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Sample records for models type iii

  1. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  2. Rich dynamics of a food chain model with ratio-dependent type III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rich dynamics of a food chain model with ratio-dependent type III functional responses. ... Stability analysis of model is carried out by using usual theory of ordinary ... that Hopf bifurcation may also occur when delay passes its critical value.

  3. Some five-dimensional Bianchi type-iii string cosmological models in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, G.C.; Biswal, S.K.; Mohanty, G.; Rameswarpatna, Bhubaneswar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have constructed some five-dimensional Bianchi type-III cosmological models in general relativity when source of gravitational field is a massive string. We obtained different classes of solutions by considering different functional forms of metric potentials. It is also observed that one of the models is not physically acceptable and the other models possess big-bang singularity. The physical and kinematical behaviors of the models are discussed

  4. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet E; Roversi, Pietro; Cordes, Frank S; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Daniell, Sarah; Booy, Frank; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Blocker, Ariel J; Lea, Susan M

    2006-08-15

    Type III secretion systems are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The type III secretion system consists of cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle protruding above the bacterial surface and is held within a basal body that traverses both bacterial membranes. Effector proteins are translocated, via this external needle, directly into host cells, where they subvert normal cell functions to aid infection. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to formation of a pore, thought to be contiguous with the needle channel, in the host-cell membrane. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri needle subunit MxiH and a complete model for the needle assembly built into our three-dimensional EM reconstruction. The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex.

  5. Traveling waves in a diffusive predator-prey model with holling type-III functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wantong; Wu Shiliang

    2008-01-01

    We establish the existence of traveling wave solutions and small amplitude traveling wave train solutions for a reaction-diffusion system based on a predator-prey model with Holling type-III functional response. The analysis is in the three-dimensional phase space of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system given by the diffusive predator-prey system in the traveling wave variable. The methods used to prove the results are the shooting argument, invariant manifold theory and the Hopf bifurcation theorem

  6. Pedestal Temperature Model for Type III ELMy H-mode Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buangam, W.; Suwanna, S.; Onjun, T.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.; Singhsomroje, W.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: It is widely known that the improved performance of H-mode plasma results mainly from a formation of the pedestal, which is a narrow region of strong pressure gradient near the edge of plasma. A predictive capability for the conditions at the top of the pedestal is important, especially for predictive simulations of future experiments. New models for predicting the temperature values at the top of the pedestal for type III ELMy H-mode plasma are developed by using two different approaches: a theory-based approaches and an empirical approach. For a theory-based approach, a model is developed based on the calculation of thermal energy in the pedestal region and on accepted scaling laws of energy confinement time. For an empirical model, a scaling law for pedestal temperature in terms of plasma controlled parameters, such as plasma current, magnetic field, heating power, is deduced from experimental data. Predictions from these models are compared with experimental data from the Pedestal International Database. Statistical quantities, such as Root-Mean Square Error (RMSE) and offset values, are computed to quantify the predictive capability of the models. It is found that the theory-based model predicts the pedestal temperature values moderately well yielding RMSE between 30% and 40%. The IPB98(y,3) scaling law yields with best agreement with RMSE of 30.4%. The empirical model predicts the pedestal temperature value with better agreement, yield RMSE of 25.9%

  7. Impairment of Vision in a Mouse Model of Usher Syndrome Type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Lee, Richard; Ropelewski, Philip; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an Usher syndrome type III mouse model with retinal phenotype. Speed congenic method was used to obtain Clrn1 exon 1 knockout (Clrn1-/-) and Clrn1N48K knockin (Clrn1N48K/N48K) mice under A/J background. To study the retinal functions of these mice, we measured scotopic and photopic ERG responses. To observe if there are any structural abnormalities, we conducted light and transmission electron microscopy of fixed retinal specimens. In 3-month-old Clrn1-/- mice, scotopic b-wave amplitude was reduced by more than 25% at the light intensities from -2.2 to 0.38 log cd·s/m2, but scotopic a-wave amplitudes were comparable to those of age-matched wild type mice at all the light intensities tested. In 9-month-old Clrn1-/- mice, scotopic b-wave amplitudes were further reduced by more than 35%, and scotopic a-wave amplitude also showed a small decline as compared with wild type mice. Photopic ERG responses were comparable between Clrn1-/- and wild type mice. Those electrophysiological defects were not associated with a loss of rods. In Clrn1N48K/N48K mice, both a- and b-wave amplitudes were not discernable from those of wild type mice aged up to 10 months. Mutations that are Clrn1-/- biallelic cause visual defects when placed under A/J background. The absence of apparent rod degeneration suggests that the observed phenotype is due to functional defects, and not due to loss of rods. Biallelic Clrn1N48K/N48K mutations did not cause discernible visual defects, suggesting that Clrn1- allele is more severely dysfunctional than ClrnN48K allele.

  8. Outcome of tyrosinaemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, C J; Holme, E; Standing, S; Preece, M A; Green, A; Ploechl, E; Ugarte, M; Trefz, F K; Leonard, J V

    2001-12-01

    Tyrosinaemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. The majority of the nine previously reported patients have presented with neurological symptoms after the neonatal period, while others detected by neonatal screening have been asymptomatic. All have had normal liver and renal function and none has skin or eye abnormalities. A further four patients with tyrosinaemia type III are described. It is not clear whether a strict low tyrosine diet alters the natural history of tyrosinaemia type III, although there remains a suspicion that treatment may be important, at least in infancy.

  9. Exact Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi types I and III cosmological models with a conformally invariant scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Einstein-Conformally Invariant Scalar Field Equations are obtained for Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi types I and III cosmologies. The presence of the conformally invariant scalar field is responsible for some interesting features of the solutions. In particular it is found that the Bianchi I model is consistent with the big-bang theory of cosmology. (Author) [pt

  10. Study of Type III ELMs in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, R [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Saibene, G [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Horton, L D [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Becoulet, M [Association Euratom-CEA, CE Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, CEDEX (France); Budny, R [PPPL, Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Borba, D [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, 1096 Lisbon, CODEX (Portugal); Chankin, A [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Conway, G D [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Cordey, G [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McDonald, D [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Guenther, K [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hellermann, M G von [FOM-Rijnhuizen, Ass. Euratom-FOM, TEC, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Igithkanov, Yu [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Ass., D-17491, Greifswald (Germany); Loarte, A [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Lomas, P J [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pogutse, O [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rapp, J [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents the results of JET experiments aimed at studying the operational space of plasmas with a Type III ELMy edge, in terms of both local and global plasma parameters. In JET, the Type III ELMy regime has a wide operational space in the pedestal n{sub e} - T{sub e} diagram, and Type III ELMs are observed in standard ELMy H-modes as well as in plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB). The transition from an H-mode with Type III ELMs to a steady state Type I ELMy H-mode requires a minimum loss power, P{sub TypeI}. P{sub TypeI} decreases with increasing plasma triangularity. In the pedestal n{sub e} - T{sub e} diagram, the critical pedestal temperature for the transition to Type I ELMs is found to be inversely proportional to the pedestal density (T{sub crit} {proportional_to} 1/n) at a low density. In contrast, at a high density, T{sub crit}, does not depend strongly on density. In the density range where T{sub crit} {proportional_to} 1/n, the critical power required for the transition to Type I ELMs decreases with increasing density. Experimental results are presented suggesting a common mechanism for Type III ELMs at low and high collisionality. A single model for the critical temperature for the transition from Type III to Type I ELMs, based on the resistive interchange instability with magnetic flutter, fits well the density and toroidal field dependence of the JET experimental data. On the other hand, this model fails to describe the variation of the Type III n{sub e} - T{sub e} operational space with isotopic mass and q{sub 95}. Other results are instead suggestive of a different physics for Type III ELMs. At low collisionality, plasma current ramp experiments indicate a role of the edge current in determining the transition from Type III to Type I ELMs, while at high collisionality, a model based on resistive ballooning instability well reproduces, in term of a critical density, the experimentally observed q{sub 95} dependence of the

  11. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  12. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Tezpur University,Tezpur-784028 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2015-11-30

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  13. Hopf and Bautin Bifurcation in a Tritrophic Food Chain Model with Holling Functional Response Types III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Víctor; Castillo-Santos, Francisco Eduardo; Dela-Rosa, Miguel Angel; Loreto-Hernández, Iván

    In this paper, we analyze the Hopf and Bautin bifurcation of a given system of differential equations, corresponding to a tritrophic food chain model with Holling functional response types III and IV for the predator and superpredator, respectively. We distinguish two cases, when the prey has linear or logistic growth. In both cases we guarantee the existence of a limit cycle bifurcating from an equilibrium point in the positive octant of ℝ3. In order to do so, for the Hopf bifurcation we compute explicitly the first Lyapunov coefficient, the transversality Hopf condition, and for the Bautin bifurcation we also compute the second Lyapunov coefficient and verify the regularity conditions.

  14. Study of type III ELMs in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Horton, L. D.; Becoulet, M.; Budny, R.; Borba, D.; Chankin, A.; Conway, G. D.; Cordey, G.; McDonald, D.; Guenther, K.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Igithkanov, Y.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; Pogutse, O.; Rapp, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of JET experiments aimed at studying the operational space of plasmas with a Type III ELMy edge, in terms of both local and global plasma parameters. In JET, the Type III ELMy regime has a wide operational space in the pedestal n(e)-T-e diagram, and Type III ELMs are

  15. Rich dynamics of a food chain model with ratio-dependent type III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    prey dynamics is to incorporate discrete delay into the predator equations. ... models may be found in classical books of Gopalsamy (1992), Macdonald (1989) .... Model (1) has 10 parameters in all, which make mathematical analysis complex.

  16. Discriminating the reaction types of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yugo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Functional prediction of paralogs is challenging in bioinformatics because of rapid functional diversification after gene duplication events combined with parallel acquisitions of similar functions by different paralogs. Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), producing various secondary metabolites, represent a paralogous family that has undergone gene duplication and functional alteration. Currently, there is no computational method available for the functional prediction of type III PKSs. We developed a plant type III PKS reaction predictor, pPAP, based on the recently proposed classification of type III PKSs. pPAP combines two kinds of similarity measures: one calculated by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) built from functionally and structurally important partial sequence regions, and the other based on mutual information between residue positions. pPAP targets PKSs acting on ring-type starter substrates, and classifies their functions into four reaction types. The pHMM approach discriminated two reaction types with high accuracy (97.5%, 39/40), but its accuracy decreased when discriminating three reaction types (87.8%, 43/49). When combined with a correlation-based approach, all 49 PKSs were correctly discriminated, and pPAP was still highly accurate (91.4%, 64/70) even after adding other reaction types. These results suggest pPAP, which is based on linear discriminant analyses of similarity measures, is effective for plant type III PKS function prediction. pPAP is freely available at ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/tools/ppap/. goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. SOLPS5 modelling of the type III ELMing H-mode on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulejova, B.; Pitts, R.A.; Wischmeier, M.; Behn, R.; Coster, D.; Horacek, J.; Marki, J.

    2007-01-01

    Although ohmic H-modes have long been produced on TCV and the effects of ELMs at the divertor target studied in some detail, no attempt has yet been made to model the scrape-off layer (SOL) in these plasmas. This paper describes details of the first such efforts in which simulations of the inter-ELM phases using the coupled fluid-Monte Carlo SOLPS5 code (without drifts) are constrained by careful upstream Thomson scattering and Langmuir probe profiles. Simulated divertor profiles are compared with Langmuir probes and fast IR camera measurements at the targets. To account for the very differing transport rates in the edge pedestal and main SOL regions, radial variation of edge transport coefficients has been introduced in the simulations. Similarly, it is found that transport in the main chamber and divertor regions must be separately adjusted to provide an acceptable code-experiment match

  18. Damping of type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The meter- and decameter-wavelength damping of type III bursts may be attributable to stabilization of the Langmuir-wave instability of the fast-electron streams through excitation of cyclotron-branch plasma waves

  19. Compensatory axon sprouting for very slow axonal die-back in a transgenic model of spinal muscular atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, Esther; Putman, Charles T; Harris, Luke R; Tyreman, Neil; Cook, Victoria E; Gordon, Tessa

    2017-03-01

    Smn +/- transgenic mouse is a model of the mildest form of spinal muscular atrophy. Although there is a loss of spinal motoneurons in 11-month-old animals, muscular force is maintained. This maintained muscular force is mediated by reinnervation of the denervated fibres by surviving motoneurons. The spinal motoneurons in these animals do not show an increased susceptibility to death after nerve injury and they retain their regenerative capacity. We conclude that the hypothesized immaturity of the neuromuscular system in this model cannot explain the loss of motoneurons by systematic die-back. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive disorder in humans and is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. Patients lack the SMN1 gene with the severity of the disease depending on the number of copies of the highly homologous SMN2 gene. Although motoneuron death in the Smn +/- transgenic mouse model of the mildest form of SMA, SMA type III, has been reported, we have used retrograde tracing of sciatic and femoral motoneurons in the hindlimb with recording of muscle and motor unit isometric forces to count the number of motoneurons with intact neuromuscular connections. Thereby, we investigated whether incomplete maturation of the neuromuscular system induced by survival motoneuron protein (SMN) defects is responsible for die-back of axons relative to survival of motoneurons. First, a reduction of ∼30% of backlabelled motoneurons began relatively late, at 11 months of age, with a significant loss of 19% at 7 months. Motor axon die-back was affirmed by motor unit number estimation. Loss of functional motor units was fully compensated by axonal sprouting to retain normal contractile force in four hindlimb muscles (three fast-twitch and one slow-twitch) innervated by branches of the sciatic nerve. Second, our evaluation of whether axotomy of motoneurons in the adult Smn +/- transgenic mouse increases their susceptibility to cell death demonstrated

  20. Chaos in Kundt Type-III Spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakalli, I.; Halilsoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion in a particular Kundt type-III spacetime in which the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations admit the solutions. On a particular surface as constraint, we project the geodesics into the (x, y) plane and treat the problem as a two-dimensional one. Our numerical study shows that chaotic behavior emerges under reasonable conditions. (general)

  1. Evaluating adhesion reduction efficacy of type I/III collagen membrane and collagen-GAG resorbable matrix in primary flexor tendon repair in a chicken model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John B; Corazzini, Rubina L; Butler, Timothy J; Garlick, David S; Rinker, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Reduction of peritendinous adhesions after injury and repair has been the subject of extensive prior investigation. The application of a circumferential barrier at the repair site may limit the quantity of peritendinous adhesions while preserving the tendon's innate ability to heal. The authors compare the effectiveness of a type I/III collagen membrane and a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) resorbable matrix in reducing tendon adhesions in an experimental chicken model of a "zone II" tendon laceration and repair. In Leghorn chickens, flexor tendons were sharply divided using a scalpel and underwent repair in a standard fashion (54 total repairs). The sites were treated with a type I/III collagen membrane, collagen-GAG resorbable matrix, or saline in a randomized fashion. After 3 weeks, qualitative and semiquantitative histological analysis was performed to evaluate the "extent of peritendinous adhesions" and "nature of tendon healing." The data was evaluated with chi-square analysis and unpaired Student's t test. For both collagen materials, there was a statistically significant improvement in the degree of both extent of peritendinous adhesions and nature of tendon healing relative to the control group. There was no significant difference seen between the two materials. There was one tendon rupture observed in each treatment group. Surgical handling characteristics were subjectively favored for type I/III collagen membrane over the collagen-GAG resorbable matrix. The ideal method of reducing clinically significant tendon adhesions after injury remains elusive. Both materials in this study demonstrate promise in reducing tendon adhesions after flexor tendon repair without impeding tendon healing in this model.

  2. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency decrease is seen. (v) Since in most of

  3. Decay time of type III solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F.T.

    1972-01-01

    Sixty-four Type III bursts that drifted to frequencies below 600 kHz between March 1968 and February 1970 were analyzed. Decay times were measured and combined with published data ranging up to about 200 MHz. By fitting power functions to the computed and observed decay times, and using the local plasma hypothesis, it was found that the ratio rho of computed to observed values varies with radiocentric radial distance according to a power function rho = 3r 0 . 7 . (U.S.)

  4. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4–8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with EUV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrence, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates, whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to those at other frequencies.

  5. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofejev, G.L.; Imenitov, A.B.; Klimenko, E.Y.

    1980-01-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T. (author)

  6. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeiev, G L; Imenitov, A B; Klimenko, E Y [Gosudarstvennyi Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoi Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoi Ehnergii

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb/sub 3/Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  7. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  8. Type III radio bursts in a flaming structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicky, M.; Tlamicha, A.

    1977-01-01

    An interpretation is presented of the burst of 3.7.1974. The slowly drifting, fine structure in this type III burst is evidence of the existence of very fast, spatially extensive processes in the corona. The concept is presented of a rapidly varying, magnetohydrodynamically unstable, flaming structure of the magnetic field and, using this model, the intensities were computed of the magnetic field at certain altitudes and at two moments differing by 1.4 s. (author)

  9. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofejev, G. L.; Imenitov, A. B.; Klimenko, E. Yu.

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogenious monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr, Nb 3Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The longitudinal electric field for homogenious wires may be described by E=J ρnexp- T c/T 0+ T/T 0+ B/B 0+ J/J 0, where To, Bo, Jo are the increasing parameters, which depend weakly on B and T, of the electric field. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (ie the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T, B, J - space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  10. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  11. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Unusual case of failure to thrive: Type III Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Subedi, K; Ray, P; Rayamajhi, A

    2016-09-01

    Bartter syndrome Type III is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from an inherited defect in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle of the nephrons in kidney. The typical clinical manifestations in childhood are failure to thrive and recurrent episodes of vomiting. Typical laboratory findings which help in the diagnosis are hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria. We report a case of Type III Bartter syndrome not responding to repeated conventional treatment of failure to thrive.

  13. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-λs regulate a similar set of genes as type I IFNs, but whereas type I IFNs act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain...

  14. Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Vukmirovic, Mihailo; Radojevic, Nemanja; Zornic, Nenad; Banzic, Igor; Ilic, Nikola; Kostic, Dusan; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic type III dissection is one of the most catastrophic events, with in-hospital mortality ranging between 10% and 12%. The majority of patients are treated medically, but complicated dissections, which represent 15% to 20% of cases, require surgical or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival. From January 2005 to December 2014, 115 patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived. The analysis of the blood groups and RhD typing between groups did not reveal a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.220). Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III.

  15. SIMMER-III analytic thermophysical property model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Fischer, E.A.

    1999-05-01

    An analytic thermophysical property model using general function forms is developed for a reactor safety analysis code, SIMMER-III. The function forms are designed to represent correct behavior of properties of reactor-core materials over wide temperature ranges, especially for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity near the critical point. The most up-to-date and reliable sources for uranium dioxide, mixed-oxide fuel, stainless steel, and sodium available at present are used to determine parameters in the proposed functions. This model is also designed to be consistent with a SIMMER-III model on thermodynamic properties and equations of state for reactor-core materials. (author)

  16. [Diagnostic values of serum type III procollagen N-terminal peptide in type IV gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, S; Fujiki, T; Kanda, Y; Kumai, R; Yoshida, S

    1985-04-01

    Since increased synthesis of collagen has been demonstrated in tissue of type IV gastric cancer, we attempted to distinguish type IV gastric cancer from other cancers by measuring serum levels of type III procollagen N-terminal peptide (type III-N-peptide). Mean serum levels in type IV gastric cancer patients without metastasis were found to be elevated above normal values and developed a tendency to be higher than those in types I, II and III gastric cancer patients without metastasis. Highly positive ratios were found in patients with liver diseases including hepatoma and colon cancer, biliary tract cancer, and esophageal cancer patients with liver, lung or bone metastasis, but only 2 out of 14 of these cancer patients without such metastasis showed positive serum levels of type III-N-peptide. Positive cases in patients with type IV gastric cancer were obtained not only in the group with clinical stage IV but also in the groups with clinical stages II and III. In addition, high serum levels of type III-N-peptide in patients with type IV gastric cancer were seen not only in the cases with liver, lung or bone metastasis but also in cases with disseminated peritoneal metastasis alone. These results suggest that if the serum level of type III-N-peptide is elevated above normal values, type IV gastric cancer should be suspected after ruling out liver diseases, myelofibrosis and liver, lung or bone metastasis.

  17. Type III bursts in interplanetary space - Fundamental or harmonic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-3 spacecraft observation of 120 relatively simple, isolated bursts in the 30-1980 kHz range are the basis of the present study of Type III bursts in the solar wind. Several characteristics are identified for many of these bursts which imply that the mode of emission changes from predominantly fundamental plasma radiation during the rise phase to predominantly second harmonic during decay. The fundamental emission begins in time coincidence with the start of Langmuir waves, confirming the conventional belief in these waves' causation of Type III bursts. Attention is given to the characteristics of fundamental components, by comparison to harmonics, at km-wavelengths.

  18. Laparoscopic treatment of type III para-oesophageal hernia | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III congenital para-oesophageal hernia is a rare condition in children and is ... portion of the stomach and the gastro-oesophageal junction into the chest. ... in the hands of paediatric surgeons familiar with laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery.

  19. Late Presentation of a Type III Axis Fracture with Spondyloptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Choi, David; Casey, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with an undiagnosed Effendi type III classification fracture and spondyloptosis of the axis with remarkably normal neurology. We discuss his surgery 4 years since the initial injury, and the presentation, features and management of fractures of the axis. PMID:18430325

  20. Receptosecretory nature of type III cells in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    Type III cells in taste buds form chemical synapses with intragemmal afferent nerve fibers and are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm. Although the vesicles differ in shape and size among species, they are primarily categorized into small clear (40 nm in diameter) and large dense-cored (90-200 nm) types. As such vesicles tend to be closely juxtaposed to the synaptic membrane of the cells, it is reasonable to consider that the vesicles include transmitter(s) towards the gustatory nerve. In the guinea-pig taste bud, stimulation with various taste substances (sucrose, sodium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, or monosodium L-glutamate) causes ultrastructural alterations of the type III cells. At the synapse, the presynaptic plasma membrane often displays invaginations of 90 nm in a mean diameter towards the cytoplasm, which indicates the dense-cored vesicles opening into the synaptic cleft by means of exocytosis. The vesicles are also exocytosed at the non-synaptic region into the intercellular space. These findings strongly suggest that the transmitters presumably contained in the vesicles are released to conduct the excitement of the type III cells to the nerves and also to exert their paracrine effects upon the surroundings, such as the Ebner's salivary gland, acting as local hormones.

  1. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end.

  2. On the theory of the type III burst exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1976-01-01

    In situ satellite observations of type III burst exciters at 1 AU show that the beam does not evolve into a plateau in velocity space, contrary to the prediction of quasilinear theory. The observations can be explained by a theory that includes mode coupling effects due to excitation of the parametric oscillating two-stream instability and its saturation by anomalous resistivity. The time evolution of the beam velocity distribution is included in the analysis.

  3. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound on the m......In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  4. Interventional therapy of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in type III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Weijun; Wu Peihong; Zhang Liang; Huang Jinhua; Zhang Fujun; Gu Yangkui; Zhao Ming; Huang Xianglong; Guo Changyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of synthetic interventional therapy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma in type III and IV. Methods: Twenty-one patients with obstructive cholestasis were pathological confirmed as cholangioadenocarcinoma, and they were classified as type III and IV cholangioadenocarcinoma by CT, MRCP, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with internal and external drainage (PTCD), multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation, biliary stent endoprosthesis, and interventional adjuvant chemotherapy were applied sequentially. Results: All masses presented with density diminution in CT one month after RF ablation, in which 13 masses had about 30% reduction in size, 4 masses had about 20% reduction in size, and 4 masses remained unchanged. All the masses presented with size reduction with an average of 37% in follow-up CT after 6 months, and the most remarkable size reduction was 60%. The direct and indirect bilirubin levels prompt returned to normal range in 17 cases one month after synthetic interventional therapy and returned to normal range in all cases 6 months later. All patients survived with the follow-up period ranging from 9 to 24 months, with the mean survival time of 14 months. Conclusion: Synthetic interventional therapy is a micro-invasive and effective treatment for type III and IV cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  5. Type I-II laryngeal cleft: clinical course and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonimsky, Guy; Carmel, Eldar; Drendel, Michael; Lipschitz, Noga; Wolf, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Laryngeal cleft (LC) is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting in a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorders and aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. The mild forms (types I-II) may be underdiagnosed, leading to protracted symptomatology and morbidity. To evaluate the diagnostic process, clinical course, management and outcome in children with type I-II laryngeal clefts. We conducted a retrospective case analysis for the years 2005-2012 in a tertiary referral center. Seven children were reviewed: five boys and two girls ranging in age from birth to 5 years. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, aspirations and pneumonia. Evaluation procedures included fiber-optic laryngoscopy (FOL), direct laryngoscopy (DL) and videofluoroscopy. Other pathologies were seen in three children. Six children underwent successful endoscopic surgery and one child was treated conservatively. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful in most of the cases. Types I-II LC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with protracted cough and aspirations. DL is crucial for establishing the diagnosis. Endoscopic surgery is safe and should be applied promptly when conservative measures fail.

  6. Tissue turnover of collagen type I, III and elastin is elevated in the PCLS model of IPF and can be restored back to vehicle levels using a phosphodiesterase inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Ulrik Brandt; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Brockbank, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    .T., two days apart. The rats were euthanized fourteen days after the last dose. PCLS were made and cultured for 48 h in: medium, medium + 100 μM IBMX (PDE inhibitor), or medium + 10 μM GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). Turnover of type I collagen (P1NP, C1M), type III collagen (iP3NP, C3M) and elastin degradation...... to the culture medium (P ≤ 0.05 - P ≤ 0.0001). Sirius Red and Orcein staining confirmed the presence of collagen and elastin deposition in the lungs of the animals receiving BLM. Conclusions: The protein fingerprint technology allows the assessment of ECM remodeling markers in the BLM PCLS model. By combining...

  7. Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type III with Primary Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome is defined as multiple endocrine gland insufficiencies accompanied by autoimmune diseases of the endocrine and nonendocrine system. After Schmidt introduced a case of nontuberculosis adrenal gland dysfunction with thyroiditis in 1926, Neufeld defined polyglandular autoimmune syndrome by I, II, and III subtypes in 1980 by their presentation of occurrence age, heredity methods, relationship with human leukocyte antigen, and accompanying diseases. We report a case of a 32-year-old female with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III accompanied by type 1 diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin (36 units per day for 11 years. She had insulin deficiency and Hashimoto thyroiditis as an autoimmune disorder. In addition, she had several features similar to Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy including short stature, truncal obesity, round face, short neck, low intelligence (full IQ 84, and decreased memory. Although Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy is morphological evidence of pseudohypoparathyroidism or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, she had primary hypoparathyroidism on laboratory results. Here, we report a case of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III with type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, and primary hypoparathyroidism, accompanied by clinical features similar to Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

  8. Sparkle/PM3 for the modeling of europium(III), gadolinium(III), and terbium(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to europium(III), gadolinium(III), and terbium(III) complexes. The validation procedure was carried out using only high quality crystallographic structures, for a total of ninety-six Eu(III) complexes, seventy Gd(III) complexes, and forty-two Tb(III) complexes. The Sparkle/PM3 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is: 0.080 A for Eu(III); 0.063 A for Gd(III); and 0.070 A for Tb(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.082 A, 0.061 A, and 0.068 A respectively, indicating they are all comparable parameterizations. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective core potential full geometry optimization calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Finally, we report a preliminary attempt to show that Sparkle/PM3 geometry predictions are reliable. For one of the Eu(III) complexes, BAFZEO, we created hundreds of different input geometries by randomly varying the distances and angles of the ligands to the central Eu(III) ion, which were all subsequently fully optimized. A significant trend was unveiled, indicating that more accurate local minima geometries cluster at lower total energies, thus reinforcing the validity of sparkle model calculations. (author)

  9. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Mat´ern III process within a bounded window in Rd fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  10. A theory of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.L.; Smith, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of type III bursts is reviewed. Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes. (Auth.)

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the terrestrial food chain model FOOD III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1980-10-01

    As a first step in constructing a terrestrial food chain model suitable for long-term waste management situations, a numerical sensitivity analysis of FOOD III was carried out to identify important model parameters. The analysis involved 42 radionuclides, four pathways, 14 food types, 93 parameters and three percentages of parameter variation. We also investigated the importance of radionuclides, pathways and food types. The analysis involved a simple contamination model to render results from individual pathways comparable. The analysis showed that radionuclides vary greatly in their dose contribution to each of the four pathways, but relative contributions to each pathway are very similar. Man's and animals' drinking water pathways are much more important than the leaf and root pathways. However, this result depends on the contamination model used. All the pathways contain unimportant food types. Considering the number of parameters involved, FOOD III has too many different food types. Many of the parameters of the leaf and root pathway are important. However, this is true for only a few of the parameters of animals' drinking water pathway, and for neither of the two parameters of mans' drinking water pathway. The radiological decay constant increases the variability of these results. The dose factor is consistently the most important variable, and it explains most of the variability of radionuclide doses within pathways. Consideration of the variability of dose factors is important in contemporary as well as long-term waste management assessment models, if realistic estimates are to be made. (auth)

  12. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  13. The ophthalmological course of Usher syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, L; Tuppurainen, K; Laippala, P; Mäntyjärvi, M; Puhakka, H

    Usher syndrome is a recessive hereditary disease group with clinical and genetical heterogeneity leading to handicapped hearing and visual loss until middle age. It is the most common cause for deaf-blindness. Three distinct phenotypes and five distinct genotypes are already known. In Finland the distribution of known Usher types is different than elsewhere. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) is common in Finland and it is thought to include 40% of patients. Progressive hearing loss is characteristic of USH3. Elsewhere USH3 has been regarded as a rarity covering only several percent of the whole Usher population. The aim of this paper is to describe, for the first time, the course of visual handicap and typical refractive errors in USH3 and compare it with other USH types. From a total patient sample consisting of 229 Finnish USH patients, 200 patients' visual findings were analyzed in a multicenter retrospective follow-up study. The average progress rate during a 10-year follow-up period in different USH types was similar. The essential progress occurred below the age of 40 and was continuous up to that age. Visual acuity dropped below 0.05 (severely impaired) at the age of 37 and the visual fields were of tubular shape without any peripheric islands at the average age of 30. Clinically significant hypermetropia with astigmatism seems to be a pathognomonic clinical sign of USH3.

  14. Elective visceral hybrid repair of type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the classification given by Crawford et al. type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA is dilatation of the aorta from the level of the rib 6 to the separation of the aorta below the renal arteries, capturing all the visceral branch of aorta. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA is a procedure developed in recent years in the world, which involves a combination of conventional, open and endovascular aortic reconstruction surgery at the level of separation of the left subclavian artery to the level of visceral branches of aorta. Case report. We presented a 75-years-old man, with elective visceral hybrid reconstruction of type III TAAA. Computerized scanning (CT angiography of the patient showed type III TAAA with the maximum transverse diameter of aneurysm of 92 mm. Aneurysm started at the level of the sixth rib, and the end of the aneurysm was 1 cm distal to the level of renal arteries. Aneurysm compressed the esophagus, causing the patient difficulty in swallowing act, especially solid food, and frequent back pain. From the other comorbidity, the patient had been treated for a long time, due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension. In general endotracheal anesthesia with epidural analgesia, the patient underwent visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA, which combines classic, open vascular surgery and endovascular procedures. Classic vascular surgery is visceral reconstruction using by-pass procedure from the distal, normal aorta to all visceral branches: celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and both renal arteries, with ligature of all arteries very close to the aorta. After that, by synchronous endovascular technique a complete aneurysmal exclusion of thoracoabdominal aneurysm with thoracic stent-graft was performed. The postoperative course was conducted properly and the patient left the Clinic for Vascular Surgery on postoperative day 21. Control CT, performed 3 months after the surgery

  15. Supersymmetric type-III seesaw mechanism: Lepton flavor violation and LHC phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Martin; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian; Weiss, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    We study a supersymmetric version of the type-III seesaw mechanism considering two variants of the model: a minimal version for explaining neutrino data with only two copies of 24 superfields and a model with three generations of 24-plets. The latter predicts, in general, rates for mu -> e gamma inconsistent with experimental data. However, this bound can be evaded if certain special conditions within the neutrino sector are fulfilled. In the case of two 24-plets, lepton flavor violation cons...

  16. High mobility and high concentration Type-III heterojunction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.; Her, T.

    2018-02-01

    The PN junction was introduced in transistors by doping, resulting in high losses due to Coulomb scattering from the dopants. The MOSFET introduced carriers in the form of electrons and holes with an applied bias to the oxide barrier, resulting in carrier transfer without doping. This avoids high scattering losses and dominates the IC industries. With heterojunctions having valence-band maxima near and even above the conduction-band minimum in the formation of Type-III superlattices, very useful devices, introduced by Tsu, Sai-Halacz, and Esaki, soon followed. If the layer thicknesses are more than the carrier mean-free-path, incoherent scattering results in the formation of carrier transfer via diffusion instead of opening up new energy gaps. The exploitation of carriers without scattering represents a new and significant opportunity in what we call a Broken Gap Heterojunction FET.

  17. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  18. Assessment of Influence of Contact Time between Alginate and Type III Dental Stone on Properties of Cast Model: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Shruti; Kar, Aswini K; Garhnayak, Mirna; Garhnayak, Lokanath; Dhal, Angurbala

    2017-10-01

    Alginate is a versatile, irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, which is cost-effective and forms an essential component in dental practice. For elevating the hardness of the cast models, hardeners are combined with stone. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the impact of altering the time of contact between alginate and stone after various interim periods. The present study included the assessment of impact of time of contact between alginate and stone by the construction of 90 casts using a cylinder model. Two bisecting lines were marked and were named as y and y'. These lines were used for testing the dimensional stability. Using chemically cured acrylic resin, the construction of ten special trays was done. All the impression casts were randomly divided into two study groups, with 45 casts in each group-group I: control group, casts were removed after 60 minutes; group II: study group, casts were removed after 9 hours. A digital caliper was used for measuring the dimensional stability of the cast. All the data were collected and analyzed. In the specimens of the control group (group I) and the study group (group II), the mean dimensions from y to y' were found to be 17.54 and 17.95 respectively. The mean reading of hardness in the control group and study group was found to be 0.59 and 0.20 respectively. In groups I and II, the number of specimens showing clarity of two lines (X and X") was 0 and 5 respectively. There was no change in the dimensional stability of the dental stone model when the contact time was increased. Within certain limits, the contact time between alginate and stone can be altered without significantly altering the properties of the cast.

  19. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the ''primary liner.'' The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the ''secondary liner.'' The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank [Wallace and Yau, 1986]. The task of this analysis is to simulate the ''hydrogen deflagration'' scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration

  20. Usher syndrome type III can mimic other types of Usher syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Fields, R.R.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Deutman, A.F.; Kimberling, W.J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical and genetic characteristics are presented of 2 patients from a Dutch Usher syndrome type III family who have a new homozygous USH3 gene mutation: 149-152delCAGG + insTGTCCAAT. One individual (IV:1) is profoundly hearing impaired and has normal vestibular function and retinitis punctata

  1. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates.

  2. Stellar model chromospheres. III - Arcturus /K2 III/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Models are constructed for the upper photosphere and chromosphere of Arcturus based on the H, K, and IR triplet lines of Ca II and the h and k lines of Mg II. The chromosphere model is derived from complete redistribution solutions for a five-level Ca II ion and a two-level Mg II ion. A photospheric model is derived from the Ca II wings using first the 'traditional' complete-redistribution limit and then the more realistic partial-redistribution approximation. The temperature and mass column densities for the temperature-minimum region and the chromosphere-transition region boundary are computed, and the pressure in the transition region and corona are estimated. It is found that the ratio of minimum temperature to effective temperature is approximately 0.77 for Arcturus, Procyon, and the sun, and that mass tends to increase at the temperature minimum with decreasing gravity. The pressure is found to be about 1 percent of the solar value, and the surface brightness of the Arcturus transition region and coronal spectrum is estimated to be much less than for the sun. The partial-redistribution calculation for the Ca II K line indicates that the emission width is at least partially determined by damping rather than Doppler broadening, suggesting a reexamination of previous explanations for the Wilson-Bappu effect.

  3. The content and ratio of type I and III collagen in skin differ with age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    III ratio and changes in skin tension, elasticity, and healing. Also, the content of type I, III collagen and type I/III ratio are significantly altered in hypertrophic scar tissue compared to uninjured age-matched controls, resulting in a different structural ...

  4. Type I supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  5. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Tuppurainen, Kaija; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Cremers, Cor W R J; Deutman, August F

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients. Cross-sectional regression analyses of the functional acuity score (FAS), functional field score (FFS*) and functional vision score (FVS*) related to age were performed for all patients. The FFS* and FVS* were calculated using the isoptre V-4 test target instead of the usual III-4 target. Statistical tests relating to regression lines and Student's t-test were used to compare between USH3 patients and the other genetic subtypes of Usher syndrome. Cross-sectional analyses revealed significant deterioration in the FAS (1.3% per year), FFS* (1.4% per year) and FVS* (1.8% per year) with advancing age in the USH3 patient group. At a given age the USH3 patients showed significantly poorer visual field function than the USH2a patients. The rate of deterioration in visual function in Finnish USH3 patients was fairly similar to that in Dutch USH1b or USH2a patients. At a given age, visual field impairment in USH3 patients was similar to that in USH1b patients but poorer than in USH2a patients.

  6. Usher syndrome type III can mimic other types of Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Ronald J E; Fields, Randall R; Huygen, Patrick L M; Deutman, August F; Kimberling, William J; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2003-06-01

    Clinical and genetic characteristics are presented of 2 patients from a Dutch Usher syndrome type III family who have a new homozygous USH3 gene mutation: 149-152delCAGG + insTGTCCAAT. One individual (IV:1) is profoundly hearing impaired and has normal vestibular function and retinitis punctata albescens (RPA). The other individual is also profoundly hearing impaired, but has well-developed speech, vestibular areflexia, and retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP). These findings suggest that Usher syndrome type III can be clinically misdiagnosed as either Usher type I or II; that Usher syndrome patients who are profoundly hearing impaired and have normal vestibular function should be tested for USH3 mutations; and that RPA and RPSP can occur as fundoscopic manifestations of pigmentary retinopathy in Usher syndrome.

  7. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A Darshanee Ruwandeepika

    Full Text Available Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels, which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  8. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  9. Antiviral type I and type III interferon responses in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  10. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  11. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant pathogens have presented increasing challenges to the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS, existing in bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is one of the most complicated protein secretion systems. T3SSs of animal and plant pathogens possess many highly conserved main structural components comprised of about 20 proteins. Many Gram-negative bacteria carry T3SS as a major virulence determinant, and using the T3SS, the bacteria secrete and inject effector proteins into target host cells, triggering disease symptoms. Therefore, T3SS has emerged as an attractive target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In recent years, many T3SS-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have been discovered; these inhibitors prevent the bacteria from injecting effector proteins and from causing pathophysiology in host cells. Targeting the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens, rather than their survival, is an innovative and promising approach that may greatly reduce selection pressures on pathogens to develop drug-resistant mutations. This article summarizes recent progress in the search for promising small-molecule T3SS inhibitors that target the secretion and translocation of bacterial effector proteins.

  12. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  13. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR...... and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided...

  14. On Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Left Censored Burr Type III Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Feroze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Burr type III is an important distribution used to model the failure time data. The paper addresses the problem of estimation of parameters of the Burr type III distribution based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE when the samples are left censored. As the closed form expression for the MLEs of the parameters cannot be derived, the approximate solutions have been obtained through iterative procedures. An extensive simulation study has been carried out to investigate the performance of the estimators with respect to sample size, censoring rate and true parametric values. A real life example has also been presented. The study revealed that the proposed estimators are consistent and capable of providing efficient results under small to moderate samples.

  15. Type III intermediate filaments desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M.; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    Type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review the

  16. Type III Intermediate Filaments Desmin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Vimentin, and Peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    SummaryType III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review

  17. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Hartmann, Hans; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-11-28

    Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa. Administration of carbohydrates may elicit reactive hyperinsulinism, resulting in suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, heart and skeletal muscle are depleted of energy substrates. Modified Atkins diet leads to increased blood levels of ketone bodies and fatty acids. We hypothesize that this health care intervention improves the energetic balance of muscles. We treated 2 boys with glycogenosis IIIa aged 9 and 11 years with a modified Atkins diet (10 g carbohydrate per day, protein and fatty acids ad libitum) over a period of 32 and 26 months, respectively. In both patients, creatine kinase levels in blood dropped in response to Atkins diet. When diet was withdrawn in one of the patients he complained of chest pain, reduced physical strength and creatine kinase levels rapidly increased. This was reversed when Atkins diet was reintroduced. One patient suffered from severe cardiomyopathy which significantly improved under diet. Patients with glycogenosis IIIa benefit from an improved energetic state of heart and skeletal muscle by introduction of Atkins diet both on a biochemical and clinical level. Apart from transient hypoglycaemia no serious adverse effects were observed.

  18. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  19. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  20. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  2. Antithrombin III in animal models of sepsis and organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickneite, G

    1998-01-01

    Antithrombin III (AT III) is the physiological inhibitor of thrombin and other serine proteases of the clotting cascade. In the development of sepsis, septic shock and organ failure, the plasma levels of AT III decrease considerably, suggesting the concept of a substitution therapy with the inhibitor. A decrease of AT III plasma levels might also be associated with other pathological disorders like trauma, burns, pancreatitis or preclampsia. Activation of coagulation and consumption of AT III is the consequence of a generalized inflammation called SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome). The clotting cascade is also frequently activated after organ transplantation, especially if organs are grafted between different species (xenotransplantation). During the past years AT III has been investigated in numerous corresponding disease models in different animal species which will be reviewed here. The bulk of evidence suggests, that AT III substitution reduces morbidity and mortality in the diseased animals. While gaining more experience with AT III, the concept of substitution therapy to maximal baseline plasma levels (100%) appears to become insufficient. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies now suggests to adjust the AT III plasma levels to about 200%, i.e., doubling the normal value. During the last few years several authors proposed that AT III might not only be an anti-thrombotic agent, but to have in addition an anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  4. Relationship between type III-V radio and hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Type III-V radio bursts are found to be closely associated with impulsive hard X-ray bursts. Probably 0.1% to 1% of the fast electrons in the X-ray source region escape to heights >0.1 solar radii in the corona and excite the type III-V burst. (Auth.)

  5. COMPBRN III: a computer code for modeling compartment fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, V.; Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    The computer code COMPBRN III deterministically models the behavior of compartment fires. This code is an improvement of the original COMPBRN codes. It employs a different air entrainment model and numerical scheme to estimate properties of the ceiling hot gas layer model. Moreover, COMPBRN III incorporates a number of improvements in shape factor calculations and error checking, which distinguish it from the COMPBRN II code. This report presents the ceiling hot gas layer model employed by COMPBRN III as well as several other modifications. Information necessary to run COMPBRN III, including descriptions of required input and resulting output, are also presented. Simulation of experiments and a sample problem are included to demonstrate the usage of the code. 37 figs., 46 refs

  6. Anisotropic Bianchi Type-III Bulk Viscous Fluid Universe in Lyra Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropic Bianchi type-III cosmological model is investigated in the presence of a bulk viscous fluid within the framework of Lyra geometry with time-dependent displacement vector. It is shown that the field equations are solvable for any arbitrary function of a scale factor. To get the deterministic model of the universe, we have assumed that (i a simple power-law form of a scale factor and (ii the bulk viscosity coefficient are proportional to the energy density of the matter. The exact solutions of the Einstein’s field equations are obtained which represent an expanding, shearing, and decelerating model of the universe. Some physical and kinematical behaviors of the cosmological model are briefly discussed.

  7. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III–V Radio Bursts in a Solar Flare ... velocities of the electron streams associated with the above two types of bursts indicate ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...

  8. Treatment of type II and type III open tibia fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, C S; Weiner, L S; Yang, E C

    1997-07-01

    To determine whether severe open tibial fractures in children behave like similar fractures in adults. A combined retrospective and prospective review evaluated treatment protocol for type II and type III open tibial fractures in children over a ten-year period from 1984 to 1993. Twenty-three fractures were studied in children aged 3.5 to 14.5 (18 boys and 5 girls). There were six type II, eight type IIIA, and nine type IIIB fractures. Type I fractures were not included. Seven fractures were comminuted with significant butterfly fragments or segmental patterns. Treatment consisted of adequate debridement of soft tissues, closure of dead space, and stabilization with external fixation. Bone debridement only included contaminated devitalized bone or devitalized bone without soft tissue coverage. Bone that could be covered despite periosteal stripping was preserved. Clinical and roentgenographic examinations were used to determine time to union. All fractures in this series healed between eight and twenty-six weeks. Wound coverage included two flaps, three skin grafts, and two delayed primary closures. No bone grafts were required. There were no deep infections, growth arrests, or malunions. Follow-up has ranged from six months to four years. Open tibia fractures in children differ from similar fractures in adults in the following ways: soft tissues have excellent healing capacity, devitalized bone that is not contaminated or exposed can be saved and will become incorporated, and external fixation can be maintained until the fracture has healed. Periosteum in young children can form bone even in the face of bone loss.

  9. Uptake Of Trivalent Actinides (Cm(III)) And Lanthanides (Eu(III)) By Cement-Type Minerals: A Wet Chemistry And Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Stumpf, T; Wieland, E.; Fanghaenel, T

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of the two chemical homologues Cm (III) and Eu(III) with calcium silicate hydrates at pH 13.3 has been investigated in batch-type sorption studies using Eu(III), and complemented with time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy using Cm(III). The sorption data for Eu(III) reveal fast sorption kinetics, and a strong uptake by CSH phases, with distribution ratios of 6({+-}3)*105 L kg-1. Three different types of sorbed Cm(III) species have been identified: a non-fluorescing species, which was identified as Cm cluster present either as surface precipitate or as Cm(III) colloid in solution, and two sorbed fluorescing species. The sorbed fluorescing species have characteristic emission spectra (main peak maxima at 618.9 nm and 620.9 nm) and fluorescence emission lifetimes (289 {+-} 11 ms and 1482{+-} 200 ms). From the fluorescence lifetimes, it appears that the two fluorescing Cm(III) species have, respectively, one to two or no water molecules left in their first coordination sphere, suggesting that these species are incorporated into the CSH structure. A structural model for Cm(III) and Eu(III) incorporation into CSH phases is proposed based on the substitution of Ca at two different types of sites in the CSH structure. (author)

  10. Induction of type I and type III interferons by Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with pathogenesis and requires linear plasmid 36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Krupna-Gaylord

    Full Text Available The capacity for Borrelia burgdorferi to cause disseminated infection in humans or mice is associated with the genotype of the infecting strain. The cytokine profiles elicited by B. burgdorferi clinical isolates of different genotype (ribosomal spacer type groups were assessed in a human PBMC co-incubation model. RST1 isolates, which are more frequently associated with disseminated Lyme disease in humans and mice, induced significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IFN-λ1/IL29 relative to RST3 isolates, which are less frequently associated with disseminated infection. No differences in the protein concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 or TNF-α were observed between isolates of differing genotype. The ability of B. burgdorferi to induce type I and type III IFNs was completely dependent on the presence of linear plasmid (lp 36. An lp36-deficient B. burgdorferi mutant adhered to, and was internalized by, PBMCs and specific dendritic cell (DC subsets less efficiently than its isogenic B31 parent strain. The association defect with mDC1s and pDCs could be restored by complementation of the mutant with the complete lp36. The RST1 clinical isolates studied were found to contain a 2.5-kB region, located in the distal one-third of lp36, which was not present in any of the RST3 isolates tested. This divergent region of lp36 may encode one or more factors required for optimal spirochetal recognition and the production of type I and type III IFNs by human DCs, thus suggesting a potential role for DCs in the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection.

  11. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) linked to chromosome 3q in an Italian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, P; De Fazio, A; Croce, A I; Stanziale, P; Zelante, L

    1998-08-01

    We report an Italian family affected by Usher type III syndrome. Linkage study, performed using markers corresponding to the Usher loci already mapped, clearly showed linkage with markers on chromosome 3q24-25. Our data further support the presence of an Usher III locus on chromosome 3, as recently reported in a Finnish population.

  12. Usher syndrome type III (USH3) linked to chromosome 3q in an Italian family.

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini, P; De Fazio, A; Croce, A I; Stanziale, P; Zelante, L

    1998-01-01

    We report an Italian family affected by Usher type III syndrome. Linkage study, performed using markers corresponding to the Usher loci already mapped, clearly showed linkage with markers on chromosome 3q24-25. Our data further support the presence of an Usher III locus on chromosome 3, as recently reported in a Finnish population.

  13. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range

  14. Second harmonic generation microscopy differentiates collagen type I and type III in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kayra, Damian; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Abraham, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The structural remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral lung region is an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiphoton microscopy is capable of inducing specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from non-centrosymmetric structural proteins such as fibrillar collagens. In this study, SHG microscopy was used to examine structural remodeling of the fibrillar collagens in human lungs undergoing emphysematous destruction (n=2). The SHG signals originating from these diseased lung thin sections from base to apex (n=16) were captured simultaneously in both forward and backward directions. We found that the SHG images detected in the forward direction showed well-developed and well-structured thick collagen fibers while the SHG images detected in the backward direction showed striking different morphological features which included the diffused pattern of forward detected structures plus other forms of collagen structures. Comparison of these images with the wellestablished immunohistochemical staining indicated that the structures detected in the forward direction are primarily the thick collagen type I fibers and the structures identified in the backward direction are diffusive structures of forward detected collagen type I plus collagen type III. In conclusion, we here demonstrate the feasibility of SHG microscopy in differentiating fibrillar collagen subtypes and understanding their remodeling in diseased lung tissues.

  15. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, W.J.; Lobner, P.R.; Powell, R.W.; Straker, E.A.

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems

  16. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kishore

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... of the electron streams that generate type V bursts, spread in the velocity spectrum, and the curvature of the magnetic field lines along which they travel. Keywords. Sun—corona—magnetic field—flares—radio bursts—polarization. 1. Introduction. Type V bursts are relatively unusual solar radio tran- sients.

  17. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Sankila, E.M.; Tuppurainen, K.; Kleemola, L.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Deutman, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients.

  18. Design of fractional order differentiator using type-III and type-IV discrete cosine transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interpolation method based on discrete cosine transform (DCT is employed for digital finite impulse response-fractional order differentiator (FIR-FOD design. Here, a fractional order digital differentiator is modeled as finite impulse response (FIR system to get an optimized frequency response that approximates the ideal response of a fractional order differentiator. Next, DCT-III and DCT-IV are utilized to determine the filter coefficients of FIR filter that compute the Fractional derivative of a given signal. To improve the frequency response of the proposed FIR-FOD, the filter coefficients are further modified using windows. Several design examples are presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. The simulation results have also been compared with the existing FIR-FOD design methods such as DFT interpolation, radial basis function (RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods. The result reveals that the proposed FIR-FOD design technique using DCT-III and DCT-IV outperforms DFT interpolation, RBF interpolation, DCT-II interpolation and DST interpolation methods in terms of magnitude error.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts: I. Wind Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary electron beams are unstable in the solar wind and they generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency or its harmonic. Radio observations of the waves in the range 4-256 kHz, observed in 1994-2010 with the WAVES experiment onboard the WIND spacecraft, are statistically analyzed. A subset of 36 events with Langmuir waves and type III bursts occurring at the same time was selected. After removal of the background, the remaining power spectral density is modeled by the Pearson system of probability distributions (types I, IV and VI. The Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT predicts log-normal distribution for the power spectrum density of the Langmuir waves. Our results indicate that SGT possibly requires further verification.

  20. Recent Advances on p-Type III-Nitride Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrui Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available p-Type doping represents a key step towards III-nitride (InN, GaN, AlN optoelectronic devices. In the past, tremendous efforts have been devoted to obtaining high quality p-type III-nitrides, and extraordinary progress has been made in both materials and device aspects. In this article, we intend to discuss a small portion of these processes, focusing on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown p-type InN and AlN—two bottleneck material systems that limit the development of III-nitride near-infrared and deep ultraviolet (UV optoelectronic devices. We will show that by using MBE-grown nanowire structures, the long-lasting p-type doping challenges of InN and AlN can be largely addressed. New aspects of MBE growth of III-nitride nanostructures are also discussed.

  1. Fate of circulating amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen in conscious pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Risteli, J

    1993-01-01

    The amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP, M(r) 42,000) is a promising marker for the formation of type III collagen of granulation tissue in experimental and clinical studies. The disposal kinetics of circulating PIIINP is, however, almost unknown. In conscious pigs with a th......The amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP, M(r) 42,000) is a promising marker for the formation of type III collagen of granulation tissue in experimental and clinical studies. The disposal kinetics of circulating PIIINP is, however, almost unknown. In conscious pigs...... of the plasma disappearance curve originated from the formation and disappearance of a high and a low molecular weight (MW) fraction as part of the degradation of PIIINP. The high MW fraction (approximately M(r) 90,000) was similar to a previously described, but not further characterized, PIIINP immunoreactive...

  2. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. ... it is interesting to study mechanisms that underlie interactions involving biocontrol bacteria, type-III ... depending on the response speed and magnitude in contrast.

  3. Stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers

  4. Critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Llamoza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, FACYT, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela); Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela)], E-mail: llamoza@ula.ve; Cosenza, M.G. [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela); Ponce, G.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras (Honduras); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Pedagogica Nacional Francisco Morazan, Tegucigalpa (Honduras)

    2008-04-15

    The critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent near the transition to robust chaos via type-III intermittency is determined for a family of one-dimensional singular maps. Critical boundaries separating the region of robust chaos from the region where stable fixed points exist are calculated on the parameter space of the system. A critical exponent {beta} expressing the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated along the critical curve corresponding to the type-III intermittent transition to chaos. It is found that {beta} varies on the interval 0 {<=} {beta} < 1/2 as a function of the order of the singularity of the map. This contrasts with earlier predictions for the scaling behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency. The variation of the critical exponent {beta} implies a continuous change in the nature of the transition to chaos via type-III intermittency, from a second-order, continuous transition to a first-order, discontinuous transition.

  5. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara; Thomas, Ludivine; Marondedze, Claudius; Sgro, Germá n G; Garofalo, Cecilia G; Ficarra, Florencia A; Gehring, Christoph A; Ottado, Jorgelina; Gottig, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system

  6. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...... in the mitochondrion rather than the peroxisome and implicate loss of OPA3A rather than gain of OPA3B in disease etiology....

  8. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  9. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  10. Regulation of type III iodothyronine deiodinase expression in human cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Monique H. A.; Kuiper, George G. J. M.; Versteeg, Rogier; Visser, Theo J.

    2006-01-01

    Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) and type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) catalyze the activation of the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3; type III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inactivation of T4 and T3. D3 is highly expressed in brain, placenta, pregnant uterus, and fetal

  11. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  12. Type III Interferon-Mediated Signaling Is Critical for Controlling Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Virus Infection In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douam, Florian; Soto Albrecht, Yentli E; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Sadimin, Evita; Davidson, Christian; Kotenko, Sergei V; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-08-15

    role of type III interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling, a host immune defense mechanism, in controlling YFV-17D infection and attenuation in different mouse models. We uncovered a critical role of type III IFN-mediated signaling in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and preventing viral brain invasion. Type III IFN also played a major role in regulating the induction of a potent but balanced immune response that prevented viral evasion of the host immune system. An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating YFV-17D attenuation will provide insights into the key virus-host interactions that regulate host immune responses and infection outcomes as well as open novel avenues for the development of innovative vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2017 Douam et al.

  13. Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of the WAVEWATCH III Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng-Chun Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters in numerical wave models need to be calibrated be fore a model can be applied to a specific region. In this study, we selected the 8 most important parameters from the source term of the WAVEWATCH III model and subjected them to sensitivity analysis to evaluate the sensitivity of the WAVEWATCH III model to the selected parameters to determine how many of these parameters should be considered for further discussion, and to justify the significance priority of each parameter. After ranking each parameter by sensitivity and assessing their cumulative impact, we adopted the ARS method to search for the optimal values of those parameters to which the WAVEWATCH III model is most sensitive by comparing modeling results with ob served data at two data buoys off the coast of north eastern Taiwan; the goal being to find optimal parameter values for improved modeling of wave development. The procedure adopting optimal parameters in wave simulations did improve the accuracy of the WAVEWATCH III model in comparison to default runs based on field observations at two buoys.

  14. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems can provide redundancy to counteract viral escape from type I systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas, Sukrit; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Jackson, Simon A; Aroca-Crevillén, Alejandra; Hansen, Loren L; Fineran, Peter C; Fire, Andrew Z; Sánchez-Amat, Antonio

    2017-08-17

    CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense utilizes information stored as spacers in CRISPR arrays to defend against genetic invaders. We define the mode of target interference and role in antiviral defense for two CRISPR-Cas systems in Marinomonas mediterranea . One system (type I-F) targets DNA. A second system (type III-B) is broadly capable of acquiring spacers in either orientation from RNA and DNA, and exhibits transcription-dependent DNA interference. Examining resistance to phages isolated from Mediterranean seagrass meadows, we found that the type III-B machinery co-opts type I-F CRISPR-RNAs. Sequencing and infectivity assessments of related bacterial and phage strains suggests an 'arms race' in which phage escape from the type I-F system can be overcome through use of type I-F spacers by a horizontally-acquired type III-B system. We propose that the phage-host arms race can drive selection for horizontal uptake and maintenance of promiscuous type III interference modules that supplement existing host type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

  15. Exercise intolerance in Glycogen Storage Disease Type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Pradel, Agnès; Husu, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can...

  16. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-11

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vessel geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  17. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul

    2006-06-21

    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations.

  18. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  19. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen......, type VI, was found in the endomysium and the network forming collagen, type IV, was found in the basement membrane. This is the first report of type V collagen in cod muscle and of types II, IV and VI in the muscle of a teleost....

  20. Observation of Current Structures at Type-III ELM Onset on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Naulin, Volker; Xu, G.

    structure. To verify the current characteristic of this structure, a mono-polar current filaments model was involved, which can reproduce same pattern commendably. Thus, current transport may dominant in transitional stage and plays an important role in the nonlinear development phase of ELM exhaustive......In far scrape-o layer (SOL), alternating negative and positive burst structures in ion saturation current were detected at the onset of each type-III edge localized mode (ELM) on EAST. Different from the fast streaming phenomenon reported previously, one subsequent positive burst structure appears...... every time in the early phase of ELM. It seems like a quick transitional stage between edge localized mode (MHD) phase and transport phase during the ELM. A pronounced sinusoidal pattern has been observed on the radial magnetic induction signal by Langmuir - magnetic probe, corresponding with almost...

  1. Fine structure near the starting frequency of solar type III radio bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, A.O.; Zlobec, P.; Jaeggi, M.

    1982-06-01

    We have systematically analyzed the period in time and frequency adjacent to the beginning of type III bursts digitally recorded at Bleien during the second half of 1980. A surprisingly high percentage (10%, possibly more than 20%) of the type III bursts show fine structure in the form of narrow-banded spikes of 0.05 s and less duration, which form clusters of relatively large bandwidth. These spikes are not totally polarized (contrary to claims in the literature) and they are uniformly distributed over the disk. Individual spikes often show highly variable polarization, which may even change sense. The average degree of polarization of the clouds has a wider distribution than that of the associated type III bursts, but generally the same sign. Spikes are considerably different from type I bursts.

  2. Types I and III procollagen extension peptides in serum respond to fracture in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Jensen, L T; Andersen, G R

    1992-01-01

    Markers of types I and III collagen turnover were measured in serial blood samples in 16 patients with a Colles' fracture. The collagen markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP......). Significant increases were found of PIIINP within 1 week and of PICP within 2 weeks. This sequential appearance of PIIINP and PICP was found to be in agreement with the appearance of types III and I collagen during early fracture healing as demonstrated in previous animal experimental studies. PICP had...... levelled off after 9 months, whereas PIIINP remained elevated. Osteocalcin, a serum marker of osteoblast activity, increased within 1 week and levelled off after 9 months. Correlations between the change in osteocalcin and those in PICP and PIIINP, respectively, were weak. These new biochemical markers may...

  3. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  4. NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome predict type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sulistiowati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS have a greater risk for acquiring type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM. The MetS criteria usually used are those of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (NCEP and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III and of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. This study aimed to evaluate the modified NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria as predictor of type 2 DM among subjects with MetS.   Methods A cohort study was conducted among 4240 subjects with MetS. MetS was determined according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria. The study followed up 3324 non-diabetic subjects of the cohort study of non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors (NCD study during a 2-year period. Type 2 DM was determined from the diagnosis by health personnel or from fasting blood glucose of ≥126 mg/dL or blood glucose of ≥200 mg/dL, 2 hours after 75g glucose loading.   Results The MetS prevalence based on modified NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria in non-DM subjects was 17.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The risk for DM in subjects with MetS using modified NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria was 4.7 (CI 95%: 3.4-6.5 and 4.1 (CI 95%: 3.0-5.7, respectively.   Conclusions Both MetS criteria can be used as predictors of the occurrence of DM type 2, but the modified NCEP-ATP III is more properly applied than the IDF criteria in subjects with MetS. Screening programs and routine monitoring of MetS components are required for early detection of type 2 DM.

  5. Increased Levels of Type I and III Collagen and Hyaluronan in Scleroderma Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Heickendorff, Lene; L, Risteli

    1997-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and hyaluronan (HA) were measured in plasma and suction blister fluid from 13 systemic sclerosis patients and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and skin biopsies were...

  6. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f p to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f p and 2 f p radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f p than 2 f p emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f p radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f p radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  7. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, R T; White, S M; Ray, P S; Kaiser, M L

    2015-01-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena. (paper)

  8. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  9. A novel nano-structured porous polycaprolactone scaffold improves hyaline cartilage repair in a rabbit model compared to a collagen type I/III scaffold: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hansen, Ole Møller; Kristiansen, Asger Albæk; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Nielsen, Agnete Desirée; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Bünger, Cody Erik; Lind, Martin

    2012-06-01

    To develop a nano-structured porous polycaprolactone (NSP-PCL) scaffold and compare the articular cartilage repair potential with that of a commercially available collagen type I/III (Chondro-Gide) scaffold. By combining rapid prototyping and thermally induced phase separation, the NSP-PCL scaffold was produced for matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation. Lyophilizing a water-dioxane-PCL solution created micro and nano-pores. In vitro: The scaffolds were seeded with rabbit chondrocytes and cultured in hypoxia for 6 days. qRT-PCR was performed using primers for sox9, aggrecan, collagen type 1 and 2. In vivo: 15 New Zealand White Rabbits received bilateral osteochondral defects in the femoral intercondylar grooves. Autologous chondrocytes were harvested 4 weeks prior to surgery. There were 3 treatment groups: (1) NSP-PCL scaffold without cells. (2) The Chondro-Gide scaffold with autologous chondrocytes and (3) NSP-PCL scaffold with autologous chondrocytes. Observation period was 13 weeks. Histological evaluation was made using the O'Driscoll score. In vitro: The expressions of sox9 and aggrecan were higher in the NSP-PCL scaffold, while expression of collagen 1 was lower compared to the Chondro-Gide scaffold. In vivo: Both NSP-PCL scaffolds with and without cells scored significantly higher than the Chondro-Gide scaffold when looking at the structural integrity and the surface regularity of the repair tissue. No differences were found between the NSP-PCL scaffold with and without cells. The NSP-PCL scaffold demonstrated higher in vitro expression of chondrogenic markers and had higher in vivo histological scores compared to the Chondro-Gide scaffold. The improved chondrocytic differentiation can potentially produce more hyaline cartilage during clinical cartilage repair. It appears to be a suitable cell-free implant for hyaline cartilage repair and could provide a less costly and more effective treatment option than the Chondro-Gide scaffold with cells.

  10. Removal of boron(III) by N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives with higher adsorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Toshio; Mihara, Nobutake; Yamada, Kouji; Nambu, Nobuyoshi; Itoh, Osamu; Doi, Takao; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    To obtain adsorbents for boron(III) derived from a natural polymer, two forms (powder and fiber) of N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were newly synthesized. After the graft polymerization of two forms of cellulose with vinyl monomer having epoxy groups, the N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were obtained by the reaction of the grafted cellulose with N-methylglucamine. The adsorption capacities of the cellulose derivatives for boron(III) were the same levels as that of a commercially available N-methylglucamine-type polystyrene resin. However, the cellulose derivatives adsorbed boron(III) more quickly than the polystyrene resin. The adsorption and desorption of boron(III) with a column method using the cellulose fiber were achieved at a higher flow rate than that using the polystyrene resin. In addition, the boron(III), adsorbed on the cellulose fiber column, was quantitatively recovered with dilute hydrochloric acid in 20- and 200-fold increased concentrations. Consequently, it was found that the cellulose derivatives were superior to the polystyrene resin as adsorbents for boron(III) for treatment of a large quantity of wastewater

  11. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfenden, C.; Wittkowski, A.; Hare, Dougal

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ...

  12. Model or metaphor. More comments on the BEIR III report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Data have been obtained for Hiroshima and Nagasaki from which were prepared the estimates of somatic risk coefficients for ionizing radiation presented in the BEIR III Report. Several Poisson regression models of these data by both Bayesian and Sampling Theory methods. The results of the evaluations disclose some interesting idiosyncracies in the statistical methods by which the BEIR III estimates and inferences were obtained. The paper presents these results in the format of a textual criticism of the foundations of the received estimates of risk that are presented in the Somatic Effects Sections of the BEIR III Report. Whatever the resolution of the current difficulties with the validity of the T65 estimates of dose, the utility of any estimates of risk coefficients depends upon the suitability of the statistical methods by which any estimates of dose are mapped into estimates of risk. The statistical methods of the BEIR III Report seem idiosyncratic. Use of standard methods discloses that its rival models (LQ-L, L-L AND Q-L) may be more effective as metaphors of expression than as models of radiation response

  13. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yetışır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirizzi syndrome (MS is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann’s pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests.

  15. Heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered

  16. Bartter syndrome type III and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract: an antenatal presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westland, Rik; Hack, Wilfried W; van der Horst, Henricus J R; Uittenbogaard, Lukas B; van Hagen, Johanna M; van der Valk, Paul; Kamsteeg, Erik J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; van Wijk, Joanna A E

    2012-12-01

    Bartter syndrome encompasses a variety of inheritable renal tubular transport disorders characterized by hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome Type III is caused by genetic alterations in the chloride channel kidney B (CLCNKB) gene and often presents in the first 2 years of life, known as classic Bartter syndrome. However, in rare cases Bartter syndrome Type III has an antenatal presentation with polyhydramnios, premature delivery and severe dehydration in the first weeks of life. Associations between congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and Bartter syndrome are extremely rare. This case report presents a girl with Bartter syndrome Type III due to a homozygous CLCNKB mutation and bilateral congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In addition, we describe the antenatal presentation as well as its perinatal management.

  17. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipul Kumar; Saiki, Uma Kaimal; Sarm, Dipti; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Choudhury, Sarojini Dutta; Saharia, Dhiren; Saikia, Mihir

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) comprise a wide clinical spectrum of autoimmune disorders. APS is divided into Type I, Type II, Type I and Type IV depending upon the pattern of disease combination. Ghronic diarrhoea is one of the many manifestations of APS and many aetiological factors have been suggested for it. Apart from the established aetiological factors, intestinal lymphangiectasia may be responsible for chronic diarrhea in some cases.Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported in Type I APS. We report a case of Type III APS with hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidism who had chronic diarrhea of long duration and was finally diagnosed to have intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  18. Collagen Type III Degradation Is Associated with Deterioration of Kidney Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Hansen, Tine Wilum; Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen

    Background In diabetes one of the main features of the progression to diabetic kidney disease is a pathological deposition of extracellular matrix components triggering renal fibrosis. The main structural component of the fibrotic core is collagen. One of the most prominent collagens is collagen...... type III (COL III), which is excessively synthesized and incorporated into the fibrotic extracellular matrix. Multiple studies in both humans and mice have suggested that MMP-9 activity is increased in diabetic kidney disease. We investigated whether a neo-epitope fragment of COL III generated by MMP-9...... (C3M) was associated with deterioration of kidney function in a well-characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms of coronary artery disease. Methods The cohort included 200 participants, followed for 6.1 years. We measured C3M levels in serum (S-C3M) and urine...

  19. Conservative Management of Type III Dens in Dente Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, dilated composite odontoma, or deep foramen caecum, is a developmental malformation that usually affects maxillary incisor teeth, particularly lateral incisors. It may occur in teeth anywhere within the jaws, other locations are comparatively rare. It can occur within both the crown and the root, although crown invaginations are more common. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is very helpful in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. In this case we demonstrate the use of CBCT in the evaluation and endodontic management of a Type III dens in dente (Oehler′s Type III.

  20. Serum aminoterminal type III procollagen peptide reflects repair after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Toft, P

    1990-01-01

    similar to changes observed during wound healing in humans. PIIINP is cleaved off procollagen type III during the biosynthesis of type III collagen, which characterizes the early stages of repair and inflammation. Our findings suggest that serum PIIINP reflects the repair processes and scar formation...... following acute myocardial infarction. The serum PIIINP alterations in acute myocardial infarction differ essentially from the changes in myocardial enzymes reflecting myocardial injury. Serum PIIINP may therefore provide new and clinically relevant information on the healing of myocardial infarction....

  1. Quantitative comparisons of type III radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Evans, L. G.; Lin, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    We compare the flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type III radio emission generated by these particles at 1 AU. We find that there are two regimes in the generation of type III radiation: one where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and the second regime, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is proportional to the approximately 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism.

  2. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  3. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  4. Neuronal migration disorders in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric-Sekhar, Gordana; Kapur, Raj P; Glass, Ian A; Murray, Mitzi L; Parnell, Shawn E; Hevner, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) is a rare microlissencephaly syndrome, with at least two distinct phenotypic and genetic types. MOPD type II is caused by pericentrin mutations, while types I and III appear to represent a distinct entity (MOPD I/III) with variably penetrant phenotypes and unknown genetic basis. The neuropathology of MOPD I/III is little understood, especially in comparison to other forms of lissencephaly. Here, we report postmortem brain findings in an 11-month-old female infant with MOPD I/III. The cerebral cortex was diffusely pachygyric, with a right parietal porencephalic lesion. Histologically, the cortex was abnormally thick and disorganized. Distinct malformations were observed in different cerebral lobes, as characterized using layer-specific neuronal markers. Frontal cortex was severely disorganized and coated with extensive leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia. Temporal cortex had a relatively normal 6-layered pattern, despite cortical thickening. Occipital cortex was variably affected. The corpus callosum was extremely hypoplastic. Brainstem and cerebellar malformations were also present, as well as old necrotic foci. Findings in this case suggest that the cortical malformation in MOPD I/III is distinct from other forms of pachygyria-lissencephaly.

  5. Hepatitis E virus persists in the presence of a type III interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Li, Xinlei; Ambardekar, Charuta; Hu, Zhimin; Lhomme, Sébastien; Feng, Zongdi

    2017-05-01

    The RIG-I-like RNA helicase (RLR)-mediated interferon (IFN) response plays a pivotal role in the hepatic antiviral immunity. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) counter this response by encoding a viral protease that cleaves the mitochondria antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), a common signaling adaptor for RLRs. However, a third hepatotropic RNA virus, the hepatitis E virus (HEV), does not appear to encode a functional protease yet persists in infected cells. We investigated HEV-induced IFN responses in human hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. HEV infection resulted in persistent virus replication despite poor spread. This was companied by a type III IFN response that upregulated multiple IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but type I IFNs were barely detected. Blocking type III IFN production or signaling resulted in reduced ISG expression and enhanced HEV replication. Unlike HAV and HCV, HEV did not cleave MAVS; MAVS protein size, mitochondrial localization, and function remained unaltered in HEV-replicating cells. Depletion of MAVS or MDA5, and to a less extent RIG-I, also diminished IFN production and increased HEV replication. Furthermore, persistent activation of the JAK/STAT signaling rendered infected cells refractory to exogenous IFN treatment, and depletion of MAVS or the receptor for type III IFNs restored the IFN responsiveness. Collectively, these results indicate that unlike other hepatotropic RNA viruses, HEV does not target MAVS and its persistence is associated with continuous production of type III IFNs.

  6. [Diagnostic values of type III Procollagen N-terminal peptide and combination assay of type III procollagen N-terminal peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, S; Harada, A; Futatsuki, K

    1984-07-01

    It is known that interstitial collagens are initially synthesized as precursors (procollagen), which possess extra peptide segments at both ends of the molecules. The authors attempted to detect the aminoterminal peptide of type III procollagen (type III-N-peptide) and also to measure the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) together in sera of patients with gastric cancer. The results showed that: (1) mean serum levels and positive ratios of the type III-N-peptide increased as the clinical stage of the patients with gastric cancer advanced; (2) serum levels of the type III-N-peptide were not correlated either with those of CEA or CA 19-9; (3) positive ratios of type III-N-peptide, CEA and CA 19-9 were 51.7%, 44.8% and 48.3%, respectively: (4) positive ratio in combination of the type III-N-peptide with CEA was 69.3% and that in combination of the type III-N-peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 was 72.4%. These results suggest that type III-N-peptide is available for diagnosis of gastric cancer and, that the combination assay of type III-N-peptide with CEA and CA 19-9 is more effective than a single assay for diagnosis.

  7. Selective expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 by mouse type III taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yusuke; Eguchi, Kohgaku; Yoshii, Kiyonori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 2.4 ± 1.4 cells per taste bud (mean ± SD, n = 14). After Ca 2+ imaging, we supravitally labeled type II cells (phospholipase C β2 [PLCβ2]-immunoreactive cells) with Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent dye and investigated the positional relationship between ACh-responding cells and LY-labeled cells. After fixation, the TBCs were immunohistostained to investigate the positional relationships between immunohistochemically classified cells and LY-labeled cells. The overlay of the two positional relationships obtained by superimposing the LY-labeled cells showed that all of the ACh-responding cells were type III cells (synaptosomal-associated protein 25 [SNAP-25]-immunoreactive cells). The ACh responses required no added Ca 2+ in the bathing solution. The addition of 1 μM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, decreased the magnitude of the ACh response, whereas that of 1 μM U73343, a negative control, had no effect. These results suggest that type III cells respond to ACh and release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of the Ca 2+ response and the role of M3 in type III cells.

  8. Compounds of type Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Ossup(V)O/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiber, U; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-07-01

    The black perovskites of type Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Ossup(V)O/sub 6/ crystallize cubic (Bsup(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu, Y) and rhombohedral (Bsup(III) = La) respectively; the cell volumina decrease linearily with (rsub(B)sup(III))/sup 3/. Intensity calculations on powder data for Ba/sub 2/YOsO/sub 6/ (space group Fm3m-Osub(h)/sup 5/) and Ba/sub 2/LaOsO/sub 6/ (space group R-3m-Dsub(3d)/sup 5/) gave the intensity related R'values of 4.6% and 5.0% respectively. The results of the vibrational spectroscopic investigations are reported in common with the bond orders, M-O distances and mean amplitudes and compared with the corresponding values of the series Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Irsup(V)O/sub 6/ and Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Rusup(V)O/sub 6/.

  9. Bianchi VI0 and III models: self-similar approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinchon, Jose Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We study several cosmological models with Bianchi VI 0 and III symmetries under the self-similar approach. We find new solutions for the 'classical' perfect fluid model as well as for the vacuum model although they are really restrictive for the equation of state. We also study a perfect fluid model with time-varying constants, G and Λ. As in other studied models we find that the behaviour of G and Λ are related. If G behaves as a growing time function then Λ is a positive decreasing time function but if G is decreasing then Λ 0 is negative. We end by studying a massive cosmic string model, putting special emphasis in calculating the numerical values of the equations of state. We show that there is no SS solution for a string model with time-varying constants.

  10. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed; Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer; Azab, Ahmed; Rahman, Ashraf Abdel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm 2 was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  12. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  13. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24 ...

  14. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation of interplanetary type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Alves, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A new generation mechanism of interplanetary type III radio bursts at the fundamental electron plasma frequency is discussed. It is shown that the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability, driven by two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, can account for the experimental observations. In particular, the major difficulties encountered by the previously considered electromagnetic decay instability are removed. 19 references

  15. Intramedullary rodding in type III osteogenesis imperfecta. Effects on neuromotor development in 10 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Helders, P. J.; Keessen, W.; Pruijs, H. E.; Gooskens, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    We studied retrospectively gross motor development and the impact of intramedullary rodding in 10 children with type III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). There was a pronounced delay in motor development and the order in achieving gross motor milestones differed from the normal developmental sequence.

  16. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of Phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HP2000

    R. solanacearum finds its way into the plant through wounds in the roots and .... 10% (c) Acidic residues should be absent within the first twelve amino acids. .... PilA has been used to study the genetic diversity in soil bacterium ..... the GALA type III effector family contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum adaptation on different.

  17. Radiative type-III ELMy H-mode in all-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Neu, R.; Eich, T.; Fischer, R.; Herrmann, A.; Potzel, S.; van Rooij, G. J.; Zielinski, J. J.; ASDEX Upgrade team,

    2012-01-01

    The type-III ELMy H-mode might be the solution for an integrated ITER operation scenario fulfilling the fusion power amplification factor (output fusion power to input heating power) of Q = 10 with simultaneous acceptable steady-state and transient power loads to the plasma-facing components. This

  18. Critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Cosenza, M.G.; Ponce, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent near the transition to robust chaos via type-III intermittency is determined for a family of one-dimensional singular maps. Critical boundaries separating the region of robust chaos from the region where stable fixed points exist are calculated on the parameter space of the system. A critical exponent β expressing the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated along the critical curve corresponding to the type-III intermittent transition to chaos. It is found that β varies on the interval 0 ≤ β < 1/2 as a function of the order of the singularity of the map. This contrasts with earlier predictions for the scaling behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency. The variation of the critical exponent β implies a continuous change in the nature of the transition to chaos via type-III intermittency, from a second-order, continuous transition to a first-order, discontinuous transition

  19. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15

  20. IpaD is localized at the tip of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Botteaux, Anne; Parsot, Claude; Sansonetti, Philippe; Boekema, Egbert J.; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2007-01-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems are used by numerous Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to inject virulence proteins into animal and plant host cells. The core of the T3S apparatus, known as the needle complex, is composed of a basal body transversing both bacterial membranes and a needle protruding

  1. Assessing the ability of Salmonella enterica to translocate Type III effectors into plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica, a human enteric pathogen, has the ability to multiply and survive endophytically in plants, and mutations in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) or its effectors (T3Es) may contribute to this colonization. Two reporter plasmids for T3E translocation into plant ce...

  2. Bartter syndrome Type III and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract: an antenatal presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Hack, W.W.; van der Horst, H.J.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; van Hagen, J.M.; van der Valk, P.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; van Wijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Bartter syndrome encompasses a variety of inheritable renal tubular transport disorders characterized by hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome Type III is caused by genetic alterations in the chloride channel kidney B (CLCNKB) gene and often presents in the first 2

  3. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.

  4. Biofilms and type III secretion are not mutually exclusive in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H; Bond, N J; Skindersoe, M E

    2009-01-01

    in exponential phase than to those in stationary phase. In the current study, we investigated how these conditions influence the production of virulence factors using a transcriptomic approach. Our results show that biofilms express the type III secretion system, whereas planktonic cells do not...

  5. Hierarchical protein export mechanism of the bacterial flagellar type III protein export apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2018-06-01

    The bacterial flagellum is supramolecular motility machinery consisting of the basal body, the hook and the filament. Flagellar proteins are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane via a type III protein export apparatus, diffuse down the central channel of the growing structure and assemble at the distal end. Flagellar assembly begins with the basal body, followed by the hook and finally the filament. The completion of hook assembly is the most important morphological checkpoint of the sequential flagellar assembly process. When the hook reaches its mature length of about 55 nm in Salmonella enterica, the type III protein export apparatus switches export specificity from proteins required for the structure and assembly of the hook to those responsible for filament assembly, thereby terminating hook assembly and initiating filament assembly. Three flagellar proteins, namely FliK, FlhB and FlhA, are responsible for this substrate specificity switching. Upon completion of the switching event, interactions among FlhA, the cytoplasmic ATPase complex and flagellar type III export chaperones establish the assembly order of the filament at the hook tip. Here, we describe our current understanding of a hierarchical protein export mechanism used in flagellar type III protein export.

  6. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  7. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Collagen Type III Metabolism Evaluation in Patients with Malignant Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Mazurek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation affects the metabolism of key proteins of extracellular matrix including type III collagen, an important component of human skin. The aim of the work is an analysis of the impact of radical and palliative radiotherapy on collagen type III synthesis in patients with head and neck cancer. The test group consisted of 56 males with histopathologically confirmed head and neck cancer, for whom radiotherapy was applied as a form of radical or palliative treatment. The level of procollagen III aminoterminal propeptide (PIIINP, which is a marker of collagen type III synthesis, was determined in blood serum before radiotherapy, immediately following radiotherapy, and 3 months after it was finished. As a result of radical radiotherapy a statistically significant decrease of PIIINP levels in serum (p<0.0001 was observed, both immediately after the radiotherapy and 3 months after the end of the treatment. Also the palliative radiotherapy caused a significant decrease of PIIINP right after the treatment (p=0.0052, as well as during the examination performed 3 months later (p=0.0004. The achieved results suggest that PIIINP can be used as a marker helpful in assessing radiation damage to connective tissue.

  9. Expression of adenylyl cyclase types III and VI in human hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, M; Arturi, F; Presta, I; Bruno, R; Scarpelli, D; Calvagno, M G; Cristofaro, C; Bulotta, S; Giannasio, P; Sacco, R; Filetti, S; Russo, D

    2003-05-30

    Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules are characterized by the presence of spontaneous somatic mutations responsible for constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway. However, alterations affecting other elements of the cAMP signaling system may counteract the effects of the mutations. In this study, the expression of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) types III and VI was investigated by Western blot in 18 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules; in 12 samples, we also assessed the presence of TSH receptor (TSHR) or gsp mutations and levels of AC VI and III mRNA. We found that the expression of nodular AC VI (but not AC III) was significantly lower (85.1% of normal, P=0.014) than the expression of both adenylyl cycles types of perinodular tissue from the same patients. Slightly, but not significant differences were detected in nodules with or without mutations and AC protein levels generally showed correlation with the levels of the transcripts detected by RT-PCR. In addition, AC III and AC VI expression levels within a given nodule were characterized by a significant positive correlation. These findings indicate that a diminished expression of AC type VI may be part of the mechanisms occurring in the hyperfunctioning nodules, independently of the presence of TSHR or gsp mutations, which influence the resulting phenotype.

  10. Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P.; Tree, Jai J.; Shaw, Darren J.; Wolfson, Eliza B. K.; Beatson, Scott A.; Roe, Andrew J.; Allison, Lesley J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins. PMID:22615557

  11. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Daniel Ming Ming; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Khan, Asif M; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Samad, Hanif M; Soh, Wei Wei; Tong, Minyan; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2010-10-15

    Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a platform for inclusion of

  12. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Minyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%. Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors

  13. Controllable synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Monomer-Dimer Cocrystallized MnIII Salen-type composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yongmei; Li, Weili; Qiao, Yongfeng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Baoling

    2018-04-01

    By the reaction of manganese-Schiff-base complexes with penta-anionic Anderson heteropolyanion, a new supramolecular architecture [Mn2(Salen)2(H2O)2][Mn(Salen)(H2O)2]2Na[IMo6O24]·8H2O (1) (salen = N,N‧-ethylene-bis (salicylideneiminate) has been isolated. Compound 1 was characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental, IR and thermal gravimetric analyses. Structural analysis reveals that the unit cell simultaneously contains MnIII-Salen dimer and monomer cation fragments, for which the Anderson-type polyanions serve as counter anions. In the packing arrangement, all the MnIII dimers are well separated by polyoxometalate units and form tertiary structure together with MnIII monomers. Interestingly, different from the previous work, in the exact same reaction conditions, we are able to template MnIII-Salen complexes into different configurations by varying the charge state of polyanions. Besides, the magnetic properties of 1 were also examined by using both dc and ac magnetic field of the superconducting quantum interference devices. Most importantly, our fitting of the experimental data to a Heisenberg-type spin model shows that there exists a ferromagnetic exchange interaction ∼5 K between the spins (S = 2) on MnIII in the dimer, while antiferromagnetic ones exist among monomers and dimer (∼2 K). This meta-magnetic state could induce a slight spin frustration at low temperature, which would in turn affect the magnetic behavior. In addition, our ac field measurement of the susceptibilities suggests a typical signature for a single-molecule magnet.

  14. [Efficacy and safety of Longjintonglin Capsule for the treatment of type III prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Geng, Qiang; Duan, Jian-Min; Zheng, De-Quan; Xie, Lei; Guo, Jun

    2014-12-01

    To study the therapeutic effect and safety of Longjintonglin Capsule in the treatment of type III prostatitis (chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). We selected 240 patients with type III prostatitis according to the diagnostic standards of the American National Institute of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsule orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. Based on the NIH chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome score, and leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), we evaluated the results of treatment. Totally 238 patients completed the treatment, including 108 IIIA and 120 III B prostatitis cases. Before and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 23.12 ± 6.99, 18.22 ± 6.39, 14.12 ± 5.88, and 12.36 ± 6.04 (P prostatitis patients and 22.01 ± 6.28, 17.56 ± 5.89, 13.67 ± 5.18, and 11.45 ± 5.22 in the III prostatitis patients (P prostatitis, deserves to be recommended for clinical application.

  15. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in proton-proton collisions in the context of the type III seesaw mechanism

    CERN Document Server

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Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-12-05

    A search is presented in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV for fermionic triplet states expected in type III seesaw models. The search is performed using final states with three isolated charged leptons and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 inverse femtobarns. No excess of events is observed above the background predicted by the standard model, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on production cross sections and masses of the heavy partners of the neutrinos in type III seesaw models. Depending on the considered scenarios, lower limits are obtained on the mass of the heavy partner of the neutrino that range from 180 to 210 GeV. These are the first limits on the production of type III seesaw fermionic triplet states reported by an experiment at the LHC.

  16. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in proton–proton collisions in the context of the type III seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. 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V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; OʼBrien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny Iii, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-12-01

    A search is presented in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV for fermionic triplet states expected in type III seesaw models. The search is performed using final states with three isolated charged leptons and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 inverse femtobarns. No excess of events is observed above the background predicted by the standard model, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on production cross sections and masses of the heavy partners of the neutrinos in type III seesaw models. Depending on the considered scenarios, lower limits are obtained on the mass of the heavy partner of the neutrino that range from 180 to 210 GeV. These are the first limits on the production of type III seesaw fermionic triplet states reported by an experiment at the LHC.

  17. Surgical versus conservative management of Type III acromioclavicular dislocation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Rizzello, Giacomo; Mannering, Nicholas; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    The management of Type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations is still controversial. We wished to compare the rate of recurrence and outcome scores of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with Type III AC dislocations. A systematic review of the literature was performed by applying the PRISMA guidelines according to the PRISMA checklist and algorithm. A search in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL was performed using combinations of the following keywords: 'dislocation', 'Rockwood', 'type three', 'treatment', 'acromioclavicular' and 'joint'. Fourteen studies were included, evaluating 646 shoulders. The rate of recurrence in the surgical group was 14%. No statistical significant differences were found between conservative and surgical approaches in terms of postoperative osteoarthritis and persistence of pain, although persistence of pain seemed to occur less frequently in patients undergoing a surgical treatment. Persistence of pain seemed to occur less frequently in patients undergoing surgery. Persistence of pain seems to occur less frequently in patients treated surgically for a Type III AC dislocation. There is insufficient evidence to establish the effects of surgical versus conservative treatment on functional outcome of patients with AC dislocation. High-quality randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to establish whether there is a difference in functional outcome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 Type III secretion effector polymutants reveal an interplay between hopAD1 and AvrPtoB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of plants by injecting a complex repertoire of effector proteins into host cells via the type III secretion system. The model effector AvrPtoB has multiple domains and plant protein interactors i...

  19. Type III odontoid fractures: A subgroup analysis of complex, high-energy fractures treated with external immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Niemeier

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Complex Type III odontoid fractures are distinctly different from low-energy injuries. In the current study, 21% of patients were unsuccessfully treated nonoperatively with external immobilization and required surgery. For complex Type III fractures, we recommend initial conservative treatment, while maintaining close monitoring throughout patient recovery and fracture union.

  20. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric, Mansoura (Egypt); Azab, Ahmed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mansoura (Egypt); Rahman, Ashraf Abdel [Radiology Unit of Pediatric Hospital, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  1. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T

    1997-01-01

    receiving growth hormone therapy. We conclude: 1) That, for our purpose, the best method of determining PIIINP is the PIIINP RIA, owing to the profile of the substances determined. It was possible to improve the quality of the tracer and to increase sensitivity by changing the assay procedure. 2...... of peaks B and C (intact PIIINP) may, owing to the disposal rate, reflect changes in type III collagen turnover over one day (6 half-lives). The liver and kidneys actively take part in the degradation of circulating PIIINP. Serum concentrations of PIIINP in the presence of changing body composition (weight...... disappears when the body is in a catabolic state. Anabolic states give rise to increased serum concentrations of PIIINP as compared with normals states. The general conclusion is that serum PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen turnover under well-defined conditions. Serum PIIINP, mainly consisting...

  2. Efficient n-type doping of zinc-blende III-V semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besteiro, Lucas V.; Tortajada, Luis; Souto, J.; Gallego, L. J.; Chelikowsky, James R.; Alemany, M. M. G.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that it is preferable to dope III-V semiconductor nanowires by n-type anion substitution as opposed to cation substitution. Specifically, we show the dopability of zinc-blende nanowires is more efficient when the dopants are placed at the anion site as quantified by formation energies and the stabilization of DX-like defect centers. The comparison with previous work on n - type III-V semiconductor nanocrystals also allows to determine the role of dimensionality and quantum confinement on doping characteristics of materials. Our results are based on first-principles calculations of InP nanowires by using the PARSEC code. Work supported by the Spanish MICINN (FIS2012-33126) and Xunta de Galicia (GPC2013-043) in conjunction with FEDER. JRC acknowledges support from DoE (DE-FG02-06ER46286 and DESC0008877). Computational support was provided in part by CESGA.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Mn(III) chloro complexes with salen-type ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong Chul; Han, Chung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Baik, Jong Seok; Park, Yu Chul

    2002-01-01

    A series of novel salen-type complexes ((Mn(III)(L acn )Cl): n=1∼11) containing Cl - ion were obtained by reactions of the Mn(CH 3 COO) 2 ·4H 2 O with the potentially tetradentate compartmental ligand (H 2 L acn ), prepared by condensation the of one mole of diamine (ethylenediamine, 1,3-propanediamine, o-phenylenediamine, and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine) with two moles of aldehyde (salicylaldehyde, 5-chloro- salicylaldehyde, 3,5-dichlorosalicylal-dehyde, and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde) in a methanol solution . The resulting salen-type ligands and their Mn(III) complexes were identified and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, thermogravimetry and UV-VIS, IR, and NMR spectroscopy

  4. Visualization and characterization of individual type III protein secretion machines in live bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdeng; Lara-Tejero, María; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Galán, Jorge E

    2017-06-06

    Type III protein secretion machines have evolved to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Although electron microscopy has provided a detailed view of these machines in isolation or fixed samples, little is known about their organization in live bacteria. Here we report the visualization and characterization of the Salmonella type III secretion machine in live bacteria by 2D and 3D single-molecule switching superresolution microscopy. This approach provided access to transient components of this machine, which previously could not be analyzed. We determined the subcellular distribution of individual machines, the stoichiometry of the different components of this machine in situ, and the spatial distribution of the substrates of this machine before secretion. Furthermore, by visualizing this machine in Salmonella mutants we obtained major insights into the machine's assembly. This study bridges a major resolution gap in the visualization of this nanomachine and may serve as a paradigm for the examination of other bacterially encoded molecular machines.

  5. Evidence of scattering effects on the sizes of interplanetary Type III radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of 162 interplanetary Type III radio bursts; some of these bursts have been observed in association with fast electrons and Langmuir wave events at 1 AU and, in addition, have been subjected to in situ plasma parameter measurements. It is noted that the sizes of burst sources are anomalously large, compared to what one would anticipate on the basis of the interplanetary plasma density distribution, and that the variation of source size with frequency, when compared with the plasma frequency variation measured in situ, implies that the source sizes expand with decreasing frequency to fill a cone whose apex is at the sun. It is also found that some local phenomenon near the earth controls the apparent size of low frequency Type III sources.

  6. Interplanetary scattering of fast solar electrons deduced from type III bursts observed at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts and the associated fast solar electrons show that the total path length travelled by the particles between the Sun and the Earth is significantly greater than the length of the smooth Archimedean spiral trajectory followed by the centroid of the type III exciter (Alvarez et al., 1975). Here it is assumed that the ratio of electron path length and the spiral length increases approximately as rsup(n), where r is heliocentric distance, and then compute the radio bursts arrival time at 1 AU for different values of n. A comparison with the radio observations indicates that the best fit occurs for n=1.5+-1.0. These results are interpreted in terms of the variation of electron scattering with heliocentric distance. (Auth.)

  7. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume III. Program descriptions. [SIMWEST CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume III, the SIMWEST program description contains program descriptions, flow charts and program listings for the SIMWEST Model Generation Program, the Simulation program, the File Maintenance program and the Printer Plotter program. Volume III generally would not be required by SIMWEST user.

  8. [Molecular and clinical characterization of Colombian patients suffering from type III glycogen storage disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carolina; Toro, Mónica; Sepúlveda, María Elsy; Insuasty, Margarita; Di Filippo, Diana; López, Juan Álvaro; Baquero, Carolina; Navas, María Cristina; Arias, Andrés Augusto

    2018-05-01

    Type III glycogen storage disease (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which a mutation in the AGL gene causes deficiency of the glycogen debranching enzyme. The disease is characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly and progressive myopathy. Molecular analyses of AGL have indicated heterogeneity depending on ethnic groups. The full spectrum of AGL mutations in Colombia remains unclear. To describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of ten Colombian patients diagnosed with GSD III. We recruited ten Colombian children with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of GSD III to undergo genetic testing. The full coding exons and the relevant exon-intron boundaries of the AGL underwent Sanger sequencing to identify mutation. All patients had the classic phenotype of the GSD III. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation p.Arg910X in two patients. One patient had the mutation p.Glu1072AspfsX36, and one case showed a compound heterozygosity with p.Arg910X and p.Glu1072AspfsX36 mutations. We also detected the deletion of AGL gene 3, 4, 5, and 6 exons in three patients. The in silico studies predicted that these defects are pathogenic. No mutations were detected in the amplified regions in three patients. We found mutations and deletions that explain the clinical phenotype of GSD III patients. This is the first report with a description of the clinical phenotype and the spectrum of AGL mutations in Colombian patients. This is important to provide appropriate prognosis and genetic counseling to the patient and their relatives.

  9. [Characteristics of lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system in glycogenosis types I and III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenova, N V; Strokova, T V; Starodubova, A V

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group.

  10. Restricted fragmentation of poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 RNAs by ribonuclease III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, A. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook); Lee, Y.F.; Babich, A.; Jacobson, A.; Dunn, J.J.; Wimmer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Cleavage of the genome RNAs of poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 with the ribonuclease III of Escherichia coli has been investigated with the following results: (1) at or above physiological salt concentration, the RNAs are completely resistant to the action of the enzyme, an observation suggesting that the RNAs lack primary cleavage sites; (2) lowering the salt concentration to 0.1 M or below allows RNase III to cleave the RNAs at secondary sites. Both large and small fragments can be obtained in a reproducible manner depending on salt conditions chosen for cleavage. Fingerprints of three large fragments of poliovirus type 2 RNA show that they originate from unique segments and represent most if not all sequences of the genome. Based upon binding to poly(U) filters of poly(A)-linked fragments, a physical map of the large fragments of poliovirus type 2 RNA was constructed. The data suggest that RNase III cleavage of single-stranded RNA provides a useful method to fragment the RNA for further studies.

  11. Structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahuhta, Markus; Xu, Qi; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The crystals used for data collection belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 35.43, b = 45.73, c = 107.72 Å, and the structure was refined to an R factor of 0.166. Structural comparisons found over 800 similar structures in the Protein Data Bank. The broad range of different proteins or protein domains with high structural similarity makes it especially demanding to classify these proteins. Previous studies of fibronectin type III-like modules have indicated that they might function as ligand-binding modules, as a compact form of peptide linkers or spacers between other domains, as cellulose-disrupting modules or as proteins that help large enzyme complexes remain soluble

  12. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestri Anna R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ. One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result and 2.2% in the control group (p Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis.

  13. Novel low fluence combination laser treatment of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wei Cheng Anthony Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement. Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians′ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin.

  14. Operated DeBakey type III dissecting aortic aneurysm: review of 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hi Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Oh, Sang Joon; Yoon, Sei Ra; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the indications of operation and radiologic findings in 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections. We retrospectively reviewed radiologic findings of 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections, using CT, MRI, or aortography, and correlations were made with clinical course of the patients. Three cases were uncomplicated dissections. There were aneurysm rupture in 4 cases, impending rupture in 4 cases, occlusion of common iliac artery in 2 cases, occlusion of renal artery in 1 case, and compression of bronchus and esophagus by dilated aorta in 1 case. Associated clinical sign and symptoms were chest and back pain in 12 cases, claudication in 3 cases, dyspnea and dysphagia in 1 case, hoarseness in 1 case, and hemoptysis in 1 case. Post-operative complications were death from aneurysm rupture in 1 case, paraplegia in 2 cases, acute renal failure in 3 cases, and hemopericardium in 1 case. Although medical therapy is preferred in management of DeBakey type III aortic dissection, surgical treatment should be considered in patients with radiological findings of aortic rupture, impending rupture, occlusion of aortic major branches

  15. Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Antonacci, Monia; De Medici, Dario; Fenicia, Lucia

    2012-01-27

    Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks. Clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a diagnosis of botulism and a laboratory confirmation is required. Laboratory confirmation can be performed by demonstrating the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in serum, gastrointestinal contents, liver, wound of sick or dead animals, or by demonstrating the presence of C. botulinum in gastrointestinal contents, liver, and wound. Demonstration of spores in gastrointestinal contents or tissue of animals with clinical signs indicative of botulism reinforces the clinical diagnosis. With the aim of detecting and typing C. botulinum group III organisms, a multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green was developed and in-house validated. Selectivity, limit of detection, relative accuracy, relative specificity, relative sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were investigated. The multiplex real-time PCR SYBR green used showed a 100% selectivity, 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative specificity, 100% relative sensitivity and a limit of detection of 277 and 580 DNA copies for C. botulinum type C and C. botulinum type D, respectively. The method reported here represents a suitable tool for laboratory diagnosis of type C and D botulism and for testing a large number of samples collected during the animal botulism surveillance and prevention activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective cancer vaccine platform based on attenuated salmonella and a type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hegazy, Wael A H; Guo, Linjie; Gao, Xiuhua; Courtney, Amy N; Kurbanov, Suhrab; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Manuel, Edwin R; Diamond, Don J; Hensel, Michael; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines explored for cancer therapy have been based generally on injectable vector systems used to control foreign infectious pathogens, to which the immune system evolved to respond naturally. However, these vectors may not be effective at presenting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to the immune system in a manner that is sufficient to engender antitumor responses. We addressed this issue with a novel orally administered Salmonella-based vector that exploits a type III secretion system to deliver selected TAA in the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells in situ. A systematic comparison of candidate genes from the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus was conducted in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized form of the human TAA survivin (coSVN), an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in most human cancers. In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter:effector combinations, a PsifB::sseJ combination exhibited maximal potency for antigen translocation into the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and murine immunogenicity. In the CT26 mouse model of colon carcinoma, therapeutic vaccination with a lead PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) produced CXCR3-dependent infiltration of tumors by CD8 T cells, reversed the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and triggered potent antitumor activity. Vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor potency were enhanced by coadministration of the natural killer T-cell ligand 7DW8-5, which heightened the production of IL12 and IFNγ. Furthermore, combined treatment with p8032 and 7DW8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in A20 lymphoma-bearing mice, where protective memory was demonstrated. Taken together, our results demonstrate how antigen delivery using an oral Salmonella vector can provide an effective platform for the development of cancer vaccines. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Separating the contributions to 15N transverse relaxation in a fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekhof, Alison E.; Freund, Stefan M.V.

    1999-01-01

    In proteins, dynamic mobility is an important feature of structure, stability, and biomolecular recognition. Uniquely sensitive to motion throughout the milli- to picosecond range, rates of transverse relaxation, R2, are commonly obtained for the characterization of chemical exchange, and the construction of motional models that attempt to separate overall and internal mobility. We have performed an in-depth study of transverse relaxation rates of backbone 15N nuclei in TNfn31-90, the third fibronectin type III domain from human tenascin. By combining the results of spin-echo (CPMG) and off-resonance T1ρ experiments, we present R2 rates at effective field strengths of 2 to 40 krad/s, obtaining a full spectrum of 16 independent R2 data points for most residues. Collecting such a large number of replicate measurements provides insight into intrinsic uncertainties. The median standard deviation in R2 for non-exchanging residues is 0.31, indicating that isolated measurements may not be sufficiently accurate for a precise interpretation of motional models. Chemical exchange events on a timescale of 570 μs were observed in a cluster of residues at the C terminus. Rates of exchange for five other residues were faster than the sampled range of frequencies and could not be determined. Averaged 'exchange free' transverse relaxation rates, R20, were used to calculate the diffusion tensor for rotational motion. Despite a highly asymmetric moment of inertia, the narrow angular dispersion of N-H vectors within the β sandwich proves insufficient to define deviations from isotropic rotation. Loop residues provide exclusive evidence for axially symmetric diffusion (Dpar/Dper=1.55)

  18. Delineation of the Exact Transcription Termination Signal for Type 3 Polymerase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used for expression of small RNAs, including short hairpin RNA for RNAi applications and guide RNA in CRISPR genome-editing platforms. RNA polymerase III uses a T-stretch as termination signal, but the exact properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we systematically measured the in vivo termination efficiency and the actual site of termination for different T-stretch signals in three commonly used human Pol III promoters (U6, 7SK, and H1. Both the termination efficiency and the actual termination site depend on the T-stretch signal. The T4 signal acts as minimal terminator, but full termination efficiency is reached only with a T-stretch of ≥6. The termination site within the T-stretch is quite heterogeneous, and consequently small RNAs have a variable U-tail of 1–6 nucleotides. We further report that such variable U-tails can have a significant negative effect on the functionality of the crRNA effector of the CRISPR-AsCpf1 system. We next improved these crRNAs by insertion of the HDV ribozyme to avoid U-tails. This study provides detailed design guidelines for small RNA expression cassettes based on Pol III.

  19. The neo-epitope specific PRO-C3 ELISA measures true formation of type III collagen associated with liver and muscle parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J; Nedergaard, Anders F; Sun, Shu

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The present study describes the assessment of true formation of type III collagen in different pathologies using a neo-epitope specific competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) towards the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3). METHODS: The monoclonal antibody...... was raised against the N-protease mediated cleavage site of the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen and a competitive ELISA was developed using the selected antibody. The assay was evaluated in relation to neo-epitope specificity, technical performance, and as a marker for liver fibrosis and muscle...... mass using the rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model and a study of immobilization induced muscle loss in humans, respectively. RESULTS: The ELISA was neo-epitope specific, technically stable and can be assessed in serum and plasma samples. In the CCl4 liver fibrosis model it was observed that serum...

  20. Results of Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rockwood Types III and V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukainen, Antti; Kröger, Heikki; Niemitukia, Lea; Mäkelä, E. Antero; Väätäinen, Urho

    2014-01-01

    Background: The optimal treatment of acute, complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is still unresolved. Purpose: To determine the difference between operative and nonoperative treatment in acute Rockwood types III and V ACJ dislocation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In the operative treatment group, the ACJ was reduced and fixed with 2 transarticular Kirschner wires and ACJ ligament suturing. The Kirschner wires were extracted after 6 weeks. Nonoperatively treated patients received a reduction splint for 4 weeks. At the 18- to 20-year follow-up, the Constant, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA), Larsen, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores were obtained, and clinical and radiographic examinations of both shoulders were performed. Results: Twenty-five of 35 potential patients were examined at the 18- to 20-year follow-up. There were 11 patients with Rockwood type III and 14 with type V dislocations. Delayed surgical treatment for ACJ was used in 2 patients during follow-up: 1 in the operatively treated group and 1 in the nonoperatively treated group. Clinically, ACJs were statistically significantly less prominent or unstable in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (normal/prominent/unstable: 9/4/3 and 0/6/3, respectively; P = .02) and in the operative type III (P = .03) but not type V dislocation groups. In operatively and nonoperatively treated patients, the mean Constant scores were 83 and 85, UCLA scores 25 and 27, Larsen scores 11 and 11, and SST scores 11 and 12 at follow-up, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in type III and type V dislocations. In the radiographic analysis, the ACJ was wider in the nonoperative than the operative group (8.3 vs 3.4 mm; P = .004), and in the type V dislocations (nonoperative vs operative: 8.5 vs 2.4 mm; P = .007). There was no statistically significant difference between study groups in

  1. Early prophylactic autogenous bone grafting in type III open tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Subaşi, Mehmet; Arslan, Huseyin; Necmioğlu, Serdar; Kayikçi, Cuma

    2004-08-01

    The authors report the results achieved in patients with type III open tibial fractures who underwent primary autogenous bone grafting at the time of debridement and skeletal stabilisation. Twenty patients with a mean age of 35.8 years (range, 24-55) were treated between 1996 and 1999. Eight fractures were type IIIA, 11 were type IIIB, and 1 was type IIIC. At the index procedure, wound debridement, external fixation and autogenous bone grafting with bone coverage were achieved. The mean follow-up period was 46 months (range, 34-55). The mean time to fixator removal was 21 weeks (range, 14-35), and the mean time to union was 28 weeks (range, 19-45). Skin coverage was achieved by a myocutaneous flap in 2 patients, late primary closure in 4, and split skin grafting in 14. One (5%) of the patients experienced delayed union, and 1 (5%) developed infection. In tibial type III open fractures, skin coverage may be delayed, using the surrounding soft tissue to cover any exposed bone after thorough débridement and wound cleansing. Primary prophylactic bone grafting performed at the same time reduces the rate of delayed union, shortens the time to union, and does not increase the infection rate.

  2. Modified closed-loop double-endobutton technique for repair of rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Qi, Ji; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqun; Liu, Gang; Ping, Ruiyue; Li, Yikai; Fu, Shijie

    2018-01-01

    Acromioclavicular dislocation (ACD) is a common injury. According to the Rockwood classification, ACD is classified into six types (type I–VI); however, for type III injuries, it remains controversial whether or not operative treatment should be applied. Numerous studies have advocated early surgical treatment to ensure early rehabilitation activities. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate a modified closed-loop double-endobutton technique (MCDT), that may be used to repair Rockwood type III ACD. In the current study, 61 patients with Rockwood type III ACD were enrolled during a period of 5 years at the Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University. Patients were divided into three groups according to the surgical method used, the MCDT group (n=20), the common closed-loop double-endobutton technique (CCDT) group (n=21), and the clavicular hook plate fixation (CHPF) group (n=20). Preoperative and intraoperative information were recorded. Furthermore, the functional scores of injured shoulder were evaluated prior to surgery and following surgery with a 1-year follow-up. Among the three groups, postoperative functional scores were significantly more improved compared with those prior to surgery (P0.05). Postoperative functional scores in the MCDT and CCDT groups were significantly more improved compared those in the CHPF group (P<0.05). In addition, the duration of surgery in the MCDT group was significantly shorter compared with that in the CCDT group (P<0.05). Furthermore, compared with the CHPF group, the incision length was significantly shorter with reduced hemorrhage in the MCDT group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that MCDT is more simple, convenient and efficient compared with CCDT, and is worth popularizing. PMID:29399102

  3. Type I and Type III Interferons Display Different Dependency on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to Mount an Antiviral State in the Human Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervolaraki, Kalliopi; Stanifer, Megan L; Münchau, Stephanie; Renn, Lynnsey A; Albrecht, Dorothee; Kurzhals, Stefan; Senís, Elena; Grimm, Dirk; Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Rabin, Ronald L; Boulant, Steeve

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are constantly exposed to commensal flora and pathogen challenges. How IECs regulate their innate immune response to maintain gut homeostasis remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines produced during infections. While type I IFN receptors are ubiquitously expressed, type III IFN receptors are expressed only on epithelial cells. This epithelium specificity strongly suggests exclusive functions at epithelial surfaces, but the relative roles of type I and III IFNs in the establishment of an antiviral innate immune response in human IECs are not clearly defined. Here, we used mini-gut organoids to define the functions of types I and III IFNs to protect the human gut against viral infection. We show that primary non-transformed human IECs, upon viral challenge, upregulate the expression of both type I and type III IFNs at the transcriptional level but only secrete type III IFN in the supernatant. However, human IECs respond to both type I and type III IFNs by producing IFN-stimulated genes that in turn induce an antiviral state. Using genetic ablation of either type I or type III IFN receptors, we show that either IFN can independently restrict virus infection in human IECs. Importantly, we report, for the first time, differences in the mechanisms by which each IFN establishes the antiviral state. Contrary to type I IFN, the antiviral activity induced by type III IFN is strongly dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway, suggesting a pathway used by type III IFNs that non-redundantly contributes to the antiviral state. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human intestinal epithelial cells specifically regulate their innate immune response favoring type III IFN-mediated signaling, which allows for efficient protection against pathogens without producing excessive inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that type III IFN constitutes the frontline of antiviral response in the human gut. We propose that

  4. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, C; Wittkowski, A; Hare, D J

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ASD were present in MPS III, whilst repetitive and restricted behaviours and interests were less widely reported. The presence of ASD-like symptoms can result in late diagnosis or misdiagnosis of MPS III and prevent opportunities for genetic counselling and the provision of treatments.

  5. Energy decay in a Timoshenko-type system for thermoelasticity of type III with distributed delay and past history

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    Jianghao Hao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider a one-dimensional Timoshenko system of thermoelasticity of type III with past history and distributive delay. It is known that an arbitrarily small delay may be the source of instability. We establish the well-posedness and the stability of the system for the cases of equal and nonequal speeds of wave propagation respectively. Our results show that the damping effect is strong enough to uniformly stabilize the system even in the presence of time delay under suitable conditions and improve the related results.

  6. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies in high-grade acromioclavicular separation (type III - V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Jochen; Schwarting, Tim; Malcherczyk, Dominik; Peterlein, Christian-Dominik; Ruchholtz, Steffen; El-Zayat, Bilal Farouk

    2017-11-10

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations are common injuries of the shoulder associated with physical activity. The diagnosis of concomitant injuries proves complicated due to the prominent clinical symptoms of acute ACJ dislocation. Because of increasing use of minimally invasive surgery techniques concomitant pathologies are diagnosed more often than with previous procedures. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of concomitant intraarticular injuries in patients with high-grade acromioclavicular separation (Rockwood type III - V) as well as to reveal potential risk constellations. The concomitant pathologies were compiled during routine arthroscopically assisted treatment in altogether 163 patients (147 male; 16 female; mean age 36.8 years) with high-grade acromioclavicular separation (Rockwood type III: n = 60; Rockwood type IV: n = 6; Rockwood type V: n = 97). Acromioclavicular separation occurred less often in women than men (1:9). In patients under 35, the most common cause for ACJ dislocation was sporting activity (37.4%). Rockwood type V was observed significantly more often than the other types with 57.5% (Rockwood type III = 36.8%, Rockwood type IV 3.7%). Concomitant pathologies were diagnosed in 39.3% of the patients with that number rising to as much as 57.3% in patients above 35 years. Most common associated injuries were rotator cuff injuries (32.3%), chondral defects (30.6%) and SLAP-lesions (22.6%). Of all patients, 8.6% needed additional reconstructive surgery. Glenohumeral injuries are a much more common epiphenomenon during acromioclavicular separation than previously ascertained. High risk group for accompanying injuries are patients above 35 years with preexisting degenerative disease. The increasing use of minimally invasive techniques allows for an easier diagnosis and simultaneous treatment of the additional pathologies.

  7. Yunnan-III models for evolutionary population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Han, Z.; Zhuang, Y.; Kang, X.

    2013-02-01

    We build the Yunnan-III evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models by using the mesa stellar evolution code, BaSeL stellar spectra library and the initial mass functions (IMFs) of Kroupa and Salpeter, and present colours and integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) of solar-metallicity stellar populations (SPs) in the range of 1 Myr to 15 Gyr. The main characteristic of the Yunnan-III EPS models is the usage of a set of self-consistent solar-metallicity stellar evolutionary tracks (the masses of stars are from 0.1 to 100 M⊙). This set of tracks is obtained by using the state-of-the-art mesa code. mesa code can evolve stellar models through thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase for low- and intermediate-mass stars. By comparisons, we confirm that the inclusion of TP-AGB stars makes the V - K, V - J and V - R colours of SPs redder and the infrared flux larger at ages log(t/yr) ≳ 7.6 [the differences reach the maximum at log(t/yr) ˜ 8.6, ˜0.5-0.2 mag for colours, approximately two times for K-band flux]. We also find that the colour-evolution trends of Model with-TPAGB at intermediate and large ages are similar to those from the starburst99 code, which employs the Padova-AGB stellar library, BaSeL spectral library and the Kroupa IMF. At last, we compare the colours with the other EPS models comprising TP-AGB stars (such as CB07, M05, V10 and POPSTAR), and find that the B - V colour agrees with each other but the V-K colour shows a larger discrepancy among these EPS models [˜1 mag when 8 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 9]. The stellar evolutionary tracks, isochrones, colours and ISEDs can be obtained on request from the first author or from our website (http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/~zhangfh/). Using the isochrones, you can build your EPS models. Now the format of stellar evolutionary tracks is the same as that in the starburst99 code; you can put them into the starburst99 code and get the SP's results. Moreover, the colours involving other passbands

  8. Management of Oehler’s Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

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    Jaya Ranganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler’s classification (1957 for Dens Invaginatus (DI into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler’s Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation.

  9. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III

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    Frederico Carlos Jaña Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive; presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score index; mortality rate; and infection rate. RESULTS: 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%. Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75% and IIIB (25% predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. CONCLUSION: The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions.

  10. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2006-01-01

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus

  11. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  12. Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroki; Seta, Yuji; Kataoka, Shinji; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Toyono, Takashi; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2018-03-10

    The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)-were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)-markers of type II taste bud cells-were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.

  13. Distinct Effects of Type I and III Interferons on Enteric Viruses

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    Harshad Ingle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are key host cytokines in the innate immune response to viral infection, and recent work has identified unique roles for IFN subtypes in regulating different aspects of infection. Currently emerging is a common theme that type III IFNs are critical in localized control of infection at mucosal barrier sites, while type I IFNs are important for broad systemic control of infections. The intestine is a particular site of interest for exploring these effects, as in addition to being the port of entry for a multitude of pathogens, it is a complex tissue with a variety of cell types as well as the presence of the intestinal microbiota. Here we focus on the roles of type I and III IFNs in control of enteric viruses, discussing what is known about signaling downstream from these cytokines, including induction of specific IFN-stimulated genes. We review viral strategies to evade IFN responses, effects of IFNs on the intestine, interactions between IFNs and the microbiota, and briefly discuss the role of IFNs in controlling viral infections at other barrier sites. Enhanced understanding of the coordinate roles of IFNs in control of viral infections may facilitate development of antiviral therapeutic strategies; here we highlight potential avenues for future exploration.

  14. Potassium transport of Salmonella is important for type III secretion and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehao; Ho, Katharina Kim; Su, Jing; Gong, Hao; Chang, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular cations are essential for the physiology of all living organisms including bacteria. Cations such as potassium ion (K+), sodium ion (Na+) and proton (H+) are involved in nearly all aspects of bacterial growth and survival. K+ is the most abundant cation and its homeostasis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella is regulated by three major K+ transporters: high affinity transporter Kdp and low affinity transporters Kup and Trk. Previous studies have demonstrated the roles of cations and cation transport in the physiology of Escherichia coli; their roles in the virulence and physiology of pathogenic bacteria are not well characterized. We have previously reported that the Salmonella K+ transporter Trk is important for the secretion of effector proteins of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here we further explore the role of Salmonella cation transport in virulence in vitro and pathogenesis in animal models. Impairment of K+ transport through deletion of K+ transporters or exposure to the chemical modulators of cation transport, gramicidin and valinomycin, results in a severe defect in the TTSS of SPI-1, and this defect in the TTSS was not due to a failure to regulate intrabacterial pH or ATP. Our results also show that K+ transporters are critical to the pathogenesis of Salmonella in mice and chicks and are involved in multiple growth and virulence characteristics in vitro, including protein secretion, motility and invasion of epithelial cells. These results suggest that cation transport of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella, especially K+ transport, contributes to its virulence in addition to previously characterized roles in maintaining homeostasis of bacteria. PMID:23728623

  15. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension.

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    Alan Y Deng

    Full Text Available Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs for blood pressure (BP have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8 to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5' Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP 'indirectly' by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy.

  16. Poor phenotype-genotype association in a large series of patients with Type III Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Castaño, Alejandro; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Madrid, Álvaro; Chocrón, Sara; Nadal, Inmaculada; Navarro, Mercedes; Lucas, Elena; Fijo, Julia; Espino, Mar; Espitaletta, Zilac; García Nieto, Víctor; Barajas de Frutos, David; Loza, Reyner; Pintos, Guillem; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Type III Bartter syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubule disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene, which encodes the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb. In this study, we carried out a complete clinical and genetic characterization in a cohort of 30 patients, one of the largest series described. By comparing with other published populations, and considering that 80% of our patients presented the p.Ala204Thr Spanish founder mutation presumably associated with a common phenotype, we aimed to test the hypothesis that allelic differences could explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with type III BS. Clinical data were retrieved from the referral centers. The exon regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CLCNKB gene were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Presence of gross deletions or duplications in the region was checked for by MLPA and QMPSF analyses. Polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration were the main common symptoms. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia of renal origin were detected in all patients at diagnosis. Calciuria levels were variable: hypercalciuria was detected in 31% of patients, while 23% had hypocalciuria. Nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in 20% of the cohort. Two novel CLCNKB mutations were identified: a small homozygous deletion (c.753delG) in one patient and a small deletion (c.1026delC) in another. The latter was present in compound heterozygosis with the already previously described p.Glu442Gly mutation. No phenotypic association was obtained regarding the genotype. A poor correlation was found between a specific type of mutation in the CLCNKB gene and type III BS phenotype. Importantly, two CLCNKB mutations not previously described were found in our cohort.

  17. Poor phenotype-genotype association in a large series of patients with Type III Bartter syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García Castaño

    Full Text Available Type III Bartter syndrome (BS is an autosomal recessive renal tubule disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene, which encodes the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb. In this study, we carried out a complete clinical and genetic characterization in a cohort of 30 patients, one of the largest series described. By comparing with other published populations, and considering that 80% of our patients presented the p.Ala204Thr Spanish founder mutation presumably associated with a common phenotype, we aimed to test the hypothesis that allelic differences could explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with type III BS.Clinical data were retrieved from the referral centers. The exon regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CLCNKB gene were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Presence of gross deletions or duplications in the region was checked for by MLPA and QMPSF analyses.Polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration were the main common symptoms. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia of renal origin were detected in all patients at diagnosis. Calciuria levels were variable: hypercalciuria was detected in 31% of patients, while 23% had hypocalciuria. Nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in 20% of the cohort. Two novel CLCNKB mutations were identified: a small homozygous deletion (c.753delG in one patient and a small deletion (c.1026delC in another. The latter was present in compound heterozygosis with the already previously described p.Glu442Gly mutation. No phenotypic association was obtained regarding the genotype.A poor correlation was found between a specific type of mutation in the CLCNKB gene and type III BS phenotype. Importantly, two CLCNKB mutations not previously described were found in our cohort.

  18. SORPTION OF Ga (III ON FLEXIBLE OPEN CELL POLYURETHANE FOAM OF POLYETHER TYPE IMPREGNATED WITH TRI-N-BUTHYL PHOSPATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Tofan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtained results concerning the Ga (III ion retention on flexible open cell polyurethane foam of polyether type pretreated with tri-n-butyl phosphate are presented. The influence of solution acidity, phases contact time, Ga (III concentration and solution temperature have been investigated. The parameters of Ga (III batch sorption have been optimized. On the basis of Langmuir isotherms, the sorption constants and the thermodynamic parameters, ∆G, ∆Η and ∆S have been calculated.

  19. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  20. The prognostic relevance of parapyloric lymph node metastasis in Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Man-Qiang; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of patients with Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) with parapyloric lymph node (No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes, PLN) metastasis and to determine the need for PLN dissection for patients with type II/III AEG. A total of 1008 patients with type II/III AEG who underwent a transabdominal total gastrectomy were enrolled. The long-term surgical outcome of PLN-positive patients and the therapeutic value of PLN dissection were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PLN metastasis between type II and III cancers (5.7% vs. 8.5%, P > 0.05). PLN metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for type II/III cancers (HR 1.63; P = 0.001). Among type II/III cancers, the 5-year survival of patients with PLN-positive cancers was much lower than that of patients with PLN-negative cancers (21.3% vs. 60.8%, P  0.05). In the analysis of the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection in each station for type II and III cancers after radical resection, lymph nodes with the lowest therapeutic value index after No. 12a were No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes. Patients with type II/III AEG with PLN metastasis have a poor prognosis, similar to patients with stage IV disease. PLN dissection offers marginal therapeutic value for patients with type II/III AEG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  1. A mouse model of mitochondrial complex III dysfunction induced by myxothiazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudi, Mina [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Kallijärvi, Jukka; Marjavaara, Sanna [Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Levéen, Per [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Fellman, Vineta, E-mail: Vineta.Fellman@med.lu.se [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Children’s Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00029 (Finland)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Reversible chemical inhibition of complex III in wild type mouse. • Myxothiazol causes decreased complex III activity in mouse liver. • The model is useful for therapeutic trials to improve mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Myxothiazol is a respiratory chain complex III (CIII) inhibitor that binds to the ubiquinol oxidation site Qo of CIII. It blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b and thus inhibits CIII activity. It has been utilized as a tool in studies of respiratory chain function in in vitro and cell culture models. We developed a mouse model of biochemically induced and reversible CIII inhibition using myxothiazol. We administered myxothiazol intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg to C57Bl/J6 mice every 24 h and assessed CIII activity, histology, lipid content, supercomplex formation, and gene expression in the livers of the mice. A reversible CIII activity decrease to 50% of control value occurred at 2 h post-injection. At 74 h only minor histological changes in the liver were found, supercomplex formation was preserved and no significant changes in the expression of genes indicating hepatotoxicity or inflammation were found. Thus, myxothiazol-induced CIII inhibition can be induced in mice for four days in a row without overt hepatotoxicity or lethality. This model could be utilized in further studies of respiratory chain function and pharmacological approaches to mitochondrial hepatopathies.

  2. Early Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Does Not Prevent Neurological Deterioration in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Lindsey; Marchal, Jan Pieter; van Hasselt, Peter; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Wijburg, Frits A; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo disease, is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by defective lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS). No effective disease-modifying therapy is yet available. In contrast to some other neuronopathic LSDs, bone

  3. Percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in the management of unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cui, Wei; Fan, Wenzhe; Zhang, Yingqiang; Yao, Wang; Huang, Kunbo; Li, Jiaping

    2016-08-16

    To assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement was successful in all patients without any technical problems; the technical success rate was 100%. Chemotherapy was administered to two patients. After treatment, serum direct bilirubin levels were notably decreased. Six patients died during the follow-up period. Median stent patency from the time of the first RFA and survival from the time of diagnosis were 100 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 85-115 days) and 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.5-8.1 months), respectively. No acute pancreatitis, bile duct bleeding and perforation, bile leakage, or other severe complications occurred. Four cases of procedure-related cholangitis, three cases of postoperative abdominal pain, and five cases of asymptomatic transient increase in serum amylase were observed. One patient who presented with stent blockage 252 days' post-procedure underwent repeat ablation. Between September 2013 and May 2015, nine patients with unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma who were treated with percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement after the percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage were included in the retrospective analysis. Procedure-related complications, stent patency, and survival after treatment were investigated. Percutaneous intraductal RFA combined with metal stent placement is a technically safe and feasible therapeutic option for the palliative treatment of unresectable Bismuth types III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Its long-term efficacy and safety is promising, but needs further study via randomized and prospective trials that include a greater number of patients.

  4. Identification and characterization of a type III secretion-associated chaperone in the type III secretion system 1 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Okayama, Kanna; Kimura, Tomomi; Dryselius, Rikard; Kodama, Toshio; Oishi, Kazunori; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes human gastroenteritis. Genomic sequencing of this organism has revealed that it has two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2, both of which are important for its pathogenicity. However, the mechanism of protein secretion via T3SSs is unknown. A characteristic of many effectors is that they require specific chaperones for efficient delivery via T3SSs; however, no chaperone has been experimentally identified in the T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, we identified candidate T3SS1-associated chaperones from genomic sequence data and examined their roles in effector secretion/translocation and binding to their cognate substrates. From these experiments, we concluded that there is a T3S-associated chaperone, VecA, for a cytotoxic T3SS1-dependent effector, VepA. Further analysis using pulldown and secretion assays characterized the chaperone-binding domain encompassing the first 30-100 amino acids and an amino terminal secretion signal encompassing the first 5-20 amino acids on VepA. These findings will provide a strategy to clarify how the T3SS1 of V. parahaemolyticus secretes its specific effectors.

  5. Medial Condyle Fracture (Kilfoyle Type III of the Distal Humerus with Transient Fishtail Deformity after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Sonohata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A “Fishtail deformity” is one of the well-known complications following pediatric lateral condyle or supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We herein report a case of medial condyle fracture (Kilfoyle type III in an 11-year-old boy. He had a transient “fishtail deformity” of the trochlear groove after open reduction and internal fixation. As occurred in the current case, the bone remodeling and the improvement of ischemia of the trochlea after medial condyle fracture may be associated with the likelihood of recovery from transient “fishtail deformity.”

  6. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  7. The effect of initial conditions on the electromagnetic radiation generation in type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, H.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 052903 (2011)]. The numerical simulations were carried out using different density profiles and fast electron distribution functions. It is shown that electromagnetic L and R modes are excited by the transverse current, initially imposed on the system. In the course of the simulations, no further interaction of the electron beam with the background plasma could be observed

  8. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  9. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Sun

    Full Text Available Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated with immobilization and/or remobilization.In the Berlin bed rest study, 20 young men were recruited and randomly assigned to 8-week's strict bed rest with or without resistive vibration exercise countermeasure. We measured three neo-epitope ELISA kits in the serum samples of this study: Pro-C3, measured the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage.Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected at all. We found that Pro-C3 and C6M levels are related to LBM at baseline and that high levels of Pro-C6 are associated with smaller changes in muscle mass during both immobilization and remobilization.The Pro-C3 and-C6 biomarkers change likely reflect remodeling changes in response to unloading or reloading, whereas C6M does not appear to respond to unloading. Pro-C3 and C6M levels correlate with LBM at baseline, while Pro-C6 is related to the anabolic and catabolic responses to unloading and reloading.

  10. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients: effects of increasing doses of GH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  11. Perdeuteration, purification, crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction of an ocean pout type III antifreeze protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Haertlein, Isabelle; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Howard, Eduardo; Hazemann, Isabelle; Mitschler, Andre; Haertlein, Michael; Podjarny, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Perdeuterated type III antifreeze protein has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary neutron data collection showed diffraction to 1.85 Å resolution from a 0.13 mm 3 crystal. The highly homologous type III antifreeze protein (AFP) subfamily share the capability to inhibit ice growth at subzero temperatures. Extensive studies by X-ray crystallography have been conducted, mostly on AFPs from polar fishes. Although interactions between a defined flat ice-binding surface and a particular lattice plane of an ice crystal have now been identified, the fine structural features underlying the antifreeze mechanism still remain unclear owing to the intrinsic difficulty in identifying H atoms using X-ray diffraction data alone. Here, successful perdeuteration (i.e. complete deuteration) for neutron crystallographic studies of the North Atlantic ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) AFP in Escherichia coli high-density cell cultures is reported. The perdeuterated protein (AFP D) was expressed in inclusion bodies, refolded in deuterated buffer and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Well shaped perdeuterated AFP D crystals have been grown in D 2 O by the sitting-drop method. Preliminary neutron Laue diffraction at 293 K using LADI-III at ILL showed that with a few exposures of 24 h a very low background and clear small spots up to a resolution of 1.85 Å were obtained using a ‘radically small’ perdeuterated AFP D crystal of dimensions 0.70 × 0.55 × 0.35 mm, corresponding to a volume of 0.13 mm 3

  12. Modelling Eu(III) speciation in a Eu(III)/PAHA/α-Al2O3 ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, Noemie; Reiller, Pascal E.; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, modelling of Eu(III) speciation in a ternary system, i.e., in presence of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) and α-Al 2 O 3 , is presented. First, the mineral surface charge is measured by potentiometric titrations and then described using the CD-MUSIC model. This model is also used to describe Eu(III) binding to the α-Al 2 O 3 surface at different pH values, ionic strength and mineral concentrations. Time resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS) is then used to study the binding of Eu(III) to PAHA at pH 4 with different humic acid concentrations. The spectra are used to calculate a spectroscopic 'titration curve', used to determine Eu(III)/PAHA binding parameters in the NICA-Donnan model. Following a previous study (Janot et al., Water Res. 46, 731-740), modelling of the ternary system is based upon the definition of two PAHA pools where one fraction remains in solution and the other is adsorbed onto the mineral surface, with each possessing different proton and metal binding parameters. The modification of protonation behaviour for both fractions is examined using spectrophotometric titrations of the non adsorbed PAHA fraction at different organic/mineral ratios. These data are then used to describe Eu(III) interactions in the ternary system: Eu(III) re-partitioning in the ternary system is calculated for different pH, ionic strength and PAHA concentrations, and results are compared to experimental observations. The model is in good agreement with experimental data, except at high PAHA fractionation rates. Results show that organic complexation dominates over a large pH range, with the predominant species existing as the surface-bound fraction. Above pH 8, Eu(III) seems to be mostly complexed to the mineral surface, which is in agreement with previous spectroscopic observations (Janot et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 3224-3230). (authors)

  13. Programmable type III-A CRISPR-Cas DNA targeting modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Travis Ichikawa

    Full Text Available The CRISPR-Cas systems provide invader defense in a wide variety of prokaryotes, as well as technologies for many powerful applications. The Type III-A or Csm CRISPR-Cas system is one of the most widely distributed across prokaryotic phyla, and cleaves targeted DNA and RNA molecules. In this work, we have constructed modules of Csm systems from 3 bacterial species and heterologously expressed the functional modules in E. coli. The modules include a Cas6 protein and a CRISPR locus for crRNA production, and Csm effector complex proteins. The expressed modules from L. lactis, S. epidermidis and S. thermophilus specifically eliminate invading plasmids recognized by the crRNAs of the systems. Characteristically, activation of plasmid targeting activity depends on transcription of the plasmid sequence recognized by the crRNA. Activity was not observed when transcription of the crRNA target sequence was blocked, or when the opposite strand or a non-target sequence was transcribed. Moreover, the Csm module can be programmed to recognize plasmids with novel target sequences by addition of appropriate crRNA coding sequences to the module. These systems provide a platform for investigation of Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems in E. coli, and for introduction of programmable transcription-activated DNA targeting into novel organisms.

  14. Adenocarcinoma arising in a heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egashira Yutaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Heterotopic pancreatic cancer in the duodenum is a very rare disease. Only twelve cases have been reported worldwide to date. We report a rare case of malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum with long-term survival of the patient, and review the 12 cases in the literature. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital complaining of nausea and vomiting. Endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed marked duodenal stenosis. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen showed malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 30. He is well and shows no signs of recurrence at the time of writing, six years after the surgery. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma arising within the heterotopic pancreas appears to be rare. It is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis preoperatively. The management of heterotopic pancreas depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. If the patient is asymptomatic or benign, conservative treatment with regular follow-up is recommended. When the patient is symptomatic or there is a suspicion of malignancy, surgical management with intra-operative frozen section diagnosis is indicated.

  15. Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia and Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient With Partial DiGeorge Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice D. Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS, status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT. Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated β2-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF. This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  16. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  17. Unusual xanthomas in a young patient with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and type III hyperlipoproteinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feussner, G.; Dobmeyer, J. [Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Nissen, H.; Hansen, T.S. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark)

    1996-10-16

    We report on a 20-year-old man with the combination of two independent familial lipoprotein disorders: heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP). Familial hypercholesterolemia was diagnosed by elevated total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and family history. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a G{r_arrow}A splice donor mutation in intron 3 of the proband`s low density lipoprotein receptor gene was identified as the underlying molecular defect. This mutation was described previously as a receptor-negative founder mutation in Norway (FH-Elverum) and subsequently in 6 unrelated heterozygous English patients, creating a severe phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia. Type III HLP was confirmed by homozygosity for apolipoprotein (apo) E2 and an elevated ratio of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol to serum triglycerides (0.40; normal ratio about 0.20). The patient has unusual flat xanthomas in the interdigital webs of the hands which are normally not found in either disease. These dermatological findings might therefore be indicative of the rare combination of both disorders of lipoprotein metabolism in one individual. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Decimetric type III radio bursts and associated hard X-ray spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Benz, A. O.; Ranieri, M.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    For a relatively weak solar flare on August 6, 1981, at 10:32 UT, a detailed comparison is made between hard X-ray spikes and decimetric type III radio bursts. The hard X-ray observations are made at energies above 30 keV, and the radio data are obtained in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 MHz. The time resolution for all the data sets is approximately 0.1 s or better. The dynamic radio spectrum exhibits many fast drift type III radio bursts with both normal and reverse slope, whereas the X-ray time profile contains many well resolved short spikes with durations less than or equal to 1 s. Some of the X-ray spikes are seen to be associated in time with reverse-slope bursts, indicating either that the electron beams producing the radio burst contain two or three orders of magnitude more fast electrons than has previously been assumed or that the electron beams can induce the acceleration of additional electrons or occur in coincidence with this acceleration. A case is presented in which a normal slope radio burst at approximately 600 MHz occurs in coincidence with the peak of an X-ray spike to within 0.1 s.

  19. Identification and functional characterization of three type III polyketide synthases from Aquilaria sinensis calli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Dong, Xianjuan; Feng, Yingying; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Bowen; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) play an important role in biosynthesis of various plant secondary metabolites and plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Aquilaria sinensis (A. sinensis) is the main plant species for production of agarwood, little is known about its PKS family. In this study, AsCHS1 and two new type III PKSs, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2, were isolated and characterized in A. sinensis calli. The comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 belonged to non-CHS group different from AsCHS1. The recombinant AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 produced the lactone-type products, suggesting their different enzyme activities from AsCHS1. Three PKS genes had a tissues-specific pattern in A. sinensis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of three PKS genes in calli under different abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. AsCHS1 transcript was most significantly induced by salt stress, AsPKS1 abundance was most remarkably enhanced by CdCl 2 treatment, while AsPKS2 expression was most significantly induced by mannitol treatment. Furthermore, AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 expression was enhanced upon gibberellins (GA3), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or salicylic acid (SA) treatment, while three PKS genes displayed low transcript levels at the early stage under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. In addition, three GFP:PKSs fusion proteins were localized in the cytoplasm and cell wall in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. These results indicated the multifunctional role of three type III PKSs in polyketide biosynthesis, plant resistance to abiotic stresses and signal transduction. - Highlights: • Two new PKS genes (AsPKS1 and AsPKS2) were isolated and characterized from A. sinensis. • The recombinant AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 catalyzed lactone-type products in vitro. • AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 were involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses and hormone stimuli. • Our results also indicated that AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 were predominantly localized

  20. Propionibacterium Acnes Phylogenetic Type III is Associated with Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rolf L W; Scholz, Christian F P; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH...... lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination...... of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly...

  1. Osteogenesis imperfecta type III/Ehlers-Danlos overlap syndrome in a Chinese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanqin; Wang, Yanzhou; Rauch, Frank; Li, Hu; Zhang, Yao; Zhai, Naixiang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Xiuzhi; Han, Jinxiang

    2018-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) are rare genetic disorders that are typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Few cases of OI/EDS overlap syndrome have been documented. Described here is a 30-year-old Chinese male with OI type III and EDS. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed a heterozygous COL1A1 mutation (c.671G>A, p.Gly224Asp) that affected the N-anchor domain of the alpha 1 chain of collagen type I. Ultrastructural analysis of a skin biopsy specimen revealed thin collagen fibers with irregular alignment of collagen fibers. These findings have expanded the genotypic spectrum of the OI/EDS overlap syndrome.

  2. Type III Osteogenesis Imperfecta With Dentinogenesis Imperfecta - A Case Report And review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabal Pal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a genetic disorder affecting approximately 20,000 U.S. population with multiple fracture of the bone. The, actual literature of the number of patients suffering from Osteogenesis Impcrfecta in Indian Population is still nor available. This is a case of a male patient who presented to the O.PD. of Subharati Dental College with history of pain ands swelling in the left lower posterior teeth region. On detail workout of the case it was found that the patient had Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type I with Type III Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Very few cases with such presentation is reported in Indian Literature. The following report presents the clinical findings of Osteogcnesis Imperfecta and an associated review of Literature.

  3. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  4. Synthesis and structures of a pincer-type rhodium(iii) complex: reactivity toward biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Milan M; Bogojeski, Jovana V; Klisurić, Olivera; Scheurer, Andreas; Elmroth, Sofi K C; Bugarčić, Živadin D

    2016-10-04

    A novel rhodium(iii) complex [Rh III (H 2 L tBu )Cl 3 ] (1) (H 2 L tBu = 2,6-bis(5-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine) containing a pincer type, tridentate nitrogen-donor chelate system was synthesized. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with a = 20.7982(6), b = 10.8952(4), c = 10.9832(4) Å, V = 2488.80(15) Å 3 , and eight molecules in the unit cell. The rhodium center in the complex [Rh III (H 2 L tBu )Cl 3 ] (1) is coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by the tridentate N,N,N-donor and three chloro ligands, adopting a mer arrangement with an essentially planar ligand skeleton. Due to the tridentate coordination of the N,N,N-donor, the central nitrogen atom N1 is located closer to the Rh III center. The reactivity of the synthesized complex toward small biomolecules (l-methionine (l-Met), guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP), l-histidine (l-His) and glutathione (GSH)) and to a series of duplex DNAs and RNA was investigated. The order of reactivity of the studied small biomolecules is: 5'-GMP > GSH > l-Met > l-His. Duplex RNA reacts faster with the [Rh III (H 2 L tBu )Cl 3 ] complex than duplex DNA, while shorter duplex DNA (15mer GG) reacts faster compared with 22mer GG duplex DNA. In addition, a higher reactivity is achieved with a DNA duplex with a centrally located GG-sequence than with a 22GTG duplex DNA, in which the GG-sequence is separated by a T base. Furthermore, the interaction of this metal complex 1 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by absorption (UV-Vis) and emission spectral studies (EthBr displacement studies). Overall, the studied complex exhibited good DNA and BSA interaction ability.

  5. Presynaptic type III neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melissa L; Canetta, Sarah E; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2008-05-05

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of alpha7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface alpha7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of alpha7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting alpha7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function.

  6. Presynaptic type III neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melissa L; Canetta, Sarah E; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2008-06-01

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of alpha7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface alpha7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of alpha7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting alpha7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function.

  7. Presynaptic Type III Neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melissa L.; Canetta, Sarah E.; Role, Lorna W.; Talmage, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of α7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface α7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of α7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting α7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function. PMID:18458158

  8. Crystal structure of the second fibronectin type III (FN3) domain from human collagen α1 type XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingfeng; Ren, Jixia; Wang, Nan; Cheng, Zhong; Yang, Runmei; Lin, Gen; Guo, Yi; Cai, Dayong; Xie, Yong; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Collagen α1 type XX, which contains fibronectin type III (FN3) repeats involving six FN3 domains (referred to as the FN#1-FN#6 domains), is an unusual member of the fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACIT) subfamily of collagens. The results of standard protein BLAST suggest that the FN3 repeats might contribute to collagen α1 type XX acting as a cytokine receptor. To date, solution NMR structures of the FN#3, FN#4 and FN#6 domains have been determined. To obtain further structural evidence to understand the relationship between the structure and function of the FN3 repeats from collagen α1 type XX, the crystal structure of the FN#2 domain from human collagen α1 type XX (residues Pro386-Pro466; referred to as FN2-HCXX) was solved at 2.5 Å resolution. The crystal structure of FN2-HCXX shows an immunoglobulin-like fold containing a β-sandwich structure, which is formed by a three-stranded β-sheet (β1, β2 and β5) packed onto a four-stranded β-sheet (β3, β4, β6 and β7). Two consensus domains, tencon and fibcon, are structural analogues of FN2-HCXX. Fn8, an FN3 domain from human oncofoetal fibronectin, is the closest structural analogue of FN2-HCXX derived from a naturally occurring sequence. Based solely on the structural similarity of FN2-HCXX to other FN3 domains, the detailed functions of FN2-HCXX and the FN3 repeats in collagen α1 type XX cannot be identified.

  9. Crystal structure of the Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas interference complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Inanaga, Hideko; Sato, Chikara; Osawa, Takuo

    2015-01-30

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci play a pivotal role in the prokaryotic host defense system against invading genetic materials. The CRISPR loci are transcribed to produce CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), which form interference complexes with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The interference complex of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system is composed of five Cas proteins (Csm1-Csm5) and a crRNA, and targets invading DNA. Here, we show that the Csm1, Csm3, and Csm4 proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii form a stable subcomplex. We also report the crystal structure of the M. jannaschii Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex at 3.1Å resolution. The complex structure revealed the presence of a basic concave surface around their interface, suggesting the RNA and/or DNA binding ability of the complex. A gel retardation analysis showed that the Csm3-Csm4 complex binds single-stranded RNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Csm4 structurally resembles Cmr3, a component of the type III-B CRISPR-Cas interference complex. Based on bioinformatics, we constructed a model structure of the Csm1-Csm4-Csm3 ternary complex, which provides insights into its role in the Csm interference complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction–Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction–Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can ‘turnover’, albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. ‘DNA sliding’). PMID:22523084

  11. Type II and III Taste Bud Cells Preferentially Expressed Kainate Glutamate Receptors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Cil-Han; Kim, Se-Nyun; Chung, Ki-Myung; Cho, Young-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2009-12-01

    Glutamate-induced cobalt uptake reveals that non-NMDA glutamate receptors (GluRs) are present in rat taste bud cells. Previous studies involving glutamate induced cobalt staining suggest this uptake mainly occurs via kainate type GluRs. It is not known which of the 4 types of taste bud cells express subunits of kainate GluR. Circumvallate and foliate papillae of Sprague-Dawley rats (45~60 days old) were used to search for the mRNAs of subunits of non-NMDA GluRs using RT-PCR with specific primers for GluR1-7, KA1 and KA2. We also performed RT-PCR for GluR5, KA1, PLCbeta2, and NCAM/SNAP 25 in isolated single cells from taste buds. Taste epithelium, including circumvallate or foliate papilla, express mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1. However, non-taste tongue epithelium expresses no subunits of non-NMDA GluRs. Isolated single cell RT-PCR reveals that the mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1 are preferentially expressed in Type II and Type III cells over Type I cells.

  12. Structural Features Reminiscent of ATP-Driven Protein Translocases Are Essential for the Function of a Type III Secretion-Associated ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junya; Lefebre, Matthew; Galán, Jorge E

    2015-09-01

    Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts utilize type III secretion systems to interact with their hosts. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells to modulate a variety of cellular functions. One of the most conserved components of these systems is an ATPase, which plays an essential role in the recognition and unfolding of proteins destined for secretion by the type III pathway. Here we show that structural features reminiscent of other ATP-driven protein translocases are essential for the function of InvC, the ATPase associated with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III secretion system. Mutational and functional analyses showed that a two-helix-finger motif and a conserved loop located at the entrance of and within the predicted pore formed by the hexameric ATPase are essential for InvC function. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the function of this highly conserved component of type III secretion machines. Type III secretion machines are essential for the virulence or symbiotic relationships of many bacteria. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells to modulate cellular functions, thus facilitating bacterial colonization and replication. An essential component of these machines is a highly conserved ATPase, which is necessary for the recognition and secretion of proteins destined to be delivered by the type III secretion pathway. Using modeling and structure and function analyses, we have identified structural features of one of these ATPases from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that help to explain important aspects of its function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Hepatic Artery Resection for Bismuth Type III and IV Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Is Reconstruction Always Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Jin, Yan-Wen; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Wang, Jun-Ke; Liu, Fei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2018-03-06

    The objective of the study is to examine the feasibility of hepatic artery resection (HAR) without subsequent reconstruction (RCS) in specified patients of Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 63 patients who underwent hepatic artery resection for Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. These patients were subsequently enrolled into two groups based on whether the artery reconstruction was conducted. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term survival outcome were compared between the two groups. There were 29 patients in HAR group and 34 patients in the HAR + RCS group. Patients with hepatic artery reconstruction tended to have longer operative time (545.6 ± 143.1 min vs. 656.3 ± 192.8 min; P = 0.013) and smaller tumor size (3.0 ± 1.1 cm vs. 2.5 ± 0.9 cm; P = 0.036). The R0 resection margin was comparable between the HAR group and HAR + RCS group (86.2 vs. 85.3%; P > 0.05). Twelve patients (41.4%) with 24 complications in HAR group and 13 patients (38.2%) with 25 complications in HAR + RCS group were recorded (P = 0.799). The postoperative hepatic failure rate (13.8 vs. 5.9%) and postoperative mortality rate (3.4% vs. 2.9%) were also comparable between the two groups. In the HAR group, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 72, 41, and 19%, respectively; while in the HAR + RCS group, the overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 79, 45, and 25%, respectively (P = 0.928). Hepatic artery resection without reconstruction is also a safe and feasible surgical procedure for highly selected cases of Bismuth type III and IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  14. Type III radical hysterectomy after induction chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Graniel, C; Reyes, M; Chanona, G; Gonzalez, A; Robles, E; Mohar, A; Lopez-Basave, H; De La Garza, J G; Dueñas-Gonzalez, A

    2001-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is a promising approach in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, technical aspects, and clinical results of surgery after induction chemotherapy in this patient population. Forty-one untreated cervical carcinoma patients staged as IB2 to IIIB received three 21-day courses of cisplatin 100mg/m2 on day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 followed by surgery or concomitant chemoradiation. The response to chemotherapy, operability, surgical/pathological findings, disease-free period, and survival of the surgically treated patients were evaluated. All 41 patients were evaluated for toxicity and 40 were evaluated for response. The overall objective response rate was 95% (95% confidence interval 88%-100%), and was complete in three patients (7.5%) and partial in 35 (87.5%). Granulocytopenia grades 3/4 occurred in 13.8% and 3.4% of the courses, respectively, whereas nonhematological toxicity was mild. Twenty-three patients underwent type III radical hysterectomy. Mean duration of surgery was 3.8 h (range 2:30-5:20), median estimated blood loss was 670 ml and median hospital stay was 5.2 days. Intraoperative complications occurred in one case (venous injury). In all but one case the resection margins were negative. Four patients (17%) had positive nodes (one node each); six (26%) had complete pathologic response, three (13%) had microscopic; and 14 (60%) macroscopic residual disease. At 24 months of maximum follow-up (median 20), the disease-free and overall survival rates were 59% and 91%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin/gemcitabine produced a high response rate and did not increase the difficulty of surgery. Operating time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, and hospital stay were all within the range observed for type III hysterectomy in early stage patients. We therefore conclude that type III radical hysterectomy is feasible in locally

  15. Treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft and endobutton technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye G

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gang Ye, Chao-An Peng, Hua-Bin Sun, Jing Xiao, Kang Zhu Department of Orthopedics, the People’s Hospital of Huangpi District, Wuhan City, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique, and compare with hook plate in treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocation.Methods: From April 2012 to April 2013, we treated 46 patients with Rockwood type III AC joint dislocation. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using a hook plate and Group B with autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Radiographic examinations were performed every 2 months postoperatively, and clinical evaluation was performed using the Constant–Murley score at the last follow-up.Results: Results indicated that patients in Group B showed higher mean scores (90.3±5.4 than Group A (80.4±11.5 in terms of Constant–Murley score (P=0.001. Group B patients scored higher in terms of pain (P=0.002, activities (P=0.02, range of motion (P<0.001, and strength (P=0.004. In Group A, moderate pain was reported by 2 (8.7% and mild pain by 8 (34.8% patients. Mild pain was reported by 1 (4.3% patient in Group B. All patients in Group B maintained complete reduction, while 2 (8.7% patients in Group A experienced partial reduction loss. Two patients (8.7% encountered acromial osteolysis on latest radiographs, with moderate shoulder pain and limited range of motion.Conclusion: Autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique showed better results compared with the hook plate method and exhibited advantages of fewer complications such as permanent pain and acromial osteolysis. Keywords: Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation, autogenous semitendinosus graft, endobutton, hook plate

  16. A type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex mediating massive target DNA destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenyuan; Li, Yingjun; Deng, Ling; Feng, Mingxia; Peng, Wenfang; Hallstrøm, Søren; Zhang, Jing; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yun Xiang; White, Malcolm F; She, Qunxin

    2017-02-28

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system protects archaea and bacteria by eliminating nucleic acid invaders in a crRNA-guided manner. The Sulfolobus islandicus type III-B Cmr-α system targets invading nucleic acid at both RNA and DNA levels and DNA targeting relies on the directional transcription of the protospacer in vivo. To gain further insight into the involved mechanism, we purified a native effector complex of III-B Cmr-α from S. islandicus and characterized it in vitro. Cmr-α cleaved RNAs complementary to crRNA present in the complex and its ssDNA destruction activity was activated by target RNA. The ssDNA cleavage required mismatches between the 5΄-tag of crRNA and the 3΄-flanking region of target RNA. An invader plasmid assay showed that mutation either in the histidine-aspartate acid (HD) domain (a quadruple mutation) or in the GGDD motif of the Cmr-2α protein resulted in attenuation of the DNA interference in vivo. However, double mutation of the HD motif only abolished the DNase activity in vitro. Furthermore, the activated Cmr-α binary complex functioned as a highly active DNase to destroy a large excess DNA substrate, which could provide a powerful means to rapidly degrade replicating viral DNA. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Tetracycline treatment of type III prostatitis nanobacteria infection of 100 cases report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyi; Li, Chongxian; Wu, Baisuo; Hao, Shaojun; Ming, Aimin; Zhang, Xinji; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of tetracycline treatment of nanobacterial infection in 100 cases of type III prostatitis. randomly divided into treatment group and control group with double blind method, the treatment group was given Tetracycline Tablets 250mg, oral, 2 times a day; the control group were treated with Levofloxacin Tablets 0.lg, oral, 2 times a day; observation of curative effect of two groups of patients after 1 months of treatment. after the treatment group patients NIH-CPSI score and pain, urinary symptoms and quality of life scores were significantly lower than that of control group (Pprostate fluid and cultured positive cases of nanobacterial numbers were 21 (21%) and 100 cases (100%), the positive rate of nanobacteria in observation group was significantly lower than the control group (Pprostatitis.

  18. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general. PMID:24575107

  20. A Case of Refractory Type III Hyperlypoproteinemia Successfully Treated with Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Tuzcu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male was hospitalized in Department of Endocrinologyfor evaluation of persistent hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholestrolemia.He was normal on physical examination except having multiple xanthomasin elbow, knee and ankle. ApoE genotyping was performed by PCR andapoE phenotype was found to be E2/E2. Firstly, he was treated withatorvastatin (40mg/day and niacin (1500mg/day but it was found that thepatient did not respond the after three months of the treatment. Then he wastreated with plasmapheresis twice a week. After three weeks ofplasmapheresis treatment triglyceride and cholesterol levels was markedlydecreased.Plasmapheresis can be highly effective in removing the lipoproteinremnantparticles, leading to generalized improvement in the lipoproteinprofile in severe type III hyperlipidemia, which do not respond conventionalthreapies as in our case.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-11-01

    Octaketide synthase from A. arborescens has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.6 Å. Octaketide synthase (OKS) from Aloe arborescens is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that produces SEK4 and SEK4b from eight molecules of malonyl-CoA. Recombinant OKS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.2, c = 281.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  2. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O'Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general.

  3. Measurement of serum type III procollagen aminopeptide with RIA-gnost PIIIP coated tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Takagi, Toshikazu; Okazaki, Isao

    1992-01-01

    In 55 patients with various alcoholic liver diseases, serum type III procollagen aminopeptide (PIIIP) was measured on admission, on biopsy (2-4 weeks after admission) and on discharge from hospital (3 months after admission) using RIA-gnost PIIIP coated tube, an assay kit recently launched by Hoechst Japan Limited. Serum PIIIP on admission showed a good correlation with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and was significantly higher in any disease group than in healthy controls, suggesting its usefulness as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis. After abstinence, however, serum PIIIP level exhibited an increasing tendency in all the disease groups expect alcoholic hepatitis, and the number of laboratory tests showing a significant correlation with PIIIP decreased as compared with that on admission. The mechanism of serum PIIIP elevations seen after abstience is yet to be elucidated in detail, considering their possible association with factors other than collagen synthesis in the liver. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional Langmuir wave instabilities in type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardwell, S.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming that type III solar radio bursts are associated with electron streams moving at about c/3, Langmuir waves should be strongly excited. We have studied all of the Langmuir-wave linear parametric instabilities excited in cylindrical symmetry by an electron-stream--driven Langmuir wave-pump propagating along the stream axis. Included in this unified homogeneous treatment are induced backscattering off ions, the oscillating two-stream instability, and a new ''stimulated modulational instability,'' previously unconsidered in this context. Near a few solar radii, the latter two deposit Langmuir wave energy into a forward-scattering cone about the stream axis. It is concluded that the linear stage of the forward-scattering instabilities involves transfer of energy to Langmuir waves which remain in resonance with the stream, and therefore probably do not prevent rapid depletion of the electron stream due to quasilinear plateau formation at these distances from the Sun

  5. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....

  6. An Adult Case of Bartter Syndrome Type III Presenting with Proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jung Cha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bartter syndrome (BS I–IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting salt reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This report highlights clinicopathological findings and genetic studies of classic BS in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with persistent mild proteinuria for 2 years. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mild to moderate increase in the mesangial cells and matrix of most glomeruli, along with marked juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia. These findings suggested BS associated with mild IgA nephropathy. Focal tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration were also observed. A genetic study of the patient and her parents revealed a mutation of the CLCNKB genes. The patient was diagnosed with BS, type III. This case represents an atypical presentation of classic BS in an adult patient. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy combined with genetic analysis and clinicolaboratory findings are important in making an accurate diagnosis.

  7. An Adult Case of Bartter Syndrome Type III Presenting with Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Jung; Hwang, Won Min; Yun, Sung-Ro; Park, Moon Hyang

    2016-03-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) I-IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting salt reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This report highlights clinicopathological findings and genetic studies of classic BS in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with persistent mild proteinuria for 2 years. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mild to moderate increase in the mesangial cells and matrix of most glomeruli, along with marked juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia. These findings suggested BS associated with mild IgA nephropathy. Focal tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration were also observed. A genetic study of the patient and her parents revealed a mutation of the CLCNKB genes. The patient was diagnosed with BS, type III. This case represents an atypical presentation of classic BS in an adult patient. Pathologic findings of renal biopsy combined with genetic analysis and clinicolaboratory findings are important in making an accurate diagnosis.

  8. Type III occipital condylar fracture presenting with hydrocephalus, vertebral artery injury and vasospasm: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, J.A.; Baskaya, M.K.; Day, M.A.; Nanda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Occipital condylar fractures (OCF) are rare and have a high mortality rate. We report a patient with OCF who presented with acute hydrocephalus and died from diffuse vasospasm secondary to vertebral artery injury. A 45-year-old man fell 20 feet from a deer stand and landed on his head. CT showed a type III OCF continuing to the anterior rim of the foramen magnum on the left, with a bone fragment pushing into the medulla, causing hydrocephalus. The patient was stabilized, and a four-vessel arteriogram showed diffuse vasospasm with complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery at the level of the OCF. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the conjunction of OCF, hydrocephalus, and vasospasm. (orig.)

  9. Bacterial flagella and Type III secretion: case studies in the evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, M J; Gophna, U

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial flagella at first sight appear uniquely sophisticated in structure, so much so that they have even been considered 'irreducibly complex' by the intelligent design movement. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that these remarkable pieces of molecular machinery are the product of processes that are fully compatible with Darwinian evolution. In this chapter we present evidence for such processes, based on a review of experimental studies, molecular phylogeny and microbial genomics. Several processes have played important roles in flagellar evolution: self-assembly of simple repeating subunits, gene duplication with subsequent divergence, recruitment of elements from other systems ('molecular bricolage'), and recombination. We also discuss additional tentative new assignments of homology (FliG with MgtE, FliO with YscJ). In conclusion, rather than providing evidence of intelligent design, flagellar and non-flagellar Type III secretion systems instead provide excellent case studies in the evolution of complex systems from simpler components.

  10. Discriminating neutrino mass models using Type-II see-saw formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    though a fuller analysis needs the full matrix form when all terms are present. This is followed by the normal hierarchical model (Type [III]) and inverted hierarchical model with opposite CP phase (Type [IIB]). γ ≃ 10−2 for both of them. Our main results on neutrino masses and mixings in Type-II see-saw formula are presented ...

  11. Changes in histoanatomical distribution of types I, III and V collagen promote adaptative remodeling in posterior tibial tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Satomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE: In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD: Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS: Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION: Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.

  12. Protein homology network families reveal step-wise diversification of Type III and Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Medini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN, where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS. We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS, a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS. Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments.

  13. Kernel based machine learning algorithm for the efficient prediction of type III polyketide synthase family of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Type III Polyketide synthases (PKS are family of proteins considered to have significant role in the biosynthesis of various polyketides in plants, fungi and bacteria. As these proteins show positive effects to human health, more researches are going on regarding this particular protein. Developing a tool to identify the probability of sequence, being a type III polyketide synthase will minimize the time consumption and manpower efforts. In this approach, we have designed and implemented PKSIIIpred, a high performance prediction server for type III PKS where the classifier is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Based on the limited training dataset, the tool efficiently predicts the type III PKS superfamily of proteins with high sensitivity and specificity. PKSIIIpred is available at http://type3pks.in/prediction/. We expect that this tool may serve as a useful resource for type III PKS researchers. Currently work is being progressed for further betterment of prediction accuracy by including more sequence features in the training dataset.

  14. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration

  15. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  16. Detergent Isolation Stabilizes and Activates the Shigella Type III Secretion System Translocator Protein IpaC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Abram R; Duarte, Shari M; Kumar, Prashant; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-07-01

    Shigella rely on a type III secretion system as the primary virulence factor for invasion and colonization of human hosts. Although there are an estimated 90 million Shigella infections, annually responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide, challenges isolating and stabilizing many type III secretion system proteins have prevented a full understanding of the Shigella invasion mechanism and additionally slowed progress toward a much needed Shigella vaccine. Here, we show that the non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent N, N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) and non-ionic detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene efficiently isolated the hydrophobic Shigella translocator protein IpaC from the co-purified IpaC/IpgC chaperone-bound complex. Both detergents resulted in monomeric IpaC that exhibits strong membrane binding and lysis characteristics while the chaperone-bound complex does not, suggesting that the stabilizing detergents provide a means of following IpaC "activation" in vitro. Additionally, biophysical characterization found that LDAO provides significant thermal and temporal stability to IpaC, protecting it for several days at room temperature and brief exposure to temperatures reaching 90°C. In summary, this work identified and characterized conditions that provide stable, membrane active IpaC, providing insight into key interactions with membranes and laying a strong foundation for future vaccine formulation studies taking advantage of the native immunogenicity of IpaC and the stability provided by LDAO. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed-valent perovskites of the type Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)PtRuO/sub 9/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmler-Sack, S; Ehmann, A; Herrmann, M [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-08-01

    Compounds of type Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)PtRuO/sub 9/ - with a mean oxydation state of the noble metals of +4.5 - crystallize with Bsup(III) = Gd-Lu, Y in a variant of hexagonal BaTiO/sub 3/ type with ordered cationic distribution. Intensity calculations on powder data of Ba/sub 3/YPtRuO/sub 9/ (a = 5.88/sub 8/; c = 14.7/sub 0/ A) gave in the space group P6/sub 3//mmc (sequence (hcc)/sub 2/) a refined, intensity related R' value of 5.9%. With Bsup(III) = Eu the lattice is monoclinic and for Bsup(III) = Sm, Nd, La triclinic distorted.

  18. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D L; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  19. Chicken line-dependent mortality after experimental infection with three type IIxIII recombinant Toxoplasma gondii clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schares, G; Herrmann, D C; Maksimov, P; Matzkeit, B; Conraths, F J; Moré, G; Preisinger, R; Weigend, S

    2017-09-01

    Three genetically different clones of Toxoplasma gondii, also different in mouse virulence, were studied by experimental infection in chickens. For the experiments, four chicken lines were used, which differed in phylogenetic origin and performance level: two white egg layer lines, one with high laying performance (WLA), one with low (R11) and two brown layer lines, also displaying high (BLA) and low (L68) egg number. Chickens were intraperitoneally infected with three different T. gondii isolates representing type IIxIII recombinant clones, i.e. showing both, type II- and type III-specific alleles. These clones (K119/2 2C10, B136/1 B6H6, K119/2 A7) had exhibited virulence differences in a mouse model. In chickens, a significantly higher mortality was observed in white layer lines, but not in brown layer lines, suggesting that differences in the phylogenetic background may influence the susceptibility of chickens for toxoplasmosis. In addition, antibody (IgY) levels varied in surviving chickens at 31 days post infection. While low to intermediate antibody levels were observed in white layers, intermediate to high levels were measured in brown layers. Infection with a T. gondii clone showing low chicken virulence resulted in higher antibody levels in all chicken lines compared to infection with T. gondii clones of intermediate or high chicken virulence. This was in agreement with the parasite load as determined by real-time PCR. Overall, results show that progeny resulting from natural sexual recombination of T. gondii clonal lineages, may differ in their virulence for mice and chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence

  1. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS FOR THE SEMI-FORBIDDEN C iii] 1909 EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Ravindranath, S.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z  > 6 suppresses Ly α emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires the detection of alternative ultraviolet lines. The strong [C iii]  λ 1907+C iii]  λ 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C iii] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C iii] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C iii] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C iii] and nebular He ii  λ 1640 can separate star-forming regions from shock-ionized gas. We also find that density-bounded systems should exhibit weaker C iii] EWs at a given ionization parameter, and C iii] EWs could, therefore, select candidate Lyman continuum-leaking systems. In almost all models, C iii] is the next strongest line at <2700 Å after Ly α , and C iii] reaches detectable levels for a wide range of conditions at low metallicity. C iii] may therefore serve as an important diagnostic for characterizing galaxies at z  > 6.

  2. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS FOR THE SEMI-FORBIDDEN C iii] 1909 EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskot, A. E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Ravindranath, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z  > 6 suppresses Ly α emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires the detection of alternative ultraviolet lines. The strong [C iii]  λ 1907+C iii]  λ 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C iii] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C iii] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C iii] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C iii] and nebular He ii  λ 1640 can separate star-forming regions from shock-ionized gas. We also find that density-bounded systems should exhibit weaker C iii] EWs at a given ionization parameter, and C iii] EWs could, therefore, select candidate Lyman continuum-leaking systems. In almost all models, C iii] is the next strongest line at <2700 Å after Ly α , and C iii] reaches detectable levels for a wide range of conditions at low metallicity. C iii] may therefore serve as an important diagnostic for characterizing galaxies at z  > 6.

  3. The Role of Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Bruening

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human interferon (IFN response is a key innate immune mechanism to fight virus infection. IFNs are host-encoded secreted proteins, which induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs with antiviral properties. Among the three classes of IFNs, type III IFNs, also called IFN lambdas (IFNLs, are an essential component of the innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV. In particular, human polymorphisms in IFNL gene loci correlate with hepatitis C disease progression and with treatment response. To date, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly elusive; however it seems clear that viral infection of the liver induces IFNL responses. As IFNL receptors show a more restricted tissue expression than receptors for other classes of IFNs, IFNL treatment has reduced side effects compared to the classical type I IFN treatment. In HCV therapy, however, IFNL will likely not play an important role as highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA exist. Here, we will review our current knowledge on IFNL gene expression, protein properties, signaling, ISG induction, and its implications on HCV infection and treatment. Finally, we will discuss the lessons learnt from the HCV and IFNL field for virus infections beyond hepatitis C.

  4. Differences in Funding Sources of Phase III Oncology Clinical Trials by Treatment Modality and Cancer Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Vikram; Yu, James B; Aneja, Sanjay; Wilson, Lynn D; Lloyd, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Given the limited resources available to conduct clinical trials, it is important to understand how trial sponsorship differs among different therapeutic modalities and cancer types and to consider the ramifications of these differences. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for a cross-sectional register of active, phase III, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying treatment-related endpoints such as survival and recurrence for the 24 most prevalent malignancies. We classified the RCTs into 7 categories of therapeutic modality: (1) chemotherapy/other cancer-directed drugs, (2) targeted therapy, (3) surgery, (4) radiation therapy (RT), (5) RT with other modalities, (6) multimodality therapy without RT, and (7) other. RCTs were categorized as being funded by one or more of the following groups: (1) government, (2) hospital/university, (3) industry, and (4) other. χ analysis was performed to detect differences in funding source distribution between modalities and cancer types. The percentage of multimodality trials (5%) and radiation RCTs (4%) funded by industry was less than that for chemotherapy (32%, Pfunding than any of the other modalities (Pfunded by industry if they also studied targeted therapy (Pfunded by industry than trials studying multimodality therapy or radiation. The impact of industry funding versus institutional or governmental sources of funding for cancer research is unclear and requires further study.

  5. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  6. Lambda Interferon (IFN-gamma), a Type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; West, Hans; Bartholdy, C.

    2006-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-lambda]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-lambda1 and -lambda2/3 in similar patterns. The IFN-lambdas were-unlike alpha/beta interferon (IFN......-alpha/beta)-induced directly by stimulation with IFN-alpha or -lambda, thus identifying type III IFNs as IFN-stimulated genes. In vitro assays revealed that IFN-lambdas have appreciable antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) but limited activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), whereas IFN......-alpha potently restricted both viruses. Using three murine models for generalized virus infections, we found that while recombinant IFN-alpha reduced the viral load after infection with EMCV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and HSV-2, treatment with recombinant IFN-lambda in vivo did not affect viral...

  7. Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda), a type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; West, Hans; Bartholdy, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-lambda]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-lambda1 and -lambda2/3 in similar patterns. The IFN-lambdas were-unlike alpha/beta interferon (IFN......-alpha/beta)-induced directly by stimulation with IFN-alpha or -lambda, thus identifying type III IFNs as IFN-stimulated genes. In vitro assays revealed that IFN-lambdas have appreciable antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) but limited activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), whereas IFN......-alpha potently restricted both viruses. Using three murine models for generalized virus infections, we found that while recombinant IFN-alpha reduced the viral load after infection with EMCV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and HSV-2, treatment with recombinant IFN-lambda in vivo did not affect viral...

  8. Oblique Axis Body Fracture: An Unstable Subtype of Anderson Type III Odontoid Fractures—Apropos of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as “oblique type axis body fracture.” Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic “oblique type” fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1–C3/4 posterior fusion and the course was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion for this injury and suggest early operative stabilization.

  9. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina Y; Iavarone, Anthony T; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus) Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm) with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag) of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD) nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology methods, such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography.

  10. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  11. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Y Liu

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology methods, such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography.

  12. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Carmany, Daniel; Retford, Michael; Guelta, Mark; Dorsey, Russell; Bozue, Joel; Lee, Michael S; Olson, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50) values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  13. Effect of Cortical Screw Diameter on Reduction and Stabilization of Type III Distal Phalanx Fractures: An Equine Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Alastair T; Durgam, Sushmitha; Stewart, Matthew; Joslyn, Stephen; Schaeffer, David J; Horn, Gavin; Kesler, Richard; Chew, Peter

    2016-11-01

    To compare reduction of type III distal phalangeal fractures using 4.5 and 5.5 mm cortical screws placed in lag fashion and an intact hoof capsule model. Cadaveric experimental study. Hooves from 12 adult horses (n=24). Sagittal fractures were created in pairs of distal phalanges after distal interphalangeal joint disarticulation and were reduced with either 4.5 or 5.5 mm cortical screws placed in lag fashion. Contralateral phalanges served as non-reduced controls. Fracture reduction following screw placement was assessed by comparing pre-reduction and post-reduction fracture gap measurements from radiographs using paired t-tests. Effects of incremental loading (0, 135, 270, 540, 800, 1070, and 1335 kg) on fracture gaps in 6 phalanges reduced with 4.5 mm screws and 5 phalanges reduced with 5.5 mm screws were measured from fluoroscopic images and assessed by 2-way ANOVA. Significance was set at Pfractures were reliably created. Only 5.5 mm cortical screws, not 4.5 mm screws, significantly reduced fracture gaps and constrained fracture gap expansion 3 cm distal to the articular surface. Compressive loading closed the fracture gaps at the articular surface in both non-reduced control groups and those reduced with either 5.5 or 4.5 mm screws. The 5.5 mm cortical screws were more effective than 4.5 mm screws in reducing type III distal phalanx fractures and restricting distal fracture gap expansion under load. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. A physically-based constitutive model for SA508-III steel: Modeling and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Dingqian [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen, Fei, E-mail: feechn@gmail.com [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China); Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Cui, Zhenshan, E-mail: cuizs@sjtu.edu.cn [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Due to its good toughness and high weldability, SA508-III steel has been widely used in the components manufacturing of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and steam generators (SG). In this study, the hot deformation behaviors of SA508-III steel are investigated by isothermal hot compression tests with forming temperature of (950–1250)°C and strain rate of (0.001–0.1)s{sup −1}, and the corresponding flow stress curves are obtained. According to the experimental results, quantitative analysis of work hardening and dynamic softening behaviors is presented. The critical stress and critical strain for initiation of dynamic recrystallization are calculated by setting the second derivative of the third order polynomial. Based on the classical stress–dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of SA508-III steel. Comparisons between the predicted and measured flow stress indicate that the established physically-based constitutive model can accurately characterize the hot deformations for the steel. Furthermore, a successful numerical simulation of the industrial upsetting process is carried out by implementing the developed constitutive model into a commercial software, which evidences that the physically-based constitutive model is practical and promising to promote industrial forging process for nuclear components.

  15. A physically-based constitutive model for SA508-III steel: Modeling and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Dingqian; Chen, Fei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2015-01-01

    Due to its good toughness and high weldability, SA508-III steel has been widely used in the components manufacturing of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and steam generators (SG). In this study, the hot deformation behaviors of SA508-III steel are investigated by isothermal hot compression tests with forming temperature of (950–1250)°C and strain rate of (0.001–0.1)s −1 , and the corresponding flow stress curves are obtained. According to the experimental results, quantitative analysis of work hardening and dynamic softening behaviors is presented. The critical stress and critical strain for initiation of dynamic recrystallization are calculated by setting the second derivative of the third order polynomial. Based on the classical stress–dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of SA508-III steel. Comparisons between the predicted and measured flow stress indicate that the established physically-based constitutive model can accurately characterize the hot deformations for the steel. Furthermore, a successful numerical simulation of the industrial upsetting process is carried out by implementing the developed constitutive model into a commercial software, which evidences that the physically-based constitutive model is practical and promising to promote industrial forging process for nuclear components

  16. Wind waves modelling on the water body with coupled WRF and WAVEWATCH III models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Baydakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Papko, Vladislav; Sergeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Simulation of ocean and sea waves is an accepted instrument for the improvement of the weather forecasts. Wave modelling, coupled models modelling is applied to open seas [1] and is less developed for moderate and small inland water reservoirs and lakes, though being of considerable interest for inland navigation. Our goal is to tune the WAVEWATCH III model to the conditions of the inland reservoir and to carry out the simulations of surface wind waves with coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and WAVEWATCH III models. Gorky Reservoir, an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam, was considered as an example of inland reservoir. Comparing to [2] where moderate constant winds (u10 is up to 9 m/s) of different directions blowing steadily all over the surface of the reservoir were considered, here we apply atmospheric model WRF to get wind input to WAVEWATCH III. WRF computations were held on the Yellowstone supercomputer for 4 nested domains with minimum scale of 1 km. WAVEWATCH III model was tuned for the conditions of the Gorky Reservoir. Satellite topographic data on altitudes ranged from 56,6° N to 57,5° N and from 42.9° E to 43.5° E with increments 0,00833 ° in both directions was used. 31 frequencies ranged from 0,2 Hz to 4 Hz and 30 directions were considered. The minimal significant wave height was changed to the lower one. The waves in the model were developing from some initial seeding spectral distribution (Gaussian in frequency and space, cosine in direction). The range of the observed significant wave height in the numerical experiment was from less than 1 cm up to 30 cm. The field experiments were carried out in the south part of the Gorky reservoir from the boat [2, 3]. 1-D spectra of the field experiment were compared with those obtained in the numerical experiments with different parameterizations of flux provided in WAVEWATCH III both with constant wind input and WRF wind input. For all the

  17. Regulation of the Type III InsP3 Receptor by InsP3 and ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Hagar, Robert E.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2000-01-01

    Many hormones and neurotransmitters raise intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) by generating InsP(3) and activating the inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R). Multiple isoforms with distinct InsP(3) binding properties () have been identified (). The type III InsP(3)R lacks Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition, a property that makes it ideal for signal initiation (). Regulation of the type III InsP(3)R by InsP(3) and ATP was explored in detail using planar lipid bilayers. In comparison to the typ...

  18. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men

  19. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  20. Genetics of type III Bartter syndrome in Spain, proposed diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Castaño, Alejandro; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Madrid, Alvaro; Nadal, Inmaculada; Navarro, Mercedes; Lucas, Elena; Fijo, Julia; Espino, Mar; Espitaletta, Zilac; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2013-01-01

    The p.Ala204Thr mutation (exon 7) of the CLCNKB gene is a "founder" mutation that causes most of type III Bartter syndrome cases in Spain. We performed genetic analysis of the CLCNKB gene, which encodes for the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb, in a cohort of 26 affected patients from 23 families. The diagnostic algorithm was: first, detection of the p.Ala204Thr mutation; second, detecting large deletions or duplications by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments; and third, sequencing of the coding and flanking regions of the whole CLCNKB gene. In our genetic diagnosis, 20 families presented with the p.Ala204Thr mutation. Of those, 15 patients (15 families) were homozygous (57.7% of overall patients). Another 8 patients (5 families) were compound heterozygous for the founder mutation together with a second one. Thus, 3 patients (2 siblings) presented with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion (comprising the entire gene); one patient carried the p.Val170Met mutation (exon 6); and 4 patients (3 siblings) presented with the novel p.Glu442Gly mutation (exon 14). On the other hand, another two patients carried two novel mutations in compound heterozygosis: one presented the p.Ile398_Thr401del mutation (exon 12) associated with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion, and the other one carried the c.1756+1G>A splice-site mutation (exon 16) as well as the already described p.Ala210Val change (exon 7). One case turned out to be negative in our genetic screening. In addition, 51 relatives were found to be heterozygous carriers of the described CLCNKB mutations. In conclusion, different mutations cause type III Bartter syndrome in Spain. The high prevalence of the p.Ala204Thr in Spanish families thus justifies an initial screen for this mutation. However, should it not be detected further investigation of the CLCNKB gene is warranted in clinically diagnosed families.

  1. Genetics of type III Bartter syndrome in Spain, proposed diagnostic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García Castaño

    Full Text Available The p.Ala204Thr mutation (exon 7 of the CLCNKB gene is a "founder" mutation that causes most of type III Bartter syndrome cases in Spain. We performed genetic analysis of the CLCNKB gene, which encodes for the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb, in a cohort of 26 affected patients from 23 families. The diagnostic algorithm was: first, detection of the p.Ala204Thr mutation; second, detecting large deletions or duplications by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments; and third, sequencing of the coding and flanking regions of the whole CLCNKB gene. In our genetic diagnosis, 20 families presented with the p.Ala204Thr mutation. Of those, 15 patients (15 families were homozygous (57.7% of overall patients. Another 8 patients (5 families were compound heterozygous for the founder mutation together with a second one. Thus, 3 patients (2 siblings presented with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion (comprising the entire gene; one patient carried the p.Val170Met mutation (exon 6; and 4 patients (3 siblings presented with the novel p.Glu442Gly mutation (exon 14. On the other hand, another two patients carried two novel mutations in compound heterozygosis: one presented the p.Ile398_Thr401del mutation (exon 12 associated with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion, and the other one carried the c.1756+1G>A splice-site mutation (exon 16 as well as the already described p.Ala210Val change (exon 7. One case turned out to be negative in our genetic screening. In addition, 51 relatives were found to be heterozygous carriers of the described CLCNKB mutations. In conclusion, different mutations cause type III Bartter syndrome in Spain. The high prevalence of the p.Ala204Thr in Spanish families thus justifies an initial screen for this mutation. However, should it not be detected further investigation of the CLCNKB gene is warranted in clinically diagnosed families.

  2. In Vitro Reconstitution of Functional Type III Protein Export and Insights into Flagellar Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Akihiro; Tatsumi, Chinatsu; Namba, Keiichi; Minamino, Tohru; Imada, Katsumi

    2018-06-26

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) forms the functional core of injectisomes, protein transporters that allow bacteria to deliver virulence factors into their hosts for infection, and flagella, which are critical for many pathogens to reach the site of infection. In spite of intensive genetic and biochemical studies, the T3SS protein export mechanism remains unclear due to the difficulty of accurate measurement of protein export in vivo Here, we developed an in vitro flagellar T3S protein transport assay system using an inverted cytoplasmic membrane vesicle (IMV) for accurate and controlled measurements of flagellar protein export. We show that the flagellar T3SS in the IMV fully retains export activity. The flagellar hook was constructed inside the lumen of the IMV by adding purified component proteins externally to the IMV solution. We reproduced the hook length control and export specificity switch in the IMV consistent with that seen in the native cell. Previous in vivo analyses showed that flagellar protein export is driven by proton motive force (PMF) and facilitated by ATP hydrolysis by FliI, a T3SS-specific ATPase. Our in vitro assay recapitulated these previous in vivo observations but furthermore clearly demonstrated that even ATP hydrolysis by FliI alone can drive flagellar protein export. Moreover, this assay showed that addition of the FliH 2 /FliI complex to the assay solution at a concentration similar to that in the cell dramatically enhanced protein export, confirming that the FliH 2 /FliI complex in the cytoplasm is important for effective protein transport. IMPORTANCE The type III secretion system (T3SS) is the functional core of the injectisome, a bacterial protein transporter used to deliver virulence proteins into host cells, and bacterial flagella, critical for many pathogens. The molecular mechanism of protein transport is still unclear due to difficulties in accurate measurements of protein transport under well-controlled conditions in

  3. Estimation of fast neutron fluence in steel specimens type Laguna Verde in TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L.; Aguilar H, F.

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this work is to obtain the fluence of fast neutrons recorded within four specimens of carbon steel, similar to the material having the vessels of the BWR reactors of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde when subjected to neutron flux in a experimental facility of the TRIGA Mark III reactor, calculating an irradiation time to age the material so accelerated. For the calculation of the neutron flux in the specimens was used the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. In an initial stage, three sheets of natural molybdenum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) were incorporated into a model developed of the TRIGA reactor operating at 1 M Wth, to calculate the resulting activity by setting a certain time of irradiation. The results obtained were compared with experimentally measured activities in these same materials to validate the calculated neutron flux in the model used. Subsequently, the fast neutron flux received by the steel specimens to incorporate them in the experimental facility E-16 of the reactor core model operating at nominal maximum power in steady-state was calculated, already from these calculations the irradiation time required was obtained for values of the neutron flux in the range of 10 18 n/cm 2 , which is estimated for the case of Laguna Verde after 32 years of effective operation at maximum power. (Author)

  4. Search for evidence of the type-III seesaw mechanism in multilepton final states in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Biggio, Carla; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bianco, Michele; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Nazlim Agaras, Merve; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; 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Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; 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Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Royon, Christophe; 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Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; 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Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-12-01

    A search for a signal consistent with the type-III seesaw mechanism in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample consists of proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. Selection criteria based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign lepton pairs are used to distinguish the signal from the standard model background. The observations are consistent with the expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to place limits on the production of heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model as a function of the branching ratio to each lepton flavor. In the scenario of equal branching fractions to each lepton flavor, heavy fermions with masses below 840 GeV are excluded. This is the most sensitive probe to date of the type-III seesaw mechanism.

  5. Search for Evidence of the Type-III Seesaw Mechanism in Multilepton Final States in Proton-Proton Collisions at √{s }=13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

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S.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Moon, C. S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Moon, D. H.; Oh, G.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Goh, J.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, K.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Reyes-Almanza, R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, G.; Duran-Osuna, M. C.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Rabadan-Trejo, R. 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V.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Stepennov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Parygin, P.; Philippov, D.; Polikarpov, S.; Tarkovskii, E.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Shtol, D.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. 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R.; Williams, T.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Benaglia, A.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Christos, M.; Feigelis, K.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Zhou, B.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    A search for a signal consistent with the type-III seesaw mechanism in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample consists of proton-proton collisions at √{s }=13 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb-1 . Selection criteria based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of oppositely charged lepton pairs are used to distinguish the signal from the standard model background. The observations are consistent with the expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to place limits on the production of heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model as a function of the branching ratio to each lepton flavor. In the scenario of equal branching fractions to each lepton flavor, heavy fermions with masses below 840 GeV are excluded. This is the most sensitive probe to date of the type-III seesaw mechanism.

  6. Search for Type-III Seesaw Heavy Fermions with Multilepton Final States using 2.3/fb of 13 TeV proton-proton Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for type-III seesaw signal in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample corresponds to $2.3\\,\\textrm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13\\,$TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Since the signal populates channels with at least three leptons and diverse kinematic properties, the data is binned in exclusive channels. The primary selection is based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign dilepton systems which helps discriminate the signal against the Standard Model background. The final optimization for the type-III seesaw signal is based on the sum of leptonic transerve momenta and missing transverse energy. Control samples in data are used to check the robustness of background evaluation techniques and to minimize the reliance on simulation. The observations are consistent with expectations from Standard Model processes. The results are used to exclude heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model wi...

  7. Search for evidence of Type-III seesaw mechanism in multilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for a type-III seesaw signal in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample corresponds to $35.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016. The signal is sought after in final states with at least three leptons, and has diverse kinematic properties. The primary selection is based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign lepton pairs, and helps discriminate the signal against the standard model background. The final optimization for the type-III seesaw signal is based on the sum of leptonic transverse momenta and missing transverse energy, as well as the transverse mass. The observations are consistent with expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to exclude heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model with masses below $850~\\mathrm{GeV}$ for the lepton-flavor democratic scenario.

  8. Genetic and expression studies of SMN2 gene in Russian patients with spinal muscular atrophy type II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type I, II and III is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1. SMN2 is a centromeric copy gene that has been characterized as a major modifier of SMA severity. SMA type I patients have one or two SMN2 copies while most SMA type II patients carry three SMN2 copies and SMA III patients have three or four SMN2 copies. The SMN1 gene produces a full-length transcript (FL-SMN while SMN2 is only able to produce a small portion of the FL-SMN because of a splice mutation which results in the production of abnormal SMNΔ7 mRNA. Methods In this study we performed quantification of the SMN2 gene copy number in Russian patients affected by SMA type II and III (42 and 19 patients, respectively by means of real-time PCR. Moreover, we present two families consisting of asymptomatic carriers of a homozygous absence of the SMN1 gene. We also developed a novel RT-qPCR-based assay to determine the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio as SMA biomarker. Results Comparison of the SMN2 copy number and clinical features revealed a significant correlation between mild clinical phenotype (SMA type III and presence of four copies of the SMN2 gene. In both asymptomatic cases we found an increased number of SMN2 copies in the healthy carriers and a biallelic SMN1 absence. Furthermore, the novel assay revealed a difference between SMA patients and healthy controls. Conclusions We suggest that the SMN2 gene copy quantification in SMA patients could be used as a prognostic tool for discrimination between the SMA type II and SMA type III diagnoses, whereas the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio could be a useful biomarker for detecting changes during SMA pharmacotherapy.

  9. Modulation of innate immune responses by Yersinia type III secretion system translocators and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliska, James B; Wang, Xiaoying; Viboud, Gloria I; Brodsky, Igor E

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune system of mammals responds to microbial infection through detection of conserved molecular determinants called 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs). Pathogens use virulence factors to counteract PAMP-directed responses. The innate immune system can in turn recognize signals generated by virulence factors, allowing for a heightened response to dangerous pathogens. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that translocate effector proteins, subvert PAMP-directed responses and are critical for infection. A plasmid-encoded T3SS in the human-pathogenic Yersinia species translocates seven effectors into infected host cells. Delivery of effectors by the T3SS requires plasma membrane insertion of two translocators, which are thought to form a channel called a translocon. Studies of the Yersinia T3SS have provided key advances in our understanding of how innate immune responses are generated by perturbations in plasma membrane and other signals that result from translocon insertion. Additionally, studies in this system revealed that effectors function to inhibit innateimmune responses resulting from insertion of translocons into plasma membrane. Here, we review these advances with the goal of providing insight into how a T3SS can activate and inhibit innate immune responses, allowing a virulent pathogen to bypass host defences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15718.001 PMID:27377244

  11. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of Cu/Ag doped type-III Ba24Ge100 clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiefei; Su, Xianli; Yan, Yonggao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhengkai; She, Xiaoyu; Uher, Ctirad; Tang, Xinfeng

    2017-09-01

    Type-III Ba24Ge100 clathrates possess low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity at room temperature and, as such, have a great potential as thermoelectric materials for power generation. However, the Seebeck coefficient is very low due to the intrinsically high carrier concentration. In this paper, a series of Ba24CuxGe100-x and Ba24AgyGe100-y specimens were prepared by vacuum melting combined with the subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Doping Cu or Ag on the Ge site not only suppresses the concentration of electrons but it also decreases the thermal conductivity. In addition, the carrier mobility and the Seebeck coefficient increase due to the decrease in the carrier concentration. Thus, the power factor is greatly improved, leading to an improvement in the dimensionless figure of merit ZT. Cu-doped Ba24Cu6Ge94 reaches the maximum ZT value of about 0.17 at 873 K, while Ag-doped Ba24Ag6Ge94 attains the dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.31 at 873 K, more than 2 times higher value compared to un-doped Ba24Ge100.

  13. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M. Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2–9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  14. Chain elongation and cyclization in type III PKS DpgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Chen; Li, Yi-San; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lyu, Syue-Yi; Wu, Chang-Jer; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2012-04-16

    Chain elongation and cyclization of precursors of dihydroxyphenylacetyl-CoA (DPA-CoA) catalyzed by the bacterial type III polyketide synthase DpgA were studied. Two labile intermediates, di- and tri-ketidyl-CoA (DK- and TK-CoA), were proposed and chemically synthesized. In the presence of DpgABD, each of these with [(13)C(3)]malonyl-CoA (MA-CoA) was able to form partially (13)C-enriched DPA-CoA. By NMR and MS analysis, the distribution of (13)C atoms in the partially (13)C-enriched DPA-CoA shed light on how the polyketide chain elongates and cyclizes in the DpgA-catalyzed reaction. Polyketone intermediates elongate in a manner different from that which had been believed: two molecules of DK-CoA, or one DK-CoA plus one acetoacetyl-CoA (AA-CoA), but not two molecules of AA-CoA can form one molecule of DPA-CoA. As a result, polyketidyl-CoA serves as both the starter and extender, whereas polyketone-CoA without the terminal carboxyl group can only act as an extender. The terminal carboxyl group is crucial for the cyclization that likely takes place on CoA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. /sup 31/P-NMR studies of a case of type III glycogenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Murase, Toshio

    1988-05-01

    /sup 31/P-NMR spectra of skeletal muscles were obtained from a patient of type III glycogenosis (33 y.o. man, reported by one of the authors, T. Murase, in 1973) and the control subject (32 y.o. man), using a superconducting whole body MR (Magnetom, Siemens). Two parameters, 1. muscle pH calculated from the chemical shift of Pi (inorganic phosphate) and PCr (creatine phosphate) and 2. PCr/Pi ratio were monitored before and after the aerobic or ischemic exercise. In resting state, the spectra were normal except for the muscle pH of thigh extensors (7.3), which was obviously higher than that of the control subject (7.0). Significant reduction of PCr/Pi ratio (from 7.0 to 4.1) was observed after the aerobic exercise in thigh extensors. Such a reduction was not recognized in the control subject. The ischemic exercise of forearm muscles revealed slight decrease in muscle pH (from 7.1 to 6.9), which was less prominent than that of the control subject. These results were compatible with the abnormality in the energy metabolism of this disorder, the block in the pathway of glycogenolysis.

  16. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III Overexpression By Gene Therapy Exerts Antitumoral Activity In Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in cirrhotic liver. The nitric oxide (NO synthase type III (NOS-3 overexpression induces cell death in hepatoma cells. The study developed gene therapy designed to specifically overexpress NOS-3 in cultured hepatoma cells, and in tumors derived from orthotopically implanted tumor cells in fibrotic livers. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 administration in mice. Hepa 1-6 cells were used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The first generation adenovirus was designed to overexpress NOS-3 (or GFP and luciferase cDNA under the regulation of murine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP and Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV promoters, respectively. Both adenoviruses were administered through the tail vein two weeks after orthotopic tumor cell implantation. AFP-NOS-3/RSV-Luciferase increased oxidative-related DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and caspase-8 activity in cultured Hepa 1-6 cells. The increased expression of CD95/CD95L and caspase-8 activity was abolished by l-NAME or p53 siRNA. The tail vein infusion of AFP-NOS- 3/RSV-Luciferase adenovirus increased cell death markers, and reduced cell proliferation of established tumors in fibrotic livers. The increase of oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by NOS-3 overexpression induced DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The effectiveness of the gene therapy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Cell individuality: the bistable gene expression of the type III secretion system in Dickeya dadantii 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; Laiosa, Michael D; Steeber, Douglas A; Biddle, Eulandria M; Peng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii 3937 is a gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium that expresses genes encoding a type III secretion system (T3SS) in a bistable pattern when cultured in a homogeneous minimal media. In this work, we further characterized the bistable gene expression of T3SS at the single-cell level. We demonstrated that bistable expression of the HrpL-regulon genes, such as hrpA and hrpN, is controlled by the same regulatory mechanism. We also showed that the expression level of the T3SS master regulatory gene hrpL plays an important role in the development of the bistable expression of hrpA. A high expression level of hrpL is required but unable to guarantee the high-state expression of hrpA in a cell. In addition, bistable expression patterns of T3SS genes in other gram-negative pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families were also described in this study. This suggests that the T3SS bistability might be a conserved population behavior in several gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  19. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  20. A Phosphorylation Switch on Lon Protease Regulates Bacterial Type III Secretion System in Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogenic bacteria deliver virulence factors into host cytosol through type III secretion systems (T3SS to perturb host immune responses. The expression of T3SS is often repressed in rich medium but is specifically induced in the host environment. The molecular mechanisms underlying host-specific induction of T3SS expression is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate in Xanthomonas citri that host-induced phosphorylation of the ATP-dependent protease Lon stabilizes HrpG, the master regulator of T3SS, conferring bacterial virulence. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome analysis revealed that phosphorylation of Lon at serine 654 occurs in the citrus host. In rich medium, Lon represses T3SS by degradation of HrpG via recognition of its N terminus. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that phosphorylation at serine 654 deactivates Lon proteolytic activity and attenuates HrpG proteolysis. Substitution of alanine for Lon serine 654 resulted in repression of T3SS gene expression in the citrus host through robust degradation of HrpG and reduced bacterial virulence. Our work reveals a novel mechanism for distinct regulation of bacterial T3SS in different environments. Additionally, our data provide new insight into the role of protein posttranslational modification in the regulation of bacterial virulence.

  1. 31P-NMR studies of a case of type III glycogenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Murase, Toshio

    1988-01-01

    31 P-NMR spectra of skeletal muscles were obtained from a patient of type III glycogenosis (33 y.o. man, reported by one of the authors, T. Murase, in 1973) and the control subject (32 y.o. man), using a superconducting whole body MR (Magnetom, Siemens). Two parameters, 1. muscle pH calculated from the chemical shift of Pi (inorganic phosphate) and PCr (creatine phosphate) and 2. PCr/Pi ratio were monitored before and after the aerobic or ischemic exercise. In resting state, the spectra were normal except for the muscle pH of thigh extensors (7.3), which was obviously higher than that of the control subject (7.0). Significant reduction of PCr/Pi ratio (from 7.0 to 4.1) was observed after the aerobic exercise in thigh extensors. Such a reduction was not recognized in the control subject. The ischemic exercise of forearm muscles revealed slight decrease in muscle pH (from 7.1 to 6.9), which was less prominent than that of the control subject. These results were compatible with the abnormality in the energy metabolism of this disorder, the block in the pathway of glycogenolysis. (author)

  2. Oxygen perovskites of type Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)RuIrO/sub 9/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrschmidt, E; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1980-11-01

    The black perovskites Ba/sub 3/Bsup(III)RuIrO/sub 9/ with Bsup(III) = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, In, Sc are isotypic. They crystallize in a hexagonal BaTiO/sub 3/ structure (sequence (hcc)/sub 2/). The mean oxydation state of the noble metal ions is +4.5.

  3. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL UNTUK SIMULASI KESELAMATAN REAKTOR PWR 1000 MWe GENERASI III+ MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM KOMPUTER RELAP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-04-01

    rinci. Kata kunci: pemodelan, Generasi III+, RELAP5.   Westinghouse’s AP1000 reactor design is the first Generation III+ nuclear power reactor to receive final design approval from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC. Currently, the China’s utilities are starting construction several units of AP1000 on two selected sites for scheduled operation in 2013–2015. The AP1000, based on proven technology of Westinghouse-designed PWR with enhancement on the passive safety system, could be considered to be built in Indonesia referring to the requirements of government regulation No. 43/2006 regarding the Nuclear Reactor Licensing. To be accepted by the regulation agency, the design needs to be verified by independent Technical Support Organization (TSO, which can be done using RELAP5 computer code as accident analyses. Currently, NPP safety accident analysis is performed for PWR 1000 MWe of generation II or conventional type. Considering that nowadays references about the technology of AP1000 that includes passive safety technology has been available and assessed, a modeling activity used for future accident analyzes is introduced. Method for developing the model refers to IAEA guide consisting of plant data collection, engineering data and input deck development, and verification and validation of input data. The model developed should be considered preliminary but has been generally representing the AP1000 systems as the basic model. The model has been verified and validated by comparing thermalhidraulic parameter responses with design data in references with ± 13% deviation except for core pressure drop with 13% lower than design. As a basic model, the input deck is ready for further development by integrating safety system, protection system and control system model specified for AP1000 for purposes of safety simulation in detailed way. Keywords: Modeling, Generation III+ , RELAP5.

  4. Type III Interferon-Mediated Signaling Is Critical for Controlling Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Virus Infection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Douam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever virus (YFV is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection. However, it remains unclear how type III IFN (IFN-λ integrates into this antiviral system. Here, we report that while wild-type (WT and IFN-λ receptor knockout (λR−/− mice were largely resistant to YFV-17D, deficiency in type I IFN signaling resulted in robust infection. Although IFN-α/β receptor knockout (α/βR−/− mice survived the infection, mice with combined deficiencies in both type I signaling and type III IFN signaling were hypersusceptible to YFV-17D and succumbed to the infection. Mortality was associated with viral neuroinvasion and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. α/βR−/− λR−/− mice also exhibited distinct changes in the frequencies of multiple immune cell lineages, impaired T-cell activation, and severe perturbation of the proinflammatory cytokine balance. Taken together, our data highlight that type III IFN has critical immunomodulatory and neuroprotective functions that prevent viral neuroinvasion during active YFV-17D replication. Type III IFN thus likely represents a safeguard mechanism crucial for controlling YFV-17D infection and contributing to shaping vaccine immunogenicity.

  5. [Surgical treatment for talar neck fracture of Hawkins III, IV type with compression hollow screws combined with external fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Xun; Wan, Chang-Tao; Yu, Li

    2017-05-25

    To investigate the clinical effects of compression hollow screws combined with external fixator in treating talar neck fracture of Hawkins III, IV type. From March 2010 to August 2014, 15 patients with talar neck fractures of Hawkins III, IV type were treated by open reduction and compression hollow screws fixation complicated with external fixator fixation. Including 9 males and 6 females, aged from 17 to 65 years old with an average of 37.5 years old. There were 9 cases of Hawkins III and 6 cases of Hawkins IV type. Postoperative radiographs and CT of ankle were used to evaluate the fracture healing and talar necrosis. The function of ankle and foot were evaluated by American Society of Ankle and Foot Surgery(AOFAS). All the patients were followed up for 8 to 55 months with an average of 23.5 months and all fractures got bone healing from 13 to 38 weeks with an average of (17.99±6.81) weeks. Traumatic arthritis occurred in 7 cases and talar necrosis in 6 cases (2 cases of type III and 4 cases of type IV) after operation. The average AOFAS score was 61.80±18.75, including excellent in 4 cases, good in 2 cases, fair in 4 cases and poor in 5 cases. Talar neck fracture with Hawkins III, IV type has large possibility to develop avascular necrosis. Hollow compression screw combined with external fixation may late weight-bearing for ankle and can sufficiently guarantee bone healing time, and achieve good results for the treatment of talar neck fracture.

  6. Type III Cells in Anterior Taste Fields Are More Immunohistochemically Diverse Than Those of Posterior Taste Fields in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney E; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2017-10-31

    Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Potential efficacy of enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapy in three siblings with Gaucher disease type III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox-Brinkman, J.; van Breemen, M. J.; van Maldegem, B. T.; Bour, L.; Donker, W. E.; Hollak, C. E. M.; Wijburg, F. A.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2008-01-01

    We report three siblings with Gaucher disease type III, born between 1992 and 2004. During this period, new developments resulted in different potential therapies, changing clinical practice. The two eldest siblings received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) from the age of 24 and 5 months

  9. Cierny-Mader Type III chronic osteomyelitis: the results of patients treated with debridement, irrigation, vancomycin beads and systemic antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mert

    2007-01-01

    Cierny-Mader (C-M) Type III osteomyelitis is defined as a localised lesion with both medullary and cortical involvement that is stable mechanically after debridement. The treatment of C-M Type III osteomyelitisis is difficult and requires a precise protocol to achieve a disease-free long-term follow-up. We report here the results of our study on 26 patients (19 men and 7 women; average age: 34.7 years) with C-M Type III osteomylelitis who were treated with radical debridement, irrigation, vancomycin-impregnated custom-made beads and culture-specific systemic antibiotics. Those patients with metaphyseal involvement were treated with deroofing of the cortex and debridement by means of a “trough” (16 patients); those with diaphyseal involvement were treated with both intramedullary reaming and debridement from a trough (ten patients). Antibiotic cement rods were used as an additional therapy in five patients with diaphyseal involvement. Recurrence developed in three patients and was attributed to inadequate debridement; all three patients were treated again in the same manner with success. The mean follow-up is currently 3.6 years (range: 2–6 years). All of the patients have normal clinical, radiographic and laboratory parameters, and all are ambulatory and have returned to their pretreatment level of activity or better. We conclude that C-M Type III chronic osteomyelitis can be safely treated with this protocol. PMID:17375299

  10. Extracellular secretion of a recombinant therapeutic peptide by Bacillus halodurans utilizing a modified flagellin type III secretion system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berger, E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available further 3.5-fold increase in the secretion of recombinant peptide fusions. Conclusions: The type III flagellar secretion system of B. halodurans has been shown to successfully secrete a therapeutic peptide as a heterologous flagellin fusion. Improvements...

  11. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    ) is considered the dominant "protective" immune mediator. Here we study the fine specificity and potential host reactivity of a panel of well-characterized murine monoclonal Abs against the type III CPS by examining the binding of the Abs to intact and neuraminidase-digested GBS, purified CPS, synthetic...

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via...

  13. ABNORMAL TYPE-III COLLAGEN PRODUCED BY AN EXON-17-SKIPPING MUTATION OF THE COL3A1 GENE IN EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIODO, AA; SILLENCE, DO; COLE, WG; BATEMAN, JF

    1995-01-01

    A novel heterozygous mutation of the COL3Al gene that encodes the alpha 1(III) chains of type III collagen was identified in a family with the: acrogeric form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS-IV). Cultured dermal fibroblasts produced normal and shortened alpha 1(III) chains. The triple helix

  14. On the distinction of the mechanisms of DNA cleavage by restriction enzymes—The I-, II-, and III-type molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    A comparative physical description is given for the functioning of various restriction enzymes and for their processes of DNA cleavage. The previously proposed model system of kinetic equations is applied to the I-and III-type enzymes, which use ATP molecules as an energy source, while the II-type enzymes work thanks to catalytic reactions with participation of an electric field. All the enzymes achieved bending and twisting DNA, providing for either the linear motion of the II-type enzyme along the DNA chain or the DNA translocation by the I-and III-type enzymes due to moving chiral kinks. A comparative estimation of the considered linear and angular velocities is performed. The role of stalling forces for enzyme-DNA complexes, which induce the observed cutting of the DNA either inside the enzyme (II) or in some “weak” places outside enzymes I and III, which results in the supercoiling of the DNA, is shown. The role of ionic screening for the described processes is discussed.

  15. The type III neurofilament peripherin is expressed in the tuberomammillary neurons of the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Jean-Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripherin, a type III neuronal intermediate filament, is widely expressed in neurons of the peripheral nervous system and in selected central nervous system hindbrain areas with projections towards peripheral structures, such as cranial nerves and spinal cord neurons. Peripherin appears to play a role in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration, but its exact function is not known. We noticed high peripherin expression in the posterior hypothalamus of mice, and decided to investigate further the exact location of expression and function of peripherin in the mouse posterior hypothalamus. Results In situ hybridization indicated expression of peripherin in neurons with a distribution reminiscent of the histaminergic neurons, with little signal in any other part of the forebrain. Immunocytochemical staining for histidine decarboxylase and peripherin revealed extensive colocalization, showing that peripherin is produced by histaminergic neurons in all parts of the tuberomammillary nucleus. We next used histamine immunostaining in peripherin knockout, overexpressing and wild type mice to study if altered peripherin expression affects these neurons, but could not detect any visible difference in the appearance of these neurons or their axons. Peripherin knockout mice and heterozygotic littermates were used for measurement of locomotor activity, feeding, drinking, and energy expenditure. Both genotypes displayed diurnal rhythms with all the parameters higher during the dark period. The respiratory quotient, an indicator of the type of substrate being utilized, also exhibited a significant diurnal rhythm in both genotypes. The diurnal patterns and the average values of all the recorded parameters for 24 h, daytime and night time were not significantly different between the genotypes, however. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that peripherin is expressed in the tuberomammillary neurons of the mouse

  16. PLN's experience with the WASP-III model in generation expansion planning for the Java system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudja, N.; Afiff, A.; Simarmata, B.

    1988-01-01

    The State Electric Power Corporation of Indonesia (PLN) was one of the first recipients of the WASP computer model, and since 1976 has been using the model (first the version WASP-II, and later the WASP-III version) for carrying out generation expansion planning studies for the country, and particularly, for the Java power system. This paper discusses PLN's experience with WASP-III and comments on some problems and constraints encountered, particularly: the time-fixed forced outage rate (FOR) assumed for generating units, simulation of the hydro system and computation time. The paper concludes with some suggestions about future enhancements to WASP-III. (author). 3 figs, 11 tabs

  17. Observation of solar radio bursts of type II and III at kilometer wavelengths from Prognoz-8 during STIP Interval XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, S.; Kecskemety, K.; Kudela, K.

    1982-04-01

    Type II and type III radio events were observed at low frequencies (2.16 MHz to 114 kHz) by the Prognoz-8 satellite during the period of STIP Interval XII in April and May, 1981, respectively. This review covers briefly a chronology of the sub-megahertz radio events, and where possible their association with both groundbased radio observations and solar flare. (author)

  18. Revision of the high energy hadronic interaction models PHOJET/DPMJET-III

    CERN Document Server

    Fedynitch, A

    2015-01-01

    The high-energy hadronic interaction model DPMJET-III is responsible for simulating nuclear interactions in the particle simulation package FLUKA. On the level of individual nucleon interactions it employs PHOJET, which provides sophisticated forward physics and diffraction models. This paper summarizes some of the recent developments, in particular regarding minimum-bias physics at the LHC, which apply to DPMJET-III and PHOJET at the same time.

  19. Measurement and modelling of liquidity risk under the Basel III rules

    OpenAIRE

    Turkuner, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    In compliance with Basel III rules this study aims to create a model capable of generating a balance sheet. In the light of several hypotheses and general data about Turkish Banking System the model generates a balance sheet and, hence Basel III liquidity ratios could be set their threshold values. Besides, with the sensitivity analysis possible impacts of balance sheet structure on the Liquidity Coverage Ratio which promotes the short-term resilience of the liquidity risk profiles of banks h...

  20. Skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type effects on lower incisor preoperative decompensation and postoperative compensation in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2011-01-01

    To determine the initial compensation, preoperative decompensation, and postoperative compensation of the lower incisors according to the skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type in skeletal Class III patients. The samples consisted of 68 skeletal Class III patients treated with two-jaw surgery and orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms were taken before preoperative orthodontic treatment (T0) and before surgery (T1) and after debonding (T2). According to skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy/vertical type (ANB, criteria  =  -4°; SN-GoMe, criteria  =  35°) at the T0 stage, the samples were allocated into group 1 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 2 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 3 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17), or group 4 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17). After measurement of variables, one-way analysis of variance with Duncan's multiple comparison test, crosstab analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. At T0, groups 3 and 2 exhibited the most and least compensated lower incisors. In group 2, good preoperative decompensation and considerable postoperative compensation resulted in different values for T0, T1, and T2 (IMPA, T0 lower incisors in Class III patients.

  1. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C 15 and Ob 15 ) and 30 (C 30 and Ob 30 ) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob 15 group was similar to the C 15 group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob 30 group was less than C 30 group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob 30 when compared with Ob 15 . Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression

  2. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares [Departamento de Esportes, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de [Escola de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Padovani, Carlos Roberto [Departamento de Bioestatística do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: dany.tomaz@gmail.com [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C{sub 15} and Ob{sub 15}) and 30 (C{sub 30} and Ob{sub 30}) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob{sub 15} group was similar to the C{sub 15} group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob{sub 30} group was less than C{sub 30} group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob{sub 30} when compared with Ob{sub 15}. Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression.

  3. Tracking the Cognitive, Social, and Neuroanatomical Profile in Early Neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Couto, Blas; Herrera, Eduar; Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Madrigal-Zapata, Lucia; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin; Villegas, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration, and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications, and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language, and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions), which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging. PMID:24324434

  4. Cone structure in patients with usher syndrome type III and mutations in the Clarin 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Västinsalo, Hanna; Roorda, Austin; Sankila, Eeva-Marja K; Duncan, Jacque L

    2013-01-01

    To study macular structure and function in patients with Usher syndrome type III (USH3) caused by mutations in the Clarin 1 gene (CLRN1). High-resolution macular images were obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 3 patients with USH3 and were compared with those of age-similar control subjects. Vision function measures included best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Coding regions of the CLRN1 gene were sequenced. CLRN1 mutations were present in all the patients; a 20-year-old man showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.N48K and p.S188X), and 2 unrelated women aged 25 and 32 years had homozygous mutations (p.N48K). Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/16 to 20/40, with scotomas beginning at 3° eccentricity. The inner segment-outer segment junction or the inner segment ellipsoid band was disrupted within 1° to 4° of the fovea, and the foveal inner and outer segment layers were significantly thinner than normal. Cones near the fovea in patients 1 and 2 showed normal spacing, and the preserved region ended abruptly. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in patient 3 where cones were lost. Cones were observed centrally but not in regions with scotomas, and retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in regions without cones in patients with CLRN1 mutations. High-resolution measures of retinal structure demonstrate patterns of cone loss associated with CLRN1 mutations. These findings provide insight into the effect of CLRN1 mutations on macular cone structure, which has implications for the development of treatments for USH3. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00254605.

  5. Tracking the cognitive, social and neuroanatomical profile in early neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind and empathy tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions, which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  6. The Type III Secretion System-Related CPn0809 from Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid C Engel

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS, which enables the pathogen to deliver, in a single step, effector proteins for modulation of host-cell functions into the human host cell cytosol to establish a unique intracellular niche for replication. The translocon proteins located at the top of the T3SS needle filament are essential for its function, as they form pores in the host-cell membrane. Interestingly, unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, C. pneumoniae has two putative translocon operons, named LcrH_1 and LcrH_2. However, little is known about chlamydial translocon proteins. In this study, we analyzed CPn0809, one of the putative hydrophobic translocators encoded by the LcrH_1 operon, and identified an 'SseC-like family' domain characteristic of T3S translocators. Using bright-field and confocal microscopy, we found that CPn0809 is associated with EBs during early and very late phases of a C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, CPn0809 forms oligomers, and interacts with the T3SS chaperone LcrH_1, via its N-terminal segment. Moreover, expression of full-length CPn0809 in the heterologous host Escherichia coli causes a grave cytotoxic effect that leads to cell death. Taken together, our data indicate that CPn0809 likely represents one of the translocon proteins of the C. pneumoniae T3SS, and possibly plays a role in the translocation of effector proteins in the early stages of infection.

  7. Cone Structure in Patients With Usher Syndrome Type III and Mutations in the Clarin 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Västinsalo, Hanna; Roorda, Austin; Sankila, Eeva-Marja K.; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study macular structure and function in patients with Usher syndrome type III (USH3) caused by mutations in the Clarin 1 gene (CLRN1). Methods High-resolution macular images were obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 3 patients with USH3 and were compared with those of age-similar control subjects. Vision function measures included best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Coding regions of the CLRN1 gene were sequenced. Results CLRN1 mutations were present in all the patients; a 20-year-old man showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.N48K and p.S188X), and 2 unrelated women aged 25 and 32 years had homozygous mutations (p.N48K). Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/16 to 20/40, with scotomas beginning at 3° eccentricity. The inner segment-outer segment junction or the inner segment ellipsoid band was disrupted within 1° to 4° of the fovea, and the foveal inner and outer segment layers were significantly thinner than normal. Cones near the fovea in patients 1 and 2 showed normal spacing, and the preserved region ended abruptly. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in patient 3 where cones were lost. Conclusions Cones were observed centrally but not in regions with scotomas, and retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in regions without cones in patients with CLRN1 mutations. High-resolution measures of retinal structure demonstrate patterns of cone loss associated with CLRN1 mutations. Clinical Relevance These findings provide insight into the effect of CLRN1 mutations on macular cone structure, which has implications for the development of treatments for USH3. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00254605 PMID:22964989

  8. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  9. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trupti Asolkar

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... (Asia), phylotype II (America), phylotype III (Africa) and phylotype IV (Indonesia). ... terium is the primary virulence factor and impairs water transport within its .... With the availability of genomic data through whole genome ...

  10. Modeling ecological and economic systems with STELLA : Part III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costanza, Robert; Voinov, Alexey

    2001-01-01

    This special issue contains a group of eight modeling studies covering a range of ecological and economic systems and problems. The models were all developed using Stella®, an icon-based software package specifically designed for dynamic systems modeling. Models included in the special issue were

  11. Spectroscopic investigations on the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with organic model ligands and their binding mode in human urine (in vitro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In case of incorporation, trivalent actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)) pose a serious health risk to humans. An(III) are artificial, highly radioactive elements which are mainly produced during the nuclear fuel cycle in nuclear power plants. Via hazardous accidents or nonprofessional storage of radioactive waste, they can be released in the environment and enter the human food chain. In contrast, Ln(III) are nonradioactive, naturally occurring elements with multiple applications in technique and medicine. Consequently it is possible that humans get in contact and incorporate both, An(III) and Ln(III). Therefore, it is of particular importance to elucidate the behaviour of these elements in the human body. While macroscopic processes such as distribution, accumulation and excretion are studied quite well, knowledge about the chemical binding form (speciation) of An(III) and Ln(III) in various body fluids is still sparse. In the present work, for the first time, the speciation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) in natural human urine (in vitro) has been investigated spectroscopically and the formed complex identified. For this purpose, also basic investigations on the complex formation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) in synthetic model urine as well as with the urinary relevant, organic model ligands urea, alanine, phenylalanine, threonine and citrate have been performed and the previously unknown complex stability constants determined. Finally, all experimental results were compared to literature data and predictions calculated by thermodynamic modelling. Since both, Cm(III) and Eu(III), exhibit unique luminescence properties, particularly the suitability of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) could be demonstrated as a method to investigate these metal ions in untreated, complex biofluids. The results of this work provide new scientific findings on the biochemical reactions of An(III) and Ln(III) in human body fluids on a molecular scale and

  12. Assembly and stoichiometry of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Takuma; Makino, Fumiaki; Dietsche, Tobias; Kinoshita, Miki; Kato, Takayuki; Wagner, Samuel; Namba, Keiichi; Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus, which is required for flagellar assembly beyond the cell membranes, consists of a transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR form the gate complex inside the basal body MS ring, although FliO is required for efficient export gate formation in Salmonella enterica. However, it remains unknown how they form the gate complex. Here we report that FliP forms a homohexameric ring with a diameter of 10 nm. Alanine substitutions of conserved Phe-137, Phe-150, and Glu-178 residues in the periplasmic domain of FliP (FliPP) inhibited FliP6 ring formation, suppressing flagellar protein export. FliO formed a 5-nm ring structure with 3 clamp-like structures that bind to the FliP6 ring. The crystal structure of FliPP derived from Thermotoga maritia, and structure-based photo-crosslinking experiments revealed that Phe-150 and Ser-156 of FliPP are involved in the FliP-FliP interactions and that Phe-150, Arg-152, Ser-156, and Pro-158 are responsible for the FliP-FliO interactions. Overexpression of FliP restored motility of a ∆fliO mutant to the wild-type level, suggesting that the FliP6 ring is a functional unit in the export gate complex and that FliO is not part of the final gate structure. Copurification assays revealed that FlhA, FlhB, FliQ, and FliR are associated with the FliO/FliP complex. We propose that the assembly of the export gate complex begins with FliP6 ring formation with the help of the FliO scaffold, followed by FliQ, FliR, and FlhB and finally FlhA during MS ring formation.

  13. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages and disadvanta......The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... suit their situations. This paper analyses the potential of different methods available for water managers to assess hydrological and geomorphological impacts on the habitats of stream biota, as requested by the WFD. The review considers both conventional and new advanced research-based instream...... physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water...

  14. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro, E-mail: kkohtaro@waseda.jp; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-05-13

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni{sup 2+}-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  15. Heterologous gene expression and functional analysis of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Shotaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the formation of pyrone- and resorcinol-types aromatic polyketides. The genomic analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 328 revealed that this strain has a putative gene (chr-8-2: 2978617–2979847) encoding a type III PKS, although its functions are unknown. In this study, for functional analysis of this putative type III PKS designated as An-CsyA, cloning and heterologous expression of the An-CsyA gene (An-csyA) in Escherichia coli were performed. Recombinant His-tagged An-CsyA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by Ni"2"+-affinity chromatography, and used for in vitro assay. Tests on the substrate specificity of the His-tagged An-CsyA with myriad acyl-CoAs as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as extender substrate showed that His-tagged An-CsyA accepted fatty acyl-CoAs (C2-C14) and produced triketide pyrones (C2-C14), tetraketide pyrones (C2-C10), and pentaketide resorcinols (C10-C14). Furthermore, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA were also accepted as starter substrates, and both of triketide pyrones and tetraketide pyrones were produced. It is noteworthy that the His-tagged An-CsyA produced polyketides from malonyl-CoA as starter and extender substrates and produced tetraketide pyrones from short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs as starter substrates. Therefore, this is the first report showing the functional properties of An-CsyA different from those of other fungal type III PKSs. -- Highlights: •Type III PKS from Aspergillus niger NRRL 328, An-CsyA, was cloned and characterized. •An-CsyA produced triketide pyrones, tetraketide pyrones and pentaketide resorcinols. •Functional properties of An-CsyA differs from those of other fungal type III PKSs.

  16. Interleukin-10 induction is an important virulence function of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis type III effector YopM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Joseph B; Mena, Patricio; Zhang, Yue; Bliska, James B

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species modulate host immune responses through the activity of a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system and its associated effector proteins. One effector, YopM, is a leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein that is important for virulence in murine models of Yersinia infection. Although the mechanism by which YopM promotes virulence is unknown, we previously demonstrated that YopM was required for the induction of high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in sera of C57BL/6J mice infected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. To determine if IL-10 production is important for the virulence function of YopM, C57BL/6J or congenic IL-10⁻/⁻ mice were infected intravenously with wild-type or yopM mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Analysis of cytokine levels in serum and bacterial colonization in the spleen and liver showed that YopM is required for IL-10 induction in C57BL/6J mice infected with either the IP32953 or the 32777 strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis, demonstrating that the phenotype is conserved in the species. In single-strain infections, the ability of the 32777ΔyopM mutant to colonize the liver was significantly increased by the delivery of exogenous IL-10 to C57BL/6J mice. In mixed infections, the competitive advantage of a yopM⁺ 32777 strain over an isogenic yopM mutant to colonize spleen and liver, as observed for C57BL/6J mice, was significantly reduced in IL-10⁻/⁻ animals. Thus, by experimentally controlling IL-10 levels in a mouse infection model, we obtained evidence that the induction of this cytokine is an important mechanism by which YopM contributes to Y. pseudotuberculosis virulence.

  17. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs

  18. Vibrio Type III Effector VPA1380 Is Related to the Cysteine Protease Domain of Large Bacterial Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Thomas; Kinch, Lisa N.; Fernandez, Jessie; Salomon, Dor; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2), but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator. PMID:25099122

  19. Vibrio type III effector VPA1380 is related to the cysteine protease domain of large bacterial toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Calder

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2, but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator.

  20. The resveratrol tetramer (--hopeaphenol inhibits type III secretion in the gram-negative pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Zetterström

    Full Text Available Society faces huge challenges, as a large number of bacteria have developed resistance towards many or all of the antibiotics currently available. Novel strategies that can help solve this problem are urgently needed. One such strategy is to target bacterial virulence, the ability to cause disease e.g., by inhibition of type III secretion systems (T3SSs utilized by many clinically relevant gram-negative pathogens. Many of the antibiotics used today originate from natural sources. In contrast, most virulence-blocking compounds towards the T3SS identified so far are small organic molecules. A recent high-throughput screening of a prefractionated natural product library identified the resveratrol tetramer (--hopeaphenol as an inhibitor of the T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study we have investigated the virulence blocking properties of (--hopeaphenol in three different gram-negative bacteria. (--Hopeaphenol was found to have micromolar activity towards the T3SSs in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cell-based infection models. In addition (--hopeaphenol reduced cell entry and subsequent intracellular growth of Chlamydia trachomatis.

  1. The TubR-centromere complex adopts a double-ring segrosome structure in Type III partition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, Bárbara; Martín-González, Alejandro; Carrasco, Carolina; Hernández-Arriaga, Ana M; Ruíz-Quero, Rubén; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, María A

    2018-05-14

    In prokaryotes, the centromere is a specialized segment of DNA that promotes the assembly of the segrosome upon binding of the Centromere Binding Protein (CBP). The segrosome structure exposes a specific surface for the interaction of the CBP with the motor protein that mediates DNA movement during cell division. Additionally, the CBP usually controls the transcriptional regulation of the segregation system as a cell cycle checkpoint. Correct segrosome functioning is therefore indispensable for accurate DNA segregation. Here, we combine biochemical reconstruction and structural and biophysical analysis to bring light to the architecture of the segrosome complex in Type III partition systems. We present the particular features of the centromere site, tubC, of the model system encoded in Clostridium botulinum prophage c-st. We find that the split centromere site contains two different iterons involved in the binding and spreading of the CBP, TubR. The resulting nucleoprotein complex consists of a novel double-ring structure that covers part of the predicted promoter. Single molecule data provides a mechanism for the formation of the segrosome structure based on DNA bending and unwinding upon TubR binding.

  2. A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Yang, Yuedong; Jennings, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions — phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown. Here, we interrogated a database of restriction-modification systems, REBASE, by searching for all simple DNA sequence repeats in mod genes that encode Type III N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases. We report that 17.4% of Type III mod genes (662/3805) contain simple sequence repeats. Of these, only one-fifth have been previously identified. The newly discovered examples are widely distributed and include many examples in opportunistic pathogens as well as in environmental species. In many cases, multiple phasevarions exist in one genome, with examples of up to 4 independent phasevarions in some species. We found several new types of phase-variable mod genes, including the first example of a phase-variable methyltransferase in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phasevarions are a common epigenetic regulation contingency strategy used by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:29554328

  3. Transferable tight-binding model for strained group IV and III-V materials and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to capture the effect due to strain and material interface for device level transistor modeling. We introduce a transferable s p3d5s* tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions for arbitrarily strained group IV and III-V materials. The tight-binding model is parametrized with respect to hybrid functional (HSE06) calculations for varieties of strained systems. The tight-binding calculations of ultrasmall superlattices formed by group IV and group III-V materials show good agreement with the corresponding HSE06 calculations. The application of the tight-binding model to superlattices demonstrates that the transferable tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions can be obtained for group IV and III-V materials.

  4. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  6. Changes in the proportions of types I and III collagen in hemorrhoids: the sliding anal lining theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sardiñas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine changes in the proportions of types I and III collagen in hemorrhoids and to verify the sliding anal canal lining theory. Patients and method: The study is focused on a sample of 17 patients, 9 females and 8 males (age range: 30–70 years, with grade III and grade IV hemorrhoids. Tissue from 4 fetuses (age: 16 weeks of gestation was used as control sample. All the participants gave their informed consent. Samples were gathered in 2014. All patients underwent open hemorrhoidectomy by using the technique described by Milligan and Morgan, published in Lancet journal in 1937. The hemorrhoid samples were stained with hematoxylin–eosin for the histologic study to confirm the hemorrhoidal tissue diagnosis. The picrosirius red staining protocol was used after the histologic analysis. The method used for image processing is described in the text. Images were imported to the Image Tool for Windows software. The same process was used on the embryonic tissue. Data resulting from the analysis of images were processed using STATISTICA, a software for statistical analysis. Results: When compared, it was found that the two tissues presented very different values, with hemorrhoids containing the highest type III collagen values. Conclusion: Our results seem to imply that hemorrhoids have a larger proportion of type III collagen than fetal tissue. They also suggest a possible age-related deterioration of the tissue. Resumo: Objetivo: Esse estudo tem por objetivo determinar mudanças nos percentuais do colágeno dos tipos I e III em hemorroidas e verificar a teoria do revestimento de canal anal deslizante. Pacientes e método: O estudo está focado em uma amostra de 17 pacientes (9 mulheres e 8 homes; faixa etária: 30-70 anos, com hemorroidas de graus III e IV. Utilizamos tecido de quatro fetos (idade: 16 semanas de gestação como amostra de controle. Todos os participantes deram consentimento informado. As amostras

  7. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation

  8. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moratorio Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4 and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119 of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a

  9. Spectroscopic and physical parameters of Galactic O-type stars. III. Mass discrepancy and rotational mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, N.; Puls, J.; Langer, N.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Massive stars play a key role in the evolution of galaxies and our Universe. Aims: Our goal is to compare observed and predicted properties of single Galactic O stars to identify and constrain uncertain physical parameters and processes in stellar evolution and atmosphere models. Methods: We used a sample of 53 objects of all luminosity classes and with spectral types from O3 to O9.7. For 30 of these, we determined the main photospheric and wind parameters, including projected rotational rates accounting for macroturbulence, and He and N surface abundances, using optical spectroscopy and applying the model atmosphere code FASTWIND. For the remaining objects, similar data from the literature, based on analyses by means of the CMFGEN code, were used instead. The properties of our sample were then compared to published predictions based on two grids of single massive star evolution models that include rotationally induced mixing. Results: Any of the considered model grids face problem in simultaneously reproducing the stellar masses, equatorial gravities, surface abundances, and rotation rates of our sample stars. The spectroscopic masses derived for objects below 30 M⊙ tend to be smaller than the evolutionary ones, no matter which of the two grids have been used as a reference. While this result may indicate the need to improve the model atmosphere calculations (e.g. regarding the treatment of turbulent pressure), our analysis shows that the established mass problem cannot be fully explained in terms of inaccurate parameters obtained by quantitative spectroscopy or inadequate model values of Vrot on the zero age main sequence. Within each luminosity class, we find a close correlation of N surface abundance and luminosity, and a stronger N enrichment in more massive and evolved O stars. Additionally, we also find a correlation of the surface nitrogen and helium abundances. The large number of nitrogen-enriched stars above 30 M⊙ argues for rotationally

  10. Kinetic modeling of antimony(III) oxidation and sorption in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongbing; Mi, Yuting; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-05

    Kinetic batch and saturated column experiments were performed to study the oxidation, adsorption and transport of Sb(III) in two soils with contrasting properties. Kinetic and column experiment results clearly demonstrated the extensive oxidation of Sb(III) in soils, and this can in return influence the adsorption and transport of Sb. Both sorption capacity and kinetic oxidation rate were much higher in calcareous Huanjiang soil than in acid red Yingtan soil. The results indicate that soil serve as a catalyst in promoting oxidation of Sb(III) even under anaerobic conditions. A PHREEQC model with kinetic formulations was developed to simulate the oxidation, sorption and transport of Sb(III) in soils. The model successfully described Sb(III) oxidation and sorption data in kinetic batch experiment. It was less successful in simulating the reactive transport of Sb(III) in soil columns. Additional processes such as colloid facilitated transport need to be quantified and considered in the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. TESTING GARCH-X TYPE MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We present novel theory for testing for reduction of GARCH-X type models with an exogenous (X) covariate to standard GARCH type models. To deal with the problems of potential nuisance parameters on the boundary of the parameter space as well as lack of identification under the null, we exploit...... a noticeable property of specific zero-entries in the inverse information of the GARCH-X type models. Specifically, we consider sequential testing based on two likelihood ratio tests and as demonstrated the structure of the inverse information implies that the proposed test neither depends on whether...... the nuisance parameters lie on the boundary of the parameter space, nor on lack of identification. Our general results on GARCH-X type models are applied to Gaussian based GARCH-X models, GARCH-X models with Student's t-distributed innovations as well as the integer-valued GARCH-X (PAR-X) models....

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  13. Reply to the paper 'Solar radio type III bursts and coronal density structures' by Y. Leblane and J. de la Noee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.

    1978-01-01

    Leblanc and de la Noee used the set of data published by Mercier and Rosenberg (1974) on the type III burst at 169 MHz. They conclude that type III bursts are associated with low density coronal structures and occur in low density regions. It is shown that their methods cannot lead to firm conclusions; some inconsistencies in their results are pointed out. (Auth.)

  14. Palliative treatment with radiation-emitting metallic stents in unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Guo, Jin-He; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Li; Wang, Chao; Pan, Tian-Fan; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The emerging data for stenting in combination with brachytherapy in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma are encouraging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiation-emitting metallic stents (REMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous placement with REMS or uncovered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma between September 2011 and April 2016 were identified into this retrospective study. Data on patient demographics and overall survival, functional success, stent patency and complications were collected at the authors' hospital. A total of 59 patients were included: 33 (55.9%) in the REMS group and 26 (44.1%) in the SEMS group. The median overall survival was 338 days in the REMS group and 141 days in the SEMS group (philar cholangiocarcinoma, and seems to prolong survival as well as patency of stent in these patients.

  15. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    Full Text Available Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  16. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region of the mo......We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    An acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthase from H. serrata has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å. Polyketide synthase 1 (PKS1) from Huperzia serrata is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that shows an unusually versatile catalytic potential, producing various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phlorogulucinols and acridones. Recombinant H. serrata PKS1 expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.3, b = 85.0, c = 137.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  18. Always one step ahead: How pathogenic bacteria use the type III secretion system to manipulate the intestinal mucosal immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchès Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intestinal immune system and the epithelium are the first line of defense in the gut. Constantly exposed to microorganisms from the environment, the gut has complex defense mechanisms to prevent infections, as well as regulatory pathways to tolerate commensal bacteria and food antigens. Intestinal pathogens have developed strategies to regulate intestinal immunity and inflammation in order to establish or prolong infection. The organisms that employ a type III secretion system use a molecular syringe to deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. These effectors target the host cell cytoskeleton, cell organelles and signaling pathways. This review addresses the multiple mechanisms by which the type III secretion system targets the intestinal immune response, with a special focus on pathogenic E. coli.

  19. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform......, are here characterized and their crystal structures determined. We conclude that the higher activity of the QAE1 isoforms cannot be attributed to single residues, but rather a combination of structural effects. Furthermore both ZvAFP6 and ZvAFP13 crystal structures have water molecules around T18...... equivalent to the tetrahedral-like waters previously identified in a neutron crystal structure. Interestingly, ZvAFP6 forms dimers in the crystal, with a significant dimer interface. The presence of ZvAFP6 dimers was confirmed in solution by native electrophoresis and gel filtration. To our knowledge...

  20. An Unusual Case Report of Bertolotti's Syndrome: Extraforaminal Stenosis and L5 Unilateral Root Compression (Castellvi Type III an LSTV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chaniotakis, Constantinos; Paraskevopoulos, Constantinos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    Castellvi Type III lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) is an unusual case of Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) due to extraforaminal stenosis, especially manifesting in elderly patients. We report a case of BS in a 62 years old Greek female. The signs of the clinical examination are low back pain, sciatica, hypoesthesia, and pain to the contribution of L5 nerve. Imaging techniques revealed an LSTV Type III a (complete sacralization between LSTV and sacrum). Despite the fact that LSTV is a congenital lesion, the clinical manifestation of BS may present in the elderly population. The accumulative effect of the gradual degeneration of intervertebral foramen (stenosis) may lead to the compression of extraforaminal portion of the nerve root.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via...... their activity in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular macromolecules such as collagens, resulting in the generation of specific cleavage fragments. These neo-epitopes may be used as markers of fibrosis....

  2. High frequency of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with SCCmec type III and Spa types t037 and t631 isolated from burn patients in southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Marashifard, Masoud; Yazdanpanah, Mahboobeh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Moein, Masoud; Naraki, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Methicilin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are the major challenges in hospitals, especially in the burn units. The use of molecular typing methods is essential for tracking the spread of S. aureus infection and epidemiological investigations. The aim of this study was to find the profile of the spa types and also the prevalence of each SCCmec type of S. aureus strains in a central burn hospital in southwest of Iran. A total of 81 non-duplicate S. aureus were isolated from burn patients between April 2011 and February 2012. The susceptibility of the isolates against 13 different antibiotics was tested by disk agar diffusion (DAD) method. MRSA strains were identified by amplification of mecA gene. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the SCCmec types of MRSA strains and all the S. aureus isolates were typed by spa typing method. Detection of mecA gene showed that 70 (86.4%) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest rate of resistance was observed for penicillin (97.5%) and erythromycin (77.8%). None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Sixty-seven of the 70 MRSA isolates harbored only SCCmec type III and three untypeable isolates. Five different spa types were detected. The most common spa types were t037 (42.5%) and t631 (34.5%) and were only found in MRSA isolates. Only SCCmec type III was found in burn patients which emphasizes the HA-MRSA origin of these strains. Only five different spa types identified in this study are in accordance with one SCCmec type which indicates that a limited number of bacterial colons are circulated in the burn unit in this hospital. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. MINIFILAMENT ERUPTION AS THE SOURCE OF A BLOWOUT JET, C-CLASS FLARE, AND TYPE-III RADIO BURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2017-01-20

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by H α images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory . The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND /WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  4. En bloc resection of extra-peritoneal soft tissue neoplasms incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sanjay S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A type III hemipelvectomy has been utilized for the resection of tumors arising from the superior or inferior pubic rami. Methods In eight patients, we incorporated a type III internal hemipelvectomy to achieve an en bloc R0 resection for tumors extending through the obturator foramen or into the ischiorectal fossa. The pelvic ring was reconstructed utilizing marlex mesh. This allowed for pelvic stability and abdominal wall reconstruction with obliteration of the obturator space to prevent herniations. Results All eight patients had an R0 resection with an overall survival of 88% and with average follow up of 9.5 years. Functional evaluation utilizing the Enneking classification system, which evaluates motion, pain, stability and strength of the affected extremity, revealed a 62% excellent result and a 37% good result. No significant complications were associated with the operative procedure. Marlex mesh reconstruction provided pelvic stability and eliminated all hernial defects. Conclusion The superior and inferior pubic rami provide a barrier to a resection for tumors that arise in the extra-peritoneal pelvis extending through the obturator foramen or ischiorectal fossa. Incorporating a type III internal hemipelvectomy with a simple marlex mesh reconstruction allows for complete tumor resection without functional compromise, acute infectious issues, obturator or abdominal hernia defects.

  5. [Triple no loop Endobutton plate combined with Orthcord line for the treatment of acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shui-Hua; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Chen, Wei-Dong; He, Jian-Hua; Ding, Hao; Hu, Qian-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Peng

    2016-07-25

    To explore the clinical effects of the triple no loop Endobutton plate combined with Orthcord line in treating acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III. Between February 2011 and September 2013, 36 patients with acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III were treated with triple no loop Endobutton plate and Orthcord line. There were 21 males and 15 females, aged from 9 to 48 years old with an average of (26.41±14.05) years. Couse of disease was from 2 to 7 days in the patients. The patients had the clinical manifestations such as shoulder pain, extension limited, acromioclavicular tenderness, positive organ point sign. Clinical effects were assessed by acromioclavicular scoring system. Thirty six patients were followed up from 8 to 15 months with an average of (12.2±4.3) months. All incisions got primary healing. At the final follow up, all shoulder pain vanished, acromioclavicular joints without tenderness, negative organ point sign. No redislocation and steel plate loosening were found. According to the acromioclavicular scoring system, 31 cases obtained excellent results, 5 good. The method of triple no loop Endobutton plate combined with Orthcord line for acromioclavicular dislocation of Tossy type III has advantage of less risk and complication, good functional rehabilitation and is an ideal method.

  6. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  7. Improving Hybrid III injury assessment in steering wheel rim to chest impacts using responses from finite element Hybrid III and human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Davidsson, Johan; Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Rundberget, Peter; Svensson, Mats Y; Thorn, Stefan; Törnvall, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the quality of injury risk assessments in steering wheel rim to chest impacts when using the Hybrid III crash test dummy in frontal heavy goods vehicle (HGV) collision tests. Correction factors for chest injury criteria were calculated as the model chest injury parameter ratios between finite element (FE) Hybrid III, evaluated in relevant load cases, and the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS). This is proposed to be used to compensate Hybrid III measurements in crash tests where steering wheel rim to chest impacts occur. The study was conducted in an FE environment using an FE-Hybrid III model and the THUMS. Two impactor shapes were used, a circular hub and a long, thin horizontal bar. Chest impacts at velocities ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 m/s were simulated at 3 impact height levels. A ratio between FE-Hybrid III and THUMS chest injury parameters, maximum chest compression C max, and maximum viscous criterion VC max, were calculated for the different chest impact conditions to form a set of correction factors. The definition of the correction factor is based on the assumption that the response from a circular hub impact to the middle of the chest is well characterized and that injury risk measures are independent of impact height. The current limits for these chest injury criteria were used as a basis to develop correction factors that compensate for the limitations in biofidelity of the Hybrid III in steering wheel rim to chest impacts. The hub and bar impactors produced considerably higher C max and VC max responses in the THUMS compared to the FE-Hybrid III. The correction factor for the responses of the FE-Hybrid III showed that the criteria responses for the bar impactor were consistently overestimated. Ratios based on Hybrid III and THUMS responses provided correction factors for the Hybrid III responses ranging from 0.84 to 0.93. These factors can be used to estimate C max and VC max values when the Hybrid III is

  8. Computer - based modeling in extract sciences research -III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular modeling techniques have been of great applicability in the study of the biological sciences and other exact science fields like agriculture, mathematics, computer science and the like. In this write up, a list of computer programs for predicting, for instance, the structure of proteins has been provided. Discussions on ...

  9. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  10. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  11. Asymmetric Gepner models III. B-L lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-06-21

    In the same spirit as heterotic weight lifting, B-L lifting is a way of replacing the superfluous and ubiquitous U(1){sub B-L} with something else with the same modular properties, but different conformal weights and ground state dimensions. This method works in principle for all variants of (2,2) constructions, such as orbifolds, Calabi-Yau manifolds, free bosons and fermions and Gepner models, since it only modifies the universal SO(10)xE{sub 8} part of the CFT. However, it can only yield chiral spectra if the 'internal' sector of the theory provides a simple current of order 5. Here we apply this new method to Gepner models. Including exceptional invariants, 86 of them have the required order 5 simple current, and 69 of these yield chiral spectra. Three family spectra occur abundantly.

  12. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture -- part III: model verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Based on conventional mass transfer models developed for oxygen, the use of the non-linear ASCE method, 2-point method, and one parameter linear-regression method were evaluated for carbon dioxide stripping data. For values of KLaCO2 < approximately 1.5/h, the 2-point or ASCE method are a good fit to experimental data, but the fit breaks down at higher values of KLaCO2. How to correct KLaCO2 for gas phase enrichment remains to be determined. The one-parameter linear regression model was used to vary the C*CO2 over the test, but it did not result in a better fit to the experimental data when compared to the ASCE or fixed C*CO2 assumptions.

  13. Adiabatic analysis of collisions. III. Remarks on the spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano, U.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of a spin-rotation model illustrates how transitions between adiabatic channel states stem from the second, rather than from the first, rate of change of these states, provided that appropriate identification of channels and scaling of the independent variable are used. These remarks, like the earlier development of a post-adiabatic approach, aim at elucidating the surprising success of approximate separation of variables in the treatment of complex mechanical systems

  14. Statistical model of a gas diffusion electrode. III. Photomicrograph study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsel, A W

    1965-12-01

    A linear section through a gas diffusion electrode produces a certain distribution function of sinews with the pores. From this distribution function some qualities of the pore structure are derived, and an automatic device to determine the distribution function is described. With a statistical model of a gas diffusion electrode the behavior of a DSK electrode is discussed and compared with earlier measurements of the flow resistance of this material.

  15. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P sleep in 3 patients, and led to training modifications in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cycle exercise improves VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...... a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2...... damage, but it also induces significant fatigue. This warrants study into alternative training methods to improve exercise capacity in SMA III patients....

  16. Computer modelling of the chemical speciation of Americium (III) in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shu-bin; Lei, Jia-rong; Wang, He-yi; Zhong, Zhi-jing; Yang, Yong; Du, Yang

    2008-01-01

    A multi-phase equilibrium model consisted of multi-metal ion and low molecular mass ligands in human body fluid has been constructed to discuss the speciation of Am 3+ in gastric juice, sweat, interstitial fluid, intracellular fluid and urine of human body, respectively. Computer simulations indicated that the major Am(III)P Species were Am 3+ , [Am Cl] 2+ and [AmH 2 PO 4 ] 2+ at pH 4 became dominant with higher pH value when [Am] = 1 x 10 -7 mol/L in gastric juice model and percentage of AmPO 4 increased with [Am]. in sweat system, Am(III) existed with soluble species at pH 4.2∼pH 7.5 when [Am] = 1 x 10 -7 mol/L and Am(III) existed with Am 3+ and [Am OH] 2+ at pH 6.5 when [Am] -10 mol/L or [Am] > 5 x 10 -8 mol/L . With addition of EDTA, the Am(III) existed with soluble [Am EDTA] - whereas the Am(III) existed with insoluble AmPO 4 when [Am] > 1 x 10 -12 mol/L at interstitial fluid. The major Am(III) species was AmPO 4 at pH 7.0 and [Am]=4 x 10 -12 mol/L in intracellular fluid, which implied Am(III) represented strong cell toxicity. The percentage of Am(III) soluble species increased at lower pH hinted that the Am(III), in the form of aerosol, ingested by macrophage, could released into interstitial fluid and bring strong toxicity to skeleton system. The soluble Am(III) species was dominant when pH 4 when pH > 4.5 when [Am] = 1 x 10 -10 Pmol/L in human urine, so it was favorable to excrete Am(III) from kidney by taking acid materials. (author)

  17. A small molecule mitigates hearing loss in a mouse model of Usher syndrome III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagramam, Kumar N; Gopal, Suhasini R; Geng, Ruishuang; Chen, Daniel H-C; Nemet, Ina; Lee, Richard; Tian, Guilian; Miyagi, Masaru; Malagu, Karine F; Lock, Christopher J; Esmieu, William R K; Owens, Andrew P; Lindsay, Nicola A; Ouwehand, Krista; Albertus, Faywell; Fischer, David F; Bürli, Roland W; MacLeod, Angus M; Harte, William E; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2016-06-01

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3), characterized by progressive deafness, variable balance disorder and blindness, is caused by destabilizing mutations in the gene encoding the clarin-1 (CLRN1) protein. Here we report a new strategy to mitigate hearing loss associated with a common USH3 mutation CLRN1(N48K) that involves cell-based high-throughput screening of small molecules capable of stabilizing CLRN1(N48K), followed by a secondary screening to eliminate general proteasome inhibitors, and finally an iterative process to optimize structure-activity relationships. This resulted in the identification of BioFocus 844 (BF844). To test the efficacy of BF844, we developed a mouse model that mimicked the progressive hearing loss associated with USH3. BF844 effectively attenuated progressive hearing loss and prevented deafness in this model. Because the CLRN1(N48K) mutation causes both hearing and vision loss, BF844 could in principle prevent both sensory deficiencies in patients with USH3. Moreover, the strategy described here could help identify drugs for other protein-destabilizing monogenic disorders.

  18. Cladding failure model III (CFM III). A simple model for iodine induced stress corrosion cracking of zirconium-lined barrier and standard zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasooji, A.; Miller, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    A previously developed unified model (SCCIG*) for predicting iodine induced SCC in standard Zircaloy cladding was modified recently into the ''SCCIG-B'' model which predicts the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of zirconium lined barrier cladding. Several published papers have presented the capability of these models for predicting various observed behaviours related to SCC. A closed form equation, called Cladding Failure Model III (CMFIII), has been derived from the SCCIG-B model. CFMIII takes the form of an explicit equation for the radial crack growth rate dc/dt as a function of hoop strain, crack depth, temperature, and surface iodine concentration in irradiated cladding (both barrier and standard Zircaloy). CMFIII has approximately the same predictive capabilities as the physically based SCCIG and/or SCCIG-B models but is computationally faster and more convenient and can be easily utilized in fuel performance codes for predicting the behaviour of barrier and standard claddings in reactor operations. (author)

  19. Delayed or No Feedback? Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Son, Donghoon; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: hjbae@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    We present gas kinematics based on the [O iii] λ 5007 line and their connection to galaxy gravitational potential, active galactic nucleus (AGN) energetics, and star formation, using a large sample of ∼110,000 AGNs and star-forming (SF) galaxies at z < 0.3. Gas and stellar velocity dispersions are comparable to each other in SF galaxies, indicating that the ionized gas kinematics can be accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies. In contrast, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. The [O iii] velocity–velocity dispersion (VVD) diagram dramatically expands toward high values as a function of AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven, while SF galaxies do not show such a trend. We find that the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [O iii] profile. AGNs with strong outflow signatures show on average similar specific star formation rates (sSFRs) to those of star-forming galaxies. In contrast, AGNs with weak or no outflows have an order of magnitude lower sSFRs, suggesting that AGNs with current strong outflows do now show any negative AGN feedback and that it may take dynamical time to impact on star formation over galactic scales.

  20. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java

  1. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

  2. Solar Magnetic Carpet III: Coronal Modelling of Synthetic Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Parnell, C. E.

    2013-09-01

    This article is the third in a series working towards the construction of a realistic, evolving, non-linear force-free coronal-field model for the solar magnetic carpet. Here, we present preliminary results of 3D time-dependent simulations of the small-scale coronal field of the magnetic carpet. Four simulations are considered, each with the same evolving photospheric boundary condition: a 48-hour time series of synthetic magnetograms produced from the model of Meyer et al. ( Solar Phys. 272, 29, 2011). Three simulations include a uniform, overlying coronal magnetic field of differing strength, the fourth simulation includes no overlying field. The build-up, storage, and dissipation of magnetic energy within the simulations is studied. In particular, we study their dependence upon the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and the strength of the overlying coronal field. We also consider where energy is stored and dissipated within the coronal field. The free magnetic energy built up is found to be more than sufficient to power small-scale, transient phenomena such as nanoflares and X-ray bright points, with the bulk of the free energy found to be stored low down, between 0.5 - 0.8 Mm. The energy dissipated is currently found to be too small to account for the heating of the entire quiet-Sun corona. However, the form and location of energy-dissipation regions qualitatively agree with what is observed on small scales on the Sun. Future MHD modelling using the same synthetic magnetograms may lead to a higher energy release.

  3. Thermodynamic model for solution behavior and solid-liquid equilibrium in Na-Al(III)-Fe(III)-Cr(III)-Cl-H2O system at 25°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Laurent; Christov, Christomir; Lassin, Arnault; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    The knowledge of the thermodynamic behavior of multicomponent aqueous electrolyte systems is of main interest in geo-, and environmental-sciences. The main objective of this study is the development of a high accuracy thermodynamic model for solution behavior, and highly soluble M(III)Cl3(s) (M= Al, Fe, Cr) minerals solubility in Na-Al(III)-Cr(III)-Fe(III)-Cl-H2O system at 25°C. Comprehensive thermodynamic models that accurately predict aluminium, chromium and iron aqueous chemistry and M(III) mineral solubilities as a function of pH, solution composition and concentration are critical for understanding many important geochemical and environmental processes involving these metals (e.g., mineral dissolution/alteration, rock formation, changes in rock permeability and fluid flow, soil formation, mass transport, toxic M(III) remediation). Such a model would also have many industrial applications (e.g., aluminium, chromium and iron production, and their corrosion, solve scaling problems in geothermal energy and oil production). Comparisons of solubility and activity calculations with the experimental data in binary and ternary systems indicate that model predictions are within the uncertainty of the data. Limitations of the model due to data insufficiencies are discussed. The solubility modeling approach, implemented to the Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. The resulting parameterization was developed for the geochemical Pitzer formalism based PHREEQC database.

  4. Projective limits of state spaces III. Toy-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Kijowski (1977) and Okołów (2009, 2014, 2013) [1,2], which describes the states of a quantum theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in Lanéry (2016). A strategy to implement the dynamics in this formalism was presented in our first paper Lanéry and Thiemann (2017) (see also Lanéry, 2016, section 4), which we now test in two simple toy-models. The first one is a very basic linear model, meant as an illustration of the general procedure, and we will only discuss it at the classical level. In the second one, we reformulate the Schrödinger equation, treated as a classical field theory, within this projective framework, and proceed to its (non-relativistic) second quantization. We are then able to reproduce the physical content of the usual Fock quantization.

  5. Modeling of the adsorptive removal of arsenic(III) using plant biomass: a bioremedial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Palas; Dey, Uttiya; Chattoraj, Soumya; Mukhopadhyay, Debasis; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the possibility of using a non-conventional finely ground (250 μm) Azadirachta indica (neem) bark powder [AiBP] has been tested as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of arsenic(III) from water. The removal of As(III) was studied by performing a series of biosorption experiments (batch and column). The biosorption behavior of As(III) for batch and column operations were examined in the concentration ranges of 50-500 µg L-1 and 500.0-2000.0 µg L-1, respectively. Under optimized batch conditions, the AiBP could remove up to 89.96 % of As(III) in water system. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed from batch experimental data sets which provided reasonable predictive performance ( R 2 = 0.961; 0.954) of As(III) biosorption. In batch operation, the initial As(III) concentration had the most significant impact on the biosorption process. For column operation, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the influence on the breakthrough time for optimization of As(III) biosorption process and evaluation of interacting effects of different operating variables. The optimized result of CCD revealed that the AiBP was an effective and economically feasible biosorbent with maximum breakthrough time of 653.9 min, when the independent variables were retained at 2.0 g AiBP dose, 2000.0 µg L-1 initial As(III) concentrations, and 3.0 mL min-1 flow rate, at maximum desirability value of 0.969.

  6. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben

    2017-01-01

    various species have been determined, the expression and purification of recombinant FLRT FnIII domains, important steps for further structural and functional characterizations of the proteins, have not yet been described. Here we present a protocol for expressing recombinant FLRT-FnIII domains...... that a strand-strand cystine bridge has significant effect on the stability of the FLRT FnIII fold. We further show by Surface Plasmon Resonance that all three FnIII domains bind to FGFR1, and roughly estimate a Kd for each domain, all Kds being in the µM range....

  7. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah E; Luca, Edlira; Pertot, Elyse; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2011-01-01

    Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs). Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling) can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K) signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  8. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Canetta

    Full Text Available Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs. Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  9. Procollagen type III amino terminal peptide and myocardial fibrosis: A study in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Moreira, Carlos; Serejo, Fátima; Alcântara, Paula; Ramalhinho, Vítor; Braz Nogueira, J

    2015-05-01

    An exaggerated accumulation of type I and type III fibrillar collagens occurs throughout the free wall and interventricular septum of patients with primary hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In the present study the serum concentration of procollagen type III amino terminal peptide (PIIIP) was measured to determine the value of this peptide as a potential marker of ventricular fibrosis in hypertensive patients, particularly those with LVH. The study population consisted of patients with never-treated mild to moderate essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects. Clinical, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and biochemical parameters were assessed in all patients. Heart rate, body mass index and levels of blood pressure were increased in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, compared to normotensive controls. Posterior wall thickness, left ventricular (LV) mass and LV mass index, and serum PIIIP concentration were also increased in hypertensives, with significant differences between the two hypertensive groups. The ratio between maximal early and late transmitral flow velocity measured during diastole was lower in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, than in normotensive controls. The increase in PIIIP indicates that type III collagen synthesis increases in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, implying that alterations in the heart in hypertension are the result not solely of hypertrophied LV muscle, but also of increased collagen deposition within the ventricular wall and around the coronary vessels. Thus, measurement of serum PIIIP could be a practical and useful tool in the non-invasive assessment of myocardial remodeling in hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Position-velocity images of butterfly-type nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icke, V.; Preston, H.L.; Balick, B.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the motions of the shells of the planetary nebulae NGC 2346, NGC 2371-2, NGC 2440, NGC 6058, NGC 6210, IC 1747, IC 5217, J-320, and M2-9 are presented. These are all 'butterfly' type PNs, and show evidence for bipolar shocks. The observations are interpreted in terms of a fast spherical wind, driven by the central star into a quasi-toroidal envelope deposited earlier by the star, during its slow-wind phase on the asymptotic giant branch. It is shown that this model, which is a straightforward extension of a mechanism previously invoked to account for elliptical PNs, reproduces the essential kinematic features of butterfly PNs. It is inferred that the envelopes of butterflies must have a considerable equator-to-pole density gradient, and it is suggested that the origin of this asphericity must be sought in an as yet unknown mechanism during the AGB, Mira, or OH/IR phases of late stellar evolution. 28 references

  11. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P

    2016-04-01

    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2 ± 0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials on in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Type-I/III collagen membranes are advocated for clinical use in articular cartilage repair as being able of inducing chondrogenesis, a technique termed autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Area covered: The current in vitro and translational in vivo evidence for chondrogenic effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials. Expert commentary: In vitro, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) adhere to the fibers of the type-I/III collagen membrane. No in vitro study provides evidence that a type-I/III collagen matrix alone may induce chondrogenesis. Few in vitro studies compare the effects of type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds on chondrogenesis. Recent investigations suggest better chondrogenesis with type-II collagen scaffolds. A systematic review of the translational in vivo data identified one long-term study showing that covering of cartilage defects treated by microfracture with a type-I/III collagen membrane significantly enhanced the repair tissue volume compared with microfracture alone. Other in vivo evidence is lacking to suggest either improved histological structure or biomechanical function of the repair tissue. Taken together, there is a paucity of in vitro and preclinical in vivo evidence supporting the concept that solid acellular type-I/III collagen scaffolds may be superior to classical approaches to induce in vitro or in vivo chondrogenesis of MSCs.

  13. Modeling neuropeptide transport in various types of nerve terminals containing en passant boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, I A; Kuznetsov, A V

    2015-03-01

    We developed a mathematical model for simulating neuropeptide transport inside dense core vesicles (DCVs) in axon terminals containing en passant boutons. The motivation for this research is a recent experimental study by Levitan and colleagues (Bulgari et al., 2014) which described DCV transport in nerve terminals of type Ib and type III as well as in nerve terminals of type Ib with the transcription factor DIMM. The goal of our modeling is validating the proposition put forward by Levitan and colleagues that the dramatic difference in DCV number in type Ib and type III terminals can be explained by the difference in DCV capture in type Ib and type III boutons rather than by differences in DCV anterograde transport and half-life of resident DCVs. The developed model provides a tool for studying the dynamics of DCV transport in various types of nerve terminals. The model is also an important step in gaining a better mechanistic understanding of transport processes in axons and identifying directions for the development of new models in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep vein thrombosis, an unreported first manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Horsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with severe right lower leg pain, edema and erythema was presented to the Emergency Department and was found to have an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT confirmed by ultrasound. She underwent an extensive evaluation due to her prior history of malignancy and new hypercoagulable state, but no evidence of recurrent disease was detected. Further investigation revealed pernicious anemia (PA, confirmed by the presence of a macrocytic anemia (MCV=115.8fL/red cell, Hgb=9.0g/dL, decreased serum B12 levels (56pg/mL, with resultant increased methylmalonic acid (5303nmol/L and hyperhomocysteinemia (131μmol/L, the presumed etiology of the DVT. The patient also suffered from autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD, and both antithyroglobulin and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were detected. She responded briskly to anticoagulation with heparin and coumadin and treatment of PA with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Our case suggests that a DVT secondary to hyperhomocystenemia may represent the first sign of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III-B (PAS III-B, defined as the coexistent autoimmune conditions AITD and PA. It is important to recognize this clinical entity, as patients may not only require acute treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation and prolonged anticoagulation, as in this patient, but may also harbor other autoimmune diseases.

  15. [Congenital type I antithrombin III deficiency with serious complications in a 7-year-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, M; Nagy, I; Schultz, K; Kiss, I; Gastonyi, V

    1989-03-19

    This case report concerns a child admitted to the County Hospital of Zalaegerszeg with the symptoms of ataxia, focal convulsions and hemiparesis. Anticonvulsive therapy abolished the epileptic manifestations, but hemiparesis remained unchanged. At the age of six and half years progressive venous thrombosis developed first on the left and some days later on the right lower limb. Phlebography revealed on both sides thrombosis of the vena iliaca which led to stenosis of the right femoral vein and dilated venous collaterals on the abdomen and right thigh. Coeliacography showed an enlarged spleen and varicosity around the portal vein. Later thrombosis of the arteria dorsalis pedis developed indicated by the gangrene the fifth toe. At this stage the child was transfered to the Pediatric Department of the University of Pécs for further evaluation. Examination of the hemostasis showed hypercoagulability due to antithrombin III deficiency pointing towards a common cause, namely thromboembolism of the earlier and recent clinical manifestations. A reduced activity of the antithrombin III was also observed in the mother and two sisters of the child. The response to Syncumar therapy was beneficial, arterial thrombosis regressed and no further thromboembolic complications developed.

  16. The type III secretion system is involved in the invasion and intracellular survival of Escherichia coli K1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yufeng; Xie, Yi; Perace, Donna; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Jie; Tao, Jing; Guo, Xiaokui; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems have been documented in many Gram-negative bacteria, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We have previously shown the existence of a putative type III secretion system in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strains, referred to as E. coli type III secretion 2 (ETT2). The sequence of ETT2 in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain EC10 (O7:K1) revealed that ETT2 comprises the epr, epa and eiv genes, but bears mutations, deletions and insertions. We constructed the E...

  17. Applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, T.; Kaminski, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    In design and operation of floating offshore structures, one has to avoid fatigue failures caused by action of ocean waves. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures. The applicability was investigated

  18. A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Statman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.

  19. [Medium-term outcome, follow-up, and quality of life in children treated for type III esophageal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, C; De Lagausie, P; Merrot, T; Baumstarck, K; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcome (health status, medical and surgical French National Health Authority-recommended follow-up, and quality of life) of children born with type III esophageal atresia (EA). Previous events (during the perinatal period, associated abnormalities, respiratory and digestive complications) of children treated for type III EA at the Marseille university hospitals between 1999 and 2009 were noted. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire concerning the health of their children during the previous year, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (PedsQL 4.0) was also completed by children aged more than 8 years. Among the 68 children treated, 44 responded to our solicitation (mean age, 7.6 years; range, 3-12.8 years). Previous important events were : pneumonia(s) (65%), asthma before the age of 3 years (66%), hospitalization for a respiratory event (45%), fundoplication (20%), and esophageal dilatation (45%). We noted current chronic cough (16%), asthma (30%), dysphagia (39%), and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (9%). National guidelines were not respected, except for the surgical indications in children aged less than 6 years. The quality-of-life scores (n=43 children) were similar to healthy controls but were negatively influenced by a gastrostomy procedure (P=0.020), pneumonia (P=0.013), and hospitalization due to a respiratory event (P=0.006) or a digestive event (P=0.010), and also by current asthma (P=0.004). In conclusion, despite recurrent respiratory or digestive symptoms and inadequate recommended follow-up, the quality of life of children treated for type III of EA is good. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. [Clinical value of "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" in resection of type III or IV hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-dong; Liu, Wei; Tao, Lian-yuan; Zhang, Zhen-huan; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Shuang-min

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the surgical technique of "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" in the treatment for type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The clinical data of 89 patients with type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma surgically treated in our department between Jan. 1990 and Jan. 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Since January 2000, "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis" was performed for some patients with advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups: group A treated between 1990 and 1999, group B between 2000 and 2008. The rate of resection, therapeutic efficacy and complications in these two groups were compared, respectively. Of the 37 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in group A, 4 were surgically treated (10.8%), with 1 (2.7%) radical resection and 3 (8.1%) palliative resection. Among the 52 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in the group B, 35 (67.3%) received surgical resection, of them 15 (28.8%) underwent radical resection and 20 (38.5%) had palliative resection. Twenty-eight of these 35 cases underwent the "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis". The resection rate of advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma in the group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P anastomosis" developed bile leakage to a varying degree and recovered after drainage and symptomatic treatment. The resection rate of type III or IV advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma can be remarkably improved by using a novel alternative surgical technique called "Kou mode of hepatic hilar anastomosis". However, the long-term outcome still needs to be determined by close follow-up and further observation.

  1. IGF-1 delivery to CNS attenuates motor neuron cell death but does not improve motor function in type III SMA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Kai; Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Ting, Chen-Hung; Dodge, James C; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Cheng, Seng H; Passini, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of administering a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding human IGF-1 (AAV2/1-hIGF-1) into the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) of a type III SMA mouse model was evaluated. High levels of IGF-1 transcripts and protein were detected in the spinal cord at 2 months post-injection demonstrating that axonal connections between the cerebellum and spinal cord were able to act as conduits for the viral vector and protein to the spinal cord. Mice treated with AAV2/1-hIGF-1 and analyzed 8 months later showed changes in endogenous Bax and Bcl-xl levels in spinal cord motor neurons that were consistent with IGF-1-mediated anti-apoptotic effects on motor neurons. However, although AAV2/1-hIGF-1 treatment reduced the extent of motor neuron cell death, the majority of rescued motor neurons were non-functional, as they lacked axons that innervated the muscles. Furthermore, treated SMA mice exhibited abnormal muscle fibers, aberrant neuromuscular junction structure, and impaired performance on motor function tests. These data indicate that although CNS-directed expression of IGF-1 could reduce motor neuron cell death, this did not translate to improvements in motor function in an adult mouse model of type III SMA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III 8-11 ) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III 8-11 scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin β1 but not with αvβ3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials

  3. Thermodynamic model for solution behavior and solid-liquid equilibrium in Na-Al(III-Fe(III-Cr(III-Cl-H2O system at 25°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the thermodynamic behavior of multicomponent aqueous electrolyte systems is of main interest in geo-, and environmental-sciences. The main objective of this study is the development of a high accuracy thermodynamic model for solution behavior, and highly soluble M(IIICl3(s (M= Al, Fe, Cr minerals solubility in Na-Al(III-Cr(III-Fe(III-Cl-H2O system at 25°C. Comprehensive thermodynamic models that accurately predict aluminium, chromium and iron aqueous chemistry and M(III mineral solubilities as a function of pH, solution composition and concentration are critical for understanding many important geochemical and environmental processes involving these metals (e.g., mineral dissolution/alteration, rock formation, changes in rock permeability and fluid flow, soil formation, mass transport, toxic M(III remediation. Such a model would also have many industrial applications (e.g., aluminium, chromium and iron production, and their corrosion, solve scaling problems in geothermal energy and oil production. Comparisons of solubility and activity calculations with the experimental data in binary and ternary systems indicate that model predictions are within the uncertainty of the data. Limitations of the model due to data insufficiencies are discussed. The solubility modeling approach, implemented to the Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. The resulting parameterization was developed for the geochemical Pitzer formalism based PHREEQC database.

  4. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Peterson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise training has long been established as an effective means to directly restore skeletal muscle glucose and lipid uptake and metabolism. However, in addition to the direct effects of skeletal muscle on glucose and lipids, there is renewed interest in the ability of skeletal muscle to coordinate metabolic activity of other tissues, such as adipose tissue and liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on the expression level of two novel muscle-derived secreted factors, or myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5, the precursor for Irisin.Methods. We performed immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Myonectin and FNDC5 in the diaphragm muscles of obese Zucker rat (OZR and lean Zucker rat (LZR with 9 weeks of aerobic training on a motorized treadmill.Results. We show that myonectin gene expression is increased in the OZR model of obesity and decreases with exercise in both lean and obese Zucker rats. Conversely, myonectin protein concentration was elevated with exercise. Similarly, FNDC5 mRNA levels are significantly higher in the OZR, however exercise training had no effect on the expression level of FNDC5 in either the LZR or OZR. We did not observe any difference in muscle protein content of Irisin with obesity or exercise.Conclusion. Our data shows that exercise training does not increase either FNDC5 or myonectin gene expression, indicating that increased transcriptional regulation of these myokines is not induced by exercise. However, our data also indicates a yet to be explored disconnect between myonectin gene expression and protein content. Further, this report highlights the importance of verifying reference genes when completing gene expression analysis. We found that many commonly used reference genes varied significantly by

  5. Lack of immunogenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC12 preparation administered by the oral route to human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, R W R; Cooper, K J; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Before a novel protein can be used in foods, its potential allergenicity must be assessed. In this study, healthy volunteers consumed ice structuring protein (ISP) Type III preparation or a control material 5 days a week for a total of 8 weeks. General measures of health were recorded during...... background against which to interpret the results. Nevertheless, the absence of an immune response using a protocol which could have been expected to result in a response with a strongly immunogenic protein, confirms the conclusions of earlier published work, and attests to the lack of allergenicity of ISP...

  6. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Pascal; Mance, Deni; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baldus, Marc; Lange, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  7. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Pascal [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Mance, Deni [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Chevelkov, Veniamin [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany); Baldus, Marc [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Lange, Adam, E-mail: alange@fmp-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  8. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong; Liu, Wen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Zhongren; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2

  9. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  10. Mathematical models applied to the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez C, Margarita; Pereira da Silva, Mônica; Ferreira L, Selma G; Vasco E, Oscar

    2007-07-19

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium continuous biosorption was studied using residual brewer Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in volcanic rock. The columns used in the process had a diameter of 4.5 cm and a length of 140 cm, working at an inlet flow rate of 15 mL/min. Breakthrough curves were used to study the yeast biosorption behavior in the process. The saturation time (ts) was 21 and 45 h for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, and a breakthrough time (tb) of 4 h for Cr(III) and 5 h for Cr(VI). The uptake capacity of the biosorbent for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 48 and 60 mg/g, respectively. Two non-diffusional mathematical models with parameters t0 and sigma were used to adjust the experimental data obtained. Microsoft Excel tools were used for the mathematical solution of the two parameters used.

  11. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I Cheol; Park, Cheol Jae

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

  12. Expression of synaptogyrin-1 in T1R2-expressing type II taste cells and type III taste cells of rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Takeshi; Toyono, Takashi; Seta, Yuji; Kitou, Ayae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyoshima, Kuniaki

    2013-09-01

    Synaptogyrins are conserved components of the exocytic apparatus and function as regulators of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. The synaptogyrin family comprises three isoforms: two neuronal (synaptogyrin-1 and -3) and one ubiquitous (synaptogyrin-2) form. Although the expression patterns of the exocytic proteins synaptotagmin-1, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin-2 and synaptophysin have been elucidated in taste buds, the function and expression pattern of synaptogyrin-1 in rat gustatory tissues have not been determined. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of synaptogyrin-1 and several cell-specific markers of type II and III cells in rat gustatory tissues. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assays and immunoblot analysis revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 mRNA and its protein in circumvallate papillae. In fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae, the antibody against synaptogyrin-1 immunolabeled a subset of taste bud cells and intra- and subgemmal nerve processes. Double-labeling experiments revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 in most taste cells immunoreactive for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule. A subset of synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells also expressed phospholipase Cβ2, gustducin, or sweet taste receptor (T1R2). In addition, most synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells expressed synaptobrevin-2. These results suggest that synaptogyrin-1 plays a regulatory role in transmission at the synapses of type III cells and is involved in exocytic function with synaptobrevin-2 in a subset of type II cells in rat taste buds.