge on receptors, signaling pathways, and effectors are reviewed, including antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen species, as well as autophagy. We also give examples of human diseases for which Drosophila appears to be a useful model. In addition, the limitations of the Drosophila model are mentioned. Finally, we propose areas for future research, which include using the Drosophila model for drug screening, as a validation tool for novel genetic mutations in humans and for exploratory research of microbiota-host interactions, with relevance for infection, wound healing, and cancer. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SWCX Emission from the Helium Focusing Cone - Model to Data Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    A model for heliospheric solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission is applied to a series of XMM-Newton observations of the interplanetary focusing cone of interstellar helium. The X-ray data are from three coupled observations of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP, to observe the cone) and the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDFN. to monitor global variations of the SWCX emission due to variations in the solar wind) from the period 24 November to 15 December 2003. There is good qualitative agreement between the model predictions and thc data with the maximum SWCX flux observed at an ecliptic longitude of approx. 72deg, consistent with the central longitude of the He cone. We observe a total excess of 2.1 +/- 1.3 LU in the O VII line and 2.0 +/- 0.9 LU in the 0 VIII line. However. the SWCX emission model, which was adjusted for solar wind conditions appropriate for late 2003, predicts an excess from the He cone of only 0.5 LU and 0.2 LU, respectively, in the O VII and O VIII lines. We discuss thc model to data comparison and provide possible explanations for the discrepancies. We also qualitatively reexamine our SWCX nocicl predictions in the 1/4 keV band with data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey towards the North and South Ecliptic Poles, when the He cone was probably first detected in soft X-rays.

  12. Global processing speed in children with low reading ability and in children and adults with typical reading ability: exploratory factor analytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H

    2011-06-01

    To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and nonverbal processes, alphabet writing, and motor sequencing in the hand and oral motor system. FA was conducted in 4 cohorts (all children, a subset of children with low reading scores, a subset of children with typical reading scores, and adults with typical reading scores; total N = 829). Processing speed formed the first factor in all cohorts. Both measures of motor sequencing speed loaded on the speed factor with the other timed variables. Children with poor reading scores showed lower speed factor scores than did typical peers. The speed factor was negatively correlated with age in the adults. The speed dimension was observed independently of participant cohort, gender, and reading ability. Results are consistent with a unified theory of processing speed as a quadratic function of age in typical development and with slowed processing in poor readers.

  13. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Eikelder, H. M. M.; Bošnački, D.; Elevelt, A.; Donato, K.; Di Tullio, A.; Breuer, B. J. T.; van Wijk, J. H.; van Dijk, E. V. M.; Modena, D.; Yeo, S. Y.; Grüll, H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  14. Modelling the temperature evolution of bone under high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Eikelder, H M M; Bošnački, D; Breuer, B J T; Van Wijk, J H; Van Dijk, E V M; Modena, D; Yeo, S Y; Grüll, H; Elevelt, A; Donato, K; Di Tullio, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) has been clinically shown to be effective for palliative pain management in patients suffering from skeletal metastasis. The underlying mechanism is supposed to be periosteal denervation caused by ablative temperatures reached through ultrasound heating of the cortex. The challenge is exact temperature control during sonication as MR-based thermometry approaches for bone tissue are currently not available. Thus, in contrast to the MR-HIFU ablation of soft tissue, a thermometry feedback to the HIFU is lacking, and the treatment of bone metastasis is entirely based on temperature information acquired in the soft tissue adjacent to the bone surface. However, heating of the adjacent tissue depends on the exact sonication protocol and requires extensive modelling to estimate the actual temperature of the cortex. Here we develop a computational model to calculate the spatial temperature evolution in bone and the adjacent tissue during sonication. First, a ray-tracing technique is used to compute the heat production in each spatial point serving as a source term for the second part, where the actual temperature is calculated as a function of space and time by solving the Pennes bio-heat equation. Importantly, our model includes shear waves that arise at the bone interface as well as all geometrical considerations of transducer and bone geometry. The model was compared with a theoretical approach based on the far field approximation and an MR-HIFU experiment using a bone phantom. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of shear waves to the heat production and resulting temperatures in bone. The temperature evolution predicted by our model was in accordance with the far field approximation and agreed well with the experimental data obtained in phantoms. Our model allows the simulation of the HIFU treatments of bone metastasis in patients and can be extended to a planning tool prior to MR

  15. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  16. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    skin or the disease pathology. This work provides a complete overview of the different available in vitro psoriasis models and suggests improvements for future models. Moreover, a focus was given to psoriatic skin equivalent models, as they offer several advantages over the other models, including commercial availability and validity. The potential and reported applicability of these models in psoriasis pre-clinical research is extensively discussed. As such, this work offers a guide to researchers in their choice of pre-clinical psoriasis model depending on their type of research question.

  17. SOLAR WIND CHARGE EXCHANGE EMISSION FROM THE HELIUM FOCUSING CONE: MODEL TO DATA COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Snowden, S. L.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.

    2009-01-01

    A model for heliospheric solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission is applied to a series of XMM-Newton observations of the interplanetary focusing cone of interstellar helium. The X-ray data are from three coupled observations of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP; to observe the cone) and the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N, to monitor global variations of the SWCX emission due to variations in the solar wind (SW)) from the period 2003 November 24 to December 15. There is good qualitative agreement between the model predictions and the data, after the SEP data are corrected using the HDF-N data, with the maximum SWCX flux observed at an ecliptic longitude of ∼72 deg., consistent with the central longitude of the He cone. We observe a total excess of 2.1 ± 1.3 line unit (LU) in the O VII line and 2.0 ± 0.9 LU in the O VIII line. However, the SWCX emission model, which was adjusted for SW conditions appropriate for late 2003, predicts an excess from the He cone of only 0.5 LU and 0.2 LU, respectively, in the O VII and O VIII lines. We discuss the model to data comparison and provide possible explanations for the discrepancies. We also qualitatively re-examine our SWCX model predictions in the 1/4 keV band with data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey toward the North Ecliptic Pole and SEP, when the He cone was probably first detected in soft X-rays.

  18. Role modelling of clinical tutors: a focus group study among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim

    2015-02-14

    Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and

  19. Robust Autoland Design by Multi-Model H∞ Synthesis with a Focus on the Flare Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Biannic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the resolution of multi-model and multi-objective control problems via non-smooth optimization are exploited to provide a novel methodology in the challenging context of autoland design. Based on the structured H ∞ control framework, this paper focuses on the demanding flare phase under strong wind conditions and parametric uncertainties. More precisely, the objective is to control the vertical speed of the aircraft before touchdown while minimizing the impact of windshear, ground effects, and airspeed variations. The latter is indeed no longer controlled accurately during flare and strongly affected by wind. In addition, parametric uncertainties are to be considered when designing the control laws. To this purpose, extending previous results published by the authors in a conference paper, a specific multi-model strategy taking into account variations of mass and center-of-gravity location is considered. The methodology is illustrated on a realistic aircraft benchmark proposed by the authors, which is fully described in this paper and freely available from the SMAC (Systems Modeling Analysis & Control toolbox website (http://w3.onera.fr/smac.

  20. Motivational cues predict the defensive system in team handball: A model based on regulatory focus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debanne, T; Laffaye, G

    2015-08-01

    This study was based on the naturalistic decision-making paradigm and regulatory focus theory. Its aim was to model coaches' decision-making processes for handball teams' defensive systems based on relevant cues of the reward structure, and to determine the weight of each of these cues. We collected raw data by video-recording 41 games that were selected using a simple random method. We considered the defensive strategy (DEF: aligned or staged) to be the dependent variable, and the three independent variables were (a) numerical difference between the teams; (b) score difference between the teams; and (c) game periods. We used a logistic regression design (logit model) and a multivariate logistic model to explain the link between DEF and the three category independent variables. Each factor was weighted differently during the decision-making process to select the defensive system, and combining these variables increased the impact on this process; for instance, a staged defense is 43 times more likely to be chosen during the final period in an unfavorable situation and in a man advantage. Finally, this shows that the coach's decision-making process could be based on a simple match or could require a diagnosis of the situation based on the relevant cues. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases

  2. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, Tasso J., E-mail: tasso@bu.edu; Kramer, Mark A., E-mail: mak@bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rotstein, Horacio G., E-mail: horacio@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.

  3. Modeling of the free space and focused magnetic field profiles of the ORNL superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.M.; Rader, M.; Sohns, C.W.; McKeever, J.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ORNL superconducting motor, is a device consisting of 4 DC superconducting magnets in a square cross section. These coils are arranged in a N-S-N-S configuration and at present have no iron flux return paths. Experimentally the device has been operated and has been shown to produce 102.3 kg-m of locked rotor torque at 100 Ampers winding current. The superconductors were operating at 40 Kelvin. The peak magnetic field at 2,100 amperes operating current was 2 Tesla on the cryostat face. Recently there has been an effort under way to improve the operating parameters of the device by improving the flux utilization of the device. This was to be accomplished by the use of flux focusing pole pieces. The effects of the pole pieces and the vacuum magnetic field have been modeled with the MSC EMAS code to see the possible benefit of adding pole pieces to the in situ experiment

  4. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.

  5. Electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of the plasma focus: Current sheath formation and lift off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The shaping and formation of the current sheath takes place in the breakdown phase of a plasma focus device and critically controls the device performance. Electrostatic particle in cell codes, with magnetic effects ignored, have been used to model the breakdown phase. This Letter reports the successful development and implementation of an electromagnetic particle in cell (EMPIC) code, including magnetic effects self-consistently, to simulate the breakdown phase; from the ionization, localization and gliding discharge along the insulator to the time instant of current sheath lift off. The magnetic field was found to be appreciable from the time the current sheath came into contact with the anode with increased local current, initiating the voltage breakdown of the device as a result

  6. Teacher Retirement Systems. A Review of Patterns of Teacher Pension Systems in the Fifty States, with a Model Investment Portfolio for a Typical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Charles Edward

    This document is a study of teacher retirement systems of the United States. It also deals with the problems of improved management, particularly of how funds might be invested to increase benefits or reduce the required contributions. It sets up a hypothetically ideal pattern for the investment portfolio of typical State pension fund on the basis…

  7. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  8. Focusing Modeling of OPFC Linear Array Transducer by Using Distributed Point Source Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of ultrasonic phased array detection technology is a major concern of engineering community. Orthotropic piezoelectric fiber composite (OPFC can be constructed to multielement linear array which may be applied conveniently to actuators and sensors. The phased array transducers can generate special directional strong actuator power and high sensitivity for its orthotropic performance. Focusing beam of the linear phased array transducer is obtained simply only by adjusting a parabolic time delay. In this work, the distributed point source method (DPSM is used to model the ultrasonic field. DPSM is a newly developed mesh-free numerical technique that has been developed for solving a variety of engineering problems. This work gives the basic theory of this method and solves the problems from the application of new OPFC phased array transducer. Compared with traditional transducer, the interaction effect of two OPFC linear phased array transducers is also modeled in the same medium, which shows that the pressure beam produced by the new transducer is narrower or more collimated than that produced by the conventional transducer at different angles. DPSM can be used to analyze and optimally design the OPFC linear phased array transducer.

  9. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…

  10. Central focused convolutional neural networks: Developing a data-driven model for lung nodule segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Mu; Liu, Zaiyi; Liu, Zhenyu; Gu, Dongsheng; Zang, Yali; Dong, Di; Gevaert, Olivier; Tian, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Accurate lung nodule segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images is of great importance for image-driven lung cancer analysis. However, the heterogeneity of lung nodules and the presence of similar visual characteristics between nodules and their surroundings make it difficult for robust nodule segmentation. In this study, we propose a data-driven model, termed the Central Focused Convolutional Neural Networks (CF-CNN), to segment lung nodules from heterogeneous CT images. Our approach combines two key insights: 1) the proposed model captures a diverse set of nodule-sensitive features from both 3-D and 2-D CT images simultaneously; 2) when classifying an image voxel, the effects of its neighbor voxels can vary according to their spatial locations. We describe this phenomenon by proposing a novel central pooling layer retaining much information on voxel patch center, followed by a multi-scale patch learning strategy. Moreover, we design a weighted sampling to facilitate the model training, where training samples are selected according to their degree of segmentation difficulty. The proposed method has been extensively evaluated on the public LIDC dataset including 893 nodules and an independent dataset with 74 nodules from Guangdong General Hospital (GDGH). We showed that CF-CNN achieved superior segmentation performance with average dice scores of 82.15% and 80.02% for the two datasets respectively. Moreover, we compared our results with the inter-radiologists consistency on LIDC dataset, showing a difference in average dice score of only 1.98%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Modelling and simulation of flight control electromechanical actuators with special focus on model architecting, multidisciplinary effects and power flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace field, electromechanical actuators are increasingly being implemented in place of conventional hydraulic actuators. For safety-critical embedded actuation applications like flight controls, the use of electromechanical actuators introduces specific issues related to thermal balance, reflected inertia, parasitic motion due to compliance and response to failure. Unfortunately, the physical effects governing the actuator behaviour are multidisciplinary, coupled and nonlinear. Although numerous multi-domain and system-level simulation packages are now available on the market, these effects are rarely addressed as a whole because of a lack of scientific approaches for model architecting, multi-purpose incremental modelling and judicious model implementation. In this publication, virtual prototyping of electromechanical actuators is addressed using the Bond-Graph formalism. New approaches are proposed to enable incremental modelling, thermal balance analysis, response to free-run or jamming faults, impact of compliance on parasitic motion, and influence of temperature. A special focus is placed on friction and compliance of the mechanical transmission with fault injection and temperature dependence. Aileron actuation is used to highlight the proposals for control design, energy consumption and thermal analysis, power network pollution analysis and fault response.

  12. Model study of multiphase DMS oxidation with a focus on halogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS in the marine boundary layer (MBL with a one-dimensional numerical model and focused on the influence of halogens. Our model runs show that there is still significant uncertainty about the end products of the DMS addition pathway, which is especially caused by uncertainty in the product yield of the reaction of the intermediate product methyl sulfinic acid (MSIA with OH. BrO strongly increases the importance of the addition branch in the oxidation of DMS even when present at mixing ratios smaller than 0.5pmol mol-1. The inclusion of halogen chemistry leads to higher DMS oxidation rates and smaller DMS to SO2 conversion efficiencies. The DMS to SO2 conversion efficiency is also drastically reduced under cloudy conditions. In cloud-free model runs between 5 and 15% of the oxidized DMS reacts further to particulate sulfur, in cloudy runs this fraction is almost 100%. Sulfate production by HOClaq and HOBraq is important in cloud droplets even for small Br- deficits and related small gas phase halogen concentrations. In general, more particulate sulfur is formed when halogen chemistry is included. A possible enrichment of HCO3- in fresh sea salt aerosol would increase pH values enough to make the reaction of S(IV* (=SO2,aq+HSO3-+SO32- with O3 dominant for sulfate production. It leads to a shift from methyl sulfonic acid (MSA to non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42- production but increases the total nss-SO42- only somewhat because almost all available sulfur is already oxidized to particulate sulfur in the base scenario. We discuss how realistic this is for the MBL. We found the reaction MSAaq+OH to contribute about 10% to the production of nss-SO42- in clouds. It is unimportant for cloud-free model runs. Overall we find that the presence of halogens leads to processes that decrease the albedo of stratiform clouds in the MBL.

  13. A Value Focused Thinking Model for the Development and Selection of Electrical Energy Source Alternatives at Military Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schanding, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... This thesis presents a Value Focused Thinking approach to the development of a decision analysis model to assist a decision maker at a military installation in the generation and selection of back...

  14. Application of the FOCUS-PDCA model to home care equipment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, J; Zappia, P

    1993-01-01

    Issuing durable medical equipment to patients for use at home is a costly and complex process. Selection, delivery, setup, and maintenance of home care equipment and the education of patients in its use are currently included in Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) accreditation surveys for those health care organizations that issue equipment. In this Department of Veterans Affairs teaching hospital, the process was complicated by eligibility regulations and frequently rotating housestaff. We organized a team who studied the process and identified opportunities for improvement in three areas: the selection of equipment items ordered, management of equipment-related data, and standardization of equipment delivery contracts. We produced a reference manual for staff, developed a simple database, and incorporated JCAHO home care equipment management standards into equipment delivery vendor contracts. The results of the team's efforts were an increase in efficiency, a decrease in discharge delays, and improved continuity of care. We chose to use the FOCUS-PDCA model to illustrate our approach to improving these processes.

  15. Integrative platform based on the mechatronics model for educational technologies focused on competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaşin, I.; Greta, S.; Dache, L.; Mătieş, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mechatronics is a model of transdisciplinary integration, entirely functional, with remarkable results for mankind. The incredible progress that the global economy has taken in the last decades is based on this new approach, the integrative type, which is present at the foundation of mechatronics. This kind of integrative approach is necessary for building a quality education focused on competence. The requirements from the social and economic environment, the needs of the young people who prepare themselves for an active life and the offers of the education providers are still not too interconnected to offer a satisfying education. This is the reason why the efforts to balance the demand, the needs and the offer are essential to ensure a better integration of students into society. Using a transcultural perspective, we can achieve a constructive approach. The education providers, together with the socio-economic environment, establish a clear structure of competence in multiple domains and of the instruments which can assure it. The scientific demarche, in the spirit of this paper approach the, answers the natural questions from the educational process: „Why, How and What do I learn?”.

  16. Resilience assessment of interdependent infrastructure systems: With a focus on joint restoration modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience

  17. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2010-10-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease.

  18. Modeling and experimental investigations of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, Bastien [Departement Materiaux et Structures Composites, ONERA, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Terrien, Nicolas [CETIM, 74 route de la Joneliere, 44326 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Royer, Daniel, E-mail: Bastien.Chapuis@onera.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris 7, CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates is theoretically and experimentally investigated. An analysis based on a far field approximation of the Green's function shows that Lamb waves focusing is analog to the phonon focusing effect. In highly anisotropic structures like composite plates the focusing of A{sub 0} and S{sub 0} mode is strong; the energy propagates preferentially in the fibre directions, which are minima of the slowness. This has to be taken into account when developing, for example, a transducer array for structural health monitoring systems based on Lamb waves in order to avoid dead zones.

  19. A prediction model for two-dimensional pressure distribution from underwater shock wave focusing by an ellipsoidal reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Guo, Rui; Chen, Liang; Cao, Yu; Yang, Yongliang; Zhao, Bobo

    2016-12-01

    Underwater shock wave focusing by ellipsoidal reflector is an important method for medical treatment, detection, and acoustic warfare. However, its pressure field is difficult to predict due to complicated physics. In this study, the pressure by focusing is modeled based on theories of shock wave propagation, nonlinear reflection, and nonlinear focusing, and the calculation domain is determined by approximate equations of wave fronts and lines. The pressure field during the whole process is described by combining direct and focusing pressures in the time and space domains. On this basis, the focusing behavior is simulated, and obtained pressure profiles are compared with experimental results, and the influence of reflector length on focusing performance is also discussed. The results indicate that although there are some rough assumptions, this model can simulate the underwater focusing in some detail and does a good job of predicting the pressure distribution, especially for the positive peak pressure, with an error below 10%; as the reflector length increases, the dynamic focus tends to move linearly forward to the other geometric focus, and the pressure gain increases continuously but the growth rate decreases.

  20. Object Selection Costs in Visual Working Memory: A Diffusion Model Analysis of the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Smith, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can…

  1. Mechanisms underlying dioxygen reduction in laccases. Structural and modelling studies focusing on proton transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bento Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases are enzymes that couple the oxidation of substrates with the reduction of dioxygen to water. They are the simplest members of the multi-copper oxidases and contain at least two types of copper centres; a mononuclear T1 and a trinuclear that includes two T3 and one T2 copper ions. Substrate oxidation takes place at the mononuclear centre whereas reduction of oxygen to water occurs at the trinuclear centre. Results In this study, the CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis was used as a model to understand the mechanisms taking place at the molecular level, with a focus in the trinuclear centre. The structures of the holo-protein and of the oxidised form of the apo-protein, which has previously been reconstituted in vitro with Cu(I, have been determined. The former has a dioxygen moiety between the T3 coppers, while the latter has a monoatomic oxygen, here interpreted as a hydroxyl ion. The UV/visible spectra of these two forms have been analysed in the crystals and compared with the data obtained in solution. Theoretical calculations on these and other structures of CotA were used to identify groups that may be responsible for channelling the protons that are needed for reduction of dioxygen to water. Conclusions These results present evidence that Glu 498 is the only proton-active group in the vicinity of the trinuclear centre. This strongly suggests that this residue may be responsible for channelling the protons needed for the reduction. These results are compared with other data available for these enzymes, highlighting similarities and differences within laccases and multicopper oxidases.

  2. Hydrological simulation in a basin of typical tropical climate and soil using the SWAT model part I: Calibration and validation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos R. Pereira

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights: The SWAT model was qualified for simulating the Pomba River sub-basin in the sites where rainfall representation was reasonable to good. The model can be used in the simulation of maximum, average and minimum annual daily streamflow based on the paired t-test, contributing with the water resources management of region, although the model still needs to be improved, mainly in the representativeness of rainfall, to give better estimates of extreme values.

  3. Total motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Zhou, Haitao; Dubose, Dewayne; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-01

    The proper prehospital and inpatient management of patients with unstable spinal injuries is critical for prevention of secondary neurological compromise. The authors sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation. Five fresh cadavers with surgically created unstable L-1 burst fractures were tested. The amount of angular motion between the T-12 and L-2 vertebral segments was measured using a 3D electromagnetic motion analysis device. A complete sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. These maneuvers and transfers included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, the authors performed what they believed to be the most commonly used versus the best techniques for preventing undesirable motion at the injury level. When placing a spine board there was more motion in all 3 planes with the log-roll technique, and this difference reached statistical significance for axial rotation (p = 0.018) and lateral bending (p = 0.003). Using logrolling for spine board removal resulted in increased motion again, and this was statistically significant for flexion-extension (p = 0.014). During the bed transfer and lateral therapy, the log-roll technique resulted in more motion in all 3 planes (p ≤ 0.05). When turning the cadavers prone for surgery there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for manually turning the patient versus the Jackson table turn (p ≤ 0.01). The total motion was decreased by almost 50% in each plane when using an alternative to the log-roll techniques during the complete sequence (p ≤ 0.007). Although it is unknown how much motion in the unstable spine is necessary to cause

  4. Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model: A Framework for Bridging Regulatory Focus Theory and Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Leigh Ann

    2017-03-01

    This article introduces the need-support model, which proposes that regulatory focus can affect subjective support for the needs proposed by self-determination theory (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and support of these needs can affect subjective labeling of experiences as promotion-focused and prevention-focused. Three studies tested these hypotheses ( N = 2,114). Study 1 found that people recall more need support in promotion-focused experiences than in prevention-focused experiences, and need support in their day yesterday (with no particular regulatory focus) fell in between. Study 2 found that experiences of higher need support were more likely to be labeled as promotion-focused rather than prevention-focused, and that each need accounted for distinct variance in the labeling of experiences. Study 3 varied regulatory focus within a performance task and found that participants in the promotion condition engaged in need-support inflation, whereas participants in the prevention condition engaged in need-support deflation. Directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Substantial Integration of Typical Educational Games into Extended Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas B.; Tanner-Smith, Emily; Hostetler, Andrew; Fradkin, Aryah; Polikov, Vadim

    2018-01-01

    Much research focuses on what might be possible with digital games in the classroom. This study focuses on what is currently probable and typical. It uses a controlled quasi-experimental design to compare outcomes for students of 13 teachers in 10 diverse urban, suburban, and rural schools. The teachers integrated a set of 55 typical educational…

  6. Total motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Dubose, Dewayne; Small, John; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Zhou, Haitao; Conrad, Bryan P; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-15

    Biomechanical cadaveric study. We sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation, using 2 different protocols. From the time of injury until the spine is adequately stabilized in the operating room, every step in management of the spine-injured patient can result in secondary injury to the spinal cord. The amount of angular motion between C5 and C6, after a surgically created unstable injury, was measured using an electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). A total sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. This included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, we performed what has been shown to be the best and commonly used (log-roll) techniques. During bed transfers and the turn prone for surgery, there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for traditional transfer with the spine board and manually turning the patient prone as commonly done (P patient from the field to stabilization in the operating room using the best compared with the most commonly used techniques. As previously reported, using log-roll techniques consistently results in unwanted motion at the injured spinal segment.

  7. On various metrics used for validation of predictive QSAR models with applications in virtual screening and focused library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Mitra, Indrani

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have important applications in drug discovery research, environmental fate modeling, property prediction, etc. Validation has been recognized as a very important step for QSAR model development. As one of the important objectives of QSAR modeling is to predict activity/property/toxicity of new chemicals falling within the domain of applicability of the developed models and QSARs are being used for regulatory decisions, checking reliability of the models and confidence of their predictions is a very important aspect, which can be judged during the validation process. One prime application of a statistically significant QSAR model is virtual screening for molecules with improved potency based on the pharmacophoric features and the descriptors appearing in the QSAR model. Validated QSAR models may also be utilized for design of focused libraries which may be subsequently screened for the selection of hits. The present review focuses on various metrics used for validation of predictive QSAR models together with an overview of the application of QSAR models in the fields of virtual screening and focused library design for diverse series of compounds with citation of some recent examples.

  8. Modeling the focusing efficiency of lobster-eye optics for image shifting depending on the soft x-ray wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Luning; Li, Wei; Wu, Mingxuan; Su, Yun; Guo, Chongling; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Bingxin; Yan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency. These results could be beneficial to optimize parameters of lobster-eye optics in order to realize maximum focusing efficiency.

  9. Envelope model for passive magnetic focusing of an intense proton or ion beam propagating through thin foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion beams (including protons with low emittance and high space-charge intensity can be propagated with normal incidence through a sequence of thin metallic foils separated by vacuum gaps of order the characteristic transverse beam extent to transport/collimate the beam or to focus it to a small transverse spot. Energetic ions have sufficient range to pass through a significant number of thin foils with little energy loss or scattering. The foils reduce the (defocusing radial electric self-field of the beam while not altering the (focusing azimuthal magnetic self-field of the beam, thereby allowing passive self-beam focusing if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong relative to the residual electric field. Here we present an envelope model developed to predict the strength of this passive (beam generated focusing effect under a number of simplifying assumptions including relatively long pulse duration. The envelope model provides a simple criterion for the necessary foil spacing for net focusing and clearly illustrates system focusing properties for either beam collimation (such as injecting a laser-produced proton beam into an accelerator or for magnetic pinch focusing to a small transverse spot (for beam driven heating of materials. An illustrative example is worked for an idealization of a recently performed laser-produced proton-beam experiment to provide guidance on possible beam focusing and collimation systems. It is found that foils spaced on the order of the characteristic transverse beam size desired can be employed and that envelope divergence of the initial beam entering the foil lens must be suppressed to limit the total number of foils required to practical values for pinch focusing. Relatively modest proton-beam current at 10 MeV kinetic energy can clearly demonstrate strong magnetic pinch focusing achieving a transverse rms extent similar to the foil spacing (20–50  μm gaps in beam propagation distances of tens of mm

  10. Linking Resource-Based Strategies to Customer-Focused Performance for Professional Services: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lu Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper links professional service firms’ resource-based strategies to their customer-focused performance for formulating service quality improvement priorities. The research applies the structural equation modelling approach to survey data from Hong Kong construction consultants to test some hypotheses. The study validates the various measures of firms’ resource-based strategies and customer-focused performance and bridges the gaps in firms’ organizational learning, core competences and customer-focused performance mediated by their strategic flexibility. The research results have practical implications for professional service firms to deploy resources appropriately to first enhance different competences and then improve customerfocused performance using their different competences.

  11. CONCEPT MODEL OF CREATION AND EVALUATION OF THE DEGREE OF FOCUS-ON-CLIENTS OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladygina Ekaterina Evgen'evna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of ensuring competitive capacity of an enterprise, and identifies the reserves for increasing it. The focus-on-clients of an enterprise was identified to be the main direction for increasing the competitive capacity. This article features the parameters for assessment of the degree of focus-on-clients of an enterprise, as well as formulae for the said assessment. It also presents methods to evaluate the priority of the criteria. The article contains the model created for evaluating the development of focus-on-clients of the enterprise. This model allows to assess the parameters that influence the degree of focus-on-clients, priority of such parameters, and identify the reserves for improving them. In particular, method for calculating quantitative parameters by converting qualitative parameters into quantitative was introduced. In addition, plan of activities aimed at improving the degree of focus-on-clients and, therefore, competitive capacity of the enterprise, is presented. The article features formulae, functional relations, and calculation of all parameters as well. The model for assessment and development of focus-on-customers presented in the work defines the degree of conformance between the selected strategy and accounting for consumers' preferences when the plan of activities aimed at ensuring competitive capacity of the enterprise is implemented.

  12. CAE "FOCUS" for modelling and simulating electron optics systems: development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, Andrey; Grachev, Evgeny; Gurov, Victor; Bochkov, Ilya; Bochkov, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Electron optics is a theoretical base of scientific instrument engineering. Mathematical simulation of occurring processes is a base for contemporary design of complicated devices of the electron optics. Problems of the numerical mathematical simulation are effectively solved by CAE system means. CAE "FOCUS" developed by the authors includes fast and accurate methods: boundary element method (BEM) for the electric field calculation, Runge-Kutta- Fieghlberg method for the charged particle trajectory computation controlling an accuracy of calculations, original methods for search of terms for the angular and time-of-flight focusing. CAE "FOCUS" is organized as a collection of modules each of which solves an independent (sub) task. A range of physical and analytical devices, in particular a microfocus X-ray tube of high power, has been developed using this soft.

  13. Comparison of models for predicting outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease focusing on microsimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians have difficulty to subjectively estimate the cardiovascular risk of their patients. Using an estimate of global cardiovascular risk could be more relevant to guide decisions than using binary representation (presence or absence of risk factors data. The main aim of the paper is to compare different models of predicting the progress of a coronary artery diseases (CAD to help the decision making of physician. Methods: There are different standard models for predicting risk factors such as models based on logistic regression model, Cox regression model, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov model and microsimulation model. Each model has its own application which can or cannot use by physicians to make a decision on treatment of each patient. Results: There are five main common models for predicting of outcomes, including models based on logistic regression model (for short-term outcomes, Cox regression model (for intermediate-term outcomes, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov and microsimulation models (for long-term outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of these models have been discussed and summarized. Conclusion: Given the complex medical decisions that physicians face in everyday practice, the multiple interrelated factors that play a role in choosing the optimal treatment, and the continuously accumulating new evidence on determinants of outcome and treatment options for CAD, physicians may potentially benefit from a clinical decision support system that accounts for all these considerations. The microsimulation model could provide cardiologists, researchers, and medical students a user-friendly software, which can be used as an intelligent interventional simulator.

  14. Simulation of changes in heavy metal contamination in farmland soils of a typical manufacturing center through logistic-based cellular automata modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming

    2016-01-01

    A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.

  15. Finite element model approach of a cylindrical lithium ion battery cell with a focus on minimization of the computational effort and short circuit prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffler, Marco; Sevarin, Alessio; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Heindl, Simon F.; Breitfuss, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    In this research, a parameterized beam-element-based mechanical modeling approach for cylindrical lithium ion batteries is developed. With the goal to use the cell model in entire vehicle crash simulations, focus of development is on minimizing the computational effort whilst simultaneously obtaining accurate mechanical behavior. The cylindrical cell shape is approximated by radial beams connected to each other in circumferential and longitudinal directions. The discrete beam formulation is used to define an anisotropic material behavior. An 18650 lithium ion cell model constructed in LS-Dyna is used to show the high degree of parameterization of the approach. A criterion which considers the positive pole deformation and the radial deformation of the cell is developed for short circuit prediction during simulation. An abuse testing program, consisting of radial crush, axial crush, and penetration is performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and internal short circuit behavior of a commercially available 18650 lithium cell. Additional 3-point-bending tests are performed to verify the approach objectively. By reducing the number of strength-related elements to 1600, a fast and accurate cell model can be created. Compared to typical cell models in technical literature, simulation time of a single cell load case can be reduced by approx. 90%.

  16. Non-uniform hybrid strategy for architecting and modeling flight vehicle focused system-of-systems operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yifeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To balance the contradiction between comprehensiveness of system-of-systems (SoS description and cost of modeling and simulation, a non-uniform hybrid strategy (NUHYS is proposed. NUHYS groups elements of an SoS operation into system community or relatively independent system based on contributors complexity and focus relationship according to the focus of SoS problem. Meanwhile, modeling methods are categorized based on details attention rate and dynamic attention rate, seeking for matching contributors. Taking helicopter rescue in earthquake relief as an example, the procedure of applying NUHYS and its effectiveness are verified.

  17. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  18. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems, which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

  19. The past, present and future of cyber-physical systems: a focus on models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward A

    2015-02-26

    This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

  20. Animal models of autism with a particular focus on the neural basis of changes in social behaviour: an update article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexová, Lucia; Talarovičová, Alžbeta; Lewis-Evans, Ben; Borbélyová, Veronika; Kršková, Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Research on autism has been gaining more and more attention. However, its aetiology is not entirely known and several factors are thought to contribute to the development of this neurodevelopmental disorder. These potential contributing factors range from genetic heritability to environmental effects. A significant number of reviews have already been published on different aspects of autism research as well as focusing on using animal models to help expand current knowledge around its aetiology. However, the diverse range of symptoms and possible causes of autism have resulted in as equally wide variety of animal models of autism. In this update article we focus only on the animal models with neurobehavioural characteristics of social deficit related to autism and present an overview of the animal models with alterations in brain regions, neurotransmitters, or hormones that are involved in a decrease in sociability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  1. VCP associated inclusion body myopathy and paget disease of bone knock-in mouse model exhibits tissue pathology typical of human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Badadani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD. We have generated a knock-in mouse model with the common R155H mutation. Mice demonstrate progressive muscle weakness starting approximately at the age of 6 months. Histology of mutant muscle showed progressive vacuolization of myofibrils and centrally located nuclei, and immunostaining shows progressive cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 and ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in quadriceps myofibrils and brain. Increased LC3-II staining of muscle sections representing increased number of autophagosomes suggested impaired autophagy. Increased apoptosis was demonstrated by elevated caspase-3 activity and increased TUNEL-positive nuclei. X-ray microtomography (uCT images show radiolucency of distal femurs and proximal tibiae in knock-in mice and uCT morphometrics shows decreased trabecular pattern and increased cortical wall thickness. Bone histology and bone marrow derived macrophage cultures in these mice revealed increased osteoclastogenesis observed by TRAP staining suggestive of Paget bone disease. The VCP(R155H/+ knock-in mice replicate the muscle, bone and brain pathology of inclusion body myopathy, thus representing a useful model for preclinical studies.

  2. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey V; Fedorovich, Vyacheslav V; Lens, Piet

    2006-03-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using one-dimensional (with regard to reactor height) equations. A universal description of both the fluid hydrodynamics and granular sludge dynamics was elaborated by applying known physical laws and empirical relations derived from experimental observations. In addition, the developed model includes: (1) multiple-reaction stoichiometry, (2) microbial growth kinetics, (3) equilibrium chemistry in the liquid phase, (4) major solid-liquid-gas interactions, and (5) material balances for dissolved and solid components along the reactor height. The integrated model has been validated with a set of experimental data on the start-up, operation performance, sludge dynamics, and solute intermediate concentration profiles of a UASB reactor treating cheese whey [Yan et al. (1989) Biol Wastes 27:289-305; Yan et al. (1993) Biotechnol Bioeng 41:700-706]. A sensitivity analysis of the model, performed with regard to the seed sludge characteristics and the key model parameters, showed that the output of the dispersed plug flow model was most influenced by the sludge settleability characteristics and the growth properties (especially mu(m)) of both protein-degrading bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens.

  3. A focused information criterion for graphical models in fMRI connectivity with high-dimensional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pircalabelu, E.; Claeskens, G.; Jahfari, S.; Waldorp, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity in the brain is the most promising approach to explain human behavior. Here we develop a focused information criterion for graphical models to determine brain connectivity tailored to specific research questions. All efforts are concentrated on high-dimensional settings where the number

  4. A clinical reasoning model focused on clients' behaviour change with reference to physiotherapists: its multiphase development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvén, Maria; Hochwälder, Jacek; Dean, Elizabeth; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-05-01

    A biopsychosocial approach and behaviour change strategies have long been proposed to serve as a basis for addressing current multifaceted health problems. This emphasis has implications for clinical reasoning of health professionals. This study's aim was to develop and validate a conceptual model to guide physiotherapists' clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change. Phase 1 consisted of the exploration of existing research and the research team's experiences and knowledge. Phases 2a and 2b consisted of validation and refinement of the model based on input from physiotherapy students in two focus groups (n = 5 per group) and from experts in behavioural medicine (n = 9). Phase 1 generated theoretical and evidence bases for the first version of a model. Phases 2a and 2b established the validity and value of the model. The final model described clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change as a cognitive, reflective, collaborative and iterative process with multiple interrelated levels that included input from the client and physiotherapist, a functional behavioural analysis of the activity-related target behaviour and the selection of strategies for behaviour change. This unique model, theory- and evidence-informed, has been developed to help physiotherapists to apply clinical reasoning systematically in the process of behaviour change with their clients.

  5. A vegetation-focused soil-plant-atmospheric continuum model to study hydrodynamic soil-plant water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijuan; Guan, Huade; Hutson, John; Forster, Michael A.; Wang, Yunquan; Simmons, Craig T.

    2017-06-01

    A novel simple soil-plant-atmospheric continuum model that emphasizes the vegetation's role in controlling water transfer (v-SPAC) has been developed in this study. The v-SPAC model aims to incorporate both plant and soil hydrological measurements into plant water transfer modeling. The model is different from previous SPAC models in which v-SPAC uses (1) a dynamic plant resistance system in the form of a vulnerability curve that can be easily obtained from sap flow and stem xylem water potential time series and (2) a plant capacitance parameter to buffer the effects of transpiration on root water uptake. The unique representation of root resistance and capacitance allows the model to embrace SPAC hydraulic pathway from bulk soil, to soil-root interface, to root xylem, and finally to stem xylem where the xylem water potential is measured. The v-SPAC model was tested on a native tree species in Australia, Eucalyptus crenulata saplings, with controlled drought treatment. To further validate the robustness of the v-SPAC model, it was compared against a soil-focused SPAC model, LEACHM. The v-SPAC model simulation results closely matched the observed sap flow and stem water potential time series, as well as the soil moisture variation of the experiment. The v-SPAC model was found to be more accurate in predicting measured data than the LEACHM model, underscoring the importance of incorporating root resistance into SPAC models and the benefit of integrating plant measurements to constrain SPAC modeling.

  6. The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sargent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At Ordnance Survey, GB, we have taken an incremental approach to creating our 3D geospatial database. Research at Ordnance Survey has focused not only on methods for deriving 3D data, but also on the needs of the user in terms of the actual tasks they perform. This provides insights into the type and quality of the data required and how its quality is conveyed. In 2007, using task analysis and user-centred design, we derived a set of geometric characteristics of building exteriors that are relevant to one or more use contexts. This work has been valuable for guiding which building data to collect and how to augment our products. In 2014, we began to supply building height attributes as an alpha-release enhancement to our 2D topography data, OS MasterMap® Topography Layer. This is the first in a series of enhancements of our 2D data that forms part of a road map that will ultimately lead to a full range of 3D products. This paper outlines our research journey from the understanding of the key 3D building characteristics to the development of geo-spatial products and the specification of research. There remains a rich seam of research into methods for capturing user-focused, geo-spatial data to enable visualisation and analysis in three dimensions. Because the process of informing and designing a product is necessarily focused on the practicalities of production, storage and distribution, this paper is presented as a case report, as we believe our journey will be of interest to others involved in the capture of 3D buildings at a national level.

  7. From Image Processing to Classification: 1. Modelling Disturbances of Isoelectric Focusing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Søndergaard, I.; Skovgaard, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to optimize the conditions for evaluation of isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns by digital image processing, the sources of error in determination of the pi values were analyzed together with the influence of a varying background. The effects of band distortions, in the spectra...... of the individual lanes, were examined. In order to minimize the effect of these distortions, optimal conditions for handling IEF patterns by digital image processing were elucidated. The systematic part of the global deformation on the gels was investigated and an algorithm was developed by which it was possible...

  8. Modeling the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality in a typical highly intensive agricultural small watershed, Dongting lake basin, south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqing; Liu, Liming; Ji, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality is critically important for estimating pollution potential and reducing pollution risk. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality at both spatial and temporal scales. The study took place in the Jinjing River watershed in 2010; seven landscape types and four water quality pollutions were chosen as analysis parameters. Three different buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the relationship as a function of spatial scale. The results of a Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis suggest that "source" landscape, namely, tea gardens, residential areas, and paddy lands, have positive effects on water quality parameters, while forests exhibit a negative influence on water quality parameters because they represent a "sink" landscape and the sub-watershed level is identified as a suitable scale. Using the principal component analysis, tea gardens, residential areas, paddy lands, and forests were identified as the main landscape index. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality for each season. The results demonstrate that both landscape composition and configuration affect water quality. In summer and winter, the landscape metrics explained approximately 80.7 % of the variance in the water quality variables, which was higher than that for spring and fall (60.3 %). This study can help environmental managers to understand the relationships between landscapes and water quality and provide landscape ecological approaches for water quality control and land use management.

  9. Analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of dissolved organic matter in typical greenhouse soil of northern China using three dimensional fluorescence spectra technique and parallel factor analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-wei; Lei, Hong-jun; Han, Yu-ping; Xi, Bei-dou; He, Xiao-song; Xu, Qi-gong; Li, Dan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the soil DOM characteristics in the vegetable greenhouse with a long-term of cultivation. Results showed that the soil DOM mainly consisted of three components, fulvic acid-like (C1), humic acid-like (C2) and protein-like (C3), with C1 as the majority one. The distribution of DOM in space was also studied. In vertical direction, C1 and C2 decreased significantly with the increase in soil depth, while C3 component decreased after increased. The humification coefficient decreased fast from 0-20 to 30-40 cm, and then increased from 30-40 to 40-50 cm. In the horizontal direction, the level of C2 component varied greatly in space, while that of C1 component changed little, and that of C3 component fell in between the above two. The change in the humification degree of each soil layer significantly varied spatially. Humification process of soil organic matter mainly occurred in the surface soil layer. In addition, the humification degree in space also changed significantly. The new ideas of this study are: (1) Analyze the composition and spatial heterogeneity of soil DOM in the vegetable greenhouse; (2) Use three dimensional fluorescence spectra technology and parallel factor analysis model successfully to quantify the components of soil DOM, which provides a new method for the soil DOM analysis.

  10. Thermometry during MR-guided focused ultrasound in a preclinical model based on Thiel embalmed tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsios, Ioannis; Bobeica, Mariana; Saliev, Timur; Rube, Martin; Melzer, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the accuracy of Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF) thermometry during MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation on explanted Thiel embalmed human and animal liver, fresh animal liver, and compared to gel phantom. PRF thermometry during MRgFUS was conducted using a 1.5T MRI system. The phantom and the organs were sonicated with the following energies: 300J, 600J, 1000J and 1400J. The temperature increase which was measured using PRF thermometry during sonication was compared to actual temperature rise in the same conditions measured by fibre optic thermocouple. Sonication of fresh animal liver showed temperature differences varying between 0.27°C and 0.40°C, whereas the phantom results showed temperature differences from 0.23°C to 0.40°C. For the Thiel embalmed organs, the temperature difference varied from 1.17 °C to 3.13°C for the ovine liver, and from 1.3°C to 3.10°C for the human liver. The temperature differences measured in the fresh liver were small and similar to those found for the gel phantom. However, the temperature differences calculated for the Thiel embalmed organs were higher compared to the fresh organ. This indicates that the PRF-based temperature calibration of the Focused Ultrasound machine for Thiel embalmed tissue is necessary.

  11. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  12. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Novel Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Berry A, Capone F, Giorgio M, Pelicci P, de Kloet E, et al . 2007. Deletion of the life span determinant p66Shc prevents age-dependent increases in...in humans. Limitations to animal research must be recognized as well. Shanks et al (78) argue that animal models are not predictive of responses in...brain injury in animals to model mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in humans. Wahab et al (95) reported that HIFU can impair neural axonal

  13. Epidemiology of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Intracranial Hemorrhage: Focusing Predictive Models for Neurosurgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Alessandro; Levy, A Stewart; Carrick, Matthew M; Tanner, Allen; Mains, Charles W; Bar-Or, David

    2017-11-01

    To outline differences in neurosurgical intervention (NI) rates between intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) types in mild traumatic brain injuries and help identify which ICH types are most likely to benefit from creation of predictive models for NI. A multicenter retrospective study of adult patients spanning 3 years at 4 U.S. trauma centers was performed. Patients were included if they presented with mild traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) with head CT scan positive for ICH. Patients were excluded for skull fractures, "unspecified hemorrhage," or coagulopathy. Primary outcome was NI. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were built to analyze the independent association between ICH variables and outcome measures. The study comprised 1876 patients. NI rate was 6.7%. There was a significant difference in rate of NI by ICH type. Subdural hematomas had the highest rate of NI (15.5%) and accounted for 78% of all NIs. Isolated subarachnoid hemorrhages had the lowest, nonzero, NI rate (0.19%). Logistic regression models identified ICH type as the most influential independent variable when examining NI. A model predicting NI for isolated subarachnoid hemorrhages would require 26,928 patients, but a model predicting NI for isolated subdural hematomas would require only 328 patients. This study highlighted disparate NI rates among ICH types in patients with mild traumatic brain injury and identified mild, isolated subdural hematomas as most appropriate for construction of predictive NI models. Increased health care efficiency will be driven by accurate understanding of risk, which can come only from accurate predictive models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  15. Modeling Seismic Cycles of Great Megathrust Earthquakes Across the Scales With Focus at Postseismic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan V.; Muldashev, Iskander A.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction is substantially multiscale process where the stresses are built by long-term tectonic motions, modified by sudden jerky deformations during earthquakes, and then restored by following multiple relaxation processes. Here we develop a cross-scale thermomechanical model aimed to simulate the subduction process from 1 min to million years' time scale. The model employs elasticity, nonlinear transient viscous rheology, and rate-and-state friction. It generates spontaneous earthquake sequences and by using an adaptive time step algorithm, recreates the deformation process as observed naturally during the seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. The model predicts that viscosity in the mantle wedge drops by more than three orders of magnitude during the great earthquake with a magnitude above 9. As a result, the surface velocities just an hour or day after the earthquake are controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the several hundred km of mantle landward of the trench and not by the afterslip localized at the fault as is currently believed. Our model replicates centuries-long seismic cycles exhibited by the greatest earthquakes and is consistent with the postseismic surface displacements recorded after the Great Tohoku Earthquake. We demonstrate that there is no contradiction between extremely low mechanical coupling at the subduction megathrust in South Chile inferred from long-term geodynamic models and appearance of the largest earthquakes, like the Great Chile 1960 Earthquake.

  16. Survey review of models for use in market penetration analysis: utility sector focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groncki, P.J.; Kydes, A.S.; Lamontagne, J.; Marcuse, W.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-11-01

    The ultimate benefits of federal expenditures in research and development for new technologies are dependent upon the degree of acceptance of these technologies. Market penetration considerations are central to the problem of quantifying the potential benefits. These benefits are inputs to the selection process of projects competing for finite R and D funds. Market penetration is the gradual acceptance of a new commodity or technology. The Office of Coal utilization is concerned with the specialized area of market penetration of new electric power generation technologies for both replacement and new capacity. The common measure of market penetration is the fraction of the market serviced by the challenging technology for each time point considered. The methodologies for estimating market penetration are divided into three generic classes: integrated energy/economy modeling systems, utility capacity expansion models, and technology substitution models. In general, the integrated energy/economy modeling systems have three advantages: they provide internally consistent macro, energy-economy scenarios, they account for the effect of prices on demand by fuel form, and they explicitly capture the effects of population growth and the level and structure of economic activity on energy demand. A variety of deficiencies appear in most energy-economy systems models. All of the methodologies may be applied at some level to questions of market penetration of new technologies in the utility sector; choice of methods for a particular analysis must be conditioned by the scope of the analysis, data availability, and the relative cost of alternative analysis.

  17. Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Final Focus Quadrupole Model for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, Michele; Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid quadrupole magnet design has been proposed for the final focus in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) that is currently under study. The proposed design is a combination of an iron dominated electromagnetic quadrupole with a bore diameter of 8.25 mm with permanent magnet blocks placed between the poles made of soft magnetic CoFe alloy "Permendur". The possibility of using Sm2Co17 and Nd2Fe14B as material for the permanent magnet blocks has been investigated. It is shown that a very high field gradient of 530 T/m (Sm2Co17) and 590 T/m (Nd2Fe14B) can be achieved.

  18. MODEL OF INTERVENTION FOCUSED ON CHILDHOOD AND THEIR PROTAGONISM IN THEIR OWN LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera-Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to systematize the methodological experience acquired during the Psychomotricity and Intervention Project taught at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica. This model of intervention aims at strengthening the different areas of human development in children ages 2 to 7, being perceptual-motor development and self-regulation the central axes. As a result of the implementation of this model children were able to become protagonists of their own learning.  They were exposed to different spaces and situations that, through movement, autonomy, analysis and resolution of situations, they were able to learn, face and improve daily tasks, skills and emotions.  The foregoing is according to the perception of the adult in charge of the child, project staff and the child’s own comments. It is concluded that the creation of this model is a contribution for professionals and the general community interested in children’s education and their overall formation.

  19. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Park, Choongseok; Ben-Tal, Alona; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rubin, Jonathan E; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2) exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient ventilation. The model

  20. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  1. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  2. Enhancement of speech signals - with a focus on voiced speech models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie

    This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based on this mo......This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based...

  3. Modeling the Smartphone Game to Improve Players Focus Case Study of Game Dumb Ways to Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Purnamasari

    2014-10-01

    There are a need to find some characteristics of a game which has positive effects for the players. Those characteristics can be formulated as the example of a good game. This paper will analyze the opinion and produce the conclusion from a survey of playing "Dumb Ways to Die to generate a positive game model.

  4. Using a Reference Corpus as a User Model for Focused Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.; Jijkoun, V.; van Zwol, R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a method for ranking short information nuggets extracted from a text corpus, using another, reliable reference corpus as a user model. We argue that the availability and usage of such additional corpora is common in a number of IR tasks, and apply the method to answering a form of

  5. Using a Reference Corpus as a User Model for Focused Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.; Jijkoun, V.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a method for ranking short information nuggets extracted from a text corpus, using another, reliable reference corpus as a user model. We argue that the availability and usage of such additional corpora is common in a number of IR, tasks, and apply the method to answering a form of

  6. Triple Diagonal modeling: A mechanism to focus productivity improvement for business success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Villareal, L.D. [Army Depot, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Triple Diagonal (M) modeling is a technique to help quickly diagnose an organization`s existing production system and to identify significant improvement opportunities in executing, controlling, and planning operations. TD modeling is derived from ICAM Definition Language (IDEF 0)-also known as Structured Analysis and Design Technique. It has been used successfully at several Department of Defense remanufacturing facilities trying to accomplish significant production system modernization. TD has several advantages over other modeling techniques. First, it quickly does ``As-ls`` analysis and then moves on to identify improvements. Second, creating one large diagram makes it easier to share the TD model throughout an organization, rather than the many linked 8 1/2 {times} 11`` drawings used in traditional decomposition approaches. Third, it acts as a communication mechanism to share understanding about improvement opportunities that may cross existing functional/organizational boundaries. Finally, TD acts as a vehicle to build a consensus on a prioritized list of improvement efforts that ``hangs togethers as an agenda for systemic changes in the production system and the improved integration of support functions.

  7. Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kueffer, C.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-633 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : model systems * invasion syndromes * multi-site studies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  8. A computational model of focused attention meditation and its transfer to a sustained attention task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moye, Amir Sep; van Vugt, Marieke; van Vugt, Marieke K; Banks, Adrian P; Kennedy, William G

    2017-01-01

    Although meditation and mindfulness practices are widely discussed and studied more and more in the scientific literature, there is little theory about the cognitive mechanisms that comprise it. Here we begin to develop such a theory by creating a computational cognitive model of a particular type

  9. Modeling of a focused beam in a semi-infinite highly scattering medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tycho, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    for theanalysis of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems is advantageous,because of the convenient description of complex optical systems throughimplication of the ABCD-matrix formalism, and because -contrary to transporttheory and diffusion theory- the phase of the light can be modeled. OCT isoften combined...

  10. Bioengineered silk scaffolds in 3D tissue modeling with focus on mammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghdouri-White, Yas; Bowlin, Gary L; Lemmon, Christopher A; Dréau, Didier

    2016-02-01

    In vitro generation of three-dimensional (3D) biological tissues and organ-like structures is a promising strategy to study and closely model complex aspects of the molecular, cellular, and physiological interactions of tissue. In particular, in vitro 3D tissue modeling holds promises to further our understanding of breast development. Indeed, biologically relevant 3D structures that combine mammary cells and engineered matrices have improved our knowledge of mammary tissue growth, organization, and differentiation. Several polymeric biomaterials have been used as scaffolds to engineer 3D mammary tissues. Among those, silk fibroin-based biomaterials have many biologically relevant properties and have been successfully used in multiple medical applications. Here, we review the recent advances in engineered scaffolds with an emphasis on breast-like tissue generation and the benefits of modified silk-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An innovative Near-Peer Mentoring Model for Undergraduate and Secondary Students: STEM Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Debra L. Yourick Published online: 14 March 2014 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 Abstract This study examined a novel mentoring model... microbiology . Program involvement helped to develop a new interest in another mentor who wrote, “As I pursue other career goals, I would also like to be...develop important professional skills, cultivate their professional interests, and advance their scientific careers. In general, near-peer mentors felt

  12. Air Force Reusable Booster System A Quick-look, Design Focused Modeling and Cost Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Presents work supporting the Air force Reusable Booster System (RBS) - A Cost Study with Goals as follows: Support US launch systems decision makers, esp. in regards to the research, technology and demonstration investments required for reusable systems to succeed. Encourage operable directions in Reusable Booster / Launch Vehicle Systems technology choices, system design and product and process developments. Perform a quick-look cost study, while developing a cost model for more refined future analysis.

  13. A Predictive Model of Domestic Violence in Multicultural Families Focusing on Perpetrator

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Young; Hyun, Hye Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to assess predictor variables of husbands in multicultural families and examine the relationship among variables after setting up a hypothetical model including influencing factors, so as to provide a framework necessary for developing nursing interventions of domestic violence. Methods: The participants were 260 husbands in multicultural families in four cities in Korea. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0. Results: Self-control, social su...

  14. A case study of a team-based, quality-focused compensation model for primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Overton, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    In 2011, Fairview Health Services began replacing their fee-for-service compensation model for primary care providers (PCPs), which included an annual pay-for-performance bonus, with a team-based model designed to improve quality of care, patient experience, and (eventually) cost containment. In-depth interviews and an online survey of PCPs early after implementation of the new model suggest that it quickly changed the way many PCPs practiced. Most PCPs reported a shift in orientation toward quality of care, working more collaboratively with their colleagues and focusing on their full panel of patients. The majority reported that their quality of care had improved because of the model and that their colleagues' quality had to. The comprehensive change did, however, result in lower fee-for-service billing and reductions in PCP satisfaction. While Fairview's compensation model is still a work in progress, their early experiences can provide lessons for other delivery systems seeking to reform PCP compensation.

  15. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A₃ Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2017-03-11

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, termed A₁, A 2A , A 2B and A₃, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A₃AR (hA₃AR) subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA₃AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of newly emerged A₃AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A₃AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates.

  16. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, termed A1, A2A, A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR) subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA3AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of newly emerged A3AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates. PMID:28287473

  17. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Ciancetta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR subtypes, termed A1, A2A, A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA3AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure–activity relationships (SARs of newly emerged A3AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates.

  18. Focus on the studies in support of fire safety analysis. IRSN modelling approach for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espargilliere, Julien; Meyrand, Raphael; Vinot, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-12-15

    For a fire safety analysis, in order to comply with nuclear safety goals, a nuclear fuel facility operator has to define the elements important for safety to be maintained, even in the case of a fire. One of the key points of this fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. This paper presents the IRSN method applied to a case study to assess fire scenarios which have the most harmful effects on safety targets. The layout consists in a central room (fire cell) containing three glove boxes with radioactive material and three electrical cabinets. This room is linked to two connecting compartments (the fire cell and these two compartments define the containment cell) and then to two corridors. Each room is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, and a pressure cascade is established from the corridors to the central room. A fire scenario was studied with fire ignition occurring in an electrical cabinet. This scenario has a set of safety goals (prevention of fire cell and containment device failure, propagation of the fire). This case study was conducted with the IRSN code SYLVIA based on two zones modelling. Safety goals were associated with key parameters and performance criteria to be fulfilled. Modelling assumptions were defined in order to maximize physical effects of the fire. Sensitivity studies were also conducted on key parameters such as oxygen limitation, equivalent-fuel definition. Eventually, a critical analysis of the code models was carried out.

  19. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, William R; Dodd, Tony J; Anderson, Sean R; Wilson, Emma D; Porrill, John; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input–output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics. (paper)

  20. A comprehensive assessment program to improve blood-administering practices using the FOCUS-PDCA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sunita; Ramer, Lois; Shulman, Ira A

    2004-09-01

    The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires that hospitals have a planned approach to systematically collect data on processes related to the use, ordering, and administering of blood components. This study describes how a comprehensive blood-administering assessment program and the FOCUS-PDCA approach improved overall blood-administering practices. Nurses were trained to observe blood issuance, blood administering, and patient monitoring steps, and to audit patient's charts to measure compliance with blood-ordering procedures. The observations were recorded on a standardized scannable form, which allowed automatic entry of recorded data directly into a computer database. A total of 982 assessments were completed during the 51-month study period. Documentation of informed consent improved from 80 percent to 100 percent. Compliance with a California law that requires patients to receive information on the risks, benefits, and alternatives to transfusion rose from 30 percent to 100 percent. Physicians' compliance in specifying the rate of blood administration improved from 30 percent to 100 percent, and verification of information on the patient's identification band with the patient's self-identification rose from 50 percent to 100 percent. For all other blood-administering steps, compliance remained high throughout the study period. For the past 9 months, 100-percent compliance has been maintained for all transfusion processes, and during this period no mistransfusions or blood administration near-misses have been reported. The blood-administering assessment program described above has improved transfusion practice, reduced the number of near-miss events, and may have prevented mistransfusions.

  1. Typical IAEA inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, W.

    1984-01-01

    This session briefly refers to the legal basis for IAEA inspections and to their objectives. It describes in detail the planning and performance of IAEA inspections, including the examination of records, the comparison of facility records with State reports, flow and inventory verifications, the design of statistical sampling plans, and Agency's independent verification measurements. In addition, the session addresses the principles of Material Balance and MUF evaluation, as well as the content and format of summary statements and related problems

  2. Computational Intelligence Modeling of the Macromolecules Release from PLGA Microspheres—Focus on Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawbaa, Hossam M.; Szlȩk, Jakub; Grosan, Crina; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) is a copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid. Drug release from PLGA microspheres depends not only on polymer properties but also on drug type, particle size, morphology of microspheres, release conditions, etc. Selecting a subset of relevant properties for PLGA is a challenging machine learning task as there are over three hundred features to consider. In this work, we formulate the selection of critical attributes for PLGA as a multiobjective optimization problem with the aim of minimizing the error of predicting the dissolution profile while reducing the number of attributes selected. Four bio-inspired optimization algorithms: antlion optimization, binary version of antlion optimization, grey wolf optimization, and social spider optimization are used to select the optimal feature set for predicting the dissolution profile of PLGA. Besides these, LASSO algorithm is also used for comparisons. Selection of crucial variables is performed under the assumption that both predictability and model simplicity are of equal importance to the final result. During the feature selection process, a set of input variables is employed to find minimum generalization error across different predictive models and their settings/architectures. The methodology is evaluated using predictive modeling for which various tools are chosen, such as Cubist, random forests, artificial neural networks (monotonic MLP, deep learning MLP), multivariate adaptive regression splines, classification and regression tree, and hybrid systems of fuzzy logic and evolutionary computations (fugeR). The experimental results are compared with the results reported by Szlȩk. We obtain a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 15.97% versus 15.4%, and the number of selected input features is smaller, nine versus eleven. PMID:27315205

  3. Computational Intelligence Modeling of the Macromolecules Release from PLGA Microspheres-Focus on Feature Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M Zawbaa

    Full Text Available Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA is a copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid. Drug release from PLGA microspheres depends not only on polymer properties but also on drug type, particle size, morphology of microspheres, release conditions, etc. Selecting a subset of relevant properties for PLGA is a challenging machine learning task as there are over three hundred features to consider. In this work, we formulate the selection of critical attributes for PLGA as a multiobjective optimization problem with the aim of minimizing the error of predicting the dissolution profile while reducing the number of attributes selected. Four bio-inspired optimization algorithms: antlion optimization, binary version of antlion optimization, grey wolf optimization, and social spider optimization are used to select the optimal feature set for predicting the dissolution profile of PLGA. Besides these, LASSO algorithm is also used for comparisons. Selection of crucial variables is performed under the assumption that both predictability and model simplicity are of equal importance to the final result. During the feature selection process, a set of input variables is employed to find minimum generalization error across different predictive models and their settings/architectures. The methodology is evaluated using predictive modeling for which various tools are chosen, such as Cubist, random forests, artificial neural networks (monotonic MLP, deep learning MLP, multivariate adaptive regression splines, classification and regression tree, and hybrid systems of fuzzy logic and evolutionary computations (fugeR. The experimental results are compared with the results reported by Szlȩk. We obtain a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE of 15.97% versus 15.4%, and the number of selected input features is smaller, nine versus eleven.

  4. Validation of the Dynamic Wake Meander model with focus on tower loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T. J.; Larsen, G. C.; Pedersen, M. M.; Enevoldsen, K.; Madsen, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison between measured and simulated tower loads for the Danish offshore wind farm Nysted 2. Previously, only limited full scale experimental data containing tower load measurements have been published, and in many cases the measurements include only a limited range of wind speeds. In general, tower loads in wake conditions are very challenging to predict correctly in simulations. The Nysted project offers an improved insight to this field as six wind turbines located in the Nysted II wind farm have been instrumented to measure tower top and tower bottom moments. All recorded structural data have been organized in a database, which in addition contains relevant wind turbine SCADA data as well as relevant meteorological data - e.g. wind speed and wind direction - from an offshore mast located in the immediate vicinity of the wind farm. The database contains data from a period extending over a time span of more than 3 years. Based on the recorded data basic mechanisms driving the increased loading experienced by wind turbines operating in offshore wind farm conditions have been identified, characterized and modeled. The modeling is based on the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) approach in combination with the state-of-the-art aeroelastic model HAWC2, and has previously as well as in this study shown good agreement with the measurements. The conclusions from the study have several parts. In general the tower bending and yaw loads show a good agreement between measurements and simulations. However, there are situations that are still difficult to match. One is tower loads of single-wake operation near rated ambient wind speed for single wake situations for spacing’s around 7-8D. A specific target of the study was to investigate whether the largest tower fatigue loads are associated with a certain downstream distance. This has been identified in both simulations and measurements, though a rather flat optimum is seen in the measurements.

  5. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them); homological validity (including species validity and strain validity), pathogenic validity (including ontopathogenic validity and triggering validity), mechanistic validity, face validity (including ethological and biomarker validity) and predictive validity (including induction and remission validity). Homological validity requires that an adequate species and strain be chosen: considering species validity, primates will be considered to have a higher score than drosophila, and considering strains, a high stress reactivity in a strain scores higher than a low stress reactivity in another strain. Pathological validity corresponds to the fact that, in order to shape pathological characteristics, the organism has been manipulated both during the developmental period (for example, maternal separation: ontopathogenic validity) and during adulthood (for example, stress: triggering validity). Mechanistic validity corresponds to the fact that the cognitive (for example, cognitive bias) or biological mechanisms (such as dysfunction of the hormonal stress axis regulation) underlying the disorder are identical in both humans and animals. Face validity corresponds to the observable behavioral (ethological validity) or biological (biomarker validity) outcomes: for example anhedonic behavior (ethological validity) or elevated corticosterone (biomarker validity). Finally, predictive validity corresponds to the identity of the relationship between the triggering factor and the outcome (induction validity) and between the effects of the treatments

  6. Computational Intelligence Modeling of the Macromolecules Release from PLGA Microspheres-Focus on Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawbaa, Hossam M; Szlȩk, Jakub; Grosan, Crina; Jachowicz, Renata; Mendyk, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) is a copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid. Drug release from PLGA microspheres depends not only on polymer properties but also on drug type, particle size, morphology of microspheres, release conditions, etc. Selecting a subset of relevant properties for PLGA is a challenging machine learning task as there are over three hundred features to consider. In this work, we formulate the selection of critical attributes for PLGA as a multiobjective optimization problem with the aim of minimizing the error of predicting the dissolution profile while reducing the number of attributes selected. Four bio-inspired optimization algorithms: antlion optimization, binary version of antlion optimization, grey wolf optimization, and social spider optimization are used to select the optimal feature set for predicting the dissolution profile of PLGA. Besides these, LASSO algorithm is also used for comparisons. Selection of crucial variables is performed under the assumption that both predictability and model simplicity are of equal importance to the final result. During the feature selection process, a set of input variables is employed to find minimum generalization error across different predictive models and their settings/architectures. The methodology is evaluated using predictive modeling for which various tools are chosen, such as Cubist, random forests, artificial neural networks (monotonic MLP, deep learning MLP), multivariate adaptive regression splines, classification and regression tree, and hybrid systems of fuzzy logic and evolutionary computations (fugeR). The experimental results are compared with the results reported by Szlȩk. We obtain a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 15.97% versus 15.4%, and the number of selected input features is smaller, nine versus eleven.

  7. A modeling approach for district heating systems with focus on transient heat transfer in pipe networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Soma; Bojesen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the building energy efficiency in recent years results in noticeably reduction in their heating demand. Combined with the current trend for utilizing low temperature heat sources, it raises the necessity of introducing a new generation of district heating [DH] systems with lowered...... km pipelines (supply and return pipes). At the first stage, the Studstrup DH system is developed in TERMIS, which is commercial software for district heating system simulation, and then the developed model is validated and compared with the results obtained from TERMIS and measurements. The TERMIS...

  8. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Patient Specific Modeling and Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, Gabriele; Ambrosi, Davide; Bagnoli, Paola; Boschetti, Federica; Caiani, Enrico G; Chiastra, Claudio; Conti, Carlo A; Corsini, Chiara; Costantino, Maria Laura; D'Angelo, Carlo; Formaggia, Luca; Fumero, Roberto; Gastaldi, Dario; Migliavacca, Francesco; Morlacchi, Stefano; Nobile, Fabio; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza; Quarteroni, Alfio; Redaelli, Alberto; Stevanella, Marco; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vergara, Christian; Votta, Emiliano; Wu, Wei; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last twenty years major advancements have taken place in the design of medical devices and personalized therapies. They have paralleled the impressive evolution of three-dimensional, non invasive, medical imaging techniques and have been continuously fuelled by increasing computing power and the emergence of novel and sophisticated software tools. This paper aims to showcase a number of major contributions to the advancements of modeling of surgical and interventional procedures and to the design of life support systems. The selected examples will span from pediatric cardiac surgery procedures to valve and ventricle repair techniques, from stent design and endovascular procedures to life support systems and innovative ventilation techniques.

  9. Autism spectrum disorder model mice: Focus on copy number variation and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Nobuhiro; Otsuka, Susumu; Myung, Jihwan; Takumi, Toru

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is gathering concerns in socially developed countries. ASD is a neuropsychiatric disorder of genetic origin with high prevalence of 1%-2%. The patients with ASD characteristically show impaired social skills. Today, many genetic studies identify numerous susceptible genes and genetic loci associated with ASD. Although some genetic factors can lead to abnormal brain function linked to ASD phenotypes, the pathogenic mechanism of ASD is still unclear. Here, we discuss a new mouse model for ASD as an advanced tool to understand the mechanism of ASD.

  10. Drosophila, a genetic model system to study cocaine-related behaviors: A review with focus on LIM-only proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Heberlein, Ulrike; Tsai, Linus T.–Y.; Kapfhamer, David; Lasek, Amy W.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, highly accessible to genetic, behavioral and molecular analyses, has been introduced as a novel model organism to help decipher the complex genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical underpinnings of behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Here we review these data, focusing specifically on cocaine-related behaviors. Several of cocaine's most characteristic properties have been recapitulated in Drosophila. First, cocaine induces motor b...

  11. Groundwater flow modeling focused on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Kohashi, Akio; Watanabe, Masahisa

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company is facing contaminated water issues in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The amount of contaminated water is continuously increasing due to groundwater leakage into the underground part of reactor and turbine buildings. Therefore, it is important to understand the groundwater flow conditions at the site and to predict the impact of countermeasures taken for isolating groundwater from the source of the contamination, i.e. the reactor buildings. Installations, such as of land-side and sea-side impermeable walls have been planned as countermeasures. In this study, groundwater flow modeling has been performed to estimate the response of groundwater flow conditions to the countermeasures. From the modeling, groundwater recharge and discharge areas, major groundwater flow direction, inflow rate into underground part of the buildings, and changes in response to implementation of the countermeasures could be reasonably estimated. The results indicate that the countermeasures will decrease the volume of inflow into the underground part of the buildings. This means that the countermeasures will be effective in reducing the discharge volume of contaminated groundwater to ocean. (author)

  12. Accelerating Neuronal Aging in In Vitro Model Brain Disorders: a Focus on Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Britto Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss insights gained through the use of stem cell preparations regarding the modeling of neurological diseases, the need for aging neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells to further advance the study of late-onset adult neurological diseases, and the extent to which mechanisms linked to the mismanagement of ROS. The context of these issues can be revealed using the three disease states of Parkinson’s (PD, Alzheimer’s (AD, and schizophrenia, as considerable insights have been gained into these conditions through the use of stem cells in terms of disease etiologies and the role of oxidative stress. The latter subject is a primary area of interest of our group. After discussing the molecular models of accelerated aging, we highlight the role of ROS for the three diseases explored here. Importantly, we do not seek to provide an extensive account of all genetic mutations for each of the three disorders discussed in this review, but we aim instead to provide a conceptual framework that could maximize the gains from merging the approaches of stem cell microsystems and the study of oxidative stress in disease in order to optimize therapeutics and determine new molecular targets against oxidative stress that spare stem cell proliferation and development.

  13. A Predictive Model of Domestic Violence in Multicultural Families Focusing on Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Hyun, Hye Jin

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess predictor variables of husbands in multicultural families and examine the relationship among variables after setting up a hypothetical model including influencing factors, so as to provide a framework necessary for developing nursing interventions of domestic violence. The participants were 260 husbands in multicultural families in four cities in Korea. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0. Self-control, social support, family of origin violence experience and stress on cultural adaptation directly affected to dysfunctional communication, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.7%. Family of origin violence experience in domestic stress on cultural adaptation, and dysfunctional communication were directly related to domestic violence in multicultural families, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.6%. We found out that all variables in the model had mediation effects to domestic violence through dysfunctional communication. In other words, self-control and social support had complete mediation effects, and family of origin violence experience in domestic violence and stress on cultural adaptation had partial mediation effects. The variables explained in this study should be considered as predictive factors of domestic violence in multicultural families, and used to provide preventive nursing intervention. Our resutls can be taken into account for developing and implementing programs on alleviating dysfunctional communication in multicultural families in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cell-based modeling of neurodegenerative diseases: a focus on autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungverdorben, Johannes; Till, Andreas; Brüstle, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The advent of cell reprogramming has enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient skin fibroblasts or blood cells and their subsequent differentiation into tissue-specific cells, including neurons and glia. This approach can be used to recapitulate disease-specific phenotypes in classical cell culture paradigms and thus represents an invaluable asset for disease modeling and drug validation in the framework of personalized medicine. The autophagy pathway is a ubiquitous eukaryotic degradation and recycling system, which relies on lysosomal degradation of unwanted and potentially cytotoxic components. The relevance of autophagy in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is underlined by the observation that disease-linked genetic variants of susceptibility factors frequently result in dysregulation of autophagic-lysosomal pathways. In particular, disrupted autophagy is implied in the accumulation of potentially neurotoxic products such as protein aggregates and their precursors and defective turnover of dysfunctional mitochondria. Here, we review the current state of iPSC-based assessment of autophagic dysfunction in the context of neurodegenerative disease modeling. The collected data show that iPSC technology is capable to reveal even subtle alterations in subcellular homeostatic processes, which form the molecular basis for disease manifestation.

  16. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sudarchikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distances. These cores are a palaeoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol–climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission, atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret palaeodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL, mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP; hereafter referred to as "6 kyr", last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP; hereafter "115 kyr" and Eemian (126 000 yr BP; hereafter "126 kyr". One glacial time interval, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM (21 000 yr BP; hereafter "21 kyr", was simulated as well to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase in mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one-third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change in dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher

  17. Value-Focused Thinking Model to Evaluate SHM System Alternatives From Military end User Requirements Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimaszewski Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Value-Focused Thinking (VFT model developed in order to evaluate various alternatives for implementation of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system on a military aircraft. Four SHM system alternatives are considered based on: visual inspection (current approach, piezoelectric (PZT sensors, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors and Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM sensors. A numerical example is shown to illustrate the model capability. Sensitivity analyses are performed on values such as Cost, Performance, Aircraft Availability and Technology Readiness Level in order to examine influence of these values on overall value of structural state of awareness provided by particular SHM system alternative.

  18. Transmembrane Signal Transduction in Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization: Focusing on Xenopus laevis as a Model Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is a cell biological phenomenon of crucial importance for the birth of new life in a variety of multicellular and sexual reproduction species such as algae, animal and plants. Fertilization involves a sequence of events, in which the female gamete “egg” and the male gamete “spermatozoon (sperm” develop, acquire their functions, meet and fuse with each other, to initiate embryonic and zygotic development. Here, it will be briefly reviewed how oocyte cytoplasmic components are orchestrated to undergo hormone-induced oocyte maturation and sperm-induced activation of development. I then review how sperm-egg membrane interaction/fusion and activation of development in the fertilized egg are accomplished and regulated through egg coat- or egg plasma membrane-associated components, highlighting recent findings and future directions in the studies using Xenopus laevis as a model experimental animal.

  19. A model for large-scale, interprofessional, compulsory cross-cultural education with an indigenous focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickett, Marion; Hoffman, Julie; Flavell, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competency training for health professionals is now a recognised strategy to address health disparities between minority and white populations in Western nations. In Australia, urgent action is required to "Close the Gap" between the health outcomes of Indigenous Australians and the dominant European population, and significantly, cultural competency development for health professionals has been identified as an important element to providing culturally safe care. This paper describes a compulsory interprofessional first-year unit in a large health sciences faculty in Australia, which aims to begin students on their journey to becoming culturally competent health professionals. Reporting primarily on qualitative student feedback from the unit's first year of implementation as well as the structure, learning objects, assessment, and approach to coordinating the unit, this paper provides a model for implementing quality wide-scale, interprofessional cultural competence education within a postcolonial context. Critical factors for the unit's implementation and ongoing success are also discussed.

  20. Education in Wound Management in Europe with a Special Focus on the Danish Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottrup, Finn

    2012-06-01

    Standardized education and training programs are fundamental for the establishment of a healthcare structure within wound management. Presently, however, wound healing education is only included to a minor degree, in the education of nurses and medical doctors, and there is no consensus in Europe on the minimum education program needed to be an educated expert in handling wound patients. In this article, educational initiatives and models for education of medical doctors and nurses in Europe and especially in Denmark are described. The goal for the future should be to achieve a general consensus on the minimal education program, and in Europe this could be achieved as a collaboration between the Educational program of European Wound Management Association (EWMA and national programs).

  1. Unspoken Playground Rules Discourage Adolescent Physical Activity in School: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen

    2018-03-01

    The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of a bio-optical model for Italian lakes focused on Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Braga, Federica; Bassani, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a variance-based procedure was applied to study the sensitivity of a Case-2 bio-optical model which simulates the water reflectance of three Italian lakes - Garda, Mantua and Trasimeno - with different trophic conditions by analysing the main effect of single WQPs and their interactions. The water reflectance was simulated according to a four-components model [Brando and Dekker 2003] considering the SIOPs typical of each lake and the spectral characteristics of three optical sensors, on-board of Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3, which can be potentially applied for lakes. Lakes Garda, Mantua and Trasimeno were selected as representative of different trophic levels; for these lakes long-term data of in situ measurements on water quality characteristics were also available. The bio-optical analytical model simulated the subsurface irradiance reflectance R(0-, λ) as a function of absorption and backscattering coefficients (a(λ), bb(λ)) given as a sum of the contribution of water and the water quality parameters. The sensitivity indices of water reflectance for three water types/trophic conditions were calculated decomposing output variance (V) in partial variances which represent the share of V that is explained by the bio-optical model inputs [Saltelli et al., 2010]. The results provide important information relating the sensitivity of the new generation sensors to different trophic statuses, and in particular confirmed that Sentinel-3 water reflectance is sensitive to WQPs in all the trophic conditions investigated.

  3. A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juner; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the downside is that accidents will be more violent due to battery inevitable explosion. With today's technology, severe crashes involving intrusion into the battery pack will potentially result in a thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. Most of research on lithium-ion batteries have been concerned with the electrochemistry of cells. However, in most cases failure and thermal runaway is caused by mechanical loading due to crash events. There is a growing need to summarize the already published results on mechanical loading and response of batteries and offer a critical evaluation of work in progress. The objective of this paper is to present such review with a discussion of many outstanding issues and outline of a roadmap for future research.

  4. Transtheoretical Model-based Nursing Intervention on Lifestyle Change: A Review Focused on Intervention Delivery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha

    2015-06-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM) was used to provide tailored nursing for lifestyle management such as diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. The present study aims to assess the provision of intervention delivery methods, intervention elements, and stage-matched interventions, in order to identify ways in which information technology is used in the TTM-based research. The relevant literature was selected by two researchers using inclusion criteria after searching for "TTM (transtheoretical or stage of change)" and "nursing" from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. The selected studies were categorized in terms of study characteristics, intervention delivery method, intervention element, and use and level of stage-matched intervention. A total of 35 studies were selected including eight studies that used information communication technology (ICT). Nine different intervention delivery methods were used, of which "face-to-face" was the most common at 24 times. Of the 35 studies, 26 provided stage-matched interventions. Seven different intervention elements were used, of which "counseling" was the most common at 27 times. Of all the intervention elements, tailored feedback used ICT the most at seven instances out of nine, and there was a significant difference in the rate of ICT usage among intervention elements. ICT is not yet actively used in the TTM-based nursing interventions. Stage-matched interventions and TTM concepts were shown to be in partial use also in the TTM-based interventions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a variety of ways to use ICT in tailored nursing interventions and to use TTM frameworks and concepts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. 3D modelling of Trompsburg Complex (in South Africa) using 3D focusing inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalate, Ali Nejati; Aghajani, Hamid; Kahoo, Amin Roshandel; Moazam, Sahar

    2017-06-01

    The Trompsburg complex is a huge layered mafic igneous rock that is located near the town of Trompsburg in the Free State Province, South Africa that does not outcrop on the surface. Here, we construct 3D model of Trompsburg intrusion using 3D focusing inversion of gravity data. The inversion of gravity data is one of the most important topics in the quantitative interpretation of practical geophysical data. Focusing inversion can produce compact solution and recover the sharp boundaries between intrusive body and host rocks. In focusing inversion of Trompsburg gravity data we set focusing parameter equals 0.02. According to the geological information, lower density bound set to -0.1 g/cm3 and upper density bound set to 0.5 g/cm3. The results of 3D inversion in this study indicate that the Trompsburg Complex is a deep bowl-shaped intrusion which is extended to 33(km) below the surface. It is like an oval in horizontal plane sections with major axis of nearly 50 km in west- east direction and north- south minor axis about 30 km. The obtained results confirms that this complex could be related to intraplate magmatism.

  6. Ray Tracing through the Edge Focusing of Rectangular Benders and an Improved Model for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barlow, David B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Particle ray tracing through simulated 3D magnetic fields was executed to investigate the effective quadrupole strength of the edge focusing of the rectangular bending magnets in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). The particle rays receive a kick in the edge field of the rectangular dipole. A focal length may be calculated from the particle tracking and related to the fringe field integral (FINT) model parameter. This tech note introduces the baseline lattice model of the PSR and motivates the need for an improvement in the baseline model's vertical tune prediction, which differs from measurement by .05. An improved model of the PSR is created by modifying the fringe field integral parameter to those suggested by the ray tracing investigation. This improved model is then verified against measurement at the nominal PSR operating set point and at set points far away from the nominal operating conditions. Lastly, Linear Optics from Closed Orbits (LOCO) is employed in an orbit response matrix method for model improvement to verify the quadrupole strengths of the improved model.

  7. Radiation induced muscositis as space flight risk. Model studies on X-ray and heavy ion irradiated typical oral mucosa models; Strahlungsinduzierte Mukositis als Risiko der Raumfahrt. Modelluntersuchungen an Roentgen- und Schwerionen-bestrahlten organotypischen Mundschleimhaut-Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschachojan, Viktoria

    2014-07-29

    Humans in exomagnetospheric space are exposed to highly energetic heavy ion radiation which can be hardly shielded. Since radiation-induced mucositis constitutes a severe complication of heavy ion radiotherapy, it would also implicate a serious medical safety risk for the crew members during prolonged space flights such as missions to Moon or Mars. For assessment of risk developing radiation-induced mucositis, three-dimensional organotypic cultures of immortalized human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with a {sup 12}C particle beam at high energies or X-Rays. Immunofluorescence stainings were done from cryosections and radiation induced release of cytokines and chemokines was quantified by ELISA from culture supernatants. The major focuses of this study were on 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. The conducted analyses of our mucosa model showed many structural similarities with the native oral mucosa and authentic immunological responses to radiation exposure. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed about twice as many DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X-rays at definite doses and time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. Nuclear factor κB activation was observed after treatment with X-rays or {sup 12}C particles. An activation of NF κB p65 in irradiated samples could not be detected. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels after irradiation with X-rays and {sup 12}C particles compared to non-irradiated controls. However, only X-rays induced significantly higher levels of interleukin 1β. Analyses of TNF-α and IFN-γ showed no radiation-induced effects. Further analyses revealed a radiation-induced reduction in proliferation and loss of compactness in irradiated oral mucosa model, which would lead to local lesions in vivo. In this study we revealed that several pro-inflammatory markers and structural changes are induced by X-rays and heavy

  8. Combined binary collision and continuum mechanics model applied to focused ion beam milling of a silicon membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobler, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments indicate the importance of stress and stress relaxation upon ion implantation. In this paper, a model is proposed that is capable of describing ballistic effects as well as stress relaxation by viscous flow. It combines atomistic binary collision simulation with continuum mechanics. The only parameters that enter the continuum model are the bulk modulus and the radiation-induced viscosity. The shear modulus can also be considered but shows only minor effects. A boundary-fitted grid is proposed that is usable both during the binary collision simulation and for the spatial discretization of the force balance equations. As an application, the milling of a slit into an amorphous silicon membrane with a 30 keV focused Ga beam is studied, which demonstrates the relevance of the new model compared to a more heuristic approach used in previous work

  9. Modelling of spatio-temporal precipitation relevant for urban hydrology with focus on scales, extremes and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen

    Time series of precipitation are necessary for assessment of urban hydrological systems. In a changed climate this is challenging as climate model output is not directly comparable to observations at the scales relevant for urban hydrology. The focus of this PhD thesis is downscaling...... of precipitation to spatio-temporal scales used in urban hydrology. It investigates several observational data products and identifies relevant scales where climate change and precipitation can be assessed for urban use. Precipitation is modelled at different scales using different stochastic techniques. A weather...... generator is used to produce an artificial spatio-temporal precipitation product that can be used both directly in large scale urban hydrological modelling and for derivation of extreme precipitation statistics relevant for urban hydrology. It is discussed why precipitation time series from a changed...

  10. Application of solution focused brief counseling model to increase of counselee resilience as a part of multicultural society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Kurnia Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern multicultural society and is a dynamic life marked by interaction between the components of a diverse society based on the rule of science and technology. A society that is increasingly complex due to the rapid changes in various aspects of life often creates problems for the individual's life. For example, inner tension, internal and external conflicts, and emotional disturbance. Facing these challenges, the individual is expected to have resilience was good. The role of the counselor is to help the counselee improve resilience with counseling approach effectively. Counseling models that meet the criteria of an effective and efficient is the Solution Focused Brief Counseling. Counseling model emphasizes the collaborative process between counselor and counselee to find solutions to achieve the expected goals. In the process of this counseling model uses questioning techniques to uncover the story, advantages, strengths and exceptions problems experienced by counselee in a short time.

  11. A fully integrated Earth System Model: focus on dynamical coupling of climatic and cryospheric model sub-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Polina; Volodin, Evgeny; Rybak, Oleg; Huybrechts, Philippe; Korneva, Irina; Kaminskaia, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) have been widely used in the recent years for complex studies of the climate system of the planet in the context of interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets and the biosphere. Incorporation of the Earth syb-systems with very different spatial and temporal scales and response times into one model is really a challenging task. In particular, coupling of an AO GCM and ice sheet models of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets (GrIS and AIS) requires application of special downscaling procedures. Within the frameworks of our research study, we implemented several coupling strategies. The choice of a strategy is dictated mostly by two factors - by the purpose of the research and by spatial resolution of an AO GCM. Several versions of the latter (called INMCM) were developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia). For instance, the version aimed primarily for the relatively long numerical experiments (for e.g. palaeostudies) has spatial resolution of 5°×4°, 21 vertical layers in the atmospheric block, 2.5°×2°, 33 vertical layers in the oceanic block. To provide proper data exchange between the INMCM and GrIS and AIS models (spatial resolution 20×20 km), we employ rather simple buffer (sub-) models, describing regional heat and moisture diffusion. Applying buffer models enables to avoid systematic shifts in INMCM-generated precipitation fields and to much more realistically describe influence orographically driven precipitation (in Greenland) and elevation-temperature dependence. Novel versions of the INMCM with the spatial resolution of 2,5°×2° and higher generate much more realistic climatic fields, therefore the coupling procedure can be simplified to just averaging, resampling and remapping data from the AO GCM global domain to regional domains enclosing ice sheets. Increase in spatial resolution inevitably causes additional computational cost and reduces the area of the ESM application to

  12. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics in a DPF and the associated instabilities and neutron production.

  13. Modeling the Impacts of Cetacean-Focused Tourism in Taiwan: Observations from Cetacean Watching Boats: 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T.; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  14. Modeling the impacts of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan: observations from cetacean watching boats: 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  15. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Hae Ri; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hae Ri; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

  17. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Dept. of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Department of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung 25457 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  19. A mouse model of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: focus on pharmacological interventions targeting affective dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eBonito Oliva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, are increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These ailments, which often appear in the early stage of the disease, affect a large number of patients and are only partly resolved by conventional antiparkinsonian medications, such as L-DOPA. Here, we investigated non-motor symptoms of PD in a mouse model based on bilateral injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in the dorsal striatum. This model presented only subtle gait modifications, which did not affect horizontal motor activity in the open-field test. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion also impaired olfactory discrimination, in line with the anosmia typically observed in early stage parkinsonism. The effect of 6-OHDA was then examined for mood-related dysfunctions. Lesioned mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, two behavioral paradigms of depression. Moreover, the lesion exerted anxiogenic effects, as shown by reduced time spent in the open arms, in the elevated plus maze test, and by increased thigmotaxis in the open-field test. L-DOPA did not modify depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, which were instead counteracted by the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole. Reboxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was also able to prevent the depressive and anxiogenic effects produced by the lesion with 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pre-treatment with desipramine prior to injection of 6-OHDA, which is commonly used to preserve noradrenaline neurons, did not modify the effect of the lesion on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, in the present model, mood-related conditions are independent of the reduction of noradrenaline caused by 6-OHDA. Based on these findings we propose that the anti-depressive and anxiolytic action of reboxetine is mediated by promoting dopamine transmission through blockade of dopamine uptake from residual

  20. The Brain’s sense of walking: a study on the intertwine between locomotor imagery and internal locomotor models in healthy adults, typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eIosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery and internal motor models have been deeply investigated in literature. It is well known that the development of motor imagery occurs during adolescence and it is limited in people affected by cerebral palsy. However, the roles of motor imagery and internal models in locomotion as well as their intertwine received poor attention. In this study we compared the performances of healthy adults (n=8, 28.1±5.1 years old, children with typical development (n=8, 8.1±3.8 years old and children with cerebral palsy (n=12, 7.5±2.9 years old, measured by an optoelectronic system and a trunk-mounted wireless inertial magnetic unit, during three different tasks. Subjects were asked to achieve a target located at 2 or 3m in front of them simulating their walking by stepping in place, or actually walking blindfolded or normally walking with open eyes. Adults performed a not significantly different number of steps (p=0.761 spending not significantly different time between tasks (p=0.156. Children with typical development showed task-dependent differences both in terms of number of steps (p=0.046 and movement time (p=0.002. However, their performance in simulated and blindfolded walking were strictly correlated (R=0.871 for steps, R=0.673 for time. Further, their error in blindfolded walking was in mean only of -2.2% of distance. Also children with cerebral palsy showed significant differences in number of steps (p=0.022 and time (p<0.001, but neither their number of steps nor their movement time recorded during simulated walking were found correlated with those of blindfolded and normal walking. Adults used a unique strategy among different tasks. Children with typical development seemed to be less reliable on their motor predictions, using a task-dependent strategy probably more reliable on sensorial feedback. Children with cerebral palsy showed less efficient performances, especially in simulated walking, suggesting an altered locomotor imagery.

  1. Application of a single root-scale model to improve macroscopic modeling of root water uptake: focus on osmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Helena; Perelman, Adi; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Root water uptake is a fundamental process in the hydrological cycle and it largely regulates the water balance in the soil vadose zone. Macroscopic stress functions are currently used to estimate the effect of salinity on root water uptake. These functions commonly assume stress to be a function of bulk salinity and of the plant sensitivity to osmotic stress expressed as the salinity at which transpiration is reduced by half or so called tolerance value. However, they fail to integrate additional relevant factors such as atmospheric conditions or root architectural traits. We conducted a comprehensive simulation study on a single root using a 3-D physically-based model that resolves flow and transport to individual root segments and that couples flow in the soil and root system. The effect of salt concentrations on root water uptake was accounted for by including osmotic water potential gradients between the solution at the soil root interface and the root xylem sap in the hydraulic gradient between the soil and root. A large set of factors were studied, namely, potential transpiration rate and dynamics, root length density (RLD), irrigation water quality and irrigation frequency, and leaching fraction. Results were fitted to the macroscopic function developed by van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984) and the dependency of osmotic stress and the fitted macroscopic parameters on the studied factors was evaluated. Osmotic stress was found to be highly dependent on RLD. Low RLDs result in a larger stress to the plant due to high evaporative demand per root length unit. In addition, osmotic stress was positively correlated to potential transpiration rate, and sinusoidal potential transpiration lead to larger stress than when imposed as a constant boundary condition. Macroscopic parameters are usually computed as single values for each crop and used for the entire growing season. However, our study shows that both tolerance value and shape parameter p from the van Genuchten

  2. Veterans’ Preferences for Exchanging Information Using Veterans Affairs Health Information Technologies: Focus Group Results and Modeling Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim; Antinori, Nicole; Melillo, Christine; Cotner, Bridget A; Hathaway, Wendy; Cook, Ashley; Wilck, Nancy; Noonan, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has multiple health information technology (HIT) resources for veterans to support their health care management. These include a patient portal, VetLink Kiosks, mobile apps, and telehealth services. The veteran patient population has a variety of needs and preferences that can inform current VA HIT redesign efforts to meet consumer needs. Objective This study aimed to describe veterans’ experiences using the current VA HIT and identify their vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Methods Two rounds of focus group interviews were conducted with a single cohort of 47 veterans and one female caregiver recruited from Bedford, Massachusetts, and Tampa, Florida. Focus group interviews included simulation modeling activities and a self-administered survey. This study also used an expert panel group to provide data and input throughout the study process. High-fidelity, interactive simulations were created and used to facilitate collection of qualitative data. The simulations were developed based on system requirements, data collected through operational efforts, and participants' reported preferences for using VA HIT. Pairwise comparison activities of HIT resources were conducted with both focus groups and the expert panel. Rapid iterative content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Descriptive statistics summarized quantitative data. Results Data themes included (1) current use of VA HIT, (2) non-VA HIT use, and (3) preferences for future use of VA HIT. Data indicated that, although the Secure Messaging feature was often preferred, a full range of HIT options are needed. These data were then used to develop veteran-driven simulations that illustrate user needs and expectations when using a HIT system and services to access VA health care services. Conclusions Patient participant redesign processes present critical opportunities for creating a human-centered design. Veterans value virtual health

  3. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    With the current implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, the European Commission wants to move towards “greener” farming practices in the European Union. Therefore, the EU funds both obligatory measures, such as Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) through the Green Direct...... Payment program, and voluntary agri-environment measures. However, empirically evaluating the effectiveness of these measures is challenging. We therefore demonstrate here that mechanistic simulation models are a valuable tool for performing these evaluations. As an example, we use the Animal, Landscape...... Europe since the 1960s. We examined the effects of the following EFA types on hare population dynamics: the cultivation of legumes such as (1) peas and (2) beans, (3) permanent and (4) rotational set-asides, (5) permanent extensive grasslands, and (6) herbaceous and (7) woody field margins. The cover...

  4. Eliminating the use of intravenous glass bottles using a FOCUS-PDCA model and providing a practical stability reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraiki, Fatma; Farooq, Faiyaz; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    To identify the intravenous (IV) medications that are prepared in glass bottles at the institution and establish which of these medications can be prepared in flexible IV bags such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or non-PVC instead of glass bottles. The cost implication of switching from glass bottles to flexible IV bags was calculated. A study using FOCUS-PDCA model to identify IV medications prepared in glass bottles and establish which of these medications could be prepared in IV bags (PVC or non-PVC). The cost impact of switching from glass bottles to IV plastic bags (including PVC or non-PVC) was calculated. The stability data obtained were used as a reference for updating pharmacy internal IV preparation charts. A total of 17 IV medications were found to be prepared in IV glass bottles. Of these 17 medications, only 8 (47%) were prepared in IV glass bottles due to incompatibility with PVC bags. For 7 (41%) of the medications, of which 6 were monoclonal antibodies (MABs), the reason for preparation in glass bottles was unclear as these medications are compatible with either PVC or non-PVC or both. The potential cost savings associated with switching all of the identified medications to IV plastic bags (either non-PVC or PVC) exceeded $200 000. The elimination of glass bottles within the institution resulted in a significant cost saving. The use of FOCUS-PDCA model can help healthcare institution achieve significant improvements in process and realize significant cost savings. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Pre-clinical in vivo models for the screening of bone biomaterials for oral/craniofacial indications: focus on small-animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sculean, Anton; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Buser, Daniel; Klinge, Björn

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical in vivo experimental studies are performed for evaluating proof-of-principle concepts, safety and possible unwanted reactions of candidate bone biomaterials before proceeding to clinical testing. Specifically, models involving small animals have been developed for screening bone biomaterials for their potential to enhance bone formation. No single model can completely recreate the anatomic, physiologic, biomechanic and functional environment of the human mouth and jaws. Relevant aspects regarding physiology, anatomy, dimensions and handling are discussed in this paper to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of small-animal models. Model selection should be based not on the 'expertise' or capacities of the team, but rather on a scientifically solid rationale, and the animal model selected should reflect the question for which an answer is sought. The rationale for using heterotopic or orthotopic testing sites, and intraosseous, periosseous or extraskeletal defect models, is discussed. The paper also discusses the relevance of critical size defect modeling, with focus on calvarial defects in rodents. In addition, the rabbit sinus model and the capsule model in the rat mandible are presented and discussed in detail. All animal experiments should be designed with care and include sample-size and study-power calculations, thus allowing generation of meaningful data. Moreover, animal experiments are subject to ethical approval by the relevant authority. All procedures and the postoperative handling and care, including postoperative analgesics, should follow best practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Corrective emotional experience in an integrative affect-focused therapy: Building a preliminary model using task analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kaori; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2017-10-16

    The present study constructed a preliminary process model of corrective emotional experience (CEE) in an integrative affect-focused therapy. Task analysis was used to analyse 6 in-session events taken from 6 Japanese clients who worked with an integrative affect-focused therapist. The 6 events included 3 successful CEEs and 3 partially successful CEEs for comparison. A rational-empirical model of CEE was generated, which consisted of two parallel client change processes, intrapersonal change and interpersonal change, and the therapist interventions corresponding to each process. Therapist experiential interventions and therapist affirmation facilitated both intrapersonal and interpersonal change processes, whereas his relational interventions were associated with the interpersonal change process. The partially successful CEEs were differentiated by the absence of the component of core painful emotions or negative beliefs in intrapersonal change process, which seemed crucial for the interpersonal change process to develop. CEE is best represented by a preliminary model that depicts two parallel yet interacting change processes. Intrapersonal change process is similar to the sequence of change described by the emotional processing model (Pascual-Leone & Greenberg, ), whereas interpersonal change process is a unique contribution of this study. Interpersonal change process was facilitated when the therapist's active stance and use of immediacy responses to make their relational process explicit allowed a shared exploration. Therapist affirmation bridged intrapersonal change to interpersonal change by promoting an adaptive sense of self in clients and forging a deeper emotional connection between the two. Key Practitioner Message In-session corrective emotional experience consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal change processes. The intrapersonal change process involved experiencing adaptive emotions such as grief. The interpersonal change process involved the

  7. Focus expansion and stability of the spread parameter estimate of the power law model for dispersal gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, Peter S; Gent, David H; Mehra, Lucky K; Christie, David; Magarey, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that pathogens transmitted via aerially dispersed inoculum follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter ( b ) of the power law model, which is an indicator of the distance of the epidemic wave front from an initial focus per unit time, has been found to be approximately 2 for several animal and plant diseases over a wide range of spatial scales under conditions favorable for disease spread. Although disease spread and epidemic expansion can be influenced by several factors, the stability of the parameter b over multiple epidemic years has not been determined. Additionally, the size of the initial epidemic area is expected to be strongly related to the final epidemic extent for epidemics, but the stability of this relationship is also not well established. Here, empirical data of cucurbit downy mildew epidemics collected from 2008 to 2014 were analyzed using a spatio-temporal model of disease spread that incorporates logistic growth in time with a power law function for dispersal. Final epidemic extent ranged from 4.16 ×10 8 km 2 in 2012 to 6.44 ×10 8 km 2 in 2009. Current epidemic extent became significantly associated ( P  power law model. These results suggest that the spread parameter b may not be stable over multiple epidemic years. However, b  ≈ 2 may be considered the lower limit of the distance traveled by epidemic wave-fronts for aerially transmitted pathogens that follow a power law dispersal function.

  8. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language: Computational techniques are presented to analyze and model expressed and perceived human behavior-variedly characterized as typical, atypical, distressed, and disordered-from speech and language cues and their applications in health, commerce, education, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G

    2013-02-07

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion.

  9. The modeled cost-effectiveness of family-based and adolescent-focused treatment for anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Barendregt, Jan J; Hay, Phillipa; Sawyer, Susan M; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2017-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a prevalent, serious mental disorder. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of family-based treatment (FBT) compared to adolescent-focused individual therapy (AFT) or no intervention within the Australian healthcare system. A Markov model was developed to estimate the cost and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted of FBT relative to comparators over 6 years from the health system perspective. The target population was 11-18 year olds with AN of relatively short duration. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were conducted to test model assumptions. Results are reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in 2013 Australian dollars per DALY averted. FBT was less costly than AFT. Relative to no intervention, the mean ICER of FBT and AFT was $5,089 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): dominant to $16,659) and $51,897 ($21,591 to $1,712,491) per DALY averted. FBT and AFT are 100% and 45% likely to be cost-effective, respectively, at a threshold of AUD$50,000 per DALY averted. Sensitivity analyses indicated that excluding hospital costs led to increases in the ICERs but the conclusion of the study did not change. FBT is the most cost-effective among treatment arms, whereas AFT was not cost-effective compared to no intervention. Further research is required to verify this result. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PROPOSAL FOR A MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR SOFTWARE TESTS WITH A FOCUS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF OUTSOURCED SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Toffano Seidel Calazans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for outsourcing IT services has shown a significant growth over the past few years. This article presents a proposal for a measurement model for Software Tests with a focus on the management of these outsourced services by governmental organizations. The following specific goals were defined: to identify and analyze the test process; to identify and analyze the existing standards that govern the hiring of IT services and to propose a Measurement Model for outsourced services of this type. As to the analysis of the data collected (documentary research and semi-structured interviews, content analysis was adopted, and in order to prepare the metrics, the GQM – Goal, Questions, Metrics – approach was used. The result was confirmed by semi-structured interviews. Here is what the research identifies as possible: to establish objective and measurable criteria for a measurement size as the input to evaluate the efforts and deadlines involved; to follow up the test sub-processes and to evaluate the service quality. Therefore, the management of this type of service hiring can be done more efficiently.

  11. Without 'Focus'

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Sevi; Nirit Kadmon

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972), must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the ye...

  12. Determination of tissue thermal conductivity by measuring and modeling temperature rise induced in tissue by pulsed focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Secomski, Wojciech; Kruglenko, Eleonora; Krawczyk, Kazimierz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    A tissue thermal conductivity (Ks) is an important parameter which knowledge is essential whenever thermal fields induced in selected organs are predicted. The main objective of this study was to develop an alternative ultrasonic method for determining Ks of tissues in vitro suitable for living tissues. First, the method involves measuring of temperature-time T(t) rises induced in a tested tissue sample by a pulsed focused ultrasound with measured acoustic properties using thermocouples located on the acoustic beam axis. Measurements were performed for 20-cycle tone bursts with a 2 MHz frequency, 0.2 duty-cycle and 3 different initial pressures corresponding to average acoustic powers equal to 0.7 W, 1.4 W and 2.1 W generated from a circular focused transducer with a diameter of 15 mm and f-number of 1.7 in a two-layer system of media: water/beef liver. Measurement results allowed to determine position of maximum heating located inside the beef liver. It was found that this position is at the same axial distance from the source as the maximum peak-peak pressure calculated for each nonlinear beam produced in the two-layer system of media. Then, the method involves modeling of T(t) at the point of maximum heating and fitting it to the experimental data by adjusting Ks. The averaged value of Ks determined by the proposed method was found to be 0.5±0.02 W/(m·°C) being in good agreement with values determined by other methods. The proposed method is suitable for determining Ks of some animal tissues in vivo (for example a rat liver).

  13. Determination of tissue thermal conductivity by measuring and modeling temperature rise induced in tissue by pulsed focused ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kujawska

    Full Text Available A tissue thermal conductivity (Ks is an important parameter which knowledge is essential whenever thermal fields induced in selected organs are predicted. The main objective of this study was to develop an alternative ultrasonic method for determining Ks of tissues in vitro suitable for living tissues. First, the method involves measuring of temperature-time T(t rises induced in a tested tissue sample by a pulsed focused ultrasound with measured acoustic properties using thermocouples located on the acoustic beam axis. Measurements were performed for 20-cycle tone bursts with a 2 MHz frequency, 0.2 duty-cycle and 3 different initial pressures corresponding to average acoustic powers equal to 0.7 W, 1.4 W and 2.1 W generated from a circular focused transducer with a diameter of 15 mm and f-number of 1.7 in a two-layer system of media: water/beef liver. Measurement results allowed to determine position of maximum heating located inside the beef liver. It was found that this position is at the same axial distance from the source as the maximum peak-peak pressure calculated for each nonlinear beam produced in the two-layer system of media. Then, the method involves modeling of T(t at the point of maximum heating and fitting it to the experimental data by adjusting Ks. The averaged value of Ks determined by the proposed method was found to be 0.5±0.02 W/(m·°C being in good agreement with values determined by other methods. The proposed method is suitable for determining Ks of some animal tissues in vivo (for example a rat liver.

  14. Veterans' Preferences for Exchanging Information Using Veterans Affairs Health Information Technologies: Focus Group Results and Modeling Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie N; Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim; Antinori, Nicole; Melillo, Christine; Cotner, Bridget A; Hathaway, Wendy; Cook, Ashley; Wilck, Nancy; Noonan, Abigail

    2017-10-23

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has multiple health information technology (HIT) resources for veterans to support their health care management. These include a patient portal, VetLink Kiosks, mobile apps, and telehealth services. The veteran patient population has a variety of needs and preferences that can inform current VA HIT redesign efforts to meet consumer needs. This study aimed to describe veterans' experiences using the current VA HIT and identify their vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Two rounds of focus group interviews were conducted with a single cohort of 47 veterans and one female caregiver recruited from Bedford, Massachusetts, and Tampa, Florida. Focus group interviews included simulation modeling activities and a self-administered survey. This study also used an expert panel group to provide data and input throughout the study process. High-fidelity, interactive simulations were created and used to facilitate collection of qualitative data. The simulations were developed based on system requirements, data collected through operational efforts, and participants' reported preferences for using VA HIT. Pairwise comparison activities of HIT resources were conducted with both focus groups and the expert panel. Rapid iterative content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Descriptive statistics summarized quantitative data. Data themes included (1) current use of VA HIT, (2) non-VA HIT use, and (3) preferences for future use of VA HIT. Data indicated that, although the Secure Messaging feature was often preferred, a full range of HIT options are needed. These data were then used to develop veteran-driven simulations that illustrate user needs and expectations when using a HIT system and services to access VA health care services. Patient participant redesign processes present critical opportunities for creating a human-centered design. Veterans value virtual health care options and prefer standardized, integrated

  15. Focus expansion and stability of the spread parameter estimate of the power law model for dispersal gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Ojiambo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that pathogens transmitted via aerially dispersed inoculum follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter (b of the power law model, which is an indicator of the distance of the epidemic wave front from an initial focus per unit time, has been found to be approximately 2 for several animal and plant diseases over a wide range of spatial scales under conditions favorable for disease spread. Although disease spread and epidemic expansion can be influenced by several factors, the stability of the parameter b over multiple epidemic years has not been determined. Additionally, the size of the initial epidemic area is expected to be strongly related to the final epidemic extent for epidemics, but the stability of this relationship is also not well established. Here, empirical data of cucurbit downy mildew epidemics collected from 2008 to 2014 were analyzed using a spatio-temporal model of disease spread that incorporates logistic growth in time with a power law function for dispersal. Final epidemic extent ranged from 4.16 ×108 km2 in 2012 to 6.44 ×108 km2 in 2009. Current epidemic extent became significantly associated (P < 0.0332; 0.56 < R2 < 0.99 with final epidemic area beginning near the end of April, with the association increasing monotonically to 1.0 by the end of the epidemic season in July. The position of the epidemic wave-front became exponentially more distant with time, and epidemic velocity increased linearly with distance. Slopes from the temporal and spatial regression models varied with about a 2.5-fold range across epidemic years. Estimates of b varied substantially ranging from 1.51 to 4.16 across epidemic years. We observed a significant b ×time (or distance interaction (P < 0.05 for epidemic years where data were well described by the power law model. These results suggest that the spread parameter b may not be stable over multiple epidemic

  16. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  17. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  18. On typical properties of Hilbert space operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, T.; Mátrai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We study the typical behavior of bounded linear operators on infinite-dimensional complex separable Hilbert spaces in the norm, strong-star, strong, weak polynomial and weak topologies. In particular, we investigate typical spectral properties, the problem of unitary equivalence of typical

  19. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.

  20. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...... technology affects our habits of consumption. Risto Holopainen presents a notion of autonomous instruments and automated composition that, in the end, cannot escape the human while Jøren Rudi reflects on aesthetic elements and artistic approaches to sound in computer games. This focus is edited by Sanne...

  1. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  2. The typicality of academic discourse and its relevance for constructs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructs of academic literacy are used both for test and course design. While the discussion is relevant to both, the focus of this article will be on test design. Constructs of academic literacy necessarily depend on definitions that assume that academic discourse is typically different from other kinds of discourse. The more ...

  3. Memory for Sequences of Events Impaired in Typical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to…

  4. Use of the Structured Descriptive Assessment with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; English, Carie L.; Hedrick, Theresa M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, only a limited number of studies have focused on functional assessment with typically developing populations. The most commonly reported method of functional assessment with this population seems to be descriptive assessment; however, the methods used in the descriptive assessment often are unclear. This is unfortunate as researchers and…

  5. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  6. Determining surface wave attenuation by modeling surface wave amplitudes including finite-frequency focusing and defocusing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Masters, G.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a technique that uses cluster analysis method to efficiently measure Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude anomalies. Amplitude anomaly measurements have been made on the vertical components of all permanent stations recording LHZ data from IRIS. We currently consider earthquakes with Ms>5.5 between 1990 and 2004 and correct for source phase and magnitude according to the CMT. This technique leads to a large set of amplitude measurements at 7mHz, 10mHz, 15mHz and 20mHz. We discard data with erroneously large amplitude anomalies (|dlnA|>1) and inconsistent instrument responses and we only use earthquakes recorded by more than 30 stations. Out of about 250000 raw measurements for each frequency, about 140000 measurements are retained for inverting for attenuation structure. Similar to Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), phase and amplitude data are inverted together for phase velocity maps, attenuation maps, and source and receiver terms. However, we use the 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel of Zhou et al, (2004) to model the focusing-defocusing effects. Ray theory, which has been used to date, gives amplitude anomaly predictions which depend strongly on short wavelength structure and so are very sensitive to how phase velocity maps are smoothed. Our resulting attenuation maps show structures correlating well with surface tectonics, with high attenuation in regions of ridges, back-arc basins and western North America, and low attenuation in stable continental shields. The success of getting reasonable attenuation structures demonstrates the feasibility of applying 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel to real data.

  7. Effects of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation on bone mechanical properties and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Arias Moreno, Andrés J; van Rietbergen, Bert; Ter Hoeve, Natalie D; van Diest, Paul J; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for palliative treatment of bone pain. In this study, the effects of MR-HIFU ablation on bone mechanics and modeling were investigated. A total of 12 healthy rat femurs were ablated using 10 W for 46 ± 4 s per sonication with 4 sonications for each femur. At 7 days after treatments, all animals underwent MR and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Then, six animals were euthanized. At 1 month following ablations, the remaining six animals were scanned again with MR and SPECT/CT prior to euthanization. Thereafter, both the HIFU-treated and contralateral control bones of three animals from each time interval were processed for histology, whereas the remaining bones were subjected to micro-CT (μCT), three-point bending tests, and micro-finite element (micro-FE) analyses. At 7 days after HIFU ablations, edema formation around the treated bones coupled with bone marrow and cortical bone necrosis was observed on MRI and histological images. SPECT/CT and μCT images revealed presence of bone modeling through an increased uptake of (99m)Tc-MDP and formation of woven bone, respectively. At 31 days after ablations, as illustrated by imaging and histology, healing of the treated bone and the surrounding soft tissue was noted, marked by decreased in amount of tissue damage, formation of scar tissue, and sub-periosteal reaction. The results of three-point bending tests showed no significant differences in elastic stiffness, ultimate load, and yield load between the HIFU-treated and contralateral control bones at 7 days and 1 month after treatments. Similarly, the elastic stiffness and Young's moduli determined by micro-FE analyses at both time intervals were not statistically different. Multimodality imaging and histological data illustrated the presence of HIFU-induced bone damage at the cellular level, which activated the

  8. Modelisation of transport in fractured media with a smeared fractures modeling approach: special focus on matrix diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourno, A.; Grenier, C.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Modeling flow and transport in natural fractured media is a difficult issue due among others to the complexity of the system, the particularities of the geometrical features, the strong parameter value contrasts between the fracture zones (flow zones) and the matrix zones (no flow zones). This lead to the development of dedicated tools like for instance discrete fracture network models (DFN). We follow here another line applicable for classical continuous modeling codes. The fracture network is not meshed here but presence of fractures is taken into account by means of continuous heterogeneous fields (permeability, porosity, head, velocity, concentration ...). This line, followed by different authors, is referred as smeared fracture approach and presents the following advantages: the approach is very versatile because no dedicated spatial discretization effort is required (we use a basic regular mesh, simulations can be done on a rough mesh saving computer time). This makes this kind of approach very promising for taking heterogeneity of properties as well as uncertainties into account within a Monte Carlo framework for instance. Furthermore, the geometry of the matrix blocks where transfers proceed by diffusion is fully taken into account contrary to classical simplified 1D approach for instance. Nevertheless continuous heterogeneous field representation of a fractured medium requires a homogenization process at the scale of the mesh considered. Literature proves that this step of homogenization for transport is still a challenging task. Consequently, the level precision of the results has to be estimated. We precedently proposed a new approach dedicated to Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element approach. This numerical scheme is very interesting for such highly heterogeneous media and in particular guaranties exact conservation of mass flow for each mesh leading to good transport results. We developed a smeared fractures approach to model flow and transport limited to

  9. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  10. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  11. FOCuS: a metaheuristic algorithm for computing knockouts from genome-scale models for strain optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutturi, Sarma

    2017-06-27

    Although handful tools are available for constraint-based flux analysis to generate knockout strains, most of these are either based on bilevel-MIP or its modifications. However, metaheuristic approaches that are known for their flexibility and scalability have been less studied. Moreover, in the existing tools, sectioning of search space to find optimal knocks has not been considered. Herein, a novel computational procedure, termed as FOCuS (Flower-pOllination coupled Clonal Selection algorithm), was developed to find the optimal reaction knockouts from a metabolic network to maximize the production of specific metabolites. FOCuS derives its benefits from nature-inspired flower pollination algorithm and artificial immune system-inspired clonal selection algorithm to converge to an optimal solution. To evaluate the performance of FOCuS, reported results obtained from both MIP and other metaheuristic-based tools were compared in selected case studies. The results demonstrated the robustness of FOCuS irrespective of the size of metabolic network and number of knockouts. Moreover, sectioning of search space coupled with pooling of priority reactions based on their contribution to objective function for generating smaller search space significantly reduced the computational time.

  12. Models for estimating projections for disease prevalence and burden: a systematic review focusing on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Susannah; Barbour, Victoria; Wild, Sarah; Simpson, Colin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological models for estimating the prevalence and burden of disease inform health policy and service planning decisions. Our aim was to describe the challenges in evaluating such models using the example of epidemiological models for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two reviewers searched Medline, Embase, CAB Abstracts and World Health Organization (WHO) Databases from 1980 to November 2013 for epidemiological models of COPD prevalence and burden. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of the studies. We then undertook a descriptive and narrative synthesis of data. We identified 22 models employing a variety of techniques to calculate the prevalence and/or burden of COPD. Models calculated prevalence and/or mortality or other facet of disease burden using demographics and risk factors or trends, Markov-type modelling and microsimulation modelling. The six models which scored highly on the quality framework were: the Peabody model, which generated estimates of COPD prevalence; the WHO DISMOD II model which produced burden estimates in terms of disability adjusted life years with COPD and life years lost to COPD; the Atsou model which gave the life expectancy gains of individual smokers who quit smoking and associated costs; two Dutch COPD models which produced estimates of mortality and health care costs related to COPD; and the Pichon-Riviere model which gave the costs and cost effectiveness of smoking quit programmes. The field of chronic disease modelling is burgeoning. As a result, policy makers need to understand how to interpret epidemiological models and their data sources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Light-absorbing carbon in Europe – Measurement and modelling, with a focus on residential wood combustion emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genberg, J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Simpson, D.; Swietlicki, E.; Areskoug, H.; Beddows, D.; Ceburnis, D.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H.C.; Harrison, R.M.; Jennings, S.G.; Saarikoski, S.; Spindler, G.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Yttri, K.E.; Bergström, R.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric concentration of elemental carbon (EC) in Europe during the six-year period 2005-2010 has been simulated with the EMEP MSC-W model. The model bias compared to EC measurements was less than 20% for most of the examined sites. The model results suggest that fossil fuel combustion is

  14. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Methodology, Applications, and Limitations with a Focus on Its Role in Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was introduced years ago, but it has not been practiced significantly. However, interest in and implementation of this modeling technique have grown, as evidenced by the increased number of publications in this field. This paper demonstrates briefly the methodology, applications, and limitations of PBPK modeling with special attention given to discuss the use of PBPK models in pediatric drug development and some examples described in detail. Although PBPK models do have some limitations, the potential benefit from PBPK modeling technique is huge. PBPK models can be applied to investigate drug pharmacokinetics under different physiological and pathological conditions or in different age groups, to support decision-making during drug discovery, to provide, perhaps most important, data that can save time and resources, especially in early drug development phases and in pediatric clinical trials, and potentially to help clinical trials become more “confirmatory” rather than “exploratory”.

  15. A four-part ecological model of community-focused therapeutic recreation and life skills services for children and youth with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G; Curran, C J; McPherson, A

    2013-05-01

    This article presents a four-part model of community-focused therapeutic recreation and life skills services for children's rehabilitation centres. The model is based on 15 years of clinical and management practice in a Canadian context combined with evidence from the literature on community-focused service delivery. The model incorporates an ecological approach and principles from models of therapeutic recreation, community capacity building, and health promotion, as well as client/family-centred care. The four pillars of the model reflect a set of integrated services and principles designed to support the participation of children and youth with disabilities in community activities. The pillars involve providing community outreach services, providing community development services, sharing physical and educational resources with community partners, and promoting the organization as a community facility that provides adapted physical space and specialized instruction. The lessons learned in implementing the model are discussed, including the importance of ensuring the sustainability of community recreation programmes. The model will be of use to managers and service organizations seeking to develop an integrated programme of community-focused therapeutic recreation and life skills services based on a collaborative capacity-building approach. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A high-frequency ultrasound imaging system combining limited-angle spatial compounding and model-based synthetic aperture focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opretzka, Jörn; Vogt, Michael; Ermert, Helmut

    2011-07-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging systems are routinely used for medical diagnostics (skin, eyes) and for medical research (small animal imaging). Although systems with array transducers are already commercially available, imaging systems with single-element transducers are still of interest and available as well, because this type of transducer is less complex, less expensive, and technically mature. Nevertheless, drawbacks exist, for example, the need for mechanical scanning units and the limited depth of field. In this paper, we present a high-frequency (20 MHz) ultrasound imaging system equipped with a spherically focused transducer. Limited-angle spatial compounding is utilized to improve the image contrast, to suppress speckle and noise, and to reduce imaging artifacts. To overcome the limitation in depth of field, the system uses a novel synthetic aperture focusing technique based on the correlation of the recorded echo signals with the simulated point spread function of the imaging system. This method results in lower side lobe levels and greater noise reduction compared with delay-and-sum focusing, which is demonstrated by wire phantom measurements. When used in combination with limited-angle spatial compounding, as presented in this paper, the resulting image quality is superior to conventional single-element HFUS imaging systems and to array systems. Examples of measurements on tissue phantoms and small animals (ex vivo) are presented and discussed in detail.

  17. Consortia Focused on Photovoltaic R&D, Manufacturing, and Testing: A Review of Existing Models and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggeshall, C.; Margolis, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program prepares to initiate a new cost-shared research and development (R&D) effort on photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, it is useful to review the experience to date with consortia focused on PV R&D, manufacturing, and testing. Information was gathered for this report by conducting interviews and accessing Web sites of 14 U.S. consortia and four European consortia, each with either a primary focus on or an emerging interest in PV technology R&D, manufacturing, or testing. Additional input was collected from several workshops held by the DOE and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which examined the practical steps -- including public-private partnerships and policy support -- necessary to enhance the United States' capacity to competitively manufacture photovoltaics. This report categorizes the 18 consortia into three groups: university-led consortia, industry-led consortia, and manufacturing and testing facilities consortia. The first section summarizes the organizations within the different categories, with a particular focus on the key benefits and challenges for each grouping. The second section provides a more detailed overview of each consortium, including the origins, goals, organization, membership, funding sources, and key contacts. This survey is a useful resource for stakeholders interested in PV manufacturing R&D, but should not imply endorsement of any of these groups.

  18. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  19. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  20. Report on Integration of Existing Grid Models for N-R HES Interaction Focused on Balancing Authorities for Sub-hour Penalties and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the effort in the Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System (N-R HES) project on the level 4 milestone to consider integration of existing grid models into the factors for optimization on shorter time intervals than the existing electric grid models with the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) and Modelica [1] optimizations and economic analysis that are the focus of the project to date.

  1. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  2. Dysfunctional metacognition and drive for thinness in typical and atypical anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Emily; Rushford, Nola; Soon, Siew; McDermott, Cressida

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and drive for thinness across groups and relationships within groups is also unclear. Main objectives were to determine whether metacognitive factors differ across typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and a non-clinical community sample, and to explore a process model by determining whether drive for thinness is concurrently predicted by metacognitive factors. Women receiving treatment for anorexia nervosa (n = 119) and non-clinical community participants (n = 100), aged between 18 and 46 years, completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (3(rd) Edition) and Metacognitions Questionnaire (Brief Version). Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) differentiated between typical (n = 75) and atypical (n = 44) anorexia nervosa. Multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted. Metacognitive profiles were similar in both typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and confirmed as more dysfunctional than in the non-clinical group. Drive for thinness was concurrently predicted in the typical patients by the metacognitive factors, positive beliefs about worry, and need to control thoughts; in the atypical patients by negative beliefs about worry and, inversely, by cognitive self-consciousness, and in the non-clinical group by cognitive self-consciousness. Despite having a healthier weight, the atypical group was as severely affected by dysfunctional metacognitions and drive for thinness as the typical group. Because metacognition concurrently predicted drive for thinness

  3. A Study on Development of a Cost Optimal and Energy Saving Building Model: Focused on Industrial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests an optimization method for the life cycle cost (LCC in an economic feasibility analysis when applying energy saving techniques in the early design stage of a building. Literature and previous studies were reviewed to select appropriate optimization and LCC analysis techniques. The energy simulation (Energy Plus and computational program (MATLAB were linked to provide an automated optimization process. From the results, it is suggested that this process could outline the cost optimization model with which it is possible to minimize the LCC. To aid in understanding the model, a case study on an industrial building was performed to outline the operations of the cost optimization model including energy savings. An energy optimization model was also presented to illustrate the need for the cost optimization model.

  4. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, Birgit; Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel; Curiel, Laura; Zhang, Kunyan; Escott, Nicholas; Mougenot, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10 5 colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  5. Shadow effects in simulated ultrasound images derived from computed tomography images using a focused beam tracing model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai; Lundgren, Bo; Stage, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of ultrasound images based on computed tomography (CT) data has previously been performed with different approaches. Shadow effects are normally pronounced in ultrasound images, so they should be included in the simulation. In this study, a method to capture the shadow effects has been......Focus ultrasound scanner (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) equipped with a dedicated research interface giving access to beamformed radio frequency data. CT images were obtained with an Aquilion ONE Toshiba CT scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tochigi, Japan). CT data were mapped from Hounsfield units...

  6. Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Fifth-Generation (5G) Wireless Networks—With a Focus on Propagation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Theodore S.; Xing, Yunchou; MacCartney, George R.; Molisch, Andreas F.; Mellios, Evangelos; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the features of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems now being developed for use in the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency bands. Early results and key concepts of 5G networks are presented, and the channel modeling efforts of many international groups for both licensed and unlicensed applications are described here. Propagation parameters and channel models for understanding mmWave propagation, such as line-of-sight (LOS) probabilities, large-scale path loss, and building penetration loss, as modeled by various standardization bodies, are compared over the 0.5-100 GHz range.

  7. Thinking of change in terms of gains or losses Promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Petrou

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change. Motivation for the study: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change. Research design, approach and method: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Main findings: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change. Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.

  8. Entrance and escape dynamics for the typical set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Greenberg, Jonah S.; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    According to the asymptotic equipartition property, sufficiently long sequences of random variables converge to a set that is typical. While the size and probability of this set are central to information theory and statistical mechanics, they can often only be estimated accurately in the asymptotic limit due to the exponential growth in possible sequences. Here we derive a time-inhomogeneous dynamics that constructs the properties of the typical set for all finite length sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables. These dynamics link the finite properties of the typical set to asymptotic results and allow the typical set to be applied to small and transient systems. The main result is a geometric mapping—the triangle map—relating sequences of random variables of length n to those of length n +1 . We show that the number of points in this map needed to quantify the properties of the typical set grows linearly with sequence length, despite the exponential growth in the number of typical sequences. We illustrate the framework for the Bernoulli process and the Schlögl model for autocatalytic chemical reactions and demonstrate both the convergence to asymptotic limits and the ability to reproduce exact calculations.

  9. Engineering Students at Typically Invisible Transition Points: A Focus on Admissions and the Sophomore Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    As of 2012, women are approximately 19% of all engineering undergraduate students nationally (American Society for Engineering Education, 2012). Women's representation in engineering has not changed significantly over the last 20 years, despite increased attention, increased funding, and increased programmatic activities intended to encourage more…

  10. Modeling the thermo-acoustic effects of thermal-dependent speed of sound and acoustic absorption of biological tissues during focused ultrasound hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Haro, S A; Gutiérrez, M I; Vera, A; Leija, L

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of thermal dependence of speed of sound (SOS) and acoustic absorption of biological tissues during noninvasive focused ultrasound (US) hyperthermia therapy. A finite element (FE) model was used to simulate hyperthermia therapy in the liver by noninvasive focused US. The model consisted of an ultrasonic focused transducer radiating a four-layer biological medium composed of skin, fat, muscle, and liver. The acoustic field and temperature distribution along the layers were obtained after 15 s of hyperthermia therapy using the bio-heat equation. The model solution was found with and without the thermal dependence of SOS and acoustic absorption of biological tissues. The inclusion of the thermal dependence of the SOS generated an increment of 0.4 mm in the longitudinal focus axis of the acoustic field. Moreover, results indicate an increment of the hyperthermia area (zone with temperature above 43 °C), and a maximum temperature difference of almost 3.5 °C when the thermal dependence of absorption was taken into account. The increment of the achieved temperatures at the treatment zone indicated that the effects produced by the thermal dependence of SOS and absorption must be accounted for when planning hyperthermia treatment in order to avoid overheating undesired regions.

  11. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, Birgit [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B6V4 (Canada); Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel, E-mail: spichard@lakeheadu.ca, E-mail: lcuriel@lakeheadu.ca; Curiel, Laura, E-mail: spichard@lakeheadu.ca, E-mail: lcuriel@lakeheadu.ca [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B6V4, Canada and Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B6V4 (Canada); Zhang, Kunyan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Escott, Nicholas [Department of Pathology, Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 6V4 (Canada); Mougenot, Charles [Philips Healthcare, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10{sup 5} colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  12. Modeling of Anaerobic Digestion with a Focus on Estimation of Hydrolysis Constants at 35, 55, and 60 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatafshar, Salar; Ossiansson, Elin; Koch, Konrad; Kjerstadius, Hamse; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Davidsson, Åsa

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis constants of mixed sludge at 35, 55, and 60 °C were found to be 0.32, 0.44, and 0.50 1/d, respectively, in pilot-scale, semicontinuously operated anaerobic digesters. The hydrolysis constants and estimated chemical oxygen demand fractions in the feed were introduced to a mathematical model for anaerobic digestion published by Siegrist et al. (2002), which is similar to Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. First-order and Monod-type kinetics were tested for estimation of hydrolysis constants. The applied kinetics were found to affect the outcome of the regression study. Moreover, the free ammonia inhibition model was excluded for both propionate oxidation and acetate conversion, thanks to the apparent acclimatized biomass. No substantial accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed in the reactors at 35, 55, and 60 °C, corresponding to free ammonia nitrogen concentrations of about 20, 110, and 130 g N/m³, respectively.

  13. Modeling and observational constraints on the sulfur cycle in the marine troposphere: a focus on reactive halogens and multiphase chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Breider, T.; Schmidt, J.; Sherwen, T.; Evans, M. J.; Xie, Z.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Alexander, B.

    2017-12-01

    The radiative forcing from marine boundary layer clouds is still highly uncertain, which partly stems from our poor understanding of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation. The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and subsequent chemical evolution of its products (e.g. DMSO) are key processes in CCN formation, but are generally very simplified in large-scale models. Recent research has pointed out the importance of reactive halogens (e.g. BrO and Cl) and multiphase chemistry in the tropospheric sulfur cycle. In this study, we implement a series of sulfur oxidation mechanisms into the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model, involving both gas-phase and multiphase oxidation of DMS, DMSO, MSIA and MSA, to improve our understanding of the sulfur cycle in the marine troposphere. DMS observations from six locations around the globe and MSA/nssSO42- ratio observations from two ship cruises covering a wide range of latitudes and longitudes are used to assess the model. Preliminary results reveal the important role of BrO for DMS oxidation at high latitudes (up to 50% over Southern Ocean). Oxidation of DMS by Cl radicals is small in the model (within 10% in the marine troposphere), probably due to an underrepresentation of Cl sources. Multiphase chemistry (e.g. oxidation by OH and O3 in cloud droplets) is not important for DMS oxidation but is critical for DMSO oxidation and MSA production and removal. In our model, about half of the DMSO is oxidized in clouds, leading to the formation of MSIA, which is further oxidized to form MSA. Overall, with the addition of reactive halogens and multiphase chemistry, the model is able to better reproduce observations of seasonal variations of DMS and MSA/nssSO42- ratios.

  14. Probabilistic migration modelling focused on functional barrier efficiency and low migration concepts in support of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsch, Rainer

    2017-10-01

    Migration modelling provides reliable migration estimates from food-contact materials (FCM) to food or food simulants based on mass-transfer parameters like diffusion and partition coefficients related to individual materials. In most cases, mass-transfer parameters are not readily available from the literature and for this reason are estimated with a given uncertainty. Historically, uncertainty was accounted for by introducing upper limit concepts first, turning out to be of limited applicability due to highly overestimated migration results. Probabilistic migration modelling gives the possibility to consider uncertainty of the mass-transfer parameters as well as other model inputs. With respect to a functional barrier, the most important parameters among others are the diffusion properties of the functional barrier and its thickness. A software tool that accepts distribution as inputs and is capable of applying Monte Carlo methods, i.e., random sampling from the input distributions of the relevant parameters (i.e., diffusion coefficient and layer thickness), predicts migration results with related uncertainty and confidence intervals. The capabilities of probabilistic migration modelling are presented in the view of three case studies (1) sensitivity analysis, (2) functional barrier efficiency and (3) validation by experimental testing. Based on the predicted migration by probabilistic migration modelling and related exposure estimates, safety evaluation of new materials in the context of existing or new packaging concepts is possible. Identifying associated migration risk and potential safety concerns in the early stage of packaging development is possible. Furthermore, dedicated material selection exhibiting required functional barrier efficiency under application conditions becomes feasible. Validation of the migration risk assessment by probabilistic migration modelling through a minimum of dedicated experimental testing is strongly recommended.

  15. Development and evaluation of an innovative model of inter-professional education focused on asthma medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Stuart, Meg; Mackson, Judith; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Sainsbury, Erica; Armour, Carol; Mavritsakis, Sofia; Mendrela, Gosia; Travers-Mason, Pippa; Williamson, Margaret

    2014-04-07

    Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities to deliver this education in primary care. In light of this, it is important to explore how health care providers, in particular pharmacists and general medical practitioners, can work together in delivering inhaler technique education to patients, over time. Therefore, there is a need to develop and evaluate effective inter-professional education, which will address the need to educate patients in the correct use of their inhalers as well as equip health care professionals with skills to engage in collaborative relationships with each other. This mixed methods study involves the development and evaluation of three modules of continuing education, Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3. A fourth group, Model 4, acting as a control.Model 1 consists of face-to-face continuing professional education on asthma inhaler technique, aimed at pharmacists, general medical practitioners and their practice nurses.Model 2 is an electronic online continuing education module based on Model 1 principles.Model 3 is also based on asthma inhaler technique education but employs a learning intervention targeting health care professional relationships and is based on sociocultural theory.This study took the form of a parallel group, repeated measure design. Following the completion of continuing professional education, health care professionals recruited people with asthma and followed them up for 6 months. During this period, inhaler device technique training was delivered and data on patient inhaler technique

  16. Proposed Model for a Streamlined, Cohesive, and Optimized K-12 STEM Curriculum with a Focus on Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a proposed model for a clear description of K-12 age-possible engineering knowledge content, in terms of the selection of analytic principles and predictive skills for various grades, based on the mastery of mathematics and science pre-requisites, as mandated by national or state performance standards; and a streamlined,…

  17. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpembeni Rose

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO. In this study we assess the time health workers currently spent on providing ANC services and compare it to the requirements anticipated for the new ANC model in order to identify the implications of Focused ANC on health care providers' workload. Methods Health workers in four dispensaries in Mtwara Urban District, Southern Tanzania, were observed while providing routine ANC. The time used for the overall activity as well as for the different, specific components of 71 ANC service provisions was measured in detail; 28 of these were first visits and 43 revisits. Standard time requirements for the provision of focused ANC were assessed through simulated consultations based on the new guidelines. Results The average time health workers currently spend for providing ANC service to a first visit client was found to be 15 minutes; the provision of ANC according to the focused ANC model was assessed to be 46 minutes. For a revisiting client the difference between current practise and the anticipated standard of the new model was 27 minutes (9 vs. 36 min.. The major discrepancy between the two procedures was related to counselling. On average a first visit client was counselled for 1:30 minutes, while counselling in revisiting clients did hardly take place at all. The simulation of focused ANC revealed that proper counselling would take about 15 minutes per visit. Conclusion While the introduction of focused ANC has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and to raise the number of births attended by skilled staff in Tanzania, it may need additional investment in human resources. The generally anticipated saving effect of

  18. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS): Ablation of liver tissue in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopelman, Doron [Department of Surgery B, ' HaEmek' Medical Center, Afula, and the Technion, Israel institute of technology, Haifa (Israel)]. E-mail: Kopelman_d@clalit.org.il; Inbar, Yael [Focused Ultrasound Treatment Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Hanannel, Arik [InSightec Ltd., Tirat Hacarmel (Israel); Freundlich, David [InSightec Ltd., Tirat Hacarmel (Israel); Castel, David [Focused Ultrasound Treatment Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Perel, Azriel [Department of Anesthesiology, and intensive care, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Greenfeld, Adrian [Department of Anesthesiology, and intensive care, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Salamon, Tal [Department of Surgery B, ' HaEmek' Medical Center, Afula, and the Technion, Israel institute of technology, Haifa (Israel); Sareli, Merab [Department of Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Valeanu, Adrian [Department of Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Papa, Moshe [Department of Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    2006-08-15

    Background: Liver surgery is technically demanding and is considered a major procedure with relatively high morbidity rates. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) uses focused ultrasonic energy to create a heat coagulation lesion, which can be achieved in a totally controlled, very accurate manner (<1 mm). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of non-invasive focal ablation of liver tissue achieved by consecutive MRgFUS sonications. Materials and methods: Six MRgFUS procedures were performed in five pigs under general anesthesia, with the ExAblate 2000 system (InSightec, Israel). Real-time imaging and temperature mapping (Signa Twinspeed 1.5T, GEHC, USA) enabled the immediate evaluation of the results of each sonication. Different foci were chosen within the liver. These mock lesions were ablated by several sonications, each of them performed during 20-30 s of apnea. Between sonications, the pigs were normally ventilated. The pigs were sacrificed 3-21 days after the procedure and their livers were examined. Results: The MRgFUS created complete tissue destruction of mock lesions in different areas of the pig's liver. The lesion sizes in each animal varied according to the number of sonications used and the extent of overlap between adjacent sonications. The lesion ranged in size from 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm x 2.0 cm to 5.5 cm x 4.5 cm x 2.0 cm. There was no morbidity. Conclusions: MRgFUS under general anesthesia is a safe, completely non-invasive technology for the ablation of liver tissue. Liver tissue can be ablated in a very accurate manner, based on the pre-treatment planning on the MR images. The MR imaging characteristics, including real-time temperature mapping, enable real-time control of every step of the ablation process. Mechanical ventilation with intermittent periods of apnea is a technique that overcomes the problem of the respiratory movements of the liver.

  19. Emotion-focused therapy for the treatment of social anxiety: an overview of the model and a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) is an integrative and experiential treatment approach that views emotions as fundamentally adaptive and privileges attention to, and exploration of, emotional experiences. EFT has been demonstrated to be efficacious with depression, interpersonal trauma and marital discord, but application to anxiety disorders is in its initial stages. The purpose of this paper is to present the main principles of using EFT with socially anxious patients and to make the case that EFT is particularly well suited for working with this patient group. The primary change processes in EFT for social anxiety include improving emotion awareness, reducing experiential avoidance and the activation and transformation of shame that underlies the symptomatic anxiety. Such processes lead to less self-criticism, to more self-compassion and self-soothing and to a more favourable perception of the self. A case example is used to illustrate how these principles were applied with a socially anxious patient. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sungwoo Lee; Sungho Tae; Seungjun Roh; Taehyung Kim

    2015-01-01

    The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM) for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome thes...

  1. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  2. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton–Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton–Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance. (paper)

  4. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton-Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance.

  5. Focused Transhepatic Electroporation Mediated by Hypersaline Infusion through the Portal Vein in Rat Model. Preliminary Results on Differential Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañella, Clara; Castellví, Quim; Moll, Xavier; Quesada, Rita; Villanueva, Alberto; Iglesias, Mar; Naranjo, Dolores; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Andaluz, Anna; Grande, Luís; Ivorra, Antoni; Burdío, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI) through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE) when applied in a transhepatic fashion. Sprague Dawley (Group A, n = 10) and Athymic rats with implanted hepatic tumour (Group B, n = 8) were employed. HI was performed (NaCl 20%, 3.8 mL/Kg) by trans-splenic puncture. Deionized serum (40 mL/Kg) and furosemide (2 mL/Kg) were simultaneously infused through the jugular vein to compensate hypernatremia. Changes in conductivity were monitored in the hepatic and tumour tissue. The period in which hepatic conductivity was higher than tumour conductivity was defined as the therapeutic window (TW). Animals were monitored during 1-month follow-up. The animals were sacrificed and selective samples were used for histological analysis. The overall survival rate was 82.4% after the HI protocol. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 2.7 and 3.5 times higher than the baseline value, in group A and B, respectively. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 1.4 times higher than tumour tissue in group B creating a TW to implement selective IRE. HI through the portal vein is safe when the hypersaline overload is compensated with deionized serum and it may provide a TW for focused IRE treatment on tumour nodules.

  6. Biomechanical properties of bone treated by magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound - an in vivo porcine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Amir; Avivi, Eran; Brosh, Tamar; Schwartz, Ignat; Liberman, Boaz

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system uses MR imaging for real-time aiming of thermal ablation of bone and soft tissue tumors. Past clinical studies showed no increase in fracture rate after MRgFUS treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of MRgFUS treatment on mechanical properties of bone and correlate the effect to histological findings of treated bone. Four fully grown mini-pigs were treated by MRgFUS. Six consecutive right normal ribs were treated in each animal, and the left corresponding ribs served as controls. The animals were sacrificed at pre-set intervals (0, 2, 6 and 12weeks after treatment), and the treated and control bones were extracted. Mechanical properties of each bone were examined using three points bending studies for comparing treated bones to the corresponding controls. Histologic properties using Masson and hematoxylin-eosin stains were also compared. The ratio between treated and control biomechanical properties showed reduction in bone biomechanical properties at 6weeks post-MRgFUS treatment. The mean±SD yield load ratio and maximum ratios were 0.69±0.11 and 0.71±0.13, respectively (both p=0.031). These findings showed some recovery trend at 12weeks after treatment. Histological analysis showed a reduction in mean osteon size at 2weeks after treatment (0.58×10(-3)±0.1×10(-3)mm and 0.16×10(-3)±0.017×10(-3)mm) in control vs. treated bones, respectively (p=0.005). Treatment with the MRgFUS system resulted in a ~30% reduction in mechanical strength at 6weeks post-treatment. The reduction showed a reversible trend, with a 25%-20% decrease in strength at 12weeks post-treatment. © 2013.

  7. Neutralizing Trade-off Effect between Accuracy and Fluency in EFL Writing by Mentor Text Modeling: Cognitive Complexity in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Biria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to explore the efficacy of a brand-new approach to teaching writing called mentor text modeling in neutralizing trade-off effect between accuracy and fluency in writing tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity. To this end, a total of 60 (30 male and 30 female Iranian EFL learners were randomly selected and assigned to three groups of comparison, each containing 20 (10 male and 10 female learners. Employing a pretest/posttest experimental design, learners of the three groups received instruction on advanced writing during an 11-week course. At the commencement of the course, the learners’ fluency and accuracy in writing were gaged through three writing tasks with high, moderate, and low levels of cognitive complexity. Having been exposed to the same instructional input, the learners of each group underwent writing instructions based on one of three approaches to teaching writing, namely, mentor text modeling, product-based approach, and process-based approach. At the end of the study course, the learners’ writing performance was assessed on three tasks parallel to the pretest measures. Results of running correlation analysis indicated that contrary to the two traditional approaches to teaching writing, mentor text modeling was capable of improving accuracy and fluency simultaneously and, as a result, was found to be effective in neutralizing the trade-off effect between accuracy and fluency in writing tasks with high, moderate, and low cognitive complexity levels. The study’s finding may urge EFL teachers to include mentor texts while teaching writing to realize a balanced improvement in EFL learners’ writing competence.

  8. Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model: A Framework for Bridging Regulatory Focus Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Ann Vaughn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes data from the three studies reported in my paper on Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model [6]. I collected these data in 2014, 2015, and 2016 from over 2,100 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers in the United States and Canada. The dataset contains the measures described in the paper, as well as participants’ writing about the experiences they brought to mind in these studies. The data are stored on the Open Science Framework, and they could be used for exploratory research, meta-analyses, and research on replication. I also welcome collaborative research involving re-analyses of these data.

  9. Checklist for the qualitative evaluation of clinical studies with particular focus on external validity and model validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmar Horst C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often stated that external validity is not sufficiently considered in the assessment of clinical studies. Although tools for its evaluation have been established, there is a lack of awareness of their significance and application. In this article, a comprehensive checklist is presented addressing these relevant criteria. Methods The checklist was developed by listing the most commonly used assessment criteria for clinical studies. Additionally, specific lists for individual applications were included. The categories of biases of internal validity (selection, performance, attrition and detection bias correspond to structural, treatment-related and observational differences between the test and control groups. Analogously, we have extended these categories to address external validity and model validity, regarding similarity between the study population/conditions and the general population/conditions related to structure, treatment and observation. Results A checklist is presented, in which the evaluation criteria concerning external validity and model validity are systemised and transformed into a questionnaire format. Conclusion The checklist presented in this article can be applied to both planning and evaluating of clinical studies. We encourage the prospective user to modify the checklists according to the respective application and research question. The higher expenditure needed for the evaluation of clinical studies in systematic reviews is justified, particularly in the light of the influential nature of their conclusions on therapeutic decisions and the creation of clinical guidelines.

  10. A formative evaluation of a coach-based technical assistance model for youth- and family-focused programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Perkins, Daniel F; Borden, Lynne M

    2018-04-01

    The Children, Youth, and Families At-Risk (CYFAR) initiative provides funding and technical support for local community-based programs designed to promote positive outcomes among vulnerable populations. In 2013, CYFAR implemented significant changes in the way it provides technical assistance (TA) to grantees. These changes included introducing a new TA model in which trained coaches provide proactive support that is tailored to individual CYFAR projects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution of this TA model and present preliminary findings from a formative evaluation. CYFAR Principal Investigators (PIs) were invited to respond to online surveys in 2015 and 2016. The surveys were designed to assess PI attitudes towards the nature and quality of support that they receive from their coaches. CYFAR PIs reported that their coaches have incorporated a range of coaching skills and techniques into their work. PIs have generally positive attitudes towards their coaches, and these attitudes have become more positive over time. Results suggest that CYFAR PIs have been generally supportive of the new TA system. Factors that may have facilitated support include a strong emphasis on team-building and the provision of specific resources that support program design, implementation, and evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An experimental model to investigate the targeting accuracy of MR-guided focused ultrasound ablation in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusca, Lorena; Viallon, Magalie; Breguet, Romain; Terraz, Sylvain; Manasseh, Gibran; Auboiroux, Vincent; Goget, Thomas; Baboi, Loredana; Gross, Patrick; Sekins, K Michael; Becker, Christoph D; Salomir, Rares

    2014-01-16

    Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a hybrid technology that aims to offer non-invasive thermal ablation of targeted tumors or other pathological tissues. Acoustic aberrations and non-linear wave propagating effects may shift the focal point significantly away from the prescribed (or, theoretical) position. It is therefore mandatory to evaluate the spatial accuracy of ablation for a given HIFU protocol and/or device. We describe here a method for producing a user-defined ballistic target as an absolute reference marker for MRgHIFU ablations. The investigated method is based on trapping a mixture of MR contrast agent and histology stain using radiofrequency (RF) ablation causing cell death and coagulation. A dedicated RF-electrode was used for the marker fixation as follows: a RF coagulation (4 W, 15 seconds) and injection of the mixture followed by a second RF coagulation. As a result, the contrast agent/stain is encapsulated in the intercellular space. Ultrasonography imaging was performed during the procedure, while high resolution T1w 3D VIBE MR acquisition was used right after to identify the position of the ballistic marker and hence the target tissue. For some cases, after the marker fixation procedure, HIFU volumetric ablations were produced by a phased-array HIFU platform. First ex vivo experiments were followed by in vivo investigation on four rabbits in thigh muscle and six pigs in liver, with follow-up at Day 7. At the end of the procedure, no ultrasound indication of the marker's presence could be observed, while it was clearly visible under MR and could be conveniently used to prescribe the HIFU ablation, centered on the so-created target. The marker was identified at Day 7 after treatment, immediately after animal sacrifice, after 3 weeks of post-mortem formalin fixation and during histology analysis. Its size ranged between 2.5 and 4 mm. Experimental validation of this new ballistic marker method was performed for

  12. Focusing high-squint and large-baseline one-stationary bistatic SAR data using keystone transform and enhanced nonlinear chirp scaling based on an ellipse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Song; Hu, Jian; Sun, Minhong

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the imaging problem for one-stationary bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR) with high-squint, large-baseline configuration. In this bistatic configuration, accurate focusing of BiSAR data is a difficult issue due to the relatively large range cell migration (RCM), severe range-azimuth coupling, and inherent azimuth-geometric variance. To circumvent these issues, an enhanced azimuth nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithm based on an ellipse model is investigated in this paper. In the range processing, a method combining deramp operation and keystone transform (KT) is adopted to remove linear RCM completely and mitigate range-azimuth cross-coupling. In the azimuth focusing, an ellipse model is established to analyze and depict the characteristic of azimuth-variant Doppler phase. Based on the new model, an enhanced azimuth NLCS algorithm is derived to focus one-stationary BiSAR data. Simulating results exhibited at the end of this paper validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Analysis of the IMAGE RPI electron density data and CHAMP plasmasphere electron density reconstructions with focus on plasmasphere modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, T.; Feltens, J.; Jakowski, N.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Zandbergen, R.

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of the topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere contributes essentially to the overall Total Electron Content (TEC) budget affecting Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. The plasmasphere can cause half or even more of the GNSS range error budget due to ionospheric propagation errors. This paper presents a comparative study of different plasmasphere and topside ionosphere data aiming at establishing an appropriate database for plasmasphere modelling. We analyze electron density profiles along the geomagnetic field lines derived from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite/Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) records of remote plasma sounding with radio waves. We compare these RPI profiles with 2D reconstructions of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density derived from GNSS based TEC measurements onboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. Most of the coincidences between IMAGE profiles and CHAMP reconstructions are detected in the region with L-shell between 2 and 5. In general the CHAMP reconstructed electron densities are below the IMAGE profile densities, with median of the CHAMP minus IMAGE residuals around -588 cm-3. Additionally, a comparison is made with electron densities derived from passive radio wave RPI measurements onboard the IMAGE satellite. Over the available 2001-2005 period of IMAGE measurements, the considered combined data from the active and passive RPI operations cover the region within a latitude range of ±60°N, all longitudes, and an L-shell ranging from 1.2 to 15. In the coincidence regions (mainly 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 4), we check the agreement between available active and passive RPI data. The comparison shows that the measurements are well correlated, with a median residual of ∼52 cm-3. The RMS and STD values of the relative residuals are around 22% and 21% respectively. In summary, the results encourage the application of IMAGE RPI data for

  14. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  15. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  16. Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of current trends of quickly spreading infectious wildlife diseases is vital to efficient and effective management. We developed space-time mixed-effects logistic regressions to characterize a disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), quickly spreading among endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in eastern North America. Our goal was to calculate and map the risk probability faced by uninfected colonies of hibernating Indiana bats. Model covariates included annual distance from and direction to nearest sources of infection, geolocational information, size of the Indiana bat populations within each wintering population, and total annual size of populations known or suspected to be affected by WNS. We considered temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal formulae through the use of random effects for year, complex (a collection of interacting hibernacula), and yearxcomplex. Since first documented in 2006, WNS has spread across much of the range of the Indiana bat. No sizeable wintering population now occurs outside of the migrational distance of an infected source. Annual rates of newly affected wintering Indiana bat populations between winter 2007 to 2008 and 2010 to 2011 were 4, 6, 8, and 12%; this rate increased each year at a rate of 3%. If this increasing rate of newly affected populations continues, all wintering populations may be affected by 2016. Our models indicated the probability of a wintering population exhibiting infection was a linear function of proximity to affected Indiana bat populations and size of the at-risk population. Geographic location was also important, suggesting broad-scale influences. For every 50-km increase in distance from a WNS-affected population, risk of disease declined by 6% (95% CI=5.2-5.7%); for every increase of 1,000 Indiana bats, there was an 8% (95% CI = 1-21%) increase in disease risk. The increasing rate of infection seems to be associated with the movement of this disease into the core of the Indiana bat range. Our

  17. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  19. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  20. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A. T.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Mikkonen, S.; Lipponen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. Regression dilution occurs when the ordinary least squares regression method is used on a predictor with random data uncertainty, which causes the slope to become biased towards zero. RTM on the other hand happens when an extreme observation is accompanied by a less extreme follow-up observation. These biases both originate from random uncertainties of the reference data, which is typically not taken into account and discussed in atmospheric sciences. This is crucial, since essentially all typical atmospheric data have some level of uncertainty. We use synthetic observations of aerosol optical thickness and UV index mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics, but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus we argue, that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider features in research.

  1. A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL), a logic for reasoning about typicality. We do so by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator of which the intuition is to capture the most typical (or normal) situations...

  2. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  3. Low Dose Studies with Focused X-rays in Cell and Tissue Models: Mechanisms of Bystander and Genomic Instability Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry D. Michael; Kathryn Held; Kevin Prise

    2002-12-19

    study the biological basis of the relationship between high- and low-dose exposures. The targeting approach also allows us to study very clearly a newly recognized effect of radiation, the ''bystander effect'', which appears to dominate some low-dose responses and therefore may have a significant role in low-dose risk mechanisms. Our project also addresses the concept that the background of naturally occurring oxidative damage that takes place continually in cells due to byproducts of metabolism may play a role in treatments that modify the levels of oxidative damage, either alone or in combination with low-dose irradiation. In this project, we have used human and rodent cell lines and each set of experiments has been carried out on a single cell type. However, low-dose research has to extend into tissues because signaling between cells of different types is likely to influence the responses. Our studies have therefore also included microbeam experiments using a model tissue system that consists of an explant of a small piece of pig ureter grown in culture. The structure of this tissue is similar to that of epithelium and there it relates to the tissues in which carcinoma arises. Our studies have been able to measure bystander-induced changes in the cells growing out from the tissue fragment after it has been targeted with a few radiation tracks to mimic a low-dose exposure.

  4. Hemolytic porcine intestinal Escherichia coli without virulence-associated genes typical of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  5. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a highly important topic and currently omnipresent in the energy political discussion. Despite this high importance there's no common understanding even concerning the definition of the term energy efficiency. In addition, there are plenty so called energy efficiency targets and several indicators. Therefore this study should provide a deepened understanding of the efficient use of energy. The inconsistent definition of energy efficiency is related to the use of this term for a specific as well as an absolute reduction of energy consumption. Furthermore both static views on efficiency as a status and also dynamic views on efficiency as an improvement of a value compared to a reference number are used. Additional differences occur in the evaluation of the energy use and in the selection of a reference value in a key figure to assess energy efficiency. Moreover the focus of the current general understanding is mainly only on the consumption of energy. All other resources next to the energy input which are needed to provide energy services are not considered even though there are strong interactions and substitution possibilities among these resources. Hence the understanding of energy efficiency is extended in this study by these additional resources which were not considered yet. Based on this extension the efficient use of the resource energy is a result of an optimisation of the relation of these total costs of all resources to the related benefit. To determine the efficient use of energy in the industrial sector, a deeper understanding of the sector and its characteristics is necessary. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of electricity within the EU. Also a quarter of the final energy consumption and about 20 % of the CO 2 emissions are related to this sector. Typical for this sector are the heterogeneous and high temperature level of the heat demand and the process emissions which accrue in transformation processes. The subsectors

  6. Caregiver burden and sibling relationships in families raising children with disabilities and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Allred, Diane W; Mandleco, Barbara; Freeborn, Donna; Dyches, Tina

    2014-06-01

    Using family systems theory as a theoretical framework, we investigated direct and indirect associations between type of disability, caregiver burden, and sibling relationships with structural equation modeling. We recruited 172 families raising typically developing children or a child with a disability. Participants volunteered at meetings and workshops for families of children with disabilities and were also recruited through snowball sampling. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-report questionnaires on caregiver burden and perceptions of the sibling relationship. Mothers experienced higher levels of caregiver burden than fathers. Parents of children with autism reported higher levels of caregiver burden than parents of typically developing children. Mothers of children with Down syndrome and multiple disabilities reported more positive sibling relationships than mothers of typically developing children. Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of caregiver burden were negatively related to their perceptions of the sibling relationship. Caregiver burden mediated the relationship between having a child with autism and positive sibling relationships. Results indicate the benefits of using a systems framework in examining families raising children with disabilities. Future research should focus on interventions for families of children with disabilities that help alleviate parental burden and foster positive sibling relationships.

  7. Model-based calculations of surface mass balance of mountain glaciers for the purpose of water consumption planning: focus on Djankuat Glacier (Central Caucasus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, O. O.; Rybak, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Mountain glaciers act as regulators of run-off in the summer period, which is very crucial for economy especially in dynamically developing regions with rapidly growing population, such as Central Asia or the Northern Caucasus in Russia. In overall, glaciers stabilize water consumption in comparatively arid areas and provide conditions for sustainable development of the economy in mountainous regions and in the surrounding territories. A proper prediction of the glacial run-off is required to elaborate strategies of the regional development. This goal can be achieved by implementation of mathematical modeling methods into planning methodologies. In the paper, we consider one of the first steps in glacier dynamical modeling - surface mass balance simulation. We focus on the Djankuat Glacier in the Central Caucasus, where regular observations have been conducted during the last fifty years providing an exceptional opportunity to calibrate and to validate a mathematical model.

  8. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Perspectives for the detection and measurement of Supersymmetry in the focus point region of mSUGRA models with the ATLAS detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    De Sanctis, U; Montesano, S; Troncon, C

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the ATLAS potential to study Supersymmetry for the "Focus-Point" region of the parameter space of mSUGRA models. The potential to discovery a deviation from Standard Model expectations with the first few ${fb}^{-1}$ of LHC data was studied using the parametrized simulation of the ATLAS detector. Several signatures were considered, involving hard jets, large missing energy, and either $b$-tagged jets, opposite-sign isolated electron or muon pairs, or top quarks reconstructed exploiting their fully hadronic decays. With only 1 ${fb}^{-1}$ of data each of these signatures may allow to observe an excess of events over Standard Model expectation with a statistical significance exceeding 5 standard deviations. An analytical expression was derived for the shape of the distribution of the dilepton invariant mass arising from the three-body leptonic decay of the neutralinos under the hypothesis of heavy scalars, which is appropriate for the focus-point scenario. The resulting function was used to ...

  10. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  11. Improving representation of drought stress and fire emissions in climate carbon models: measurements and modeling with a focus on the western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Randerson, James [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lai, Chun-Ta [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    The objective of the proposed research was to collect data and develop models to improve our understanding of the role of drought and fire impacts on the terrestrial carbon cycle in the western US, including impacts associated with urban systems as they impacted regional carbon cycles. Using data we collected and a synthesis of other measurements, we developed new ways (a) to evaluate the representation of drought stress and fire emissions in the Community Land Model, (b) to model net ecosystem exchange combining ground level atmospheric observations with boundary layer theory, (c) to model upstream impacts of fire and fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric carbon dioxide observations, and (d) to model carbon dioxide observations within urban systems and at the urban-wildland interfaces of forest ecosystems.

  12. Preoperative teaching and stoma marking in an inpatient population: a quality improvement process using a FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma marking are supported by research and included in clinical practice guidelines from the WOCN Society and others. Using a FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Total Quality Management, a multidisciplinary team was formed that developed a flow chart outlining the process of care for patients undergoing planned ostomy surgery that included an educational intervention that enabled staff nurses to perform preoperative stoma site marking and education. After 3 months, we found a statistically significant increase in the number of surgical patients who received these evidence-based interventions (14% vs 64%; χ = 9.32; P = .002).

  13. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. An Euler–Euler approach to modeling biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors – Focusing on the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellin, Pelle; Zhang, Qinglin; Kantarelis, Efthymios; Yang, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    A developed 3D Euler–Euler CFD model, with an integrated pyrolysis model, is proposed as a way of predicting vapor phase dynamics and product distributions in the fluidized bed process for biomass fast pyrolysis. The main interest in this work is the gases resulting from the pyrolysis mixed with the fluidizing gas. We propose therefore a simple rendering of the solid material while directing attention to the vapor phase. At the same time the required computational resources for reaching stabilized conditions in the reactor are reduced. Temperature profile, velocity profile and pyrolysis products are predicted and globally verified by a series of parallel cases, which are compared to experimental measurements and known trends of liquid, solid and gas yields. The comparison of experimental measurements and model predictions satisfy the accuracy of the model and on a quantitative basis, the product yields agree with commonly known trends of bio oil versus temperature and residence time. -- Highlights: • A 3-D CFD model for fast pyrolysis in fluidized beds has been developed. • Focus is on the vapor phase which permits a simplified rendering of the solids. • Predicted results largely agree with measured temperature, pressure, and bed height

  15. Alternatives toIn VivoDraize Rabbit Eye and Skin Irritation Tests with a Focus on 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium and Epidermis Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miri; Hwang, Jee-Hyun; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-07-01

    Human eyes and skin are frequently exposed to chemicals accidentally or on purpose due to their external location. Therefore, chemicals are required to undergo the evaluation of the ocular and dermal irritancy for their safe handling and use before release into the market. Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation test developed in 1944, has been a gold standard test which was enlisted as OECD TG 404 and OECD TG 405 but it has been criticized with respect to animal welfare due to invasive and cruel procedure. To replace it, diverse alternatives have been developed: (i) For Draize eye irritation test, organotypic assay, in vitro cytotoxicity-based method, in chemico tests, in silico prediction model, and 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE); (ii) For Draize skin irritation test, in vitro cytotoxicity-based cell model, and 3D reconstructed human epidermis models (RhE). Of these, RhCE and RhE models are getting spotlight as a promising alternative with a wide applicability domain covering cosmetics and personal care products. In this review, we overviewed the current alternatives to Draize test with a focus on 3D human epithelium models to provide an insight into advancing and widening their utility.

  16. Alternatives to In Vivo Draize Rabbit Eye and Skin Irritation Tests with a Focus on 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium and Epidermis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miri; Hwang, Jee-Hyun; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Human eyes and skin are frequently exposed to chemicals accidentally or on purpose due to their external location. Therefore, chemicals are required to undergo the evaluation of the ocular and dermal irritancy for their safe handling and use before release into the market. Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation test developed in 1944, has been a gold standard test which was enlisted as OECD TG 404 and OECD TG 405 but it has been criticized with respect to animal welfare due to invasive and cruel procedure. To replace it, diverse alternatives have been developed: (i) For Draize eye irritation test, organotypic assay, in vitro cytotoxicity-based method, in chemico tests, in silico prediction model, and 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE); (ii) For Draize skin irritation test, in vitro cytotoxicity-based cell model, and 3D reconstructed human epidermis models (RhE). Of these, RhCE and RhE models are getting spotlight as a promising alternative with a wide applicability domain covering cosmetics and personal care products. In this review, we overviewed the current alternatives to Draize test with a focus on 3D human epithelium models to provide an insight into advancing and widening their utility. PMID:28744350

  17. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  18. The link between women's body image disturbances and body-focused cancer screening behaviors: a critical review of the literature and a new integrated model for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-03-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the association between body image disturbances and health compromising behaviors among women (e.g., pathological eating, substance use, inappropriate exercise). However, given that disturbed body image is a pervasive problem, it is likely inversely related to health maintenance behaviors. Cancer screenings for breast, skin, and cervical cancer represent an important type of health maintenance behavior, yet adherence rates are low. Given the body-focused nature of these screenings, body image may be a salient predictor. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between body image disturbances and cancer screening behaviors among women culminating in the proposal of a theoretical model. This model posits that body shame and body avoidance predict performance of cancer screenings and that variables drawn from the cancer literature, including risk perception, health anxiety, subjective norms, and self-efficacy, may moderate this relationship. Clinical implications and suggestions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling of formation and prevention of a pure water zone in capillary isoelectric focusing with narrow pH range carrier ampholytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takácsi-Nagy, Anna; Kilár, Ferenc; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    This paper comprises a continuation of computer simulation studies dealing with carrier ampholyte based CIEF in presence of narrow pH gradients. With this technique, amphoteric sample components with pI values outside the pH gradient are migrating isotachophoretically toward the cathode or anode whereas components with pI values within the gradient become focused. In order to understand the processes occurring in presence of the electric field, the behavior of both carrier ampholytes and amphoteric sample components is investigated by computer modeling. Characteristics of two pH unit gradients with end components having pI values at or around 7.00 and conditions that lead to the formation of a water zone at neutrality were investigated. Data obtained reveal that a zone of water is formed in focusing with carrier ampholytes when the applied pH range does not cover the neutral region, ends at pH 7.00 or begins at pH 7.00. The presence of additional amphoteric components that cover the neutrality region prevent water zone formation under current flow. This situation is met in experiments with narrow pH gradients that end or begin around neutrality. Simulation data reveal that no water zone evolves when atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolved in the catholyte causes the migration of carbonic acid (in the form of carbonate and/or hydrogen carbonate ions) from the catholyte through the focusing structure. An electrolyte change in the electrode solution does not have an impact on the focusing part but does change the isotachophoretic pattern migrating behind the leading ion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  1. Enfoques da teoria institucional nos modelos de avaliação institucional brasileiros Focus of the institutional theory on the Brazilian institutional evaluation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Schlickmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar quais enfoques da perspectiva institucional foram predominantes nos modelos de avaliação institucional propostos pelos governos às universidades brasileiras. Quanto à abordagem, podemos caracterizar o estudo como qualitativo; a verificação dos enfoques foi realizada tomando-se por base a revisão teórica acerca dos diferentes enfoques da teoria institucional, do histórico da avaliação institucional no Brasil, bem como a caracterização de cada modelo avaliativo proposto pelos governos, a partir da década de 1970. O estudo evidenciou que os modelos de avaliação institucional ao longo dos governos apresentaram diferentes enfoques institucionais, sendo que houve uma predominância dos enfoques regulador e normativo, embora o cognitivo seja o que permeia o atual sistema de avaliação institucional brasileiro.This article has the purpose of verifying which approaches of the institutional perspective were predominant in the models of institutional evaluation proposed by the governments to the Brazilian universities. This study can be characterized as qualitative, in which the focal points were verified through theoretical revision of the different aspects of the institutional theory, of the history of Brazilian institutional evaluation, as well as the characterization of each evaluative model proposed by the governments since the 1970s. The study made evident that the institutional evaluation models during different governments presented a different institutional focus, with the predominance of the regulatory and normative focuses, although the cognitive is the one that permeates Brazil's present institutional evaluation system.

  2. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  3. Simulation of laser scattering by typical marine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-wei; Wang, Biao; Li, Xian-tao

    2017-10-01

    Maritime environment own numerous models of the aerosols which are typically comprised of dust, water-soluble aerosol and sea salt aerosol. A Maritime environment aerosol model is developed in the simulation for laser beam from visible to near infrared. Mie theory is used to calculate optical parameters, such as scattering coefficient, Aledo and average asymmetry factor, for different models of aerosols of variable size with gamma distribution. The simulation results show that dust aerosol and water-soluble aerosol have the largest absorption coefficient. Aged Sea-salt aerosol and near-surface Sea-salt aerosol have the largest scattering coefficient. The model solving the optical properties of marine aerosol problem is capable of handling light detection and ranging.

  4. The impact of standing wave effects on transcranial focused ultrasound disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Huang Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    Microbubble-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for targeted drug delivery using focused ultrasound shows great potential as a therapy for a wide range of brain disorders. This technique is currently at the pre-clinical stage and important work is being conducted in animal models. Measurements of standing waves in ex vivo rat skulls were conducted using an optical hydrophone and a geometry dependence was identified. Standing waves could not be eliminated through the use of swept frequencies, which have been suggested to eliminate standing waves. Definitive standing wave patterns were detected in over 25% of animals used in a single study. Standing waves were successfully eliminated using a wideband composite sharply focused transducer and a reduced duty cycle. The modified pulse parameters were used in vivo to disrupt the BBB in a rat indicating that, unlike some other bioeffects, BBB disruption is not dependent on standing wave conditions. Due to the high variability of standing waves and the inability to correctly estimate in situ pressures given standing wave conditions, attempts to minimize standing waves should be made in all future work in this field to ensure that results are clinically translatable.

  5. Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

    2012-04-01

    The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater.

  6. Opening the Blood-Brain Barrier with MR Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound: Preclinical Testing on a Trans-Human Skull Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuexi; Alkins, Ryan; Schwartz, Michael L; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and test a protocol in preparation for a clinical trial on opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound for the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to brain tumors. Materials and Methods The procedures were approved by the institutional animal care committee. A trans-human skull porcine model was designed for the preclinical testing. Wide craniotomies were applied in 11 pigs (weight, approximately 15 kg). A partial human skull was positioned over the animal's brain. A modified clinical MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound brain system was used with a 3.0-T MR unit. The ultrasound beam was steered during sonications over a 3 × 3 grid at 3-mm spacing. Acoustic power levels of 3-20 W were tested. Bolus injections of microbubbles at 4 μL/kg were tested for each sonication. Levels of BBB opening, hemorrhage, and cavitation signal were measured with MR imaging, histologic examination, and cavitation receivers, respectively. A cavitation safety algorithm was developed on the basis of logistic regression of the measurements and tested to minimize the risk of hemorrhage. Results BBB openings of approximately 1 cm 3 in volume were visualized with gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging after sonication at an acoustic power of approximately 5 W. Gross examination of histologic specimens helped confirm Evans blue (bound to macromolecule albumin) extravasation, and hematoxylin-eosin staining helped detect only scattered extravasation of red blood cells. In cases where cavitation signals were higher than thresholds, sonications were terminated immediately without causing hemorrhage. Conclusion With a trans-human skull porcine model, this study demonstrated BBB opening with a 230-kHz system in preparation for a clinical trial. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  7. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  8. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  9. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ali Maher; Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood; Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad; Mahmoud Mohamed Younes

    2017-01-01

    In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m...

  10. Dosimetry of typical transcranial magnetic stimulation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2010-05-01

    The therapeutic staff using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices could be exposed to magnetic pulses. In this paper, dependence of induced currents in real human man model on different coil shapes, distance between the coil and man model as well as the rotation of the coil in space have been investigated by employing impedance method. It was found that the figure-of-eight coil has less leakage magnetic field and low current density induced in the body compared with the round coil. The TMS power supply cables play an important role in the induced current density in human body. The induced current density in TMS operator decreased as the coil rotates from parallel position to perpendicular position. Our present study shows that TMS operator should stand at least 110 cm apart from the coil.

  11. Linking the open source, spatial electrification tool (ONSSET) and the open source energy modelling system (OSeMOSYS), with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Arderne, Christopher; Siyal, Shahid; Zepeda, Eduardo; Taliotis, Constantinos; Bazilian, Morgan; de Roo, Ad; Tanvez, Yann; Oudalov, Alexandre; Scholtz, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. "Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030" is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank's 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of world population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach coupled with open access data and linked to the Electricity Model Base for Africa (TEMBA), a model that represents each continental African country's electricity supply system. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

  12. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gascuel

    Full Text Available Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  13. An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i distributed generation system; (ii combined heat and power system; and (iii availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy. This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy.

  14. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D

    2013-11-01

    dynamic modelling of the human body, cadavers, interactive human patient simulators for training, in vitro techniques involving organotypic cultures of target organs, and epidemiological and clinical studies. While the first four of these have long proven useful for developing protective measures and predicting the consequences of trauma, and although many phenomena and their sequelae arising from different forms of trauma in vivo can be induced and reproduced in vitro, non-animal approaches require further development, and their validation and use need to be coordinated and harmonised. Recommendations to these ends are proposed, and the scientific and welfare problems associated with animal models are addressed, with the future focus being on the use of batteries of complementary replacement methods deployed in integrated strategies, and on greater transparency and scientific cooperation. 2013 FRAME.

  15. Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling of the Earth's Largest Zinc Ore Deposit at Red Dog, Alaska: Implications for Structurally-Focused, Free Convection in Submarine Sedimentary Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, G.; Dumoulin, J. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Young, L. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Leach, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Crustal heat flow can provide a strong mechanism for driving groundwater flow, particularly in submarine basins where other mechanisms for driving pore fluid flow such as topography, compaction and crustal deformation are too weak or too slow to have a significant effect on disturbing conductive heat flow. Fault zones appear to play a crucial role in focusing fluid migration in basins, as inferred in ancient rocks by many examples of hydrothermal deposits of sediment-hosted ores worldwide. Many rift-hosted deposits of lead, zinc, and barite ore appear to have formed at or near the seafloor by focused venting of hot basinal fluids and modified seawater, although the geophysical nature of these systems is not so well known. For example, the upper Kuna Formation, a finely laminated, black, organic-rich siliceous mudstone and shale in the Western Brooks Range of northwest Alaska, is host to the largest resources of zinc yet discovered in the Earth's crust, containing ore reserves in excess of 175 Mt averaging about 16% Zn and 5% Pb. Although situated today in a highly-deformed series of structural allocthonous plates thrusted during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Brookian Orogeny, the stratiform ores are thought to have formed much earlier in the anoxic, mud-rich Carboniferous-age Kuna Basin when adjacent carbonate platforms were drowned by rifting and tectonic subsidence. Fluid inclusion studies of ore-stage sphalerite and gangue minerals indicate sub-seafloor mineralization temperatures less than 200oC and most likely between 120 to 150 oC, during a period of sediment diagenesis and extensional faulting. We have constructed fully-coupled numerical models of heat and fluid flow to test hydrologic theories for free convection, submarine venting and subsequent ore formation, as constrained by paleoheat flow and petrologic observations. A finite element grid was designed and adapted for a cross section of the Kuna Basin, geologically restored to latest Mississippian time

  16. Development and internal validation of prediction models for biochemical failure and composite failure after focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound for local radiorecurrent prostate cancer : Presentation of risk scores for individual patient prognoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Kanthabalan, Abi; Shah, Taimur T; McCartan, Neil; Moore, Caroline M.; Arya, Manit; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Hindley, Richard G.; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Patient selection for focal salvage remains difficult. Therefore, we developed and internally validated prediction models for biochemical failure (BF) and a composite endpoint (CE) following focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Materials

  17. A model of integrated lung and focused heart ultrasound as a new screening examination in infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Elsayed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This was a feasibility study to determine whether an edu­cational program conducted over 2 days followed by 25 performed studies under supervision equips physicians with the skills to accurately interpret and perform integrated lung ultrasound (LUS and focused heart ultrasound (FHUS as a screening exam in infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise.Methods: We conducted a training course over 2 days (total of 16 hours to teach fellows how to interpret a pre-designed model of LUS and FHUS, as a screening exam for infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise. Then trainees performed 25 cases with different neonatal lung and functional heart issues. The screening model included only the basic views required to evaluate common lung parenchymal and functional neonatal heart conditions in sick infants. The accuracy of interpretation during the course was assessed by Kappa.Results: The inter-rater agreement between all trainees and instructor improved on the second day of the course to Kappa 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72-0.97 for LUS views and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.91 for FHUS views. The inter-rater agreement between trainees themselves improved from Kappa 0.64 (95% CI: 0.47-0.81 for LUS on day one to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81-0.96 on day two. And from 0.58 (95% CI: 0.44-0.73 on day one to 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.84 on day two.Conclusion: Bedside screening, using integrated LUS and FHUS can be a useful adjunct to clinical examination in infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise.

  18. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  19. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone: evaluation of acute findings with MR and CT imaging in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknor, Matthew D; Rieke, Viola; Do, Loi; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M; Saeed, Maythem

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate hyperacute (guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) in a swine bone model as a function of sonication number and energy. Experimental procedures received approval from the local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. MRgHIFU was used to create distal and proximal ablations in the right femur of eight pigs. Each target was dosed with four or six sonications within similar volumes. The energy dosed to the distal target was higher (419 ± 19 J) than the proximal target (324 ± 17 J). The targeted femur and contralateral control were imaged before and after ablation using MR at 3T. Qualitative changes in signal on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and T1-weighted postcontrast images were assessed. Ablation dimensions were calculated from postcontrast MRI. The 64-slice CT images were also obtained before and after ablation and qualitative changes were assessed. MRgHIFU bone ablation size measured on average 8.5 × 21.1 × 16.2 mm (transverse × craniocaudal × anteroposterior). Interestingly, within similar prescribed volumes, increasing the number of sonications from 4 to 6 increased the depth of the intramedullary hypoenhanced zone from 2.9 mm to 6.5 mm (P bone. Unlike CT, T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced MR demonstrated the hyperacute structural changes in the femur and surrounding soft tissue. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Intracarotid Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease, Focusing on Cell Distribution and Neuroprotective and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Silvia; Greco, Rosaria; Levandis, Giovanna; Ghezzi, Cristina; Mangione, Antonina Stefania; Fuzzati-Armentero, Marie-Therese; Bonizzi, Arianna; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Maccario, Rita; Blandini, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    did not reduce the neuronal damage and associated motor impairment, but abolished the motor abnormalities these animals typically show when challenged with a dopaminergic agonist. Therefore, although arterially infused mesenchymal stem cells did not show neurorestorative effects in this study's Parkinson's disease model, they appeared to normalize the pathological responsiveness of striatal neurons to dopaminergic stimulation. This capability should be further explored in future studies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Environmental impact analysis for typical office facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotroni, M.; Robinson-Gayle, S.; Tanno, S.; Cripps, A.

    2004-02-01

    The design of a building facade influences internal thermal and lighting conditions and use associated with the provision of these conditions. Key decisions about the building are usually taken during the concept design stage of a building, while decisions about method of providing the environmental conditions are often made later in the design. This dilemma is addressed by the development of a concept design tool that allows the team to investigate the effect of facade design on the resulting internal environmental conditions, energy use and environmental impact. The concept design tool was developed performing detailed thermal, lighting and environmental modelling for a number of office building facade designs and a range of parameters that affect directly the environmental performance of an office building. The results are presented in a user-friendly interface as a minimum number of inputs. Key parameter outputs (such as temperature, lighting, heating/cooling energy demand, embodied energy and eco-points) can then be viewed, more detailed analysis can also be created for specified facade designs. A parametric analysis of the summary result outputs for selected facade parameters indicates that natural ventilation and cooling can reduce the environmental impact of offices by up to 16%, although the energy demand could increase significantly. Improving the construction standard and reducing the internal heat loads can reduce the environmental impact by up to 2 this tool at early design stages will benefit the design team through an improved understanding of the dynamics between facade design and building services and assist with a more integrated approach. (author)

  2. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  3. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  4. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  5. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  6. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  7. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief.

  8. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  9. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  11. INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF TYPICAL CURVED AND SKEWED BRIDGES IN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-15

    This report summarizes the analytical studies on the seismic performance of typical Colorado concrete bridges, particularly those with curved and skewed configurations. A set of bridge models with different geometric configurations derived from a pro...

  12. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg −1 . The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol −1 , while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol −1 . The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  13. Assessing microscope image focus quality with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel J; Berndl, Marc; Michael Ando, D; Barch, Mariya; Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Christiansen, Eric; Hoyer, Stephan; Roat, Chris; Hung, Jane; Rueden, Curtis T; Shankar, Asim; Finkbeiner, Steven; Nelson, Philip

    2018-03-15

    Large image datasets acquired on automated microscopes typically have some fraction of low quality, out-of-focus images, despite the use of hardware autofocus systems. Identification of these images using automated image analysis with high accuracy is important for obtaining a clean, unbiased image dataset. Complicating this task is the fact that image focus quality is only well-defined in foreground regions of images, and as a result, most previous approaches only enable a computation of the relative difference in quality between two or more images, rather than an absolute measure of quality. We present a deep neural network model capable of predicting an absolute measure of image focus on a single image in isolation, without any user-specified parameters. The model operates at the image-patch level, and also outputs a measure of prediction certainty, enabling interpretable predictions. The model was trained on only 384 in-focus Hoechst (nuclei) stain images of U2OS cells, which were synthetically defocused to one of 11 absolute defocus levels during training. The trained model can generalize on previously unseen real Hoechst stain images, identifying the absolute image focus to within one defocus level (approximately 3 pixel blur diameter difference) with 95% accuracy. On a simpler binary in/out-of-focus classification task, the trained model outperforms previous approaches on both Hoechst and Phalloidin (actin) stain images (F-scores of 0.89 and 0.86, respectively over 0.84 and 0.83), despite only having been presented Hoechst stain images during training. Lastly, we observe qualitatively that the model generalizes to two additional stains, Hoechst and Tubulin, of an unseen cell type (Human MCF-7) acquired on a different instrument. Our deep neural network enables classification of out-of-focus microscope images with both higher accuracy and greater precision than previous approaches via interpretable patch-level focus and certainty predictions. The use of

  14. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by…

  15. Differences in Interpersonal Reasoning among Intellectually Talented and Intellectually Typical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A study involving 46 intellectually talented and 46 typical third graders was undertaken to assess differences in psychosocial maturity across the groups. Focus was on examining psychosocial maturity through assessment of interpersonal reasoning, which is defined as the ways children exhibit sensitivity to the feelings of others and assume…

  16. Hemolytic Porcine Intestinal Escherichia coli without Virulence-Associated Genes Typical of Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. PMID:21965399

  17. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  18. Perspective plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakicevic, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental results of the plasma focus have been analyzed and compared with theoretical regularities of the plasma force-free state. It has been shown that the plasma focus vortex filaments structures, which are closing in itself forming hot spots, have to be unstable, and so they are quickly destroying. That is the reason why in the plasma focus the controlled thermonuclear fusion can not be realized. (author)

  19. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  20. Risk of death in dual-eligible nursing home residents using typical or atypical antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparasu, Rajender R; Chatterjee, Satabdi; Mehta, Sandhya; Chen, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Antipsychotic use among dual-eligible nursing home residents is a concern for cost and safety considerations. To examine the comparative risk of death in dual-eligible elderly nursing home residents using typical and atypical agents. A retrospective cohort design matched on propensity score was used to examine the risk of death due to antipsychotic use among dual-eligible nursing home residents 65 years or older from four states. New typical and atypical users in nursing homes were followed for 6 months after the exposure without any censoring. The risk of death was modeled using the Cox proportional model and the extended Cox hazard model stratified on matched pairs based on propensity score. The unadjusted mortality rate was 18.42% for atypical antipsychotic users and 24.06% for typical antipsychotic users. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model revealed significant increased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR), 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-1.57] among typical users when compared with atypical users. The extended Cox model, used due to the violation of proportional hazards assumption, revealed that risk of death was nearly twice as great among typical antipsychotic users within 40 days of antipsychotic treatment (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.49-2.18) when compared with atypical users. However, moderate increase in risk (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42] was observed for 40-180 days of typical antipsychotic exposure. The use of typical antipsychotic agents was associated with highest risk of all-cause mortality within 40 days of typical antipsychotic use when compared with atypical use, and the risk decreased after 40 days among dual-eligible elderly nursing home residents.

  1. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  2. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  3. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  4. Focus and VP Ellipsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Carlson, Katy

    2007-01-01

    In spoken English, pitch accents can convey the focus associated with new or contrasted constituents. Two listening experiments were conducted to determine whether accenting a subject makes its predicate a more tempting antecedent for an elided verb phrase, presumably because the accent helps focus the subject of the antecedent clause, increasing…

  5. Consideration of Typical Nuclear Power Plant Site Characteristics for Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Hoi; Yee, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This is complicated by the extreme measures the plant owners have taken by pumping water into the disabled plant in order to cool the corium, making it difficult for workers to inspect the facility and mitigate radiation hazards. One of most confusing aspects of the groundwater contamination issue at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is the flow of groundwater, with conflicting reports saying there is very little water to significant amounts of water flowing towards the plant. Initially, different media outlets, reports, and figures show anywhere from uniform flow to nearly impossible flow situations, with a general improvement in groundwater flow feasibility over time as perhaps more knowledge of the subgrade or facilities is revealed. This situation highlights the importance of groundwater models, which traditionally use averaged and macro-scale adjusted subgrade properties. These are not necessarily bad practices, but some details may be lost in the process for more local scenarios. Therefore, this paper focuses on the site conditions of a typical nuclear power plant and its influences on local groundwater flow modelling. Site-specific data from the hydrologic system investigation must be prepared and utilized to evaluate the existing groundwater conditions and to identify pathway of groundwater flow toward subsurface and plant facilities before and after nuclear power plant construction by installing monitoring wells. These investigation data, evaluation and identification provide the basis for developing an overall conceptual model of groundwater. With this conceptual model, assumption of radioactive material release, for instance, the liquid radioactive waste from a ruptured tank in the compound building through cracks in the foundation wall enter the groundwater system, can be evaluated

  6. PEARL model for pesticide behaviour and emissions in soil-plant systems : description of the processes in FOCUS PEARL v 1.1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Tiktak, A.; Berg, van den F.

    2001-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture presents risks to the environment, which are increasingly evaluated by using computation models. The new PEARL model simulates the behaviour of pesticides in soil-plant systems and their emissions to the environment. The pesticide model is used in combination

  7. Development of a drought forecasting model for the Asia-Pacific region using remote sensing and climate data: Focusing on Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Kim, Gayoung; Im, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Three regions of Indonesia with different rainfall characteristics were chosen to develop drought forecast models based on machine learning. The 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI6) was selected as the target variable. The models' forecast skill was compared to the skill of long-range climate forecast models in terms of drought accuracy and regression mean absolute error (MAE). Indonesian droughts are known to be related to El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability despite of regional differences as well as monsoon, local sea surface temperature (SST), other large-scale atmosphere-ocean interactions such as Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Southern Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), and local factors including topography and elevation. Machine learning models are thus to enhance drought forecast skill by combining local and remote SST and remote sensing information reflecting initial drought conditions to the long-range climate forecast model results. A total of 126 machine learning models were developed for the three regions of West Java (JB), West Sumatra (SB), and Gorontalo (GO) and six long-range climate forecast models of MSC_CanCM3, MSC_CanCM4, NCEP, NASA, PNU, POAMA as well as one climatology model based on remote sensing precipitation data, and 1 to 6-month lead times. When compared the results between the machine learning models and the long-range climate forecast models, West Java and Gorontalo regions showed similar characteristics in terms of drought accuracy. Drought accuracy of the long-range climate forecast models were generally higher than the machine learning models with short lead times but the opposite appeared for longer lead times. For West Sumatra, however, the machine learning models and the long-range climate forecast models showed similar drought accuracy. The machine learning models showed smaller regression errors for all three regions especially with longer lead times. Among the three regions, the machine learning models

  8. A formal statistical approach to representing uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modelling with focus on residual analysis and probabilistic output evaluation - Distinguishing simulation and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison...... and for checking the reliability of the confidence bounds. Using point rainfall and evaporation data as input and flow measurements from a sewer system for model conditioning, a state space model is formulated that accounts for three different flow contributions: wastewater from households, and fast rainfall......-runoff from paved areas and slow rainfall-dependent infiltration-inflow from unknown sources. We consider two different approaches to evaluate the model output uncertainty, the output error method that lumps all uncertainty into the observation noise term, and a method based on Stochastic Differential...

  9. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge......, not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group...

  10. Lack of Generalization of Auditory Learning in Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Taylor, Jenny L.; Millward, Kerri E.; Moore, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the components of auditory learning in typically developing children by assessing generalization across stimuli, across modalities (i.e., hearing, vision), and to higher level language tasks. Method: Eighty-six 8- to 10-year-old typically developing children were quasi-randomly assigned to 4 groups. Three of the groups…

  11. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  12. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  13. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  14. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... announcement by Bill Gates of his $50 million investment in the Dementia Discovery Fund. A charitable act ... under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of the United States.Copyright 2017 BrightFocus ...

  15. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  16. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  17. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  18. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  19. Risk of pneumonia in elderly nursing home residents using typical versus atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparasu, Rajender R; Chatterjee, Satabdi; Chen, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Antipsychotic medications are extensively used in nursing homes for management of behavioral and psychiatric disorders in the elderly. Prior research suggests that pneumonia is one of the common causes of anti psychotic-related mortality in this population. None of the studies compared typical and atypical antipsychotics with respect to pneumonia. To examine the risk of pneumonia with use of typical versus atypical antipsychotics in dual eligible elderly nursing home residents. The study involved a retrospective cohort design matched on propensity score using Medicare and Medicaid Analytical eXtract data from 4 US states. The study population included all elderly dual eligible (Medicaid and Medicare) nursing home residents (aged ≥65 years) who initiated antipsychotics any time between July 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003. The risk of pneumonia during the 6-month follow-up period was modeled using a Cox proportional model and extended Cox hazard model stratified on matched pairs based on propensity score, using atypical agents as the reference category. Analysis of Medicaid-Medicare data revealed that there were 49,904 new antipsychotic (46,293 atypical and 3611 typical) users in the unmatched cohort and 7218 (3609 atypical and 3609 typical) users in the matched cohort. The unadjusted rate of pneumonia was 8.17% (4.61 events per person year) for atypical users and 5.21% (5.21 events per person year) for typical users. HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.83-1.66; and 50-180 days: HR 1.36, 95% CI 0.87-2.14) suggest that there was no significant difference in the risk of pneumonia among typical and atypical users. The study found no differential risk of pneumonia between typical versus atypical antipsychotic use in dual eligible nursing home residents. Given the differential risk of mortality with typical and atypical antipsychotic use in nursing homes, more research is needed to evaluate other contributory factors of mortality with respect to these 2 antipsychotic classes.

  20. Utilizing "The William Allan Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model" as a Means to Cultivate a Legacy of Transformational Leaders in Schools: A National Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre

    2007-01-01

    The Kritsonis Teeter-Totter Model, developed by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, is utilized to cultivate a legacy of transformational leaders in schools throughout the United States. In a time when change in schools is inevitable, the model aides school leaders in better defining their individual role in schools and that of their stakeholders in…

  1. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  2. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  3. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  4. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaminis, Themelis; Neil, Louise; Manning, Catherine; Turi, Marco; Fiorentini, Chiara; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a) an 'ensemble' emotion discrimination task; b) a baseline (single-face) emotion discrimination task; and c) a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themelis Karaminis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b a baseline (single-face emotion discrimination task; and c a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average.

  6. How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    land use in the catchments have created ecological problems. A sustainable, catchment-wide management of riverine landscapes is needed and stated by water right acts, e.g. the European Water Framework and Floods Directive. This interdisciplinary approach needs the integration of natural riverine processes, flood protection, resource management, landscape planning, and social and political aspects to achieve a sustainable development. Therefore the model shows the effects of different management strategies concerning flood protection, restoration measures and land use. The model illustrates the wide range of ecosystem services of riverine landscapes that contribute to human well-being such as water supply, hydropower generation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities. The effects of different land use strategies in the catchment are highlighted by means of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The model is used to support activities of students at the University as well as at High School within the DynaLearn Software to promote scientific culture in the secondary education system. Model fragments allow learners to re-use parts of the existing model at different levels of complexity. But learners can also construct their own conceptual system knowledge, either individually or in a collaborative setting, and using the model as a reference for comparisons of their own understanding. Of special interest for the DynaLearn project is the intended development of interdisciplinary and social skills like cooperative working, cross-linked thinking, problem solving, decision-making, and the identification of the conflicts between environment, economy, legislation, science, technology, and society. A comprehensive evaluation of the DynaLearn software is part of the project. To be effective, science education should focus on understanding scientific concepts and on application of scientific knowledge to everyday life. Conceptual knowledge of systems

  7. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  8. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  9. The Adult Göttingen Minipig as a Model for Chronic Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction: Focus on Cardiovascular Imaging and Regenerative Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Schuleri, Karl H; Boyle, Andrew J; Centola, Marco; Amado, Luciano C; Evers, Robert; Zimmet, Jeffrey M; Evers, Kristine S; Ostbye, Katherine M; Scorpio, Diana G; Hare, Joshua M; Lardo, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    Porcine models have become increasingly popular in cardiovascular research. The standard farm pig rapidly increases in body weight and size, potentially confounding serial measurements of cardiac function and morphology. We developed an adult porcine model that does not show physiologic increases in heart mass during the study period and is suitable for long-term study. We compared adult minipigs with the commonly used adolescent Yorkshire swine. Myocardial infarction was induced in adult Göt...

  10. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  11. Radiological focusing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husmann, K.; Mehrkens, A.; Hancken, G.

    1995-01-01

    The textbook explains the most common and essential radiological focusing techniques and gives the relevant theory and technical fundamentals. The theory does not consume much space in this book, the theoretical part briefly addressing such aspects as film-screen combinations, doses administered by X-ray radiography, quality assurance, radiological protection, and potential patient reactions to contrast media applied. The textbook primarily is a practical guide giving general advice and guidance on focusing techniques, accompanied by an illustrative compilation of frequent mistakes. Arranged by body regions, the well over 80 examples of focusing techniques are presented by systematic texts and illustrations. There is an annex giving a glossary of terms, a bibliography, and a list of useful addresses. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  13. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  14. Physiology and pathophysiology of selectins, integrins, and IgSF cell adhesion molecules focusing on inflammation. A paradigm model on infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golias, Christos; Batistatou, Anna; Bablekos, Georgios; Charalabopoulos, Alexandros; Peschos, Dimitrios; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-06-01

    The development of adhesion bonds, either among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial process. These interactions are mediated by some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs are ubiquitously expressed proteins playing a central role in controlling cell migration, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Besides their key function in physiological maintenance of tissue integrity, CAMs play an eminent role in various pathological processes such as cardiovascular disorders, atherogenesis, atherosclerotic plaque progression and regulation of the inflammatory response. CAMs such as selectins, integrins, and immunoglobulin superfamily take part in interactions between leukocyte and vascular endothelium (leukocyte rolling, arrest, firm adhesion, migration). Experimental data and pathologic observations support the assumption that pathogenic microorganisms attach to vascular endothelial cells or sites of vascular injury initiating intravascular infections. In this review a paradigm focusing on cell adhesion molecules pathophysiology and infective endocarditis development is given.

  15. Corporate Evaluation in Banks - Development of a New Evaluation Model with the Special Focus on the Separation of the Value of Maturity Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Reuse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks have to be handled differently in the theory of corporate evaluation. After a critical discussion of existing approaches of corporate evaluation, the following results can be stated: As banks generate value by an efficient liability side, gross methods do not lead to reliable results concerning a bank’s value. Further, the effects of maturity transformation have to be separated as they do not increase the value of banks. The model developed by the author takes these aspects into consideration. By an integrated usage of the market interest rate method and the usage of secure cash flows, the CAPM approach could be avoided. The model separates the treasury effects and quantifies the value of a bank in a more realistic way. The first empirical test shows that the model works in practice.

  16. Homework. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  17. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  18. Staffs’ and managers’ perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore healthcare staffs’ and managers’ perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Design Two focus group discussions were performed. Setting Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Participants Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Interventions Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Results Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Conclusions Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. PMID:28588107

  19. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-06-06

    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Modeling plankton ecosystem functioning and nitrogen fluxes in the oligotrophic waters of the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: a focus on light-driven processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Fouest

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean (AO undergoes profound changes of its physical and biotic environments due to climate change. In some areas of the Beaufort Sea, the stronger haline stratification observed in summer alters the plankton ecosystem structure, functioning and productivity, promoting oligotrophy. A one-dimension (1-D physical–biological coupled model based on the large multiparametric database of the Malina project in the Beaufort Sea was used (i to infer the plankton ecosystem functioning and related nitrogen fluxes and (ii to assess the model sensitivity to key light-driven processes involved in nutrient recycling and phytoplankton growth. The coupled model suggested that ammonium photochemically produced from photosensitive dissolved organic nitrogen (i.e., photoammonification process was a necessary nitrogen source to achieve the observed levels of microbial biomass and production. Photoammonification directly and indirectly (by stimulating the microbial food web activity contributed to 70% and 18.5% of the 0–10 m and whole water column, respectively, simulated primary production (respectively 66% and 16% for the bacterial production. The model also suggested that variable carbon to chlorophyll ratios were required to simulate the observed herbivorous versus microbial food web competition and realistic nitrogen fluxes in the Beaufort Sea oligotrophic waters. In face of accelerating Arctic warming, more attention should be paid in the future to the mechanistic processes involved in food webs and functional group competition, nutrient recycling and primary production in poorly productive waters of the AO, as they are expected to expand rapidly.

  1. Establishment of a green fluorescent protein tracing murine model focused on the functions of host components in necrosis repair and the niche of subcutaneously implanted glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhao-Hui; Lv, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Shi; Dai, Chun-Gang; Liu, Bin; Ma, Xiao-Yu; He, Lin-Ming; Jia, Jing-Yun; Chen, Yan-Ming; Dai, Xing-Liang; Wang, Ai-Dong; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Quan-Bin; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Due to progress in the research of glioma stem cells and the glioma niche, development of an animal model that facilitates the elucidation of the roles of the host tissue and cells is necessary. The aim of the present study was to develop a subcutaneous xenograft green fluorescent protein nude mouse model and use this model to analyze the roles of host cells in tumor necrosis repair. Tumors derived from the human glioma stem/progenitor cell line SU3 were subcutaneously implanted in green fluorescent protein nude mice. The implanted tumors were then passed from animal to animal for 10 generations. Finally, subcutaneous xenografts were assayed with traditional pathology, immunopathological techniques and fluorescence photography. For each generation, the tumorigenicity rate was 100%. Subcutaneous xenografts were rich in blood vessels, and necrotic and hemorrhagic foci, which highly expressed hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, tumor necrosis factor, Ki-67, CD68 and CD11b. In the interstitial tissue, particularly in old hemorrhagic foci, there were numerous cells expressing green fluorescent protein, CD68 and CD11b. Green fluorescent protein nude mouse subcutaneous xenografts not only consistently maintained the high invasiveness and tumorigenicity of glioma stem/progenitor cells, but also consisted of a high concentration of tumor blood vessels and necrotic and hemorrhagic foci. Subcutaneous xenografts also expressed high levels of tumor microenvironment-related proteins and host-derived tumor interstitial molecules. The model has significant potential for further research on tumor tissue remodeling and the tumor microenvironment.

  2. Review Team Focused Modeling Analysis of Radial Collector Well Operation on the Hypersaline Groundwater Plume beneath the Turkey Point Site near Homestead, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vail, Lance W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory served as members of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review team for the Florida Power & Light Company’s application for two combined construction permits and operating licenses (combined licenses or COLs) for two proposed new reactor units—Turkey Point Units 6 and 7. The review team evaluated the environmental impacts of the proposed action based on the October 29, 2014 revision of the COL application, including the Environmental Report, responses to requests for additional information, and supplemental information. As part of this effort, team members tasked with assessing the environmental effects of proposed construction and operation of Units 6 and 7 at the Turkey Point site reviewed two separate modeling studies that analyzed the interaction between surface water and groundwater that would be altered by the operation of radial collector wells (RCWs) at the site. To further confirm their understanding of the groundwater hydrodynamics and to consider whether certain actions, proposed after the two earlier modeling studies were completed, would alter the earlier conclusions documented by the review team in their draft environmental impact statement (EIS; NRC 2015), a third modeling analysis was performed. The third modeling analysis is discussed in this report.

  3. Development of a Model for Measuring Scientific Processing Skills Based on Brain-Imaging Technology: Focused on the Experimental Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kim, Young-shin; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for measuring experimental design ability based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during biological inquiry. More specifically, the researchers developed an experimental design task that measures experimental design ability. Using the developed experimental design task, they measured…

  4. Focused ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, K.

    1993-01-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) technology has the advantage of being a maskless process compatible with UHV processing. This makes it attractive for use in in situ processing and has been applied to the fabrication of various mesoscopic structures. The present paper reviews these results whilst putting emphasis on in situ processing by a combined FIB and molecular beam epitaxy system. The typical performance of present FIB systems is also presented. In order to utilize the potential advantages of FIB processing, reduction of damage and improvement of throughput are important, and much effort has been devoted to developing processing techniques which require a reduced dose. The importance of low-energy FIB is discussed. (author)

  5. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost

  6. Technologies and Reformed-Based Science Instruction: The Examination of a Professional Development Model Focused on Supporting Science Teaching and Learning with Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.

    2015-10-01

    While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional instruction, sits in opposition to most recent standards documents in science education that call for student involvement in evidence-based sense-making activities. Many see technology as a potentially powerful resource that is reshaping society and has the potential to do the same in science classrooms. To consider the promise of technology in science classrooms, this research investigated the impact of a professional development project focused on enhancing teacher and student learning by using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for engaging students in reformed-based instruction. More specifically, these findings revealed positive teacher outcomes with respect to reformed-based and technology-supported instruction and increased ICT and new literacies skills. When considering students, the findings revealed positive outcomes with respect to ICT and new literacies skills and student achievement in science.

  7. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs: a literature review suggests that it is time to shift the focus from 'financial incentives' to 'reciprocity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-04-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly higher one for deceased donation (DD); and a general preference for alternative forms, such as removal of disincentives or expressions of social reciprocity. Across different national and methodological settings we observed a considerable preference of noncommercial forms. This does not preclude the opportunity to consider various types of acknowledgement of economic value given in return for the organ. This provides reason to shift the focus from incentives to reciprocity. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Corporate Evaluation in Banks - Development of a New Evaluation Model with the Special Focus on the Separation of the Value of Maturity Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Svend Reuse

    2011-01-01

    Banks have to be handled differently in the theory of corporate evaluation. After a critical discussion of existing approaches of corporate evaluation, the following results can be stated: As banks generate value by an efficient liability side, gross methods do not lead to reliable results concerning a bank’s value. Further, the effects of maturity transformation have to be separated as they do not increase the value of banks. The model developed by the author takes these aspects into consid...

  9. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  10. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  11. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  12. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  13. A maturation model for project-based organisations – with uncertainty management as an always remaining multi-project management focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jerbrant

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The classical view of multi-project management does not capture its dynamic nature. Present theory falls short in the expositive dimension of how management of project-based companies evolves because of their need to be agile and adaptable to a changing environment. The purpose of this paper is therefore to present a descriptive model that elucidates the maturation processes in a project-based organization as well as to give an enhanced understanding of multi-project management in practice. The maturation model displays how the management of project-based organizations evolves between structuring administration and managing any uncertainty, and emphasizes the importance of active individual actions and situated management actions that haveto be undertaken in order to coordinate, synchronize, and communicate the required knowledge and skills.The outcomes primarily reveal that, although standardized project models are used and considerable resources are spent on effective project portfolio management, how information and communication are executedis essential for the management of project-based organizations. This is particularly true for informal and non-codified communication.

  14. Effects of water chemistry and fluid dynamics on wall thinning behavior. Part 1. Development of FAC model focused on water chemistry and composition of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Domae, Masafumi; Ohta, Joji; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC), which is one of the important subjects at fossil and nuclear power plans, is caused by the accelerated dissolution of protective oxide film due to the turbulent flow. The influence factors on FAC such as water chemistry, material, and fluid dynamics are closely related to the oxide property so that the risk of FAC can be reduced by the suitable control of water chemistry. There are some FAC models and evaluation codes of FAC rate. Some of them are used in wall thinning management of nuclear power plant in some country. Nevertheless, these FAC codes include many empirical parameters so that some uncertainty to evaluate the synergistic effectiveness of factors are the controversial point for the application of FAC code to wall thinning management in Japanese nuclear power plant. In this study, a FAC model that can evaluate the effect of temperature, NH3 concentration, chromium content, and dissolved oxygen concentration on FAC rate was developed by considering the diffusion of dissolved species. The critical dissolved oxygen concentration, which can inhibit FAC, was also calculated by this model. (author)

  15. Impact Assessment of Ecosystem Influenced by Changing Global Climate and its National Management Practices II - Focusing on me bioclimatic model development of the forest -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, S.W.; Park, Y.H; Chung, W.C.; Hideo, H.; Kiyoshi, T. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    In order to assess the influences from climate change, lots of studies have been conducted in Asia/Pacific region recently. The analyzed contents in these studies have a wide range of uncertainty even though the results were limited to the direct influences. While the geographical resolutions of various data used in the model are important factors, integration and expansion of the basic physical and biological reactions is another problem. The results from the previous researches suggest that there will be some problems, which are not to reflect the climate change correctly due to the regional small scale and various utilization of land, if data of the existing large-scale influence model is applied to Korea as it is. This study adopts data of 5 large-scale GCM (Global Circulation Model) in order to find the special climate change pattern and estimates the influences from climate change based on the pattern. In the interpretation of the results from this study, therefore, it is necessary to apply the method, which simultaneously analyzes averages and ranges of the estimated influences by 5 GCM, when forecasting influences by scenarios in 2003, the third year of this study. On considering this background, even though the averages and transition ranges of GCM data in this study provide many suggestions for estimating the influences ranges of forest, their application should be conducted after the serious examination because they do not perfectly reflect the regional microclimate. 108 refs., 56 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , in therapy, education, health intervention, communication, and coordination at all levels. A dialogical approach starts by acknowledging that the social world is perspectival, that people and groups inhabit different social realities. This book stands apart from the proliferation of recent books on dialogism......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  17. Perfect focusing fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takeda, T.; Iwata, G.; Mori, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose new perfect focusing (perfo) fusion systems in which ion- or atom-beam is used as a target for the fusion reaction, and ions (perfo particles) of different species moving in the perfo field collide with them. The 'efficiency' defined as the ratio of the fusion energy output to the radiation loss is ∼300, ∼20, and ∼4 for the T+D, 3 He+D, and 11 B+H reactions, respectively. (author)

  18. Fast focus field calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Leutenegger, M.; Rao, R.; Leitgeb, R. A.; Lasser, T.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under ...

  19. Divergent flow isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2008), s. 2451-2457 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA ČR GA203/06/1179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : isoelectric focusing * divergent flow * pI markers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.509, year: 2008

  20. Effects of role typicality on processing person information in German: evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmen, Lisa; Holt, Daniel V; Weisbrod, Matthias

    2010-09-24

    The present ERP study investigated how reference resolution is affected by semantic cues to referent gender such as the gender typicality of role names. Participants read general statements about social and occupational groups denoted by a role name (e.g., pilots, florists), which was followed by a co-referring NP with masculine, feminine or neutral lexical gender (e.g., these men/women/people) that could either semantically match, mismatch or be neutral to the role name's gender typicality. The study was run in German. Between 300 and 400 ms (N400) responses to all anaphors were more negative after typically male than after typically female antecedents. Between 500 and 700 ms (P600) role name typicality interacted with the lexical gender of the anaphor. Responses to feminine anaphors were more positive in case of incongruent compared to congruent typicality of the antecedent. The effects suggest that participants anticipate a possible semantic incongruity before the anaphor is actually resolved. They, furthermore show that different cues to referent gender are conceptually integrated after 500 ms following the onset of the anaphoric noun. Results are discussed with regard to two-stage models of reference resolution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R

    2018-01-28

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences-the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate-increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  2. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences—the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate—increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  3. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  4. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  5. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  6. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  7. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator is d...... on either simple citation analysis or bibliographic coupling are found to be close relatives. Measures based on journal self-citation are found to be only weakly correlated with the focus factor. Measures based on co-citation analysis remain to be studied and compared.......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator...... is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis...

  8. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  9. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, Elena A., E-mail: kayee@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Gutta, Narendra Babu, E-mail: gnbabu.aiims@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien, E-mail: monettes@mskcc.org [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Gulati, Amitabh, E-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org; Loh, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffreyloh@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesiology-Critical Care (United States); Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan, E-mail: srimaths@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Ezell, Paula C., E-mail: paula.ezell@intusurg.com [The Rockefeller University, Tri-Institutional Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerj@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org; Maybody, Majid, E-mail: maybodym@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  10. Developmental cascade models of a parenting-focused program for divorced families on mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Kim, Han-Joe

    2016-08-01

    A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9-12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

  11. Tumor microenvironment in focus: LA-ICP-MS bioimaging of a preclinical tumor model upon treatment with platinum(IV)-based anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiner, Sarah; Kornauth, Christoph; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Egger, Alexander E; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of drug candidates for entering clinical development relies on in vivo testing in (solid) tumor animal models. However, the heterogeneity of tumor tissue (e.g. in terms of drug uptake or tissue composition) is rarely considered when testing novel drug candidates. Therefore, we used the murine colon cancer CT-26 tumor model to study the spatially-resolved drug distribution in tumor tissue upon repetitive treatment of animals over two weeks with three investigational platinum(IV)-based anticancer agents, oxaliplatin or satraplatin. A quantitative laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging method revealed a heterogeneous platinum distribution, which correlated well with the histologic features of the tumor and surrounding tissue at the microscopic level. In most of the cases, higher amounts of intratumoral platinum were found in the surrounding tissue than in the malignant parts of the sample. This indicates that determination of average platinum amounts (e.g. by microwave-assisted digestion of the sample followed by analysis with ICP-MS) might overestimate the drug uptake in tumor tissue causing misleading conclusions. In addition, we studied the platinum distribution in the kidneys of treated animals to probe if accumulation in the cortex and medulla predict potential nephrotoxicity. A 10-fold increase of platinum in the cortex of the kidney over the medulla was observed for oxaliplatin and satraplatin. Although these findings are similar to those in the platinum distribution of the nephrotoxic anticancer drug cisplatin, treatment with the compounds of our study did not show signs of nephrotoxicity in clinical use or clinical trials (oxaliplatin, satraplatin) and did not result in the alteration of renal structures. Thus, predicting the side effects based on bioimaging data by LA-ICP-MS should be considered with caution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first LA-ICP-MS study on spatially-resolved platinum

  12. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  14. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  15. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  16. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  17. Study of Chinese pollution with the 3D regional chemistry transport CHIMERE model and remote sensing observations, with a focus on mineral dust impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachatre, Mathieu; Foret, Gilles; Beekmann, Matthias; Cheiney, Audrey; Dufour, Gaëlle; Laurent, Benoit; Cuesta, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Since the end of the 20th century, China has observed important growth in numerous sectors. China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been multiply by 4 during the 2000-2010 decade (National Bureau of Statistics of China), mostly because of the industry's growth. These evolutions have been accompanied by important increases of atmospheric pollutants emissions (Yinmin et al, Atmo Env, 2016). As a consequence and for about 10 years now, Chinese authorities have been working to reduce pollutant levels, because atmospheric pollution is a major health issue for Chinese population especially within cities, for which World Health Organisation's standards for major pollutants (Ozone, PM2.5, PM10) are often exceeded. Particles have multiple issues, as they impact on health and global warming. Their impacts will depend on their sources (primary or secondary pollutants) and natures (Particle size distribution, chemical composition…). Controlling particles loading is a complex task as their sources are various and dispersed on the Chinese territories: mineral dust can be emitted from Chinese deserts in large amount (Laurent et al., GPC, 2006), ammonia can be emitted from agriculture and livestock (Kang et al., ACP, 2016) and lots of urban primary pollutants can be emitted from urbanized areas. It is then necessary to work from a continental to local scales to understand more precisely pollution of urbanized areas. It is then mandatory to discriminate and quantify pollution sources and to estimate the impact of natural pollution and the major contributing sources. We propose here an approach based on a model and satellite observation synergy to estimate what controls Chinese pollution. We use the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE (Menut et al., GMD, 2013) to simulate atmospheric pollutants concentrations. A large domain (72°E-145°E; 17.5°N-55°N), with a ¼°x¼° resolution is used to make multi-annual simulations. CHIMERE model include most of the pollutants

  18. Comparing soil functions for a wide range of agriculture soils focusing on production for bioenergy using a combined isotope-based observation and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistert, Hannes; Herbstritt, Barbara; Weiler, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Increase crop production for bioenergy will result in changes in land use and the resulting soil functions and may generate new chances and risks. However, detailed data and information are still missing how soil function may be altered under changing crop productions for bioenergy, in particular for a wide range of agricultural soils since most data are currently derived from individual experimental sites studying different bioenergy crops at one location. We developed a new, rapid measurement approach to investigate the influence of bioenergy plants on the water cycle and different soil functions (filter and buffer of water and N-cycling). For this approach, we drilled 89 soil cores (1-3 m deep) in spring and fall at 11 sites with different soil properties and climatic conditions comparing different crops (grass, corn, willow, poplar, and other less common bioenergy crops) and analyzing 1150 soil samples for water content, nitrate concentration and stable water isotopes. We benchmarked a soil hydrological model (1-D numerical Richards equation, ADE, water isotope fractionation including liquid and vapor composition of isotopes) using longer-term climate variables and water isotopes in precipitation to derive crop specific parameterization and to specifically validate the differences in water transport and water partitioning into evaporation, transpiration and groundwater recharge among the sites and crops using the water isotopes in particular. The model simulation were in good agreement with the observed isotope profiles and allowed us to differentiate among the different crops. We defined different indicators for the soil functions considered in this study. These indicators included the proportion of groundwater recharge, transit time of water (different percentiles) though the upper 2m and nutrient leaching potential (e.g. nitrate) during the dormant season from the rooting zone. The parameterized model was first used to calculate the indicators for the

  19. To explore and develop a model to maintain and build upon a dental clinic open for all in developing regions, with a primary focus on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugandhi, Ayushi; Mangal, Brijesh; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Sethia, Bhavna

    2014-09-16

    To study a service model that enables a clinic to be open to all members of the community, irrespective of their ability to pay. Sampling methodology was used to gather information in two phases, with the city of Indore as the target region. In the first phase, dental professionals were surveyed to gather the cost of the facility, land and equipment and the cost of sustaining the practice. In the second phase, the residents of Indore were surveyed to collect information regarding their oral health problems and their expenditure for the same. Assessing the current situation, the questions to answer are related to the issues of dental health care access problems and the resources required, human and financial. (1) People younger than 20 years of age form a large proportion (43%) of the population of the city and also a large proportion (54%) of people who visit dental clinics; (2) Dental caries are commonly found in the population younger than 20 years of age and mobile teeth in those older than 50 years of age; (3) Dental caries and mobile teeth are almost equally found in people of the age group 20-50 years old; (4) A significantly large proportion of those older than 50 years old have had all their teeth extracted; and (5) A significantly large proportion of the 20-30 years of age group has had no teeth extracted. The model which we propose works well for low income patients; however, it places a lot of extra burden on the higher income group. A lot of effort can be put into generating revenue from other sources, including events and donations.

  20. Nonlinear Behavior of a Typical Airfoil Section with Control Surface Freeplay: A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, M. D.; Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.; Virgin, L. N.

    1997-01-01

    A three degree-of-freedom aeroelastic typical section with control surface freeplay is modeled theoretically as a system of piecewise linear state-space models. The system response is determined by time marching of the governing equations using a standard Runge-Kutta algorithm in conjunction with Henon's method for integrating a system of equations to a prescribed surface of phase space section. Henon's method is used to locate the "switching points" accurately and efficiently as the system moves from one linear region into another. An experimental model which closely approximates the three degree-of-freedom, typical section in two-dimensional, incompressible flow has been created to validate the theoretical model. Consideration is given to modeling realistically the structural damping present in the experimental system. The effect of the freeplay on the system response is examined numerically and experimentally. The development of the state-space model offers a low-order, computationally efficient means of modeling fully the freeplay nonlinearity and may offer advantages in future research which will investigate the effects of freeplay on the control of flutter in the typical section.

  1. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hanappe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations.

    The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  2. Towards mastering CRISPR-induced gene knock-in in plants: Survey of key features and focus on the model Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collonnier, Cécile; Guyon-Debast, Anouchka; Maclot, François; Mara, Kostlend; Charlot, Florence; Nogué, Fabien

    2017-05-15

    Beyond its predominant role in human and animal therapy, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has also become an essential tool for plant research and plant breeding. Agronomic applications rely on the mastery of gene inactivation and gene modification. However, if the knock-out of genes by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair of the targeted double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system is rather well mastered, the knock-in of genes by homology-driven repair or end-joining remains difficult to perform efficiently in higher plants. In this review, we describe the different approaches that can be tested to improve the efficiency of CRISPR-induced gene modification in plants, which include the use of optimal transformation and regeneration protocols, the design of appropriate guide RNAs and donor templates and the choice of nucleases and means of delivery. We also present what can be done to orient DNA repair pathways in the target cells, and we show how the moss Physcomitrella patens can be used as a model plant to better understand what DNA repair mechanisms are involved, and how this knowledge could eventually be used to define more performant strategies of CRISPR-induced gene knock-in. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstructing the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets with Ice Sheet Models; data-model comparison and focus on the Storfjorden (Svalbard) ice stream dynamics history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Michele; Kirchner, Nina; Colleoni, Florence; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Rebesco, Michele; Lucchi, Renata G.; Forte, Emanuele; Colucci, Renato R.

    2017-04-01

    The challenge of reconstructing palaeo-ice sheets past growth and decay represent a critical task to better understand mechanisms of present and future global climate change. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and the subsequent deglaciation until Pre-Industrial time (PI) represent an excellent testing ground for numerical Ice Sheet Models (ISMs), due to the abundant data available that can be used in an ISM as boundary conditions, forcings or constraints to test the ISMs results. In our study, we simulate with ISMs the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets, with a focus on the marine-based Svalbard-Barents Sea-Kara Sea Ice Sheet. In particular, we aim to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history by comparing the model results with the marine geological data (MSGLs, GZWs, sediment cores analysis) available from the area, e.g., Pedrosa et al. 2011, Rebesco et al. 2011, 2013, Lucchi et al. 2013. Two hybrid SIA/SSA ISMs are employed, GRISLI, Ritz et al. 2001, and PSU, Pollard&DeConto 2012. These models differ mainly in the complexity with which grounding line migration is treated. Climate forcing is interpolated by means of climate indexes between LGM and PI climate. Regional climate indexes are constructed based on the non-accelerated deglaciation transient experiment carried out with CCSM3, Liu et al. 2009. Indexes representative of the climate evolution over Siberia, Svalbard and Scandinavia are employed. The impact of such refined representation as opposed to the common use of the NGRIP δ18O index for transient experiments is analysed. In this study, the ice-ocean interaction is crucial to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history. To investigate the sensitivity of the ice shelf/stream retreat to ocean temperature, we allow for a space-time variation of basal melting under the ice shelves by testing two-equations implementations based on Martin et al. 2011 forced with simulated ocean temperature and salinity from the TraCE-21ka coupled

  4. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  6. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  7. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  8. Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not…

  9. Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in Ajaokuta, southwestern Nigeria. CC Osadebe, JO Fatoba, S Obrike. Abstract. No Abstract. Ife Journal of Science Vol. 7(2) 2005: 297-303. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Changes in some physical properties of a typic haplorthox in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the impacts of different crop rotations on soil physical properties is needed to identify those with the potential to improve such properties which enhance crops´ responses to soil nutrients. The effects of eight crop rotations on physical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox) were assessed in ...

  11. Children's Typically-Perceived-Situations of Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Yong Jae

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore children's typically-perceived-situations (TPS) of "floating" and "sinking". TPS refers to the situation rising spontaneously in an individual's mind when they first think of a phenomenon or concept. Data were collected from 148 Year 5 Korean children. As a result of analysing the data…

  12. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  13. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  14. NOUN DERIVATION OF THE TYPICAL MINAHASA FOOD AND BEVERAGE NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina P Pamantung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivation of the name of typical Minahasa food and beverage is a change or replacement of the word class of verbs, adverbs, and adjectives into nouns. It occurs through the process of compounding, affixation, and reduplication. Free morpheme which appears is ransak, tei, tu'tu, tape, segor, sende ', rica, fresh, rukus. Conversely, some morphemes or bound forms (affixes are the prefix /pe-/,/wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; suffix /-en/, and confixes /-in- + -an/ and  /ka- + -an/ . Prefixes /pe-/, /wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; sufi x-en/, andconfixes /-in- + -an/ occur in the formation of derivational words of  food, while  drinks contain two morphemes (affixes, the infix / -in- / and confix (ka + -an. Thus, the derivation of the typical Minahasa food naming is called derivational affixes such as derivational prefix, infix, and confix. Meanwhile, derivational infix, and confix occur in a typical Minahasa drink. Empty derivation is not found in the typical Minahasa food and beverage since a single form, for example, pangi, sa’ut, paniki, kawok, dan sopi have a meaning that does not change the word class. In addition, the characteristics of the structure of itscompounding: root + base (base + roots, that have a sense of the endocentric and exocentric compound words. Endocentric ompounding is the most frequent.

  15. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  16. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  17. Regular Strongly Typical Blocks of {mathcal{O}^{mathfrak {q}}}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Anders; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2009-10-01

    We use the technique of Harish-Chandra bimodules to prove that regular strongly typical blocks of the category {mathcal{O}} for the queer Lie superalgebra {mathfrak{q}_n} are equivalent to the corresponding blocks of the category {mathcal{O}} for the Lie algebra {mathfrak {gl}_n}.

  18. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  19. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  20. Typical-medium multiple-scattering theory for disordered systems with Anderson localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, H.; Zhang, Y.; Chioncel, L.; Vollhardt, D.; Jarrell, M.

    2017-04-01

    The typical medium dynamical cluster approximation (TMDCA) is reformulated in the language of multiple scattering theory to make possible first-principles calculations of the electronic structure of substitutionally disordered alloys including the effect of Anderson localization. The TMDCA allows for a systematic inclusion of nonlocal multisite correlations and at the same time provides an order parameter, the typical density of states, for the Anderson localization transition. The relation between the dynamical cluster approximation and the multiple scattering theory is analyzed, and is illustrated for a tight-binding model.