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Sample records for models temperature logs

  1. Parameter estimation from flowing fluid temperature logging data in unsaturated fractured rock using multiphase inverse modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2009-01-15

    A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.

  2. Well-log based prediction of temperature models in the exploration of sedimentary settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea; Wonik, Thomas

    ) developed for matrix TC of sedimentary rocks. The equations resulted from a statistical analysis of an artificial set of mineral assemblages (consisting of 15 rock-forming minerals) typical for the different types of sedimentary rocks. The matrix TC was transformed into bulk TC by using a well-log derived...

  3. An Alternative Approach to Non-Log-Linear Thermal Microbial Inactivation: Modelling the Number of Log Cycles Reduction with Respect to Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Panagiotis Valdramidis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical approach incorporating the shoulder effect during the quantification of microbial heat inactivation is being developed based on »the number of log cycles of reduction « concept. Hereto, the heat resistance of Escherichia coli K12 in BHI broth has been quantitatively determined in a generic and accurate way by defining the time t for x log reductions in the microbial population, i.e. txD, as a function of the treatment temperature T. Survival data of the examined microorganism are collected in a range of temperatures between 52–60.6 °C. Shoulder length Sl and specific inactivation rate kmax are derived from a mathematical expression that describes a non-log-linear behaviour. The temperature dependencies of Sl and kmax are used for structuring the txD(T function. Estimation of the txD(T parameters through a global identification procedure permits reliable predictions of the time to achieve a pre-decided microbial reduction. One of the parameters of the txD(T function is proposed as »the reference minimum temperature for inactivation«. For the case study considered, a value of 51.80 °C (with a standard error, SE, of 3.47 was identified. Finally, the time to achieve commercial sterilization and pasteurization for the product at hand, i.e. BHI broth, was found to be 11.70 s (SE=5.22, and 5.10 min (SE=1.22, respectively. Accounting for the uncertainty (based on the 90 % confidence intervals, CI a fail-safe treatment of these two processes takes 20.36 s and 7.12 min, respectively.

  4. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  5. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  6. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  7. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  8. Probe for temperature logging of deep cold boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, M.; Cavagnero, G.; Rossi, A.

    2003-04-01

    A new probe has been developed for measuring some physical parameters in deep cold boreholes such as those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), which is targeted to drill two holes through the ice sheet down to the bedrock at DOME C and at Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The probe is operative in the temperature range 0 to -60^oC and for pressures up to 35 MPa, down to 3500 m depth and in the presence of aggressive fluid filling. The probe is equipped with : 1) a set of four thermometers. Three are fitted in the expandable arms of the probe, to log the temperature of the ice-wall. The fourth thermometer is fitted into a static arm in a central position, between the previous three, and logs the temperature of the borehole fluid, for comparison. Thermistor-type sensors have been selected, with a resolution of 2 mK in the interval near 0^oC. During laboratory tests a time constant of 2.7 s was obtained for the thermal sensors fitted in their protective case. After final assemblage of the probe the sensors were calibrated in the laboratory against a standard precision thermometer, over the range 0 to -60^oC; 2) a sensor for differential measurement of the pressure of the liquid column of the drill fluid, with a resolution of a few 10-6 MPa, sufficient to detect any convective cells, induced by the dishomogeneous composition of the mixing fluids; 3) a manometer (strain gauge) for measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the full range 0 to 35 MPa, from the surface to bottom hole, with a resolution better than 0.001 of the full range; 4) a vertical depth meter for direct measurement of depth on the wall of the borehole, to eliminate any uncertainties caused by variations in the length of the electro-mechanical drilling wire due to the fatigue and strain of drilling operations. The progressive depths are measured by a wheel counter and encoder on the upper arms of the probe, with an expected resolution better than 10-3; 5) a

  9. Procedures for Geometric Data Reduction in Solid Log Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Occeña; Wenzhen Chen; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    One of the difficulties in solid log modelling is working with huge data sets, such as those that come from computed axial tomographic imaging. Algorithmic procedures are described in this paper that have successfully reduced data without sacrificing modelling integrity.

  10. Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

  11. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

    2012-06-01

    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature.

  12. A forward modeling approach for interpreting impeller flow logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison H; West, L Jared; Odling, Noelle E; Bown, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous and practical approach for interpretation of impeller flow log data to determine vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity is presented and applied to two well logs from a Chalk aquifer in England. Impeller flow logging involves measuring vertical flow speed in a pumped well and using changes in flow with depth to infer the locations and magnitudes of inflows into the well. However, the measured flow logs are typically noisy, which leads to spurious hydraulic conductivity values where simplistic interpretation approaches are applied. In this study, a new method for interpretation is presented, which first defines a series of physical models for hydraulic conductivity variation with depth and then fits the models to the data, using a regression technique. Some of the models will be rejected as they are physically unrealistic. The best model is then selected from the remaining models using a maximum likelihood approach. This balances model complexity against fit, for example, using Akaike's Information Criterion.

  13. MODEL SELECTION FOR LOG-LINEAR MODELS OF CONTINGENCY TABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lincheng; ZHANG Hong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an information-theoretic-criterion-based model selection procedure for log-linear model of contingency tables under multinomial sampling, and establish the strong consistency of the method under some mild conditions. An exponential bound of miss detection probability is also obtained. The selection procedure is modified so that it can be used in practice. Simulation shows that the modified method is valid. To avoid selecting the penalty coefficient in the information criteria, an alternative selection procedure is given.

  14. A product autoregressive model with log-Laplace marginal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanichukattu K. Jose

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The log-Laplace distribution and its properties are considered. Some important properties like multiplicative infinite divisibility, geometric multiplicative infinite divisibility and self-decomposability are discussed. A first order product autoregressive model with log-Laplace marginal distribution is developed. Simulation studies are conducted as well as sample path properties and estimation of parameters of the process are discussed. Further multivariate extensions are also considered.

  15. Temperature logging as an aid to understanding groundwater flow in boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conaway, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole temperatures are affected by a range of physical phenomena, including drilling and engineering procedures, thermal resistivity of the rock, surface climatic changes, local heat sources and sinks, free convection of the borehole fluid, and water flows inside the borehole. As a result, temperature logs provide unique information not available from other logs. On the other hand, because the temperature log is sensitive to a variety of phenomena, one or more of these may obscure the effect being studied. In the case where groundwater is entering the borehole at one depth and exiting at another depth (or at the surface) the temperature disturbance resulting from this flow is likely to be a prominent feature of the temperature profile of the borehole. Because of this, water flows in boreholes are often a source of noise in temperature logs, obscuring the features of interest. Recently, however, unusual groundwater behavior was noted in several boreholes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and temperature logs were run as part of a program to study this phenomenon. In this case the groundwater flow has been the feature of interest in the logs, and the logs have been useful as an aid in understanding the water flow in those boreholes.

  16. Monte Carlo Numerical Models for Nuclear Logging Applications

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    Fusheng Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear logging is one of most important logging services provided by many oil service companies. The main parameters of interest are formation porosity, bulk density, and natural radiation. Other services are also provided from using complex nuclear logging tools, such as formation lithology/mineralogy, etc. Some parameters can be measured by using neutron logging tools and some can only be measured by using a gamma ray tool. To understand the response of nuclear logging tools, the neutron transport/diffusion theory and photon diffusion theory are needed. Unfortunately, for most cases there are no analytical answers if complex tool geometry is involved. For many years, Monte Carlo numerical models have been used by nuclear scientists in the well logging industry to address these challenges. The models have been widely employed in the optimization of nuclear logging tool design, and the development of interpretation methods for nuclear logs. They have also been used to predict the response of nuclear logging systems for forward simulation problems. In this case, the system parameters including geometry, materials and nuclear sources, etc., are pre-defined and the transportation and interactions of nuclear particles (such as neutrons, photons and/or electrons in the regions of interest are simulated according to detailed nuclear physics theory and their nuclear cross-section data (probability of interacting. Then the deposited energies of particles entering the detectors are recorded and tallied and the tool responses to such a scenario are generated. A general-purpose code named Monte Carlo N– Particle (MCNP has been the industry-standard for some time. In this paper, we briefly introduce the fundamental principles of Monte Carlo numerical modeling and review the physics of MCNP. Some of the latest developments of Monte Carlo Models are also reviewed. A variety of examples are presented to illustrate the uses of Monte Carlo numerical models

  17. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  18. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  19. Log-periodic behavior in a forest-fire model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Malamud

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores log-periodicity in a forest-fire cellular-automata model. At each time step of this model a tree is dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is unoccupied, the tree is planted. Then, for a given sparking frequency, matches are dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is occupied by a tree, the tree ignites and an 'instantaneous' model fire consumes that tree and all adjacent trees. The resultant frequency-area distribution for the small and medium model fires is a power-law. However, if we consider very small sparking frequencies, the large model fires that span the square grid are dominant, and we find that the peaks in the frequency-area distribution of these large fires satisfy log-periodic scaling to a good approximation. This behavior can be examined using a simple mean-field model, where in time, the density of trees on the grid exponentially approaches unity. This exponential behavior coupled with a periodic or near-periodic sparking frequency also generates a sequence of peaks in the frequency-area distribution of large fires that satisfy log-periodic scaling. We conclude that the forest-fire model might provide a relatively simple explanation for the log-periodic behavior often seen in nature.

  20. Validation of an internal hardwood log defect prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The type, size, and location of internal defects dictate the grade and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. However, acquiring internal defect knowledge with x-ray/computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance imaging technology can be expensive both in time and cost. An alternative approach uses prediction models based on correlations among external defect indicators...

  1. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  2. In-situ coal seam and overburden permeability characterization combining downhole flow meter and temperature logs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Julia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The planning and design of any coal mine development requires among others a thorough investigation of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological subsurface conditions. As part of a coal mine exploration program we conducted heat pulse vertical flow meter testing. The flow data were combined with absolute and differential temperature logging data to gain information about the hydraulic characteristics of two different coal seams and their over- and interburden. For the strata that were localised based on geophysical logging data including density, gamma ray and resistivity hydraulic properties were quantified. We demonstrate that the temperature log response complements the flow meter log response. A coupling of both methods is therefore recommended to get an insight into the hydraulic conditions in a coal seam and its overburden.

  3. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  4. Feasibility investigation and design study of optical well logging methods for high temperature geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, R.K.; Anderson, R.E.; Ash, J.I.; Beissner, R.E.; Smith, V.D.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this project was exploration of a novel approach to high temperature well logging, based on a system of optical transducers and an optical transmission line both theoretically capable of operation to at least 600/sup 0/C. The scope of the work involved the accomplishment of ten specific tasks. These had as their objective the determination of feasibility, and identification of major problem areas, in the implementation of continuous temperature logging of geothermal wells using optical techniques. The following tasks are reported: literature review and data compilation, measurement of fiber properties production fiber procurement, investigation of methods of fiber termination, cable design and fabrication, and sensor and system studies. (MHR)

  5. Variational Bayes for Regime-Switching Log-Normal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The power of projection using divergence functions is a major theme in information geometry. One version of this is the variational Bayes (VB method. This paper looks at VB in the context of other projection-based methods in information geometry. It also describes how to apply VB to the regime-switching log-normal model and how it provides a computationally fast solution to quantify the uncertainty in the model specification. The results show that the method can recover exactly the model structure, gives the reasonable point estimates and is very computationally efficient. The potential problems of the method in quantifying the parameter uncertainty are discussed.

  6. Modeling and interpretation of Q logs in carbonate rock using a double porosity model and well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.

    2006-03-01

    Attenuation data extracted from full waveform sonic logs is sensitive to vuggy and matrix porosities in a carbonate aquifer. This is consistent with the synthetic attenuation (1 / Q) as a function of depth at the borehole-sonic source-peak frequency of 10 kHz. We use velocity and densities versus porosity relationships based on core and well log data to determine the matrix, secondary, and effective bulk moduli. The attenuation model requires the bulk modulus of the primary and secondary porosities. We use a double porosity model that allows us to investigate attenuation at the mesoscopic scale. Thus, the secondary and primary porosities in the aquifer should respond with different changes in fluid pressure. The results show a high permeability region with a Q that varies from 25 to 50 and correlates with the stiffer part of the carbonate formation. This pore structure permits water to flow between the interconnected vugs and the matrix. In this region the double porosity model predicts a decrease in the attenuation at lower frequencies that is associated with fluid flowing from the more compliant high-pressure regions (interconnected vug space) to the relatively stiff, low-pressure regions (matrix). The chalky limestone with a low Q of 17 is formed by a muddy porous matrix with soft pores. This low permeability region correlates with the low matrix bulk modulus. A low Q of 18 characterizes the soft sandy carbonate rock above the vuggy carbonate. This paper demonstrates the use of attenuation logs for discriminating between lithology and provides information on the pore structure when integrated with cores and other well logs. In addition, the paper demonstrates the practical application of a new double porosity model to interpret the attenuation at sonic frequencies by achieving a good match between measured and modeled attenuation.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.

  8. A modification of the fusion model for log polar coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, N. C.; Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fusion mechanism for application in stereo analysis of range restricted the depth of field and therefore required a shift variant mechanism in the peripheral area to find disparity. Misregistration was prevented by restricting the disparity detection range to a neighborhood spanned by the directional edge detection filters. This transformation was essentially accomplished by a nonuniform resampling of the original image in a horizontal direction. While this is easily implemented for digital processing, the approach does not (in the peripheral vision area) model the log-conformal mapping which is known to occur in the human mechanism. This paper therefore modifies the original fusion concept in the peripheral area to include the polar exponential grid-to-log conformal tesselation. Examples of the fusion process resulting in accurate disparity values are given.

  9. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  10. Combination of Well-Logging Temperature and Thermal Remote Sensing for Characterization of Geothermal Resources in Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwei Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal resources have become an increasingly important source of renewable energy for electrical power generation worldwide. Combined Three Dimension (3D Subsurface Temperature (SST and Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements are essential for accurate assessment of geothermal resources. In this study, subsurface and surface temperature distributions were combined using a dataset comprised of well logs and Thermal Infrared Remote sensing (TIR images from Hokkaido island, northern Japan. Using 28,476 temperature data points from 433 boreholes sites and a method of Kriging with External Drift or trend (KED, SST distribution model from depths of 100 to 1500 m was produced. Regional LST was estimated from 13 scenes of Landsat 8 images. Resultant SST ranged from around 50 °C to 300 °C at a depth of 1500 m. Most of western and part of the eastern Hokkaido are characterized by high temperature gradients, while low temperatures were found in the central region. Higher temperatures in shallower crust imply the western region and part of the eastern region have high geothermal potential. Moreover, several LST zones considered to have high geothermal potential were identified upon clarification of the underground heat distribution according to 3D SST. LST in these zones showed the anomalies, 3 to 9 °C higher than the surrounding areas. These results demonstrate that our combination of TIR and 3D temperature modeling using well logging and geostatistics is an efficient and promising approach to geothermal resource exploration.

  11. Monte Carlo Numerical Models for Nuclear Logging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fusheng Li; Xiaogang Han

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear logging is one of most important logging services provided by many oil service companies. The main parameters of interest are formation porosity, bulk density, and natural radiation. Other services are also provided from using complex nuclear logging tools, such as formation lithology/mineralogy, etc. Some parameters can be measured by using neutron logging tools and some can only be measured by using a gamma ray tool. To understand the response of nuclear logging tools, the neutron t...

  12. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  13. Development of a log-quadratic model to describe microbial inactivation, illustrated by thermal inactivation of Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G; Chapman, B; Lovell, D

    2009-11-01

    In the commercial food industry, demonstration of microbiological safety and thermal process equivalence often involves a mathematical framework that assumes log-linear inactivation kinetics and invokes concepts of decimal reduction time (D(T)), z values, and accumulated lethality. However, many microbes, particularly spores, exhibit inactivation kinetics that are not log linear. This has led to alternative modeling approaches, such as the biphasic and Weibull models, that relax strong log-linear assumptions. Using a statistical framework, we developed a novel log-quadratic model, which approximates the biphasic and Weibull models and provides additional physiological interpretability. As a statistical linear model, the log-quadratic model is relatively simple to fit and straightforwardly provides confidence intervals for its fitted values. It allows a D(T)-like value to be derived, even from data that exhibit obvious "tailing." We also showed how existing models of non-log-linear microbial inactivation, such as the Weibull model, can fit into a statistical linear model framework that dramatically simplifies their solution. We applied the log-quadratic model to thermal inactivation data for the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and evaluated its merits compared with those of popular previously described approaches. The log-quadratic model was used as the basis of a secondary model that can capture the dependence of microbial inactivation kinetics on temperature. This model, in turn, was linked to models of spore inactivation of Sapru et al. and Rodriguez et al. that posit different physiological states for spores within a population. We believe that the log-quadratic model provides a useful framework in which to test vitalistic and mechanistic hypotheses of inactivation by thermal and other processes.

  14. BASIC THEORY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF URBAN RAINSTORM WATER LOGGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-ming; ZHANG Hong-ping; LI Bing-fei; XIE Yi-yang; LI Pei-yan; HAN Su-qin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for the urban rainstorm water logging was established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional unsteady flow theory and the technique of non-structural irregular grid division. The continuity equation was discretized with the finite volume method. And the momentum equations were differently simplified and discretized for different cases. A method of "special passage" was proposed to deal with small-scale rivers and open channels. The urban drainage system was simplified and simulated in the model. The method of "open slot" was applied to coordinate the alternate calculation of open channel flow and pressure flow in drainage pipes. The model has been applied in Tianjin City and the verification is quite satisfactory.

  15. User Modeling Combining Access Logs, Page Content and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuna, Blaz; Grobelnik, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to modeling users of large Web sites based on combining different data sources: access logs and content of the accessed pages are combined with semantic information about the Web pages, the users and the accesses of the users to the Web site. The assumption is that we are dealing with a large Web site providing content to a large number of users accessing the site. The proposed approach represents each user by a set of features derived from the different data sources, where some feature values may be missing for some users. It further enables user modeling based on the provided characteristics of the targeted user subset. The approach is evaluated on real-world data where we compare performance of the automatic assignment of a user to a predefined user segment when different data sources are used to represent the users.

  16. Design of a pressure/temperature logging system for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysne, P.; Henfling, J.

    1994-04-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools is under development at Sandia. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, use in holes to 425{degree}C (800{degree}F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. Prototype tools are available for evaluation by the geothermal industry.

  17. Temperature logging of groundwater in bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Geological Survey, measured the fluid temperature of groundwater in deep bedrock wells in the State of New Hampshire in order to characterize geothermal gradients in bedrock. All wells selected for the study had low water yields, which correspond to low groundwater flow from fractures. This reduced the potential for flow-induced temperature changes that would mask the natural geothermal gradient in the bedrock. All the wells included in this study were privately owned, and permission to use the wells was obtained from homeowners before logging.

  18. Design A Prototype of Temperature Logging Tools for Geothermal Prospecting Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The costs of geothermal exploration are very high because technology is still imported from other countries. The local business players in the geothermal sector do not have the ability to compete with global companies. To reduce costs, we need to develop our own equipment with competitive prices. Here in Indonesia, we have started to design a prototype of temperature logging tools for geothermal prospecting areas. This equipment can be used to detect temperature versus depth variations. To measure the thermal gradient, the platinum resistor temperature sensor is moved slowly down along the borehole. The displacement along the borehole is measured by a rotary encoder. This system is controlled by a 16-bit H8/3069F microcontroller. The acquired temperature data is displayed on a PC monitor using a Python Graphical User Interface. The system has been already tested in the Gunung Pancar geothermal prospect area in Bogor.

  19. Temperature-depth relationships based on log data from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Estrada, G.; Lopez-Hernandez, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Equilibrium temperatures based on log data acquired during drilling stops in the Los Azufres geothermal field were used to study the relationship between temperature, depth and conductive heat flow that differentiate production from non-production areas. Temperature and thermal conductivity data from 62 geothermal wells were analyzed, displaying temperature-depth, gradient-depth, and ternary temperature-gradient-depth plots. In the ternary plot, the production wells of Los Azufres are located near the temperature vertex, where normalized temperatures are over 0.50 units, or where the temperature gradient is over 165{sup o}C/ km. In addition, the temperature data were used to estimate the depth at which 600{sup o}C could be reached (5-9 km) and the regional background conductive heat flow ({approx_equal}106 mW/m{sup 2}). Estimates are also given for the conductive heat flow associated with the conductive cooling of an intrusive body ({approx_equal}295 mW/m{sup 2}), and the conductive heat flow component in low-permeability blocks inside the reservoir associated with convection in limiting open faults (from 69 to 667 mW/m{sup 2}). The method applied in this study may be useful to interpret data from new geothermal areas still under exploration by comparing with the results obtained from Los Azufres. (author)

  20. A log-linear multidimensional Rasch model for capture-recapture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, E; Hessen, D J; van der Heijden, P G M

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a log-linear multidimensional Rasch model is proposed for capture-recapture analysis of registration data. In the model, heterogeneity of capture probabilities is taken into account, and registrations are viewed as dichotomously scored indicators of one or more latent variables that can account for correlations among registrations. It is shown how the probability of a generic capture profile is expressed under the log-linear multidimensional Rasch model and how the parameters of the traditional log-linear model are derived from those of the log-linear multidimensional Rasch model. Finally, an application of the model to neural tube defects data is presented.

  1. Production-log base model for carbonate permeability distribution and steam flood optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamed, S.F.; Choudhry, M.A.; Abdulbaqi, J.B. [Kuwait Gulf Oil Co. (Kuwait)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a model for the effective management of primary and thermal oil recovery operations in the Wafra Field in Kuwait, where a small huff and puff project was carried out in 1998 to determine if steam injection was a feasible recovery option for the field. The Eocene heavy oil reservoirs of the Wafra Field are carbonate rock admixtures with gypsum and anhydrite. They are the shallowest of the field's productive horizons and exhibit a high degree of fluid flow heterogeneity. The assessment of vertical and lateral permeability variation is a key factor for success of the reservoir development plan. Steam injection began in 2006 in a small scale test (SST) to determine if the innovative technology could produce steam from effluent water and to test the viability of steam injection in carbonate reservoirs. Following the success of the SST, a large scale pilot (LSP) is schedule to start in 2009. It can be used for completion strategies of injectors and producers in steam injection. The model showed that the productivity of the Eocene wells could be correlated with common available logs to develop a log based-permeability model. A series of cross plots for the perforated intervals of high and low productivity wells were constructed to develop a relationship between well productivity and location of log parameters on the plots. A relationship between rock quality, productivity and conventional log parameters was established. It was concluded that the vertical permeability and interwell continuity in the Eocene wells can be used to optimize new well placement for horizontal and vertical infill drilling. The model is also an effective tool to predict the steam injectivity profile to understand the anomalies related to temperature-depth distribution. The model can be used to improve the efficiency of formation heating by optimizing the steam flood process and steam pattern well completion. 16 refs.

  2. Full 3-D numerical modeling of borehole electric image logging and the evaluation model of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full 3-D finite element method numerical modeling program is written based on the principle and technical specification of borehole electric image well logging tool. The response of well logging is computed in the formation media model with a single fracture. The effect of changing fracture aperture and resistivity ratio to the logging response is discussed. The identification ability for two parallel fractures is also present. A quantitative evaluation formula of fracture aperture from borehole electric image logging data is set up. A case study of the model well is done to verify the accuracy of the for-mula. The result indicates that the formula is more accurate than the foreign one.

  3. Uncertainties and shortcomings of ground surface temperature histories derived from inversion of temperature logs

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Rath, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Analysing borehole temperature data in terms of ground surface history can add useful information to reconstructions of past climates. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of uncertainties and error sources is a necessary prerequisite for the meaningful interpretation of such ground surface temperature histories. This study analyses the most prominent sources of uncertainty. The diffusive nature of the process makes the inversion relatively robust against incomplete knowledge of the thermal diffu...

  4. DOES YOUR EVENT LOG FIT THE HIGH-LEVEL PROCESS MODEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Begicheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Process mining is a relatively new field of computer science, which deals with process discovery and analysis based on event logs. In this paper we consider the problem of models and event logs conformance checking. Conformance checking is intensively studied in the frame of process mining research, but only models and event logs of the same granularity were considered in the literature. Here we present and justify the method of checking conformance between a high-level model (e.g. built by an expert and a low-level log (generated by a system.The article is published in the author’s wording.

  5. Study on forward modeling of through-casing resistivity logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Through-casing resistivity logging (TCRL) is a new kind of logging method for formation evaluation,reservoir monitoring and saturation changes tracking. In this paper,the basic principle of TCRL is de-tailed,and the modified transmission line equation method (MTLEM) is first proposed in China. The MTLEM has been employed to simulate the responses of TCRL,on the basis of which,the effects of formation resistivity,cement and casing on the responses of TCRL are analyzed,and the signals in-duced in different formations are also calculated,which can help the design of TCRL tool and data processing and interpretation in China.

  6. A note on adding and deleting edges in hierarchical log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, David

    2012-01-01

    The operations of edge addition and deletion for hierarchical log-linear models are defined, and polynomial-time algorithms for the operations are given......The operations of edge addition and deletion for hierarchical log-linear models are defined, and polynomial-time algorithms for the operations are given...

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DETERMINATION OF VOLUMETRIC OUTPUT OF LUMBER FROM LOGS, CONTAINING SEVERAL QUALITY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikryukova E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we present a method of cutting logs, containing several quality areas. For this method, a mathematical model was developed to determine the volumetric output of lumber, which allows to determine the geometric dimensions of the lumber cut from the different quality areas separated concentric circles, depending on size and quality characteristics of logs

  8. Liouville field theory and log-correlated Random Energy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xiangyu; Rosso, Alberto; Santachiara, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    An exact mapping is established between the $c\\geq25$ Liouville field theory (LFT) and the Gibbs measure statistics of a thermal particle in a 2D Gaussian Free Field plus a logarithmic confining potential. The probability distribution of the position of the minimum of the energy landscape is obtained exactly by combining the conformal bootstrap and one-step replica symmetry breaking methods. Operator product expansions in LFT allow to unveil novel universal behaviours of the log-correlated Random Energy class. High precision numerical tests are given.

  9. THE APPLICATION OF ACOUSTIC LOGGING METHOD IN THE MODEL AND PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ROCK MASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于师建

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the new method that is introduced into prediction of subsidence using system engineering method with acoustic logging and density logging. According to the result of acoustic logging, the real and complex rock beds are divided into a set of different bed groups and the equivalent mechanical model is to be built. Based on the modern control theory, according to the input data (convergence or settlement of the roof) and the output data (surface movement and deformation) of the system, the static parameters of equivalent rock beds can be derived from back calculation using the optimum method. Then the regression relationship between the dynamic and static parameters can be built. So the prediction of rock and ground movements for other areas in the same district can be done, when using this relationship with the acoustic logging data and density logging data in situ.

  10. Classification errors in contingency tables analyzed with hierarchical log-linear models. Technical report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, E L

    1978-08-01

    This thesis is concerned with the effect of classification error on contingency tables being analyzed with hierarchical log-linear models (independence in an I x J table is a particular hierarchical log-linear model). Hierarchical log-linear models provide a concise way of describing independence and partial independences between the different dimensions of a contingency table. The structure of classification errors on contingency tables that will be used throughout is defined. This structure is a generalization of Bross' model, but here attention is paid to the different possible ways a contingency table can be sampled. Hierarchical log-linear models and the effect of misclassification on them are described. Some models, such as independence in an I x J table, are preserved by misclassification, i.e., the presence of classification error will not change the fact that a specific table belongs to that model. Other models are not preserved by misclassification; this implies that the usual tests to see if a sampled table belong to that model will not be of the right significance level. A simple criterion will be given to determine which hierarchical log-linear models are preserved by misclassification. Maximum likelihood theory is used to perform log-linear model analysis in the presence of known misclassification probabilities. It will be shown that the Pitman asymptotic power of tests between different hierarchical log-linear models is reduced because of the misclassification. A general expression will be given for the increase in sample size necessary to compensate for this loss of power and some specific cases will be examined.

  11. A method for correcting log-derived temperatures in deep wells, calibrated in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waples, D.W.; Pacheco, J.; Vera, A. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A method for correcting log-derived temperatures In deep wells (3500-6500 m) has been developed by comparing log temperatures from the Gulf of Campeche (Mexican Gulf of Mexico) with DST temperatures in the same wells. The equations developed in this study are modified slightly from those of Waples and Mahadir Ramly (2001), which were calibrated using data from depths <3500 m in Malaysia. The correction depends strongly on time since end of mud circulation (TSC) and, to a much lesser degree, on depth. In this study the true subsurface temperature (Celsius) is given by Ttrue Tsurf +f. }Tmeas-Tsurf 0.001391 }Z-4498 where f=1.32866{sup -0.005289TSC}, Tsurf is the seafloor or land-surface temperature ({sup o}C), Tmeas is the measured log temperature ({sup o}C), TSC is in hours and Z is depth below seafloor in metres. If TSC is unknown, it can be estimated from the trend of TSC with depth. (author)

  12. Modelling moisture content and dry matter loss during storage of logging residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbakk, Tore; Hoeiboe, Olav Albert (Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)); Dibdiakova, Janka (Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., Aas (Norway)); Nurmi, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-04-15

    To achieve optimal utilisation of logging residues for energy, it is important to know how different handling and storage methods affect fuel properties. The aim of this study was to model how the moisture content and dry matter losses of logging residues develop during storage. Logging residues were collected from five different stands of spruce and pine during different seasons of the year and stored in the same location. The logging residues were stored in covered piles of bundled residues and loose residues. Only minor differences were found in the moisture content profiles between piles of bundles and loose residues. Logging residues located in the centre of both types of piles had considerably lower moisture content than the outer parts. The moisture content significantly affected dry matter loss, with the highest dry matter losses being found in the samples with the least favourable drying conditions. The dry matter losses varied between 1 and 3% per month. Significantly higher dry matter losses were found in the spruce bundles than in the pine bundles. Seasoned logging residues had the lowest dry matter loss, while the logging residues harvested and piled in the autumn had the highest loss

  13. Bladder cancer mapping in Libya based on standardized morbidity ratio and log-normal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-05-01

    Disease mapping contains a set of statistical techniques that detail maps of rates based on estimated mortality, morbidity, and prevalence. A traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease is called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). It is the ratio of an observed and expected number of accounts in an area, which has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or if geographical area is small. Therefore, Bayesian models or statistical smoothing based on Log-normal model are introduced which might solve SMR problem. This study estimates the relative risk for bladder cancer incidence in Libya from 2006 to 2007 based on the SMR and log-normal model, which were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. This study starts with a brief review of these models, starting with the SMR method and followed by the log-normal model, which is then applied to bladder cancer incidence in Libya. All results are compared using maps and tables. The study concludes that the log-normal model gives better relative risk estimates compared to the classical method. The log-normal model has can overcome the SMR problem when there is no observed bladder cancer in an area.

  14. LogGPO: An accurate communication model for performance prediction of MPI programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenGuang; ZHAI JiDong; ZHANG Jin; ZHENG WeiMin

    2009-01-01

    Message passing interface (MPI) is the de facto standard in writing parallel scientific applications on distributed memory systems. Performance prediction of MPI programs on current or future parallel sys-terns can help to find system bottleneck or optimize programs. To effectively analyze and predict per-formance of a large and complex MPI program, an efficient and accurate communication model is highly needed. A series of communication models have been proposed, such as the LogP model family, which assume that the sending overhead, message transmission, and receiving overhead of a communication is not overlapped and there is a maximum overlap degree between computation and communication. However, this assumption does not always hold for MPI programs because either sending or receiving overhead introduced by MPI implementations can decrease potential overlap for large messages. In this paper, we present a new communication model, named LogGPO, which captures the potential overlap between computation with communication of MPI programs. We design and implement a trace-driven simulator to verify the LogGPO model by predicting performance of point-to-point communication and two real applications CG and Sweep3D. The average prediction errors of LogGPO model are 2.4% and 2.0% for these two applications respectively, while the average prediction errors of LogGP model are 38.3% and 9.1% respectively.

  15. LogGP-U:一种统一的并行计算模型%LogGP-U:unified parallel computational model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向前; 王昊; 马宏星; 耿锐

    2015-01-01

    提出一种统一的并行计算模型LogGP-U(Unified LogGP),它是一个基于LogGP的并行计算模型,给出在几种并行程序设计模式下对应的修正形式。使用这个模型既可以准确度量一般情况下并行程序的时间复杂性,也可以度量通信和计算重叠、单边通信等形式下并行程序的时间复杂性。用这个模型分析了cannon矩阵乘在几种编程模式下的理论性能,并在曙光4000A集群上进行验证LogGP-U模型的有效性。%This paper presents a unified model of parallel computational model, LogGP-U. LogGP-U model is based on LogGP model. The corresponding amendment models of several parallel programming patterns are also given. Through this model time complexity for usual parallel programs can be measured accurately as well as for those which employ technique such as overlapping of communication and computation, one-sided communication and so on. The theoretical time complexity of cannon matrix multiplication is analysed, and then the accuracy of the model is verified on Dawning 4000A cluster.

  16. The log-periodic-AR(1)-GARCH(1,1) model for financial crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Gazola, L; Pizzinga, A; Riera, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to meet recent claims for the attainment of more rigorous statistical methodology within the econophysics literature. To this end, we consider an econometric approach to investigate the outcomes of the log-periodic model of price movements, which has been largely used to forecast financial crashes. In order to accomplish reliable statistical inference for unknown parameters, we incorporate an autoregressive dynamic and a conditional heteroskedasticity structure in the error term of the original model, yielding the log-periodic-AR(1)-GARCH(1,1) model. Both the original and the extended models are fitted to financial indices of U. S. market, namely S&P500 and NASDAQ. Our analysis reveal two main points: (i) the log-periodic-AR(1)-GARCH(1,1) model has residuals with better statistical properties and (ii) the estimation of the parameter concerning the time of the financial crash has been improved.

  17. Fast inference in generalized linear models via expected log-likelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alexandro D; Paninski, Liam

    2014-04-01

    Generalized linear models play an essential role in a wide variety of statistical applications. This paper discusses an approximation of the likelihood in these models that can greatly facilitate computation. The basic idea is to replace a sum that appears in the exact log-likelihood by an expectation over the model covariates; the resulting "expected log-likelihood" can in many cases be computed significantly faster than the exact log-likelihood. In many neuroscience experiments the distribution over model covariates is controlled by the experimenter and the expected log-likelihood approximation becomes particularly useful; for example, estimators based on maximizing this expected log-likelihood (or a penalized version thereof) can often be obtained with orders of magnitude computational savings compared to the exact maximum likelihood estimators. A risk analysis establishes that these maximum EL estimators often come with little cost in accuracy (and in some cases even improved accuracy) compared to standard maximum likelihood estimates. Finally, we find that these methods can significantly decrease the computation time of marginal likelihood calculations for model selection and of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for sampling from the posterior parameter distribution. We illustrate our results by applying these methods to a computationally-challenging dataset of neural spike trains obtained via large-scale multi-electrode recordings in the primate retina.

  18. Modelling rainfall interception in unlogged and logged forest areas of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Asdak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception losses were monitored for twelve months and related to vegetation and rainfall characteristics at the Wanariset Sangai on the upper reaches of the Mentaya river, Central Kalimantan. The rainfall interception losses were quantified for one hectare each of unlogged and logged humid tropical rainforests. The results show that interception loss is higher in the unlogged forest (11% of total gross rainfall than in the logged forest (6%. Interception loss was also simulated by the modified Rutter model and Gash's original and revised models. Both the Rutter and revised Gash models predicted total interception loss over a long period adequately, and resulted in estimates of the interception loss that deviated by 6 to 14% of the measured values, for both the unlogged and logged plots.

  19. Geostatistical Procedures for Developing Three-Dimensional Aquifer Models from Drillers' Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, G.; Helm, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA) project is developing procedures for employing the vast but highly qualitative hydrostratigraphic information contained in drillers' logs in the development of quantitative three-dimensional (3D) depictions of subsurface properties for use in flow and transport models to support groundwater management practices. One of the project's objectives is to develop protocols for 3D interpolation of lithological data from drillers' logs, properly accounting for the categorical nature of these data. This poster describes the geostatistical procedures developed to accomplish this objective. Using a translation table currently containing over 62,000 unique sediment descriptions encountered during the transcription of over 15,000 logs in the Kansas High Plains aquifer, the sediment descriptions are translated into 71 standardized terms, which are then mapped into a small number of categories associated with different representative property (e.g., hydraulic conductivity [K]) values. Each log is partitioned into regular intervals and the proportion of each K category within each interval is computed. To properly account for their compositional nature, a logratio transform is applied to the proportions. The transformed values are then kriged to the 3D model grid and backtransformed to determine the proportion of each category within each model cell. Various summary measures can then be computed from the proportions, including a proportion-weighted average K and an entropy measure representing the degree of mixing of categories within each cell. We also describe a related cross-validation procedure for assessing log quality.

  20. Bayesian Hierarchical Scale Mixtures of Log-Normal Models for Inference in Reliability with Stochastic Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops Bayesian inference in reliability of a class of scale mixtures of log-normal failure time (SMLNFT models with stochastic (or uncertain constraint in their reliability measures. The class is comprehensive and includes existing failure time (FT models (such as log-normal, log-Cauchy, and log-logistic FT models as well as new models that are robust in terms of heavy-tailed FT observations. Since classical frequency approaches to reliability analysis based on the SMLNFT model with stochastic constraint are intractable, the Bayesian method is pursued utilizing a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling based approach. This paper introduces a two-stage maximum entropy (MaxEnt prior, which elicits a priori uncertain constraint and develops Bayesian hierarchical SMLNFT model by using the prior. The paper also proposes an MCMC method for Bayesian inference in the SMLNFT model reliability and calls attention to properties of the MaxEnt prior that are useful for method development. Finally, two data sets are used to illustrate how the proposed methodology works.

  1. Pricing FX Options in the Heston/CIR Jump-Diffusion Model with Log-Normal and Log-Uniform Jump Amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehez Ahlip

    2015-01-01

    model for the exchange rate with log-normal jump amplitudes and the volatility model with log-uniformly distributed jump amplitudes. We assume that the domestic and foreign stochastic interest rates are governed by the CIR dynamics. The instantaneous volatility is correlated with the dynamics of the exchange rate return, whereas the domestic and foreign short-term rates are assumed to be independent of the dynamics of the exchange rate and its volatility. The main result furnishes a semianalytical formula for the price of the foreign exchange European call option.

  2. The Parallel Algorithm of Computing Converse Matrix on the Simplified LogP Model%基于LogP简化模型的矩阵求逆并行算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆华; 孙世新; 陈天麒

    2003-01-01

    LogP is becoming a practical parallel computation model that meets the demanding of parallel computersand parallel algorithms. So it is important to re-design parallel algorithms on the LogP model. This paper studies theparallel algorithm of computing converse matrix on the simplified LogP model, and gets the simulating results.

  3. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  4. A comparison of statistical selection strategies for univariate and bivariate log-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W

    2010-11-01

    In this study, eight statistical selection strategies were evaluated for selecting the parameterizations of log-linear models used to model the distributions of psychometric tests. The selection strategies included significance tests based on four chi-squared statistics (likelihood ratio, Pearson, Freeman-Tukey, and Cressie-Read) and four additional strategies (Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), consistent Akaike information criterion (CAIC), and a measure attributed to Goodman). The strategies were evaluated in simulations for different log-linear models of univariate and bivariate test-score distributions and two sample sizes. Results showed that all eight selection strategies were most accurate for the largest sample size considered. For univariate distributions, the AIC selection strategy was especially accurate for selecting the correct parameterization of a complex log-linear model and the likelihood ratio chi-squared selection strategy was the most accurate strategy for selecting the correct parameterization of a relatively simple log-linear model. For bivariate distributions, the likelihood ratio chi-squared, Freeman-Tukey chi-squared, BIC, and CAIC selection strategies had similarly high selection accuracies.

  5. Rapid Processing of Turner Designs Model 10-Au-005 Internally Logged Fluorescence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous recording of dye fluorescence using field fluorometers at selected sampling sites facilitates acquisition of real-time dye tracing data. The Turner Designs Model 10-AU-005 field fluorometer allows for frequent fluorescence readings, data logging, and easy downloading t...

  6. Global impacts of Russian log export restrictions and the Canada–U.S. lumber dispute: Modeling trade in logs and lumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Johnston, C.

    2014-01-01

    Forest product trade analysis is complicated by the inter-relationships among forest products. This paper deals with the development and application of an integrated log-lumber trade model that divides the globe into 20 regions. These regions play a significant role as producers and/or consumers of

  7. Assessing the impact of Amazonia logging with a new ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Asner, G. P.; Keller, M.; Berry, J. A.; Bustamante, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    Old-growth Amazonian forests play a fundamental role in the global climate and carbon cycle. Land use in old- growth tropical forests contributes to the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere and can alter the hydrological cycle, locally, regionally, and globally. Although deforestation, largely for the conversion of land to food crops or pastures, is the major destructive force in tropical forests worldwide (Houghton et al., 2000), other forest disturbances such as the selective logging have also increased in frequency and extent. Selective logging causes widespread collateral damage to remaining trees, sub-canopy vegetation, and soils, with impacts on hydrological processes, erosion, fire, carbon storage, and plant and animal species. In this study, the impact of selective logging on the carbon budget of the Brazil Amazon region is assessed with a new 3-D version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model, which features: (1) an alternative way of estimating absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (APAR) by taking advantage of new high-resolution maps of forest canopy gap fraction; (2) a pulse disturbance module to realistically modify the carbon pools after timber harvest; (3) a regrowth module considering changes in community composition; and (4) a radiative transfer module for charactering the dynamic 3-D light environment above the canopy and within gaps after logging. The model was calibrated and validated with field observations from the Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment (LBA) and its sensitivity was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations. The impacts of selected logging on regional carbon budget of the Brazilian Amazon were then assessed under different future climate change scenarios. Results from this study quantify the gross and net carbon storage effects of widespread logging practices throughout the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Exact Hypothesis Tests for Log-linear Models with exactLoglinTest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Caffo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript overviews exact testing of goodness of fit for log-linear models using the R package exactLoglinTest. This package evaluates model fit for Poisson log-linear models by conditioning on minimal sufficient statistics to remove nuisance parameters. A Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed to estimate P values from the resulting conditional distribution. In particular, this package implements a sequentially rounded normal approximation and importance sampling to approximate probabilities from the conditional distribution. Usually, this results in a high percentage of valid samples. However, in instances where this is not the case, a Metropolis Hastings algorithm can be implemented that makes more localized jumps within the reference set. The manuscript details how some conditional tests for binomial logit models can also be viewed as conditional Poisson log-linear models and hence can be performed via exactLoglinTest. A diverse battery of examples is considered to highlight use, features and extensions of the software. Notably, potential extensions to evaluating disclosure risk are also considered.

  9. Log-normal censored regression model detecting prognostic factors in gastric cancer: A study of 3018 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Bin Wang; Cai-Gang Liu; Ping Lu; A Latengbaolide; Yang Lu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of Cox proportional hazard model in detecting prognostic factors for gastric cancer.METHODS: We used the log-normal regression model to evaluate prognostic factors in gastric cancer and compared it with the Cox model. Three thousand and eighteen gastric cancer patients who received a gastrectomy between 1980 and 2004 were retrospectively evaluated. Clinic-pathological factors were included in a log-normal model as well as Cox model. The akaike information criterion (AIC) was employed to compare the efficiency of both models. Univariate analysis indicated that age at diagnosis, past history, cancer location, distant metastasis status, surgical curative degree, combined other organ resection, Borrmann type, Lauren's classification, pT stage, total dissected nodes and pN stage were prognostic factors in both log-normal and Cox models.RESULTS: In the final multivariate model, age at diagnosis,past history, surgical curative degree, Borrmann type, Lauren's classification, pT stage, and pN stage were significant prognostic factors in both log-normal and Cox models. However, cancer location, distant metastasis status, and histology types were found to be significant prognostic factors in log-normal results alone.According to AIC, the log-normal model performed better than the Cox proportional hazard model (AIC value:2534.72 vs 1693.56).CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the log-normal regression model can be a useful statistical model to evaluate prognostic factors instead of the Cox proportional hazard model.

  10. The effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull log-normal sire frailty models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, L H; Korsgaard, I R; Simonsen, J; Dalsgaard, O; Andersen, A H

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was, by means of simulation, to quantify the effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull sire frailty models on parameter estimates and to address the consequences for genetic inferences. Three simulation studies were evaluated, which included 3 levels of individual heterogeneity combined with 4 levels of censoring (0, 25, 50, or 75%). Data were simulated according to balanced half-sib designs using Weibull log-normal animal frailty models with a normally distributed residual effect on the log-frailty scale. The 12 data sets were analyzed with 2 models: the sire model, equivalent to the animal model used to generate the data (complete sire model), and a corresponding model in which individual heterogeneity in log-frailty was neglected (incomplete sire model). Parameter estimates were obtained from a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling, and also from the software Survival Kit for the incomplete sire model. For the incomplete sire model, the Monte Carlo and Survival Kit parameter estimates were similar. This study established that when unobserved individual heterogeneity was ignored, the parameter estimates that included sire effects were biased toward zero by an amount that depended in magnitude on the level of censoring and the size of the ignored individual heterogeneity. Despite the biased parameter estimates, the ranking of sires, measured by the rank correlations between true and estimated sire effects, was unaffected. In comparison, parameter estimates obtained using complete sire models were consistent with the true values used to simulate the data. Thus, in this study, several issues of concern were demonstrated for the incomplete sire model.

  11. THE CAMAQUÃ BASIN MODELLING : TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHY THROUGH INTEGRATION OF GEOPHYSICAL (GRAVIMETRY, WELL LOG AND REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Londoño Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A tectonostratigraphic study of the Camaquã Basin, formed by Neoproterozoic to Eopaleozoic volcano-sedimentary units, is herein presented. Based on lineaments obtained through LANDSAT
    TM images and geophysical methods, four structural domains were recognized. The depositional and deformational sequences of the Guaritas and the Bom Jardim Formations were identified on
    well logs, where the fluvial deltaic system and brittle to brittle-ductile tectonic evidence is preserved. Differential compaction of sedimentary rocks was recognized using geophysical information (electrical (well log and potential methods (gravimetry. The sedimentary package presents variable thickness, increasing to the NE portion of the basin, and a compartmentalization in echelon subbasins, delimited by NW-trending structures is observed. A 3D schematic model of the Camaquã Basin was built based on the geophysical and satellite image data integrated to the Digital Terrane Model.

  12. Nb{sub 3}Al insert experiment log book. 3rd experiment of CS model coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Isono, Takaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    The cool down of CS model coil and Nb{sub 3}Al insert was started on March 4, 2002. It took almost one month and immediately started coil charge since April 3, 2002. The charge test of Nb{sub 3}Al insert and CS model coil was completed on May 2, 2002. All of the experiments including the warm up was also completed on May 30, 2002. In this campaign, total shot numbers were 102 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was about 5.2 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. (author)

  13. Kinematics modeling and control simulation for a logging harvester in virtual environments

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the kinematics model and control simulation of a hydraulic boom. This hydraulic boom is used on the logging harvester, which is a typical forestry vehicle. The kinematics equations of the hydraulic boom and the transformation between joint variables and hydraulic cylinder variables are obtained for the control purpose. An autonomous control method is suggested for the harvesting head to capture trunks. There are two separate closed loops in the control scheme: the inner ...

  14. The effect of different log P algorithms on the modeling of the soil sorption coefficient of nonionic pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Ralpho Rinaldo; Sampaio, Silvio César; de Melo, Eduardo Borges

    2013-10-01

    Collecting data on the effects of pesticides on the environment is a slow and costly process. Therefore, significant efforts have been focused on the development of models that predict physical, chemical or biological properties of environmental interest. The soil sorption coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content (Koc) is a key parameter that is used in environmental risk assessments. Thus, several log Koc prediction models that use the hydrophobic parameter log P as a descriptor have been reported in the literature. Often, algorithms are used to calculate the value of log P due to the lack of experimental values for this property. Despite the availability of various algorithms, previous studies fail to describe the procedure used to select the appropriate algorithm. In this study, models that correlate log Koc with log P were developed for a heterogeneous group of nonionic pesticides using different freeware algorithms. The statistical qualities and predictive power of all of the models were evaluated. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the effect of the log P algorithm choice on log Koc modeling. The results clearly demonstrate that the lack of a selection criterion may result in inappropriate prediction models. Seven algorithms were tested, of which only two (ALOGPS and KOWWIN) produced good results. A sensible choice may result in simple models with statistical qualities and predictive power values that are comparable to those of more complex models. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate log P algorithm for modeling log Koc cannot be arbitrary but must be based on the chemical structure of compounds and the characteristics of the available algorithms.

  15. STOCHASTIC PRICING MODEL FOR THE REAL ESTATE MARKET: FORMATION OF LOG-NORMAL GENERAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Rusakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a stochastic model of real estate pricing. The method of the pricing construction is based on a sequential comparison of the supply prices. We proof that under standard assumptions imposed upon the comparison coefficients there exists an unique non-degenerated limit in distribution and this limit has the lognormal law of distribution. The accordance of empirical distributions of prices to thetheoretically obtained log-normal distribution we verify by numerous statistical data of real estate prices from Saint-Petersburg (Russia. For establishing this accordance we essentially apply the efficient and sensitive test of fit of Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Basing on “The Russian Federal Estimation Standard N2”, we conclude that the most probable price, i.e. mode of distribution, is correctly and uniquely defined under the log-normal approximation. Since the mean value of log-normal distribution exceeds the mode - most probable value, it follows that the prices valued by the mathematical expectation are systematically overstated.

  16. Topological Expansion in the Complex Cubic Log-Gas Model: One-Cut Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleher, Pavel; Deaño, Alfredo; Yattselev, Maxim

    2017-02-01

    We prove the topological expansion for the cubic log-gas partition function Z_N(t)= int _Γ \\cdots int _Γ prod _{1≤jcomplex parameter and Γ is an unbounded contour on the complex plane extending from e^{π i}∞ to e^{π i/3}∞. The complex cubic log-gas model exhibits two phase regions on the complex t-plane, with one cut and two cuts, separated by analytic critical arcs of the two types of phase transition: split of a cut and birth of a cut. The common point of the critical arcs is a tricritical point of the Painlevé I type. In the present paper we prove the topological expansion for log Z_N(t) in the one-cut phase region. The proof is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach to semiclassical asymptotic expansions for the associated orthogonal polynomials and the theory of S-curves and quadratic differentials.

  17. Comparing Multiple-Group Multinomial Log-Linear Models for Multidimensional Skill Distributions in the General Diagnostic Model. Research Report. ETS RR-08-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueli; von Davier, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The general diagnostic model (GDM) utilizes located latent classes for modeling a multidimensional proficiency variable. In this paper, the GDM is extended by employing a log-linear model for multiple populations that assumes constraints on parameters across multiple groups. This constrained model is compared to log-linear models that assume…

  18. Elaboration of the Coale-McNeil Nuptiality Model as The Generalized Log Gamma Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The Coale-McNeil nuptiality model is a particular case of the generalized log gamma distribution model. In this paper, we demonstrate that recognition of this connection allows an expansion of the possible applications of the Coale-McNeil model. As examples, we propose a procedure to develop country specific standard schedules, and illustrate the utility in regression analysis (directly and via the competing risk framework. In addition, we employ this identification to enhance the ability of the models with empirical adjustment to trace the trajectory of the lifetime schedule for cohorts which have not completed the process. We illustrate an application to Japanese female cohorts. We also propose an application to fertility projection by modeling the fertility schedule by birth order.

  19. Piecewise log-normal approximation of size distributions for aerosol modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. von Salzen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and accurate method for the representation of particle size distributions in atmospheric models is proposed. The method can be applied, but is not necessarily restricted, to aerosol mass and number size distributions. A piecewise log-normal approximation of the number size distribution within sections of the particle size spectrum is used. Two of the free parameters of the log-normal approximation are obtained from the integrated number and mass concentration in each section. The remaining free parameter is prescribed. The method is efficient in a sense that only relatively few calculations are required for applications of the method in atmospheric models. Applications of the method in simulations of particle growth by condensation and simulations with a single column model for nucleation, condensation, gravitational settling, wet deposition, and mixing are described. The results are compared to results from simulations employing single- and double-moment bin methods that are frequently used in aerosol modelling. According to these comparisons, the accuracy of the method is noticeably higher than the accuracy of the other methods.

  20. A new empirical method based on log-transformation regressions for the estimation of static formation temperatures of geothermal, petroleum and permafrost boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Ojeda, O. M.; Santoyo, E.

    2016-08-01

    A new practical method based on logarithmic transformation regressions was developed for the determination of static formation temperatures (SFTs) in geothermal, petroleum and permafrost bottomhole temperature (BHT) data sets. The new method involves the application of multiple linear and polynomial (from quadratic to eight-order) regression models to BHT and log-transformation (Tln) shut-in times. Selection of the best regression models was carried out by using four statistical criteria: (i) the coefficient of determination as a fitting quality parameter; (ii) the sum of the normalized squared residuals; (iii) the absolute extrapolation, as a dimensionless statistical parameter that enables the accuracy of each regression model to be evaluated through the extrapolation of the last temperature measured of the data set; and (iv) the deviation percentage between the measured and predicted BHT data. The best regression model was used for reproducing the thermal recovery process of the boreholes, and for the determination of the SFT. The original thermal recovery data (BHT and shut-in time) were used to demonstrate the new method's prediction efficiency. The prediction capability of the new method was additionally evaluated by using synthetic data sets where the true formation temperature (TFT) was known with accuracy. With these purposes, a comprehensive statistical analysis was carried out through the application of the well-known F-test and Student's t-test and the error percentage or statistical differences computed between the SFT estimates and the reported TFT data. After applying the new log-transformation regression method to a wide variety of geothermal, petroleum, and permafrost boreholes, it was found that the polynomial models were generally the best regression models that describe their thermal recovery processes. These fitting results suggested the use of this new method for the reliable estimation of SFT. Finally, the practical use of the new method was

  1. Log-Logistic Proportional Odds Model for Analyzing Infant Mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima-Tuz-Zahura, Most; Mohammad, Khandoker Akib; Bari, Wasimul

    2017-01-01

    Log-logistic parametric survival regression model has been used to find out the potential determinants of infant mortality in Bangladesh using the data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. First, nonparametric product-limit approach has been used to examine the unadjusted association between infant mortality and covariate of interest. It is found that maternal education, membership of nongovernmental organizations, age of mother at birth, sex of child, size of child at birth, and place of delivery play an important role in reducing the infant mortality, adjusting relevant covariates.

  2. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Marker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale integrated hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data alone. Due to sparse sampling in space, lithological borehole logs may overlook structures that are important for groundwater flow at larger scales. Good spatial coverage along with high spatial resolution makes airborne time-domain electromagnetic (AEM data valuable for the structural input to large-scale groundwater models. We present a novel method to automatically integrate large AEM data-sets and lithological information into large-scale hydrological models. Clay-fraction maps are produced by translating geophysical resistivity into clay-fraction values using lithological borehole information. Voxel models of electrical resistivity and clay fraction are classified into hydrostratigraphic zones using k-means clustering. Hydraulic conductivity values of the zones are estimated by hydrological calibration using hydraulic head and stream discharge observations. The method is applied to a Danish case study. Benchmarking hydrological performance by comparison of simulated hydrological state variables, the cluster model performed competitively. Calibrations of 11 hydrostratigraphic cluster models with 1–11 hydraulic conductivity zones showed improved hydrological performance with increasing number of clusters. Beyond the 5-cluster model hydrological performance did not improve. Due to reproducibility and possibility of method standardization and automation, we believe that hydrostratigraphic model generation with the proposed method has important prospects for groundwater models used in water resources management.

  3. Log-Linear Model Based Behavior Selection Method for Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhehuang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA is a population based optimization technique inspired by social behavior of fishes. In past several years, AFSA has been successfully applied in many research and application areas. The behavior of fishes has a crucial impact on the performance of AFSA, such as global exploration ability and convergence speed. How to construct and select behaviors of fishes are an important task. To solve these problems, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm based on log-linear model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we proposed a new behavior selection algorithm based on log-linear model which can enhance decision making ability of behavior selection. Secondly, adaptive movement behavior based on adaptive weight is presented, which can dynamically adjust according to the diversity of fishes. Finally, some new behaviors are defined and introduced into artificial fish swarm algorithm at the first time to improve global optimization capability. The experiments on high dimensional function optimization showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and reasonable convergence speed compared with the standard artificial fish swarm algorithm.

  4. Log-linear model based behavior selection method for artificial fish swarm algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhehuang; Chen, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is a population based optimization technique inspired by social behavior of fishes. In past several years, AFSA has been successfully applied in many research and application areas. The behavior of fishes has a crucial impact on the performance of AFSA, such as global exploration ability and convergence speed. How to construct and select behaviors of fishes are an important task. To solve these problems, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm based on log-linear model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we proposed a new behavior selection algorithm based on log-linear model which can enhance decision making ability of behavior selection. Secondly, adaptive movement behavior based on adaptive weight is presented, which can dynamically adjust according to the diversity of fishes. Finally, some new behaviors are defined and introduced into artificial fish swarm algorithm at the first time to improve global optimization capability. The experiments on high dimensional function optimization showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and reasonable convergence speed compared with the standard artificial fish swarm algorithm.

  5. Forward modelling of multi-component induction logging tools in layered anisotropic dipping formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Xu, Chenhao; Xiao, Jiaqi

    2013-10-01

    Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier-Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution.

  6. Bayesian CMB foreground separation with a correlated log-normal model

    CERN Document Server

    Oppermann, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of foreground and CMB maps from multi-frequency observations relies mostly on the different frequency behavior of the different components. Existing Bayesian methods additionally make use of a Gaussian prior for the CMB whose correlation structure is described by an unknown angular power spectrum. We argue for the natural extension of this by using non-trivial priors also for the foreground components. Focusing on diffuse Galactic foregrounds, we propose a log-normal model including unknown spatial correlations within each component and cross-correlations between the different foreground components. We present case studies at low resolution that demonstrate the superior performance of this model when compared to an analysis with flat priors for all components.

  7. Evaluation of QSAR models for predicting the partition coefficient (log P) of chemicals under the REACH regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Claudia Ileana; Benfenati, Emilio; Cester, Josep

    2015-11-01

    The partition coefficient (log P) is a physicochemical parameter widely used in environmental and health sciences and is important in REACH and CLP regulations. In this regulatory context, the number of existing experimental data on log P is negligible compared to the number of chemicals for which it is necessary. There are many models to predict log P and we have selected a number of free programs to examine how they predict the log P of chemicals registered for REACH and to evaluate wheter they can be used in place of experimental data. Some results are good, especially if the information on the applicability domain of the models is considered, with R(2) values from 0.7 to 0.8 and root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.8 to 1.5.

  8. Characterization of Rock Mechanical Properties Using Lab Tests and Numerical Interpretation Model of Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tight gas reservoir in the fifth member of the Xujiahe formation contains heterogeneous interlayers of sandstone and shale that are low in both porosity and permeability. Elastic characteristics of sandstone and shale are analyzed in this study based on petrophysics tests. The tests indicate that sandstone and mudstone samples have different stress-strain relationships. The rock tends to exhibit elastic-plastic deformation. The compressive strength correlates with confinement pressure and elastic modulus. The results based on thin-bed log interpretation match dynamic Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio predicted by theory. The compressive strength is calculated from density, elastic impedance, and clay contents. The tensile strength is calibrated using compressive strength. Shear strength is calculated with an empirical formula. Finally, log interpretation of rock mechanical properties is performed on the fifth member of the Xujiahe formation. Natural fractures in downhole cores and rock microscopic failure in the samples in the cross section demonstrate that tensile fractures were primarily observed in sandstone, and shear fractures can be observed in both mudstone and sandstone. Based on different elasticity and plasticity of different rocks, as well as the characteristics of natural fractures, a fracture propagation model was built.

  9. Using the jackknife for estimation in log link Bernoulli regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, Stuart R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Arriaga, Alex; Sinha, Debajyoti; Gawande, Atul A

    2015-02-10

    Bernoulli (or binomial) regression using a generalized linear model with a log link function, where the exponentiated regression parameters have interpretation as relative risks, is often more appropriate than logistic regression for prospective studies with common outcomes. In particular, many researchers regard relative risks to be more intuitively interpretable than odds ratios. However, for the log link, when the outcome is very prevalent, the likelihood may not have a unique maximum. To circumvent this problem, a 'COPY method' has been proposed, which is equivalent to creating for each subject an additional observation with the same covariates except the response variable has the outcome values interchanged (1's changed to 0's and 0's changed to 1's). The original response is given weight close to 1, while the new observation is given a positive weight close to 0; this approach always leads to convergence of the maximum likelihood algorithm, except for problems with convergence due to multicollinearity among covariates. Even though this method produces a unique maximum, when the outcome is very prevalent, and/or the sample size is relatively small, the COPY method can yield biased estimates. Here, we propose using the jackknife as a bias-reduction approach for the COPY method. The proposed method is motivated by a study of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery.

  10. Developing EHR-driven heart failure risk prediction models using CPXR(Log) with the probabilistic loss function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Dong, Guozhu; Pereira, Naveen L; Panahiazar, Maryam; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2016-04-01

    Computerized survival prediction in healthcare identifying the risk of disease mortality, helps healthcare providers to effectively manage their patients by providing appropriate treatment options. In this study, we propose to apply a classification algorithm, Contrast Pattern Aided Logistic Regression (CPXR(Log)) with the probabilistic loss function, to develop and validate prognostic risk models to predict 1, 2, and 5year survival in heart failure (HF) using data from electronic health records (EHRs) at Mayo Clinic. The CPXR(Log) constructs a pattern aided logistic regression model defined by several patterns and corresponding local logistic regression models. One of the models generated by CPXR(Log) achieved an AUC and accuracy of 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, and significantly outperformed prognostic models reported in prior studies. Data extracted from EHRs allowed incorporation of patient co-morbidities into our models which helped improve the performance of the CPXR(Log) models (15.9% AUC improvement), although did not improve the accuracy of the models built by other classifiers. We also propose a probabilistic loss function to determine the large error and small error instances. The new loss function used in the algorithm outperforms other functions used in the previous studies by 1% improvement in the AUC. This study revealed that using EHR data to build prediction models can be very challenging using existing classification methods due to the high dimensionality and complexity of EHR data. The risk models developed by CPXR(Log) also reveal that HF is a highly heterogeneous disease, i.e., different subgroups of HF patients require different types of considerations with their diagnosis and treatment. Our risk models provided two valuable insights for application of predictive modeling techniques in biomedicine: Logistic risk models often make systematic prediction errors, and it is prudent to use subgroup based prediction models such as those given by CPXR(Log

  11. SPI drought class prediction using log-linear models applied to wet and dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Elsa E.

    2016-08-01

    A log-linear modelling for 3-dimensional contingency tables was used with categorical time series of SPI drought class transitions for prediction of monthly drought severity. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) time series in 12- and 6-month time scales were computed for 10 precipitation time series relative to GPCC datasets with 2.5° spatial resolution located over Portugal and with 112 years length (1902-2014). The aim was modelling two-month step class transitions for the wet and dry seasons of the year and then obtain probability ratios - Odds - as well as their respective confidence intervals to estimate how probable a transition is compared to another. The prediction results produced by the modelling applied to wet and dry season separately, for the 6- and the 12-month SPI time scale, were compared with the results produced by the same modelling without the split, using skill scores computed for the entire time series length. Results point to good prediction performances ranging from 70 to 80% in the percentage of corrects (PC) and 50-70% in the Heidke skill score (HSS), with the highest scores obtained when the modelling is applied to the SPI12. The adding up of the wet and dry seasons introduced in the modelling brought improvements in the predictions, of about 0.9-4% in the PC and 1.3-6.8% in the HSS, being the highest improvements obtained in the SPI6 application.

  12. Kinematics modeling and control simulation for a logging harvester in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the kinematics model and control simulation of a hydraulic boom. This hydraulic boom is used on the logging harvester, which is a typical forestry vehicle. The kinematics equations of the hydraulic boom and the transformation between joint variables and hydraulic cylinder variables are obtained for the control purpose. An autonomous control method is suggested for the harvesting head to capture trunks. There are two separate closed loops in the control scheme: the inner closed loop realizes the control on the hydraulic cylinders, and the outer loop plans the desired trajectory of the harvesting head to capture trunks based on the laser measurement data. An interactive real-time dynamic simulation system is developed, and the proposed control method is verified.

  13. TESTING THE ASSUMPTIONS AND INTERPRETING THE RESULTS OF THE RASCH MODEL USING LOG-LINEAR PROCEDURES IN SPSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENVERGERT, E; GILLESPIE, M; KINGMA, J

    This paper shows how to use the log-linear subroutine of SPSS to fit the Rasch model. It also shows how to fit less restrictive models obtained by relaxing specific assumptions of the Rasch model. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation was achieved by including dummy variables for the total

  14. TESTING THE ASSUMPTIONS AND INTERPRETING THE RESULTS OF THE RASCH MODEL USING LOG-LINEAR PROCEDURES IN SPSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENVERGERT, E; GILLESPIE, M; KINGMA, J

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how to use the log-linear subroutine of SPSS to fit the Rasch model. It also shows how to fit less restrictive models obtained by relaxing specific assumptions of the Rasch model. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation was achieved by including dummy variables for the total score

  15. Mean-field calculation of critical parameters and log-periodic characterization of an aperiodic-modulated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, T P; Branco, N S

    2012-01-01

    We employ a mean-field approximation to study the Ising model with aperiodic modulation of its interactions in one spatial direction. Two different values for the exchange constant, J(A) and J(B), are present, according to the Fibonacci sequence. We calculate the pseudocritical temperatures for finite systems and extrapolate them to the thermodynamic limit. We explicitly obtain the exponents β, δ, and γ and, from the usual scaling relations for anisotropic models at the upper critical dimension (assumed to be 4 for the model we treat), we calculate α, ν, ν(∥), η, and η(∥). Within the framework of a renormalization-group approach, the Fibonacci sequence is a marginal one and we obtain exponents that depend on the ratio r≡J(B)/J(A), as expected; however, the scaling relation γ=β(δ-1) is obeyed for all values of r we studied. We characterize some thermodynamic functions as log-periodic functions of their arguments, as expected for aperiodic-modulated models, and obtain precise values for the exponents from this characterization.

  16. Reading Logs and Literature Teaching Models in English Language Teacher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Reading logs are regularly used in foreign language education since they are not only critical in the development of reading comprehension but may also be instrumental in taking readers beyond the referential into the representational realms of language. In this paper we offer the results of a qualitative analysis of a series of reading logs written by advanced students for a literature course in an English language teacher education program in Argentina. The logs were coded according to the ...

  17. Standardizing effect size from linear regression models with log-transformed variables for meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tobías, Aurelio; Redondo, Daniel; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Sánchez, María José

    2017-03-17

    Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis. We applied our procedure to all possible combinations of log-transformed independent or dependent variables. We also evaluated it in a simulation based on two variables either normally or asymmetrically distributed. In all the scenarios, and based on different change criteria, the effect size estimated by the derived set of formulae was equivalent to the real effect size. To avoid biased estimates of the effect, this procedure should be used with caution in the case of independent variables with asymmetric distributions that significantly differ from the normal distribution. We illustrate an application of this procedure by an application to a meta-analysis on the potential effects on neurodevelopment in children exposed to arsenic and manganese. The procedure proposed has been shown to be valid and capable of expressing the effect size of a linear regression model based on different change criteria in the variables. Homogenizing the results from different studies beforehand allows them to be combined in a meta-analysis, independently of whether the transformations had been performed on the dependent and/or independent variables.

  18. Design and Development of a Relative Humidity and Room Temperature Measurement System with On Line Data Logging Feature for Monitoring the Fermentation Room of Tea Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a Relative Humidity (RH and Room Temperature (RT monitoring system with on line data logging feature for monitoring fermentation room of a tea factory is presented in this paper. A capacitive RH sensor with on chip signal conditioner is taken as RH sensor and a temperature to digital converter (TDC is used for ambient temperature monitoring. An 8051 core microcontroller is the heart of the whole system which reads the digital equivalent of RH data with the help of a 12-bit Analog to Digital (A/D converter and synchronize TDC to get the ambient temperature. The online data logging is achieved with the help of RS-232C communication. Field performance is also studied by installing it in the fermentation room of a tea factory.

  19. Modeling log-compressed ultrasound images for radio frequency signal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, José; Sanches, João

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for recovering the radio frequency (RF) signal provided by the ultrasound probe from the log-compressed ultrasound images displayed in ultrasound equipment. Commercial ecographs perform nonlinear image compression to reduce the dynamic range of the Ultrasound (US) signal in order to improve image visualization. Moreover, the clinician may adjust other parameters, such as brightness, gain and contrast, to improve image quality of a given anatomical detail. These operations significantly change the statistical distribution of the original RF raw signal, which is assumed, based on physical considerations on the signal formation process, to be Rayleigh distributed. Therefore, the image pixels are no longer Rayleigh distributed and the RF signal is not usually available in the common ultrasound equipment. For statistical data processing purposes, more important than having "good looking" images, it is important to have realistic models to describe the data. In this paper, a nonlinear compression parametric function is used to model the pre-processed image in order to recover the original RF image as well the contrast and brightness parameters. Tests using synthetic and real data and statistical measures such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Kullback-Leibler divergences are used to assess the results. It is shown that the proposed estimation model clearly represents better the observed data than by taking the general assumption of the data being modeled by a Rayleigh distribution.

  20. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  1. Femur specific polyaffine model to regularize the log-domain demons registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christof; Pennec, Xavier; Ritacco, Lucas; Reyes, Mauricio

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarticular allograft transplantation is a popular treatment method in wide surgical resections with large defects. For this reason hospitals are building bone data banks. Performing the optimal allograft selection on bone banks is crucial to the surgical outcome and patient recovery. However, current approaches are very time consuming hindering an efficient selection. We present an automatic method based on registration of femur bones to overcome this limitation. We introduce a new regularization term for the log-domain demons algorithm. This term replaces the standard Gaussian smoothing with a femur specific polyaffine model. The polyaffine femur model is constructed with two affine (femoral head and condyles) and one rigid (shaft) transformation. Our main contribution in this paper is to show that the demons algorithm can be improved in specific cases with an appropriate model. We are not trying to find the most optimal polyaffine model of the femur, but the simplest model with a minimal number of parameters. There is no need to optimize for different number of regions, boundaries and choice of weights, since this fine tuning will be done automatically by a final demons relaxation step with Gaussian smoothing. The newly developed synthesis approach provides a clear anatomically motivated modeling contribution through the specific three component transformation model, and clearly shows a performance improvement (in terms of anatomical meaningful correspondences) on 146 CT images of femurs compared to a standard multiresolution demons. In addition, this simple model improves the robustness of the demons while preserving its accuracy. The ground truth are manual measurements performed by medical experts.

  2. The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Farrar, C.D.; Williams, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600km3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~290MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~80cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature-depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327-1,158m) on the RD to assess its thermal state, and more specifically 1) to provide bounds on the advective heat transport as a guide for future geothermal exploration, 2) to provide constraints on the occurrence of magma at shallow crustal depths, and 3) to provide a baseline for future transient thermal phenomena in response to large earthquakes, volcanic activity, or geothermal production. The temperature profiles display substantial non-linearity within each profile and variability between the different profiles. All profiles display significant temperature reversals with depth and temperature gradients temperature in the individual boreholes ranges between 124.7??C and 129.5??C and bottom hole temperatures range between 99.4??C and 129.5??C. The high-temperature units in the three Fumarole Valley boreholes are at the approximate same elevation as the high-temperature unit in borehole M-1 in Casa Diablo indicating lateral or sub-lateral hydrothermal flow through the resurgent dome. Small differences in temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to segments of the measured temperature profiles, we calculate horizontal groundwater velocities in

  3. A stable and robust calibration scheme of the log-periodic power law model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, V.; Sornette, D.

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple transformation of the formulation of the log-periodic power law formula of the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of financial bubbles that reduces it to a function of only three nonlinear parameters. The transformation significantly decreases the complexity of the fitting procedure and improves its stability tremendously because the modified cost function is now characterized by good smooth properties with in general a single minimum in the case where the model is appropriate to the empirical data. We complement the approach with an additional subordination procedure that slaves two of the nonlinear parameters to the most crucial nonlinear parameter, the critical time tc, defined in the JLS model as the end of the bubble and the most probable time for a crash to occur. This further decreases the complexity of the search and provides an intuitive representation of the results of the calibration. With our proposed methodology, metaheuristic searches are not longer necessary and one can resort solely to rigorous controlled local search algorithms, leading to a dramatic increase in efficiency. Empirical tests on the Shanghai Composite index (SSE) from January 2007 to March 2008 illustrate our findings.

  4. A log-normal distribution model for the molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Maurice, P.A.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a lognormal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured M(n) and M(w) and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several types of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high- pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a log-normal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured Mn and Mw and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several type's of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.

  5. Use of borehole radar reflection logging to monitor steam-enhanced remediation in fractured limestone-results of numerical modelling and a field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, C.; Joesten, P.K.; Lane, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar is an efficient geophysical method for the detection and location of fractures and fracture zones in electrically resistive rocks. In this study, the use of down-hole (borehole) radar reflection logs to monitor the injection of steam in fractured rocks was tested as part of a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation pilot study conducted at a fractured limestone quarry contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons at the former Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine, USA. In support of the pilot study, borehole radar reflection logs were collected three times (before, during, and near the end of steam injection) using broadband 100 MHz electric dipole antennas. Numerical modelling was performed to predict the effect of heating on radar-frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity, attenuation, and fracture reflectivity. The modelling results indicate that EM wave velocity and attenuation change substantially if heating increases the electrical conductivity of the limestone matrix. Furthermore, the net effect of heat-induced variations in fracture-fluid dielectric properties on average medium velocity is insignificant because the expected total fracture porosity is low. In contrast, changes in fracture fluid electrical conductivity can have a significant effect on EM wave attenuation and fracture reflectivity. Total replacement of water by steam in a fracture decreases fracture reflectivity of a factor of 10 and induces a change in reflected wave polarity. Based on the numerical modelling results, a reflection amplitude analysis method was developed to delineate fractures where steam has displaced water. Radar reflection logs collected during the three acquisition periods were analysed in the frequency domain to determine if steam had replaced water in the fractures (after normalizing the logs to compensate for differences in antenna performance between logging runs). Analysis of the radar reflection logs from a borehole where the temperature

  6. Modelo de Gerenciamento da Logística Reversa Reverse Logistics Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Toledo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do número de produtos com vida útil menor, a intensificação no uso do comércio eletrônico, leis cada vez mais exigentes de responsabilidade sobre descarte dos produtos e uma crescente consciência ambiental têm gerado um elevado número de retornos, fazendo crescer a importância da Logística Reversa para as empresas e para a sociedade, de forma geral. Contudo, constatou-se na literatura que se trata de uma área ainda pouco explorada e, portanto, não existem dados concretos para se trabalhar e explorar as oportunidades de melhoria. Com o intuito de mitigar esta carência, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica acerca da relação entre a Logística Reversa e o desempenho empresarial, bem como uma pesquisa junto às empresas, procurando verificar como se dá este relacionamento. Como resultado principal, relacionado diretamente com o objetivo do trabalho, obteve-se um modelo conceitual que contribuiu para a ampliação da visão gerencial sobre o processo de Logística Reversa, modelo este que inclui indicadores de desempenho que permitem avaliar a atividade. Também é proposta do trabalho a utilização de métodos de Tomada de Decisão com Múltiplos Critérios, ferramenta esta que facilita a seleção dos indicadores segundo as estratégias das empresas.The increased number of items with a shorter useful life, the massive use of e-commerce, and increased environmental awareness with increasingly demanding laws on disposal of products, have created a large amount of returns increasing the importance of Reverse Logistics for society and companies, in general. However, according to the literature, Reverse Logistics is still a poorly explored activity, and therefore there are no concrete data to work with and to explore opportunities for improvement. With the goal of bridging this gap, a literature review on the relationship between Reverse Logistics and business performance was conducted in addition to a study carried out

  7. Evaluation of the Storm 3 data logger manufactured by WaterLOG/Xylem Incorporated—Results of bench, temperature, and field deployment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2016-05-04

    The Storm 3 is a browser-based data logger manufactured by WaterLOG/Xylem Incorporated that operates over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). A Storm logger with no built-in telemetry (Storm3-00) and a logger with built-in cellular modem (Storm3-03) were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s specifications with bench tests, for recording data over the device’s operating temperature range with temperature chamber tests, and for field performance with an outdoor deployment test.

  8. Comparison of robustness to outliers between robust poisson models and log-binomial models when estimating relative risks for common binary outcomes: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wansu; Shi, Jiaxiao; Qian, Lei; Azen, Stanley P

    2014-06-26

    To estimate relative risks or risk ratios for common binary outcomes, the most popular model-based methods are the robust (also known as modified) Poisson and the log-binomial regression. Of the two methods, it is believed that the log-binomial regression yields more efficient estimators because it is maximum likelihood based, while the robust Poisson model may be less affected by outliers. Evidence to support the robustness of robust Poisson models in comparison with log-binomial models is very limited. In this study a simulation was conducted to evaluate the performance of the two methods in several scenarios where outliers existed. The findings indicate that for data coming from a population where the relationship between the outcome and the covariate was in a simple form (e.g. log-linear), the two models yielded comparable biases and mean square errors. However, if the true relationship contained a higher order term, the robust Poisson models consistently outperformed the log-binomial models even when the level of contamination is low. The robust Poisson models are more robust (or less sensitive) to outliers compared to the log-binomial models when estimating relative risks or risk ratios for common binary outcomes. Users should be aware of the limitations when choosing appropriate models to estimate relative risks or risk ratios.

  9. Topological Expansion in the Complex Cubic Log-Gas Model: One-Cut Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleher, Pavel; Deaño, Alfredo; Yattselev, Maxim

    2016-09-01

    We prove the topological expansion for the cubic log-gas partition function Z_N(t)= int _Γ \\cdots int _Γ prod _{1≤ jtopological expansion for log Z_N(t) in the one-cut phase region. The proof is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach to semiclassical asymptotic expansions for the associated orthogonal polynomials and the theory of S-curves and quadratic differentials.

  10. Toward Building Models of Community College Persistence: A Log-Linear Analysis. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    Log-linear modeling was employed to explore the conceptual relationships among community college student persistence and nine variables, including student demographics, purpose for enrolling, intentions to return, frequency of informal interaction with faculty, and satisfaction with the institution in general. The study sample was 369 new and…

  11. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2014-01-01

    and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...

  12. On log surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fujino, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an announcement of the minimal model theory for log surfaces in all characteristics and contains some related results including a simplified proof of the Artin-Keel contraction theorem in the surface case.

  13. Log Data Modeling in Information Retrieval Systems%信息检索系统日志建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉召

    2012-01-01

    The method of customizing log to collect data in the information retrieval system can discover user' s visiting characteristics and requiring information. The authors focus on the log data modeling theory and methods in information retrieval systems, by researc- hing on the business model, conceptual model, logical model and physical model to discover the principles and features during model- ing process. By the end, the authors use an example of log modeling in embedded NSTL system to validate the principles and methods.%信息检索系统通过定制日志采集数据的方式,可以发现用户访问行为的特征及需求信息。重点研究信息检索系统中适用的定制日志建模理论和方法,通过业务建模、概念建模、逻辑建模和物理建模方法,发现建模过程中的规律和特点,通过在NSTL嵌入式系统中的实验,验证所提出的方法。

  14. Modelling room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, B L; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Klein, Michael L

    2008-08-07

    Room temperature ionic liquids (IL) composed of organic cations and inorganic anions are already being utilized for wide-ranging applications in chemistry. Complementary to experiments, computational modelling has provided reliable details into the nature of their interactions. The intra- and intermolecular structures, dynamic and transport behaviour and morphologies of these novel liquids have also been explored using simulations. The current status of molecular modelling studies is presented along with the prognosis for future work in this area.

  15. Modelling water temperature in TOXSWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Deneer, J.W.; Adriaanse, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    A reasonably accurate estimate of the water temperature is necessary for a good description of the degradation of plant protection products in water which is used in the surface water model TOXSWA. Based on a consideration of basic physical processes that describe the influence of weather on the

  16. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.

    2015-01-01

    alone. Due to sparse sampling in space, lithological borehole logs may overlook structures that are important for groundwater flow at larger scales. Good spatial coverage along with high spatial resolution makes airborne time-domain electromagnetic (AEM) data valuable for the structural input to large...

  17. Reading Logs and Literature Teaching Models in English Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Delarriva, Ornella; Basabe, Enrique Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Reading logs are regularly used in foreign language education since they are not only critical in the development of reading comprehension but may also be instrumental in taking readers beyond the referential into the representational realms of language. In this paper we offer the results of a qualitative analysis of a series of reading logs…

  18. Modeling and Inversion Methods for the Interpretation of Resistivity Logging Tool Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    The electrical resistivity measured by well logging tools is one of the most important rock parameters for indicating the amount of hydrocarbons present in a reservoir. The main interpretation challenge is to invert the measured data, solving for the true resistivity values in each zone of a reservo

  19. QSPR Models for Predicting Log Pliver Values for Volatile Organic Compounds Combining Statistical Methods and Domain Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica F. Díaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are contained in a variety of chemicals that can be found in household products and may have undesirable effects on health. Thereby, it is important to model blood-to-liver partition coefficients (log Pliver for VOCs in a fast and inexpensive way. In this paper, we present two new quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models for the prediction of log Pliver, where we also propose a hybrid approach for the selection of the descriptors. This hybrid methodology combines a machine learning method with a manual selection based on expert knowledge. This allows obtaining a set of descriptors that is interpretable in physicochemical terms. Our regression models were trained using decision trees and neural networks and validated using an external test set. Results show high prediction accuracy compared to previous log Pliver models, and the descriptor selection approach provides a means to get a small set of descriptors that is in agreement with theoretical understanding of the target property.

  20. Modelling discontinuous well log signal to identify lithological boundaries via wavelet analysis: An example from KTB borehole data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Singh; Saumen Maiti; R K Tiwar

    2016-06-01

    Identification of sharp and discontinuous lithological boundaries from well log signal stemming fromheterogeneous subsurface structures assumes a special significance in geo-exploration studies. Well logdata acquired from various geological settings generally display nonstationary/nonlinear characteristicswith varying wavelengths and frequencies. Modelling of such complex well-log signals using the conventionalsignal processing techniques either fails to catch-up abrupt boundaries or at the best, do notprovide precise information on insidious lithological discontinuities. In this paper, we have proposed anew wavelet transform-based algorithm to model the abrupt discontinuous changes from well log databy taking care of nonstationary characteristics of the signal. Prior to applying the algorithm on thegeophysical well data, we analyzed the distribution of wavelet coefficients using synthetic signal generatedby the first order nonstationary auto-regressive model and then applied the method on actual welllog dataset obtained from the KTB bore hole, Germany. Besides identifying the formation of layeredboundaries, the underlying method also maps some additional formation boundaries, which were hithertoundetected at the KTB site. The results match well with known geological lithostratigraphy andwill be useful for constraining the future model of KTB bore hole data.

  1. 通用钻孔柱状图模型研究%Research on the model of universal borehole log

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 李安波; 周良辰

    2012-01-01

    本文针对当前钻孔柱状图在通用性与扩展性等方面存在的问题,将多个行业的钻孔柱状图进行抽象,设计出通用的钻孔数据模型与界面样式模型,并在此基础上利用插件架构实现了钻孔列元素的动态扩展.应用实例表明,基于该模型的钻孔柱状图可进行界面与数据的灵活配置,能应用于工程地质、水文地质,第四纪地质等多个行业.%Focusing on the existent problem in universality and expansibility of the current borehole log, this paper abstracted the borehole log from multi-fields and designed a general borehole data model and pattern model for them. Based on the models, this paper utilized the plug-in structure to realize the dynamic extension of borehole columns. Experiments showed thai the borehole log based on the model could configure its interface and data flexibly and could be applied to multiply industries such as hydiogeology, engineering geology, quaternary geology and so on.

  2. Modeling the relationships among internal defect features and external Appalachian hardwood log defect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a hardwood tree grows and develops, surface defects such as branch stubs and wounds are overgrown. Evidence of these defects remain on the log surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. As the tree grows the defect is encapsulated or grown over by new wood. During this process the appearance of the defect in the tree's bark changes. The...

  3. Expected-value techniques for Monte Carlo modeling of well logging problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Scott W. [Claremont Research Institute of Applied Mathematical Sciences, School of Mathematics, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Maucec, Marko, E-mail: marko.maucec@halliburton.co [Claremont Research Institute of Applied Mathematical Sciences, School of Mathematics, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Spanier, Jerome [Claremont Research Institute of Applied Mathematical Sciences, School of Mathematics, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Badruzzaman, Ahmed; Chedester, Clint [ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, 6001 Bollinger Canyon Road, D-2208, San Ramon, CA 94583 (United States); Evans, Michael [Schlumberger, 110 Gillingham Lane, Sugar Land, TX 77478 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This article describes research performed to develop an expected-value (EV) estimation capability for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations of oil well logging problems. The basic idea underlying EV estimation is that event-level interaction and transport probabilities are known and can be averaged exactly to produce unbiased estimators that properly account for potential future events in the simulation. Conventional surface-crossing and track-length based estimators do not provide any information unless a particle history actually reaches a detector region. Expected-value estimators, however, can extract information from particles that merely travel along a direction intercepting the detector region. This paper describes two expected-value estimators that have been developed for oil well logging simulations. The first estimates the volume-averaged scalar flux or reaction rate in a detector. The second estimates a weighted surface-averaged incident current that can be enfolded with a detector response function to estimate pulse-height spectra. Though EV estimation reduces variance at the event level, it does not guarantee reduced variance at the history level. However, our oil well logging tests indicate that the EV approach generally improves information content, enhances the efficiency of the transport simulation, and provides an efficient technique to obtain the fluxes, reaction rates, and pulse-height spectra in detectors, especially when applied in conjunction with weight-window variance reduction techniques.

  4. Analysis of rabbit doe longevity using a semiparametric log-Normal animal frailty model with time-dependent covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damgaard Lars

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on doe longevity in a rabbit population were analysed using a semiparametric log-Normal animal frailty model. Longevity was defined as the time from the first positive pregnancy test to death or culling due to pathological problems. Does culled for other reasons had right censored records of longevity. The model included time dependent covariates associated with year by season, the interaction between physiological state and the number of young born alive, and between order of positive pregnancy test and physiological state. The model also included an additive genetic effect and a residual in log frailty. Properties of marginal posterior distributions of specific parameters were inferred from a full Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. All of the fully conditional posterior distributions defining a Gibbs sampler were easy to sample from, either directly or using adaptive rejection sampling. The marginal posterior mean estimates of the additive genetic variance and of the residual variance in log frailty were 0.247 and 0.690.

  5. Analysis of rabbit doe longevity using a semiparametric log-Normal animal frailty model with time-dependent covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Pablo; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Damgaard, Lars Holm; Baselga, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Data on doe longevity in a rabbit population were analysed using a semiparametric log-Normal animal frailty model. Longevity was defined as the time from the first positive pregnancy test to death or culling due to pathological problems. Does culled for other reasons had right censored records of longevity. The model included time dependent covariates associated with year by season, the interaction between physiological state and the number of young born alive, and between order of positive pregnancy test and physiological state. The model also included an additive genetic effect and a residual in log frailty. Properties of marginal posterior distributions of specific parameters were inferred from a full Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. All of the fully conditional posterior distributions defining a Gibbs sampler were easy to sample from, either directly or using adaptive rejection sampling. The marginal posterior mean estimates of the additive genetic variance and of the residual variance in log frailty were 0.247 and 0.690.

  6. Statistical properties of absolute log-returns and a stochastic model of stock markets with heterogeneous agents

    CERN Document Server

    Kaizoji, T

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended as an investigation of the statistical properties of {\\it absolute log-returns}, defined as the absolute value of the logarithmic price change, for the Nikkei 225 index in the 28-year period from January 4, 1975 to December 30, 2002. We divided the time series of the Nikkei 225 index into two periods, an inflationary period and a deflationary period. We have previously [18] found that the distribution of absolute log-returns can be approximated by the power-law distribution in the inflationary period, while the distribution of absolute log-returns is well described by the exponential distribution in the deflationary period.\\par To further explore these empirical findings, we have introduced a model of stock markets which was proposed in [19,20]. In this model, the stock market is composed of two groups of traders: {\\it the fundamentalists}, who believe that the asset price will return to the fundamental price, and {\\it the interacting traders}, who can be noise traders. We show through ...

  7. APPLICATION OF GIS AND GROUNDWATER MODELLING TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY THE PERCHED AQUIFERS TO DEMARKATE WATER LOGGING CONDITIONS IN PARTS OF MEHSANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rawal

    2016-06-01

    The study highlights the application of GIS in establishing the basic parameters of soil, land use and the distribution of water logging over a period of time and the groundwater modelling identifies the groundwater regime of the area and estimates the total recharge to the area due to surface water irrigation and rainfall and suggests suitable method to control water logging in the area.

  8. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization and Modeling in the Swedish Program for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks Using Information Acquired by Difference Flow Logging and Borehole Wall Image Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, S.; Stigsson, M.; Levén, J.

    2006-12-01

    Difference flow logging is a relatively new hydraulic test method. It offers a superior geometrical resolution compared to the classic double-packer injection test method. Other significant features of the difference flow logging method are the long duration of the test period and the line source flow regime. These three features are vital for the characterization and the modeling of the conductive fracture frequency in crystalline rocks. Further, combining difference flow logging with core mapping and in situ borehole wall image logging (BIPS) allows for an enhanced geological cross correlation and structural interpretation. The data and analyses presented here come from the ongoing site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in Forsmark managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. First, we demonstrate the statistical properties of the fracture transmissivities acquired by difference flow logging for a number of one-kilometer-long cored boreholes. Secondly, we make a hydraulic comparison between these data and the transmissivities acquired by double-packer injection tests. Thirdly, we present a method for investigating the geometrical connectivity of open fractures in fracture network simulations and how this connectivity can be cross correlated to the fracture transmissivity distribution acquired by difference flow logging. Finally, we discuss the geometrical properties of flowing fractures as acquired by BIPS data and the correlation to the current stress situation in Forsmark. The geometrical anisotropy observed in the transmissivity data suggests that the current stress situation is very important for the flow field in Forsmark. This puts constraints on the collection and use of geological/structural data for hydrogeological discrete fracture network modeling.

  9. Fractal theory modeling for interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data and establishing lithological cross section in basaltic environment (case study from Southern Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2017-05-01

    Fractal theory modeling technique is newly proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, for establishing the lithological cross section in basaltic environments. The logging data of Kodana well, localized in Southern Syria are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established cross section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The concentration- Number (C-N) fractal modeling technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells with much well logging data with a high number of variables are required to be interpreted.

  10. Evaluation of the Weibull and log normal distribution functions as survival models of Escherichia coli under isothermal and non isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Glaucia M F; Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2007-11-01

    Published survival curves of Escherichia coli in two growth media, with and without the presence of salt, at various temperatures and in a Greek eggplant salad having various levels of essential oil, all had a characteristic downward concavity when plotted on semi logarithmic coordinates. Some also exhibited what appeared as a 'shoulder' of considerable length. Regardless of whether a shoulder was noticed, the survival pattern could be considered as a manifestation of an underlying unimodal distribution of the cells' death times. Mathematically, the data could be described equally well by the Weibull and log normal distribution functions, which had similar modes, means, standard deviations and coefficients of skewness. When plotted in their probability density function (PDF) form, the curves also appeared very similar visually. This enabled us to quantify and compare the effect of temperature or essential oil concentration on the organism's survival in terms of these temporal distributions' characteristics. Increased lethality was generally expressed in a shorter mean and mode, a smaller standard deviation and increased overall symmetry as judged by the distributions' degree of skewness. The 'shoulder', as expected, simply indicated that the distribution's standard deviation was much smaller than its mode. Rate models based on the two distribution functions could be used to predict non isothermal survival patterns. They were derived on the assumption that the momentary inactivation rate is the isothermal rate at the momentary temperature at a time that corresponds to the momentary survival ratio. In this application, however, the Weibullian model with a fixed power was not only simpler and more convenient mathematically than the one based on the log normal distribution, but it also provided more accurate estimates of the dynamic inactivation patterns.

  11. Structural equation and log-linear modeling: a comparison of methods in the analysis of a study on caregivers' health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we compare the results in an analysis of determinants of caregivers' health derived from two approaches, a structural equation model and a log-linear model, using the same data set. Methods The data were collected from a cross-sectional population-based sample of 468 families in Ontario, Canada who had a child with cerebral palsy (CP. The self-completed questionnaires and the home-based interviews used in this study included scales reflecting socio-economic status, child and caregiver characteristics, and the physical and psychological well-being of the caregivers. Both analytic models were used to evaluate the relationships between child behaviour, caregiving demands, coping factors, and the well-being of primary caregivers of children with CP. Results The results were compared, together with an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of each approach, including their practical and conceptual implications. Conclusion No important differences were found in the substantive conclusions of the two analyses. The broad confirmation of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM results by the Log-linear Modeling (LLM provided some reassurance that the SEM had been adequately specified, and that it broadly fitted the data.

  12. High-temperature scintillation properties of orthorhombic Gd2Si2O7 aiming at well logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Youichi; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    Scintillation and luminescence properties of orthorhombic Gd2Si2O7:Ce (GPS:Ce) single-crystal scintillators were investigated for temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 573 K. Orthorhombic GPS crystals were grown by using a top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The scintillation light yield of the orthorhombic GPS at RT was ∼2.9 times higher than that of Gd2SiO5:Ce (GSO). The light yield values of the orthorhombic GPS (Ce = 2.5%) were almost unchanged for temperatures ranging from RT to 523 K, and at 523 K, were higher than twice the light yield of GSO at RT. These GPS scintillators are expected to contribute to oil exploration at greater depths.

  13. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  14. Correlation Models for Temperature Fields

    KAUST Repository

    North, Gerald R.

    2011-05-16

    This paper presents derivations of some analytical forms for spatial correlations of evolving random fields governed by a white-noise-driven damped diffusion equation that is the analog of autoregressive order 1 in time and autoregressive order 2 in space. The study considers the two-dimensional plane and the surface of a sphere, both of which have been studied before, but here time is introduced to the problem. Such models have a finite characteristic length (roughly the separation at which the autocorrelation falls to 1/e) and a relaxation time scale. In particular, the characteristic length of a particular temporal Fourier component of the field increases to a finite value as the frequency of the particular component decreases. Some near-analytical formulas are provided for the results. A potential application is to the correlation structure of surface temperature fields and to the estimation of large area averages, depending on how the original datastream is filtered into a distribution of Fourier frequencies (e.g., moving average, low pass, or narrow band). The form of the governing equation is just that of the simple energy balance climate models, which have a long history in climate studies. The physical motivation provided by the derivation from a climate model provides some heuristic appeal to the approach and suggests extensions of the work to nonuniform cases.

  15. Competency-based residency training and the web log: modeling practice-based learning and enhancing medical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Hollon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: By using web-based tools in medical education, there are opportunities to innovatively teach important principles from the general competencies of graduate medical education. Objectives: Postulating that faculty transparency in learning from uncertainties in clinical work could help residents to incorporate the principles of practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI in their professional development, faculty in this community-based residency program modeled the steps of PBLI on a weekly basis through the use of a web log. Method: The program confidentially surveyed residents before and after this project about actions consistent with PBLI and knowledge acquired through reading the web log. Results: The frequency that residents encountered clinical situations where they felt uncertain declined over the course of the 24 weeks of the project from a mean frequency of uncertainty of 36% to 28% (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.008; however, the frequency with which residents sought answers when faced with uncertainty did not change (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.39, remaining high at approximately 80%. Residents answered a mean of 52% of knowledge questions correct when tested prior to faculty posts to the blog, rising to a mean of 65% of questions correct when tested at the end of the project (paired t-test, p=0.001. Conclusions: Faculty role modeling of PBLI behaviors and posting clinical questions and answers to a web log led to modest improvements in medical knowledge but did not alter behavior that was already taking place frequently among residents.

  16. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  17. Interpretation of horizontal well production logs: influence of logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Sarica, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Haci, M. [Drilling Measurements, Inc (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of a production-logging tool on wellbore flow rate and pressure measurements was investigated, focusing on the disturbence caused by the production-logging tool and the coiled tubing on the original flow conditions in the wellbore. The investigation was carried out using an analytical model and single-phase liquid flow was assumed. Results showed that the production-logging tool influenced the measurements as shown by the deviation of the original flow-rate, pressure profiles and low-conductivity wellbores. High production rates increase the effect of the production-logging tool. Recovering or inferring the original flow conditions in the wellbore from the production-logging data is a very complex process which cannot be solved easily. For this reason, the conditions under which the information obtained by production-logging is meaningful is of considerable practical interest. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. Terrestrial heat flow distribution in Japan area based on the temperature logging in the borehole of NIED Hi-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of heat flow and geothermal gradient using boreholes on land are often concentrated in specific areas such as geothermal region, so the measured heat flow data in non-volcanic area is poorly mapped. We newly measured thermal gradients and heat flow all over Japanese Islands by using the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's (NIED) high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) boreholes. NIED Hi-net is composed of about 800 borehole stations installed almost homogeneously over the Japanese Islands with an average spacing of 20km. Although majority of the Hi-net stations have the boreholes of 100- 200m in depth, 55 deep (300-1000m) and 29 very deep (1000-3500m) observation wells were constructed at some specific sites if necessary. Because these Hi-net boreholes are designed for a long-term observation, these are structurally stable with using casing pipe. These borehole temperature profiles contain an influence of climate change, so we correct temperature profile for climatic change, the rapid warming of 1950-2000A.D. Comprehensive heat flow distribution in Japan is as follows: low heat flow in forearc region, high heat flow in back-arc region, and there seems to be the correlation between the seismogenic layer thickness in upper crust and terrestrial heat flow. In the volcanic chain area, very high terrestrial heat flow over 200mW/m2 are observed. In the fore-arc area, low heat flow under 50mW/m2 are observed. In the South Kanto area where is metropolitan Tokyo and the Hokkaido Hidaka area, very low heat flow under 40 mW/m2 are observed. In the southern Kii Peninsula, there are many non-volcanic hot springs, so around this area high heat flow over 150mW/m2 are observed. In Shikoku area also high heat flow over 100mW/m2 are observed. Geographical distributions of terrestrial heat flow show that high heat flow stations are observed along the region where non-volcanic long-period tremors occur about 30km deep. In SW Japan

  19. Multi-log2N交换网络的性能分析模型及控制算法∗%Control Algorithm and Performance Analysis Model of Multi-log2N Switching Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓锋; 赵有健; 吴亚娟

    2013-01-01

    Although high-speed multi-plane switching networks have removed their internal conflict problem, a routing control algorithm is necessary for realizing conflict-free routing. Otherwise, the conflict phenomenon cannot be totally avoided. This is because the routing plane may be chosen inappropriately by the incoming packet at the input stage. Therefore, a control algorithm based on the idea of conflict links set is presented in this paper. This algorithm controls the allocation of packets among routing planes in the multi-log2N switching networks, and hence, the conflict-free routing is totally guaranteed. Moreover, it is not only applicable for the RNB and SNB, but also suitable for unicast and multicast. On the other hand, inner link conflicts are removed in multi-log2N networks. The switching efficiency is improved, but no performance analysis models can be used to analyze the switching performance of Multi-log2N switching networks. So an analysis model based on embedded Markov chain is proposed in this paper, and is adopted to analyze the queue management and the relevant performance measures in detail, such as the mean waiting time, queue length and the probability of packets loss. All these conclusions are capable of providing well theoretical support for the design of the optical switching architecture based on multi-log2N switching networks.%  高速多平面交换网络解决了其内部冲突问题,但需要相应的路由控制算法的辅助,否则,内部冲突不能彻底解决。这是因为包在输入级路由平面的选择不够恰当,容易导致路由冲突的产生。因此,根据冲突链路集的思想,给出一种Multi-log2N交换网络的控制算法。该算法控制分组在路由平面间的选择,不仅能够适用于RNB和SNB,还能实现单播和多播的控制,保障 Multi-log2N 完全实现无阻塞。另一方面,Multi-log2N 消除了内部的链路冲突,提高了交换速率,但对其交换性能缺乏系统的理论分析。

  20. Performance evaluation of groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data alone. Du...

  1. Log Linear Models for Religious and Social Factors affecting the practice of Family Planning Methods in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is cross sectional study based on 304 households (couples with wives age less than 48 years, chosen from urban locality (city Lahore. Fourteen religious, demographic and socio-economic factors of categorical nature like husband education, wife education, husband’s monthly income, occupation of husband, household size, husband-wife discussion, number of living children, desire for more children, duration of marriage, present age of wife, age of wife at marriage, offering of prayers, political view, and religiously decisions were taken to understand acceptance of family planning. Multivariate log-linear analysis was applied to identify association pattern and interrelationship among factors. The logit model was applied to explore the relationship between predictor factors and dependent factor, and to explore which are the factors upon which acceptance of family planning is highly depending. Log-linear analysis demonstrate that preference of contraceptive use was found to be consistently associated with factors Husband-Wife discussion, Desire for more children, No. of children, Political view and Duration of married life. While Husband’s monthly income, Occupation of husband, Age of wife at marriage and Offering of prayers resulted in no statistical explanation of adoption of family planning methods.

  2. Analytical modelling of temperature effects on synapses

    CERN Document Server

    Kufel, Dominik S

    2016-01-01

    It was previously reported, that temperature may significantly influence neural dynamics on different levels of brain modelling. Due to this fact, while creating the model in computational neuroscience we would like to make it scalable for wide-range of various brain temperatures. However currently, because of a lack of experimental data and an absence of analytical model describing temperature influence on synapses, it is not possible to include temperature effects on multi-neuron modelling level. In this paper, we propose first step to deal with this problem: new analytical model of AMPA-type synaptic conductance, which is able to include temperature effects in low-frequency stimulations. It was constructed on basis of Markov model description of AMPA receptor kinetics and few simplifications motivated both experimentally and from Monte Carlo simulation of synaptic transmission. The model may be used for efficient and accurate implementation of temperature effects on AMPA receptor conductance in large scale...

  3. The effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull log-normal sire frailty models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Simonsen, J;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was, by means of simulation, to quantify the effect of ignoring individual heterogeneity in Weibull sire frailty models on parameter estimates and to address the consequences for genetic inferences. Three simulation studies were evaluated, which included 3 levels...... the software Survival Kit for the incomplete sire model. For the incomplete sire model, the Monte Carlo and Survival Kit parameter estimates were similar. This study established that when unobserved individual heterogeneity was ignored, the parameter estimates that included sire effects were biased toward zero...

  4. Design Thinking and Cloud Manufacturing: A Study of Cloud Model Sharing Platform Based on Separated Data Log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the product data consistency problem which is caused by the portable system that cannot conduct real-time update of product data in mobile environment under the mass customization production mode, a new product data optimistic replication method based on log is presented. This paper focuses on the design thinking provider, probing into a manufacturing resource design thinking cloud platform based on manufacturing resource-locating technologies, and also discuss several application scenarios of cloud locating technologies in the manufacturing environment. The actual demand of manufacturing creates a new mode which is service-oriented and has high efficiency and low consumption. Finally, they are different from the crowd-sourcing application model of Local-Motors. The sharing platform operator is responsible for a master plan for the platform, proposing a open interface standard and establishing a service operation mode.

  5. Bayesian Poisson log-bilinear models for mortality projections with multiple populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Bardoutsos, A.; Ouburg, W.

    2015-01-01

    Life insurers, pension funds, health care providers and social security institutions face increasing expenses due to continuing improvements of mortality rates. The actuarial and demographic literature has introduced a myriad of (deterministic and stochastic) models to forecast mortality rates of si

  6. Informing groundwater model hydrostratigraphy with airborne time-domain electromagnetic data and borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    lithological information directly into groundwater models is proposed. The approach builds on a clay-fraction inversion which is a spatially variable translation of resistivity values from EM data into clay-fraction values using borehole lithological information. Hydrostratigraphical units are obtained through...

  7. The Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) Measurement System to Measure the Quality of Physical Model of Bored Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibit, Denniswara; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    The crosshole sonic logging measurement to measure the quality of bored piles is presented in this paper. The development of crosshole measurement system on physical bored pile modeling was carried out. The diameter of the concrete model was around 1 m and the height of the model was 1 m. In the model two holes were constructed to simulate the crosshole measurement system in the field. The two holes were filled with water and then two transducers were lowered in the holes. The transducers were built from audio speaker and microphone and they were sealed by rubber material so that the transducers were water proof. The speaker transducer acted as transmitter and the microphone transducer acted as receiver. The acoustic wave transmitted from the speaker penetrated in the concrete material and received by receiver. By analyzing the waveform arrived at the receiver by means of datalogger we determine the condition the concrete pile i.e. whether there were cavities in the concrete etc.

  8. Statistical Inference of Log-Gompertz Regression Model with Censored Data%基于删失数据的 Log-Gompertz 回归模型的统计推断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程从华; 白龙

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz 模型在人类学研究中被广泛使用。讨论了基于对数不换的 Gompertz 模型,即 log-Gompertz 模型。研究了参数的极大似然估计和渐近置信区间,并提供了利用 Bootstrap 方法寻找参数的置信区间。在不同参数、不同样本容量以及不同删失计划的情形下,给出相关数值模型结果用以评价所建立的回归模型。%The Gompertz distribution is widely applied in modeling human mortality.In this article,the regression model is discussed,which is based on the logarithm of the Gompertz distribution,namely,log-Gompertz distribu-tion.The method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters is studied.The bootstrap method is also applied to constructing the confidence interval of parameters.For different parameter settings,sample sizes, censoring percentages and various simulation studies are performed to assess the regression models.

  9. Temperature dependent extension of a hysteresis model

    OpenAIRE

    Sixdenier, Fabien; MESSAL, Oualid; Hilal, Alaa; Martin, Christian; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Some soft magnetic materials (like ferrites but not only) are strongly dependent of the temperature. In order to predict their behaviour in electrical devices, engineers need hysteresis models able to take into account the temperature. This paper is an attempt to take into account the temperature in an existing model of hysteresis through its parameters. Variations of some parameters are issued from Weiss’s works and others have to be fitted numerically. Simulation res...

  10. Low-field NMR logging sensor for measuring hydraulic parameters of model soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucre, Oscar; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Minière, Adrien; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-08-01

    SummaryKnowing the exact hydraulic parameters of soils is very important for improving water management in agriculture and for the refinement of climate models. Up to now, however, the investigation of such parameters has required applying two techniques simultaneously which is time-consuming and invasive. Thus, the objective of this current study is to present only one technique, i.e., a new non-invasive method to measure hydraulic parameters of model soils by using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hereby, two model clay or sandy soils were respectively filled in a 2 m-long acetate column having an integrated PVC tube. After the soils were completely saturated with water, a low-field NMR sensor was moved up and down in the PVC tube to quantitatively measure along the whole column the initial water content of each soil sample. Thereafter, both columns were allowed to drain. Meanwhile, the NMR sensor was set at a certain depth to measure the water content of that soil slice. Once the hydraulic equilibrium was reached in each of the two columns, a final moisture profile was taken along the whole column. Three curves were subsequently generated accordingly: (1) the initial moisture profile, (2) the evolution curve of the moisture depletion at that particular depth, and (3) the final moisture profile. All three curves were then inverse analyzed using a MATLAB code over numerical data produced with the van Genuchten-Mualem model. Hereby, a set of values ( α, n, θr and θs) was found for the hydraulic parameters for the soils under research. Additionally, the complete decaying NMR signal could be analyzed through Inverse Laplace Transformation and averaged on the 1/ T2 space. Through measurement of the decay in pure water, the effect on the relaxation caused by the sample could be estimated from the obtained spectra. The migration of the sample-related average with decreasing saturation speaks for a enhancement of the surface relaxation as the soil dries, in

  11. ACCREDITATION OF DEN TAL CARE SERVICES – A PROPOSAL FOR A LOG ICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Simonelli Gavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Accreditation Organization has published the Brazilian Manual of Accreditation forHealthcareServiceProvidersin 2010and thismanual provides the guidelines for the developmentof an accreditation process for healthcare providers; however, it does not provide standards for adental accreditation process. The aim of this study was to conceptualize the accreditation of dentalcare services and present a logical model that can anchor the development of a tool for accreditationof dental care services in Brazil. The Brazilian Manual of Accreditationsupported by thehealthcare services of the National Accreditation Organization (ONA provides guidelines for thedevelopment of the accreditation process in health care institutions; however, it does not providestandards for the dental accreditation process. The model proposed has three foci of analysis, sixdescribed sections and thirteen described subsections, all considering relevant aspects concerninghigh quality providers of dental care services.It waspossible to conceptualizethe accreditationandpresent a logicalmodel thatwas designed for the accreditation of UnitsProvidingDental CareServices (UPDCS-(UPSAO in Portuguese and ComplexesProvidingDental Care Services(CPDCS-(CPSAO in Portuguese

  12. Shear and Bulk Viscosities of a Weakly Coupled Quark Gluon Plasma with Finite Chemical Potential and Temperature---Leading-Log Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Song, Yu-Kun; Wang, Qun

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the shear (eta) and bulk (zeta) viscosities of a weakly coupled quark gluon plasma at the leading-log order with finite temperature T and quark chemical potential mu. We find that the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s increases monotonically with mu and eventually scales as (mu/T)^2 at large mu. In contrary, zeta/s is insensitive to mu. Both eta/s and zeta/s are monotonically decreasing functions of the quark flavor number N_f when N_f \\geq 2. This property is also observed in pion gas systems. Our perturbative calculation suggests that QCD becomes the most perfect (i.e. with the smallest eta/s) at mu=0 and N_f = 16 (the maximum N_f with asymptotic freedom). It would be interesting to test whether the currently smallest eta/s computed close to the phase transition with mu=0 and N_f = 0 can be further reduced by increasing N_f.

  13. SEALEX — Internal reef chronology and virtual drill logs from a spreadsheet-based reef growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelling, Martin; Webster, Jody Michael; Camoin, Gilbert; Iryu, Yasufumi; Bard, Edouard; Seard, Claire

    2009-03-01

    A reef growth model has been developed using an Excel spreadsheet. The 1D forward model is driven by a user definable sea-level curve. Other adjustable model parameters include maximum coral growth rate, coral growth rate depth dependence and light attenuation, subaerial erosion and subsidence. A time lag for the establishment of significant reef accretion may also be set. During the model run, both, the external shape and the internal chronologic structure of the growing reef as well as the paleo-water-depths are continuously displayed and recorded. We tested the model on fossil reef systems growing in a range of different tectonic settings such as both on slowly subsiding islands like Tahiti (subsidence rates of 0.25 m ka - 1 ) and rapidly subsiding islands like Hawaii (subsidence rate of 2.5 mka - 1 ) as well as rapidly uplifting coastal settings like Huon Peninsula (uplift rates of 0.5 to 4 m ka - 1 ) and more slowly uplifting settings like Haiti (uplift rates of 0.55 mka - 1 ). The model runs show the sensitivity of the resulting overall morphology and internal age structure to different model parameters. Additionally the water depth at the time of deposition is recorded. This allows the constructions of virtual borehole logs with the coral age profiles and the paleo water depth at the time of growth both displayed and recorded. Because the model is implemented as a macro in a popular spreadsheet program, it may be easily adapted or extended to model the growth of different reef and carbonate platform settings. Single model runs take a few minutes on a standard (2 GHz CoreDuo) desktop computer under Windows XP. The model may be used to investigate the effects of different boundary conditions such as maximum reef growth, erosion rates, subsidence or uplift on both, the general morphology of the reefs, and the internal chronologic structure. These results can then be compared to observed data allowing different hypothesis concerning reefs development to be

  14. Data Logging and Data Modelling: Using seismology and seismic data to create challenge in the academic classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbour, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 Computing and Information Technology was disapplied from the English National Curriculum and therefore no longer has a compulsory programme of study. Data logging and data modelling are still essential components of the curriculum in the Computing and Information Technology classroom. Once the students have mastered the basics of both spreadsheet and information handling software they need to be further challenged. All too often the data used with relation to data-logging and data-handling is not realistic enough to really challenge very able students. However, using data from seismology allows students to manipulate "real" data and enhances their experience of geo-science, developing their skills and then allowing them to build on this work in both the science and geography classroom. This new scheme of work "Seismology at School" has allowed the students to work and develop skills beyond those normally expected for their age group and has allowed them to better appreciate their learning experience of "Natural Hazards" in the science and geography classroom in later years. The students undertake research to help them develop their understanding of earthquakes. This includes using materials from other nations within the European Economic Area, to also develop and challenge their use of Modern Foreign Languages. They are then challenged to create their own seismometers using simple kits and 'free' software - this "problem-solving" approach to their work is designed to enhance team-work and to extend the challenge they experience in the classroom. The students are then are asked to manipulate a "real" set of data using international earthquake data from the most recent whole year. This allows the students to make use of many of the analytical and statistical functions of both spreadsheet software and information handling software in a meaningful way. The students will need to have developed a hypothesis which their work should have provided either validation

  15. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running...... conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection and heating of the inlet gasses in manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  16. Geophysical constraints on Rio Grande rift structure and stratigraphy from magnetotelluric models and borehole resistivity logs, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sawyer, David A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional electrical resistivity models derived from the magnetotelluric method were interpreted to provide more accurate hydrogeologic parameters for the Albuquerque and Española Basins. Analysis and interpretation of the resistivity models are aided by regional borehole resistivity data. Examination of the magnetotelluric response of hypothetical stratigraphic cases using resistivity characterizations from the borehole data elucidates two scenarios where the magnetotelluric method provides the strongest constraints. In the first scenario, the magnetotelluric method constrains the thickness of extensive volcanic cover, the underlying thickness of coarser-grained facies of buried Santa Fe Group sediments, and the depth to Precambrian basement or overlying Pennsylvanian limestones. In the second scenario, in the absence of volcanic cover, the magnetotelluric method constrains the thickness of coarser-grained facies of buried Santa Fe Group sediments and the depth to Precambrian basement or overlying Pennsylvanian limestones. Magnetotelluric surveys provide additional constraints on the relative positions of basement rocks and the thicknesses of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the region of the Albuquerque and Española Basins. The northern extent of a basement high beneath the Cerros del Rio volcanic field is delineated. Our results also reveal that the largest offset of the Hubbell Spring fault zone is located 5 km west of the exposed scarp. By correlating our resistivity models with surface geology and the deeper stratigraphic horizons using deep well log data, we are able to identify which of the resistivity variations in the upper 2 km belong to the upper Santa Fe Group sediment

  17. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... distribution. Therefore, an accurate temperature model is critical for observing the biomass pretreatment. More than that, the biomass is also pushed with a constant horizontal speed along the reactor in order to ensure a continuous throughput. The goal of this paper is to derive a temperature model...

  18. Non-Linear Logging Parameters Inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear logging parameters inversion is based on the field theory, information optimization and predication theory. It uses seismic charaoters,geological model and logging data as a restriction to inverse 2D, 3D logging parameters data volume. Using this method,

  19. A numerical model for ground temperature determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczur, M.; Polepszyc, I.; Biernacka, B.; Sapińska-Śliwa, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ground surface temperature and the temperature with respect to depth are one of the most important issues for geotechnical and environmental applications as well as for plants and other living organisms. In geothermal systems, temperature is directly related to the energy resources in the ground and it influences the efficiency of the ground source system. The ground temperature depends on a very large number of parameters, but it often needs to be evaluated with good accuracy. In the present work, models for the prediction of the ground temperature with a focus on the surface temperature at which all or selected important ground and environmental phenomena are taken into account have been analysed. It has been found that the simplest models and the most complex model may result in a similar temperature variation, yet at a very low depth and for specific cases only. A detailed analysis shows that taking into account different types of pavement or a greater depth requires more complex and advanced models.

  20. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  1. Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Jiang, Jianzheng [Chinese Academy ofSciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-09-15

    In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime.

  2. Use of multispecies occupancy models to evaluate the response of bird communities to forest degradation associated with logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Rubio, Eduardo; Kéry, Marc; Morreale, Stephen J; Sullivan, Patrick J; Gardner, Beth; Cooch, Evan G; Lassoie, James P

    2014-08-01

    Forest degradation is arguably the greatest threat to biodiversity, ecosystem services, and rural livelihoods. Therefore, increasing understanding of how organisms respond to degradation is essential for management and conservation planning. We were motivated by the need for rapid and practical analytical tools to assess the influence of management and degradation on biodiversity and system state in areas subject to rapid environmental change. We compared bird community composition and size in managed (ejido, i.e., communally owned lands) and unmanaged (national park) forests in the Sierra Tarahumara region, Mexico, using multispecies occupancy models and data from a 2-year breeding bird survey. Unmanaged sites had on average higher species occupancy and richness than managed sites. Most species were present in low numbers as indicated by lower values of detection and occupancy associated with logging-induced degradation. Less than 10% of species had occupancy probabilities >0.5, and degradation had no positive effects on occupancy. The estimated metacommunity size of 125 exceeded previous estimates for the region, and sites with mature trees and uneven-aged forest stand characteristics contained the highest species richness. Higher estimation uncertainty and decreases in richness and occupancy for all species, including habitat generalists, were associated with degraded young, even-aged stands. Our findings show that multispecies occupancy methods provide tractable measures of biodiversity and system state and valuable decision support for landholders and managers. These techniques can be used to rapidly address gaps in biodiversity information, threats to biodiversity, and vulnerabilities of species of interest on a landscape level, even in degraded or fast-changing environments. Moreover, such tools may be particularly relevant in the assessment of species richness and distribution in a wide array of habitats.

  3. A Novel Approach for Analysis of the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.

  4. Predicting student satisfaction with courses based on log data from a virtual learning environment – a neural network and classification tree model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đurđević Babić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Student satisfaction with courses in academic institutions is an important issue and is recognized as a form of support in ensuring effective and quality education, as well as enhancing student course experience. This paper investigates whether there is a connection between student satisfaction with courses and log data on student courses in a virtual learning environment. Furthermore, it explores whether a successful classification model for predicting student satisfaction with course can be developed based on course log data and compares the results obtained from implemented methods. The research was conducted at the Faculty of Education in Osijek and included analysis of log data and course satisfaction on a sample of third and fourth year students. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP with different activation functions and Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks as well as classification tree models were developed, trained and tested in order to classify students into one of two categories of course satisfaction. Type I and type II errors, and input variable importance were used for model comparison and classification accuracy. The results indicate that a successful classification model using tested methods can be created. The MLP model provides the highest average classification accuracy and the lowest preference in misclassification of students with a low level of course satisfaction, although a t-test for the difference in proportions showed that the difference in performance between the compared models is not statistically significant. Student involvement in forum discussions is recognized as a valuable predictor of student satisfaction with courses in all observed models.

  5. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  6. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  7. Comparison of Different Fuel Temperature Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weddig, Beatrice

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve the performance of the core calculation system used in Ringhals for in-core fuel management. It has been observed that, whereas the codes yield results that are in good agreement with measurements when the core operates at full nominal power, this agreement deteriorates noticeably when the reactor is running at reduced power. This deficiency of the code system was observed by comparing the calculated and measured boron concentrations in the moderator of the PWR. From the neutronic point of view, the difference between full power and reduced power in the same core is the different temperature of the fuel and the moderator. Whereas the coolant temperature can be measured and is thus relatively well known, the fuel temperature is only inferred from the moderator temperature as well as neutron physics and heat transfer calculations. The most likely reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is therefore the uncertainty of the fuel temperature at low power, and hence the incorrect calculation of the fuel temperature reactivity feedback through the so called Doppler effect. To obtain the fuel temperature at low power, usually some semi-empirical relations, sometimes called correlations, are used. The above-mentioned inaccuracy of the core calculation procedures can thus be tracked down to the insufficiency of these correlations. Therefore, the suggestion is that the above mentioned deficiency of the core calculation codes can be eliminated or reduced if the fuel temperature correlations are improved. An improved model, called the 30% model, is implemented in SIMULATE-3, the core calculation code used at Ringhals. The accuracy of the 30% model was compared to that of the present model by considering a number of cases, where measured values of the boron concentration at low power were available, and comparing them with calculated values using both the present and the new model. It was found that on the whole, the new fuel temperature

  8. Temperature Dependent Residual Stress Models for Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics on High Temperature Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhuan; Li, Weiguo

    2016-11-01

    The strength of SiC-depleted layer of ultra-high-temperature ceramics on high temperature oxidation degrades seriously. The research for residual stresses developed within the SiC-depleted layer is important and necessary. In this work, the residual stress evolutions in the SiC-depleted layer and the unoxidized substrate in various stages of oxidation are studied by using the characterization models. The temperature and oxidation time dependent mechanical/thermal properties of each phase in SiC-depleted layer are considered in the models. The study shows that the SiC-depleted layer would suffer from large tensile stresses due to the great temperature changes and the formation of pores on high temperature oxidation. The stresses may lead to the cracking and even the delamination of the oxidation layer.

  9. Temperature Dependent Residual Stress Models for Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics on High Temperature Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhuan; Li, Weiguo

    2017-08-01

    The strength of SiC-depleted layer of ultra-high-temperature ceramics on high temperature oxidation degrades seriously. The research for residual stresses developed within the SiC-depleted layer is important and necessary. In this work, the residual stress evolutions in the SiC-depleted layer and the unoxidized substrate in various stages of oxidation are studied by using the characterization models. The temperature and oxidation time dependent mechanical/thermal properties of each phase in SiC-depleted layer are considered in the models. The study shows that the SiC-depleted layer would suffer from large tensile stresses due to the great temperature changes and the formation of pores on high temperature oxidation. The stresses may lead to the cracking and even the delamination of the oxidation layer.

  10. Interpolation of climate variables and temperature modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Lohar, Debasish; Pal, Babita

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and modeling are becoming powerful tools in agricultural research and natural resource management. This study proposes an empirical methodology for modeling and mapping of the monthly and annual air temperature using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area is Gangetic West Bengal and its neighborhood in the eastern India, where a number of weather systems occur throughout the year. Gangetic West Bengal is a region of strong heterogeneous surface with several weather disturbances. This paper also examines statistical approaches for interpolating climatic data over large regions, providing different interpolation techniques for climate variables' use in agricultural research. Three interpolation approaches, like inverse distance weighted averaging, thin-plate smoothing splines, and co-kriging are evaluated for 4° × 4° area, covering the eastern part of India. The land use/land cover, soil texture, and digital elevation model are used as the independent variables for temperature modeling. Multiple regression analysis with standard method is used to add dependent variables into regression equation. Prediction of mean temperature for monsoon season is better than winter season. Finally standard deviation errors are evaluated after comparing the predicted temperature and observed temperature of the area. For better improvement, distance from the coastline and seasonal wind pattern are stressed to be included as independent variables.

  11. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  12. POPULATION STRUCTURES OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN LOGGED-OVER TROPICAL FOREST IN SOUTH PAPUA, INDONESIA: AN INTEGRAL PROJECTION MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relawan kuswandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective logging has been taking place in Papua for several decades. In contrast, very little is known about the stand structure in post-logged forest. Hence, this paper investigates stand structures in logged-over area of tropical forest in South Papua. Four species were selected in three one-hectare permanent sample plots (PSPs: Vatica rassak, Syzygium sp, Litsea timoriana and Canarium asperum. PSPs were located in the forest concession area of PT. Tunas Sawaerma in Assiki, Boven Digul, in South Papua. Data sets comprised measurements made in 2005 and 2012 consisting of species, diameter at breast height (DBH, mortality and number of tree of each species. Integral Projection Models (IPMs were developed, taking into account mortality, growth, recruitment and fecundity. Results show the pattern of stand structures of the four species were more or less similar, i.e. more individual trees were present in the small diameter classes than in the larger diameter classes. The general pattern of the individual distribution of the four species is the typical reverse-J shape. Syzygium sp. has a greater number of individuals in the small diameter classes than the other three species. Population growth rates (λ are above one, indicating that the stand structures of the population dynamics of the four species are recuperating. Conclusively, these results suggest that species composition and population structure in these logged-over forests are recovering increasingly.

  13. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  14. Temperature Excursion Analysis of DIL5520 Dual Induction Logging Tool%DIL5520双感应测井仪温漂及测井问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈草棠; 吕超英; 徐忠清

    2011-01-01

    DIL5520双感应测井仪在测井时存在温漂问题,即在高电阻率井段测井曲线重复性不好.对DIL5520双感应测井仪的基值温漂指标进行分析,认为常规感应仪器遇高电阻率地层重复性不好是仪器本身指标无法满足要求,DIL5520双感应测井仪器可通过改变加温工艺提高其稳定性.提出了解决温漂问题的方法,如改变加温工艺流程,增加100℃记录点;在各温度点恒温30min;在仪器加温前,将线圈系用硅油充分浸泡;进行软件温度补偿等.DIL5520双感应测井仪在中高电阻率地层存在测井值偏低或偏高及有时出现跳尖和重复性不好的问题,可通过在井下布置多个发射和接收线圈改善感应测井的探测性能.为保证仪器的重复性,在感应测井时要按规定安装扶正器;对于井径较大的井段,只有通过校正图版校正.%The logging curve repeatability of DIL5520 dual induction logging tool is unsatisfactory in high resistivity formation because of the temperature excursion in logging. Conventional induction logging tool with bad repeatability is due to its configuration, but for DIL5520 dual induction logging tool, we can improve its stability by changing warming processes. Proposed is 4 ways to improve its repeatability:① increase 100 "C reporting spot; ② keep each temperature for 30 min; ③ fully soap the coil array in silicone oil before warming the tool, and do software temperature compensation, etc. To solve the problems such as abnormal log values and unsatisfactory curve repeatability in middle and high resistivity formation logging with the DIL5520 tool, the ideal solution is to put several emission and receiving coils downhole to improve its detection performance. For induction logging, we should assemble centralizer according to regulation to ensure logging curve repeatability. As for wells with bigger borehole diameter, the calibration chart is needed to guarantee the log data correction.

  15. Complex-temperature singularities of Ising models

    CERN Document Server

    Shrock, R E

    1995-01-01

    We report new results on complex-temperature properties of Ising models. These include studies of the s=1/2 model on triangular, honeycomb, kagom\\'e, 3 \\cdot 12^2, and 4 \\cdot 8^2 lattices. We elucidate the complex--T phase diagrams of the higher-spin 2D Ising models, using calculations of partition function zeros. Finally, we investigate the 2D Ising model in an external magnetic field, mapping the complex--T phase diagram and exploring various singularities therein. For the case \\beta H=i\\pi/2, we give exact results on the phase diagram and obtain susceptibility exponents \\gamma' at various singularities from low-temperature series analyses.

  16. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  17. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a dy

  18. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  19. Predicting student satisfaction with courses based on log data from a virtual learning environment – a neural network and classification tree model

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević Babić, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction with courses in academic institutions is an important issue and is recognized as a form of support in ensuring effective and quality education, as well as enhancing student course experience. This paper investigates whether there is a connection between student satisfaction with courses and log data on student courses in a virtual learning environment. Furthermore, it explores whether a successful classification model for predicting student satisfaction with course can be...

  20. Design Thinking and Cloud Manufacturing: A Study of Cloud Model Sharing Platform Based on Separated Data Log

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wei; Yixiong Feng; Xiaoyi Wang; Zuowen Sun; Yong Sun

    2013-01-01

    To solve the product data consistency problem which is caused by the portable system that cannot conduct real-time update of product data in mobile environment under the mass customization production mode, a new product data optimistic replication method based on log is presented. This paper focuses on the design thinking provider, probing into a manufacturing resource design thinking cloud platform based on manufacturing resource-locating technologies, and also discuss several application sc...

  1. Better temperature predictions in geothermal modelling by improved quality of input parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal modelling is used to examine the subsurface temperature field and geothermal conditions at various scales (e.g. sedimentary basins, deep crust) and in the framework of different problem settings (e.g. scientific or industrial use). In such models, knowledge of rock thermal properties...... region (model dimension: 135 x115 km, depth: 20 km). Results clearly show that (i) the use of location-specific well-log derived rock thermal properties and (ii) the consideration of laterally varying input data (reflecting changes of thermofacies in the project area) significantly improves...

  2. Logging data representation based on XML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As an open standard of data representation, XML breathes new energy to the Web application and the network computing. The development, advantage and status of XML and some standards relating to XML are reviewed. In addition, the authors put forward a method representing logging data and using UML language to establish the conceptual and logical model of logging data; using a logging data, explain how to establish the model as well as how to use XML to display and process geology data.

  3. Meth math: modeling temperature responses to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Zaretsky, Dmitry V

    2014-04-15

    Methamphetamine (Meth) can evoke extreme hyperthermia, which correlates with neurotoxicity and death in laboratory animals and humans. The objective of this study was to uncover the mechanisms of a complex dose dependence of temperature responses to Meth by mathematical modeling of the neuronal circuitry. On the basis of previous studies, we composed an artificial neural network with the core comprising three sequentially connected nodes: excitatory, medullary, and sympathetic preganglionic neuronal (SPN). Meth directly stimulated the excitatory node, an inhibitory drive targeted the medullary node, and, in high doses, an additional excitatory drive affected the SPN node. All model parameters (weights of connections, sensitivities, and time constants) were subject to fitting experimental time series of temperature responses to 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg Meth. Modeling suggested that the temperature response to the lowest dose of Meth, which caused an immediate and short hyperthermia, involves neuronal excitation at a supramedullary level. The delay in response after the intermediate doses of Meth is a result of neuronal inhibition at the medullary level. Finally, the rapid and robust increase in body temperature induced by the highest dose of Meth involves activation of high-dose excitatory drive. The impairment in the inhibitory mechanism can provoke a life-threatening temperature rise and makes it a plausible cause of fatal hyperthermia in Meth users. We expect that studying putative neuronal sites of Meth action and the neuromediators involved in a detailed model of this system may lead to more effective strategies for prevention and treatment of hyperthermia induced by amphetamine-like stimulants.

  4. 基于操作日志的完井数据同步模型%Well Completion Business Data Synchronization Model Research Based on Operation Log

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅娟; 任占广; 杜睿山

    2015-01-01

    同步技术是提高移动数据库系统性能的一项关键技术。依托完井移动平台,结合完井业务数据,提出一种基于操作日志的移动数据同步处理模型,重点分析了该模型中的日志序列的生成以及冲突的消解,并给出了具体的实现算法。该模型允许移动终端在断接状态下对本地副本数据进行操作,并通过移动事务日志记录用户行为,当重新连接时,根据服务器返回的日志序列进行同步处理,使系统最终收敛于一致性状态。同时还引入了日志合并、时间戳等方法,有效减少了移动终端的资源消耗,提高了同步效率。实验表明该算法能快速高效地完成客户端与服务器之间的数据更新与交互。%Synchronization technology is one of the key techniques to promote the performance of mobile database systems. This paper which relied on the well completion mobile platform and integrated the well completion business data proposed a mobile data synchronization model which is based on operation log. In this model, the generation of log sequences, and the resolution of conflicts are discussed in detail, and the implementation algorithm is proposed. In this model, mobile devices are allowed to access the local copy data and locally commit the mobile transactions when the system is disconnected, meanwhile the user behavior can also be recorded in the mobile transaction log. According to the log sequence which is returned by the synchronous server, the mobile devices can update the local data when the system is reconnected to ensure the consistency of data. Besides, by introducing the merger of log and time-stamp into the model, the model can reduce the resource consumption, and improve the efficiency of the synchronization. The experiments proved that the algorithm can exchange the well completion business data between mobile devices and synchronization server rapidly and efficiently.

  5. Adaptive Lasso for Poisson log-linear regression model%自适应Lasso在Poisson对数线性回归模型下的性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔静; 郭鹏江; 夏志明

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study adaptive Lasso for Poisson log-linear regrersion model. Methods The methods of mathematical analysis and probability theory are used. Results Under some conditions, the adaptive Lasso estimator for Poisson log-linear regression has the oracle properties which are sparsity and asymptotic normality. Conclusion A-daptive Lasso can effectively choose variables for Poisson log-linar regression model and estimate the variable coefficient.%目的 研究自适应Lasso在Poisson对数线性模型下的性质.方法 利用数学分析及概率论中的性质.结果 证明了在Poisson对数线性模型下自适应Lasso估计量具有稀疏性和渐进正态性.结论 自适应Lasso可以有效选择Poisson对数线性模型中的变量,并同时估计变量系数.

  6. Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.

    2014-03-01

    The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures.

  7. Modeling Low-temperature Geochemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. K.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemical modeling has become a popular and useful tool for a wide number of applications from research on the fundamental processes of water-rock interactions to regulatory requirements and decisions regarding permits for industrial and hazardous wastes. In low-temperature environments, generally thought of as those in the temperature range of 0-100 °C and close to atmospheric pressure (1 atm=1.01325 bar=101,325 Pa), complex hydrobiogeochemical reactions participate in an array of interconnected processes that affect us, and that, in turn, we affect. Understanding these complex processes often requires tools that are sufficiently sophisticated to portray multicomponent, multiphase chemical reactions yet transparent enough to reveal the main driving forces. Geochemical models are such tools. The major processes that they are required to model include mineral dissolution and precipitation; aqueous inorganic speciation and complexation; solute adsorption and desorption; ion exchange; oxidation-reduction; or redox; transformations; gas uptake or production; organic matter speciation and complexation; evaporation; dilution; water mixing; reaction during fluid flow; reaction involving biotic interactions; and photoreaction. These processes occur in rain, snow, fog, dry atmosphere, soils, bedrock weathering, streams, rivers, lakes, groundwaters, estuaries, brines, and diagenetic environments. Geochemical modeling attempts to understand the redistribution of elements and compounds, through anthropogenic and natural means, for a large range of scale from nanometer to global. "Aqueous geochemistry" and "environmental geochemistry" are often used interchangeably with "low-temperature geochemistry" to emphasize hydrologic or environmental objectives.Recognition of the strategy or philosophy behind the use of geochemical modeling is not often discussed or explicitly described. Plummer (1984, 1992) and Parkhurst and Plummer (1993) compare and contrast two approaches for

  8. A sub-circuit MOSFET model with a wide temperature range including cryogenic temperature*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Kan; Sun Weifeng; Shi Longxing

    2011-01-01

    A sub-circuit SPICE model ofa MOSFET for low temperature operation is presented. Two resistors are introduced for the freeze-out effect, and the explicit behavioral models are developed for them. The model can be used in a wide temperature range covering both cryogenic temperature and regular temperatures.

  9. Improving the temperature predictions of subsurface thermal models by using high-quality input data. Part 1: Uncertainty analysis of the thermal-conductivity parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface temperature field and the geothermal conditions in sedimentary basins are frequently examined by using numerical thermal models. For those models, detailed knowledge of rock thermal properties are paramount for a reliable parameterization of layer properties and boundary conditions...... against known observed temperatures of good quality. Results clearly show that the use of location-specific well-log derived rock thermal properties and the integration of laterally varying input data (reflecting changes of lithofacies) significantly improves the temperature prediction...

  10. CCSD Well Logging Engineering Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces briefly the tasks and characteristics of China Continent Science Drilling (CCSD) Well Logging Engineering, the logging methods measured with CCSD, the quality control of original logging information, the logging plan of CCSD, the logging engineering management of CCSD,the logging interpretation and the results and reports made with CCSD.

  11. 利用自然电位和NMR确定Waxman-Smits模型参数的方法%Determination Method of Waxman-Smits Model Parameters with SP and NMR Log Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鑫; 毛志强

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate oil saturation of low resistivity hydrocarbon zone accurately, sys-tematic study was done on quantitative calculation method for key parameters of Waxman-Smits model. Based on a lot of petrophysics experiments and field experiments, a method to get Qv was studied with SP and NMR log data. The Qv can be got by SP log if SP log is reliable. But the Qv calculated by NMR data has less real value. As NMR logging is affected by many factors, it needs further study. Determination methods of cation equivalent conductance, cementation expo-nent and saturation index were given, and the conductance was often impacted by temperature, others by shale. Software was developed based on the above idea and the field log data was pro-cessed on SUN workstation, the results of which showed that the evaluation precision of low re-sistivity reservoir saturation was increased significantly; applications of the method in several oil fields were successful.%为准确评价低电阻率油气层饱和度,对Waxman-Smits模型中关键参数的定量计算方法进行了系统研究.通过大量岩石物理实验和现场实验,研究了利用自然电位、核磁共振测井技术确定Qv的方法.在自然电位测井资料可靠的情况下,利用自然电位法可准确获得泥质砂岩阳离子交换量;而核磁共振法计算的泥质砂岩阳离子交换量数值偏小.给出了考虑温度影响的阳离子当量电导和考虑泥质影响的胶结指数、饱和度指数的确定方法.利用该方法编制软件,在SUN工作站上对实际资料进行处理,结果表明该方法显著提高了低电阻率油气层饱和度评价精度,在多个油田应用取得了成功.

  12. A study of electric field components in shallow water and water half-space models in seabed logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Amir; Soleimani, Hassan; Yahya, Noorhana; Nyamasvisva, Tadiwa Elisha; Rauf, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Seabed logging (SBL) is an electromagnetic (EM) method to detect hydrocarbon (HC) laid beneath the seafloor, which is a development of marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method. CSEM is a method to show resistivity log of geological layers, transmitting ultra-low frequency EM wave. In SBL a net of receivers, placed on the seafloor, detect reflected and refracted EM wave by layers with different resistivity. Contrast of electrical resistivity of layers impacts on amplitude and phase of the EM wave response. The most indispensable concern in SBL is to detect guided wave via high resistive layer under the seafloor that can be an HC reservoir. Guided wave by HC creates a remarkable difference in received signal when HC reservoir does not exist. While the major contribution of received EM wave in large offset, especially in shallow water environment, is airwave, which is refracted by sea surface due to extremely high resistivity of atmosphere, airwave can affect received guided wave, dramatically. Our objective for this work is to compare HC delineation of tangential and normal components of electric field in shallow water area, using finite element method simulation. Will be reported that, in shallow water environment, minor contribution of air wave in normal component of E field (Ey) versus its major contribution in the tangential component (Ex), causes a considerable contrast on HC delineation of Ey for deeply buried reservoirs (more than 3000 m), while Ex is unable to show different contrasts of received data for with and without HC media at the same condition.

  13. Fuzzy model to predict porosity thought conventional well logs; Modelo Fuzzy para predicao de porosidade via perfis convencionais de poco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimbela, Renzo R.F.; Silva, Jadir C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    The well logs have a great applicability in the search and evaluation of hydrocarbon. In this work we calculate porosities of the Namorado field with help of the 'Fuzzy Rule'. This is done segmenting jointly both the neutron ({phi}{sub N}) and density ({phi}{sub d}) porosities logs in groups with better relation of internal linearity. The grouping is processed keeping the best number of groups, which is efficiently chosen by a criterion related to the minimum value of 'Fuzzy Validity' measurement. As a first step, we choose the {phi}{sub N} and {phi}{sub d} values only at that depths where cores exist. To prevent picking measurements errors a previous data filtering is performed by selecting only the and their correspondent values that exhibit a maximum discrepancy with core porosity ({phi}{sub C}) around 5pu (porosity unit). A conventional average porosity {phi}{sub MED}, mixing {phi}{sub N} and {phi}{sub d} is calculated at each point, concerning its own lithological and fluids characteristics. Finally, an inversion algorithm is applied to indicate the best curve curve that fit linearly {phi}{sub C} vs. {phi}{sub MED}, {phi}{sub C} vs. {phi}{sub D} and {phi}{sub C} vs. {phi}{sub N}, and at the same time determines the values of the constants to be extrapolated in order to calculate the porosity of the whole field. (author)

  14. Power to the logs!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; MACMAHON, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Are you tired of using grep, vi and emacs to read your logs? Do you feel like you’re missing the big picture? Does the word "statistics" put a smile on your face? Then it’s time to give power to the logs!

  15. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner

    2016-04-01

    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  16. 中9-31井多臂井径和井温噪声资料综合解析%Interpretation Analysis Based on Multi-arm Caliper and Temperature & Noise Logging Data in Zhong 9-31 Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海莹; 王莱雪; 王娇莉

    2015-01-01

    Based on the temperature&noise logging data of Zhong 9-31 well, and combined with the MIT logging data of the same well in the same year, this paper disproved the original hypothesis, and drew the correct conclusion. The comprehensive interpretation of logging data can improve the accuracy of the interpretation results.%文章在中9-31井井温噪声测井资料分析基础上,结合同年同一管柱结构下的四十臂井径测井资料,对井温噪声测井资料中的矛盾点进行推论和证实,最后推翻最初假设,得出正确解释结论,实现测井资料综合解释,确保测井解释成果的准确性。

  17. QSPR models for prediction of the soil sorption coefficient (log KOC) values of 209 polychlorinated trans-azobenzenes (PCt-ABs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyńska-Piliszek, Agata J; Piliszek, Sławomir; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The values of the soil sorption coefficient (K(OC)) have been computed for 209 environmentally relevant trans polychlorinated azobenzenes (PCABs) lacking experimental partitioning data. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach and artificial neural networks (ANN) predictive ability used in models based on geometry optimalization and quantum-chemical structural descriptors, which were computed on the level of density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-311++G** basis set and of the semi-empirical quantum chemistry method for property parameterization (PM6) of the molecular orbital package (MOPAC). An experimentally available data on physical and chemical properties of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were used as reference data for the QSPR models and ANNs predictions in this study. Both calculation methods gave similar results in term of absolute log K(OC) values, while the PM6 model generated in the MOPAC was a much more efficient compared to the DFT model in GAUSSIAN. The estimated values of log K(OC) varied between 4.93 and 5.62 for mono-, 5.27 and 7.46 for di-, 6.46 and 8.09 for tri-, 6.65 and 9.11 for tetra-, 6.75 and 9.68 for penta-, 6.44 and 10.24 for hexa-, 7.00 and 10.36 for hepta-, 7.09 and 9.82 octa-, 8.94 and 9.71 for nona-Ct-ABs, and 9.26 and 9.34 for deca-Ct-AB. Because of high log K(OC) values PCt-ABs could be classified as compounds with high affinity to the particles of soil, sediments and organic matter.

  18. Integrative analysis of time course microarray data and DNA sequence data via log-linear models for identifying dynamic transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Youngchul; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Taesung

    2013-01-01

    Since eukaryotic transcription is regulated by sets of Transcription Factors (TFs) having various transcriptional time delays, identification of temporal combinations of activated TFs is important to reconstruct Transcriptional Regulatory Networks (TRNs). Our methods combine time course microarray data, information on physical binding between the TFs and their targets and the regulatory sequences of genes using a log-linear model to reconstruct dynamic functional TRNs of the yeast cell cycle and human apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that the proposed dynamic motif search method is more effective in reconstructing TRNs than the static motif search method.

  19. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  20. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  1. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

  2. Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

  3. Well Logging Symposium News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ ‘96 International Symposium on Well Logging Techniques for Oilfield Development under Waterflood was held on 17-21 September, 1996 in Beijing. The symdrew than 160 experts and scholars in the well logging circle from Russia,The United States, France, Britain, Indonesia and China. About 80 papers were presented duringthe symposium. Mr. Zhang Yongyi,Vice President of CNPC delivered the opening remarks.

  4. Research on the temperature character of the detector of small-diameter natural gamma ray spectrum logging tool%小直径伽马能谱测井仪探头温度特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶显诗; 李会银; 徐德龙; 严语鸣

    2016-01-01

    小直径自然伽马能谱测井仪器研制中,伽马探测器的尺寸及其温度特性是直接影响测井质量的重要因素。在实验室中,测量了小直径自然伽马能谱探测器本底环境下不同温度环境中的能谱响应,对比在不同温度下所采集到的能谱的变化情况,以及该温度下仪器的高压稳谱效果,发现测井仪在环境温度低于150℃的条件下,采集得到能谱中的总计数率和K元素特征峰道址变化较为平缓;同时探头分辨率能够在不超过125℃的情况下保持较高水平,能够得出了仪器适用的工作温度范围为125℃以内。%The size and temperature character of the gamma ray detector are primary factors which influence the quality of well logging directly in developing small‐diameter natural gamma ray spectrum logging tool .The spectrum response of the detector is measured at various temperatures in natural radioactive background .By comparing the changes of gamma ray spectrum and the character of the logging tool ’ s spectrum stabilization by high‐voltage at different temperatures ,it is able to obtain that ,the total rate and the address of element K ’s characteristic peak in gamma ray spectrum changes slowly when the environment temperature is below 150 degree centigrade .And under 125 degree centigrade ,the resolution of detector works in high condition .So it is said the tool’s best working temperature is below 125 degree centigrade .

  5. A Split Forcing Technique to Reduce Log-layer Mismatch in Wall-modeled Turbulent Channel Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleon, Rey; Senocak, Inanc

    2016-11-01

    The conventional approach to sustain a flow field in a periodic channel flow seems to be the culprit behind the log-law mismatch problem that has been reported in many studies hybridizing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques, commonly referred to as hybrid RANS-LES. To address this issue, we propose a split-forcing approach that relies only on the conservation of mass principle. We adopt a basic hybrid RANS-LES technique on a coarse mesh with wall-stress boundary conditions to simulate turbulent channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 5200 and demonstrate good agreement with benchmark data. We also report a duality in velocity scale that is a specific consequence of the split forcing framework applied to hybrid RANS-LES. The first scale is the friction velocity derived from the wall shear stress. The second scale arises in the core LES region, a value different than at the wall. Second-order turbulence statistics agree well with the benchmark data when normalized by the core friction velocity, whereas the friction velocity at the wall remains the appropriate scale for the mean velocity profile. Based on our findings, we suggest reevaluating more sophisticated hybrid RANS-LES approaches within the split-forcing framework. Work funded by National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1056110 and 1229709. First author acknowledges the University of Idaho President's Doctoral Scholars Award.

  6. Minimal Log Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

  7. Minimal log gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gaston; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Minimal massive gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity that, when formulated about anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes solving the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the nonlinear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called log gravity, and, despite the weakened falling off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which we compute. We also find time-dependent deformations of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli that obey Brown-Henneaux asymptotic boundary conditions. The existence of such solutions shows that the Birkhoff theorem does not hold in MMG at the chiral point. Other peculiar features of the theory at the chiral point, such as the degeneracy it exhibits in the decoupling limit, are discussed.

  8. A Fraud-click Detecting Model Based on Web Log Mining%基于Web日志挖掘的欺骗点击检测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宏娟; 康慕宁

    2011-01-01

    伴随着网络广告的高点击率而来的是大量的欺骗点击,如何准确识别出欺骗点击、保证用户的收益成为网络广告的当务之急.通过分析常用欺骗点击的手段、传统检测方法以及Web日志挖掘特点,提出了一个利用Web日志挖掘进行欺骗点击检测的模型.对该模型各个模块的实现方法进行了详细的阐述.实验表明,该模型简单高效,可以有效地检测出网络广告的欺骗点击.%There are a lot of fraud clicks following the high click rate of online advertising. How to accurately identify fraud clicks to ensure the user's online advertising revenue is becoming the top priority. By analyzing the means and features of fraud click and characteristics of Web log mining, a fraud clicks detecting model is proposed based on Web log mining. The realization of each module is described in detail. Experiments show that the model is simple and efficient, it can effectively detect fraudulent clicks.

  9. Application of GIS and Groundwater Modelling Techniques to Identify the Perched Aquifers to Demarkate Water Logging Conditions in Parts of Mehsana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, D.; Vyas, A.; Rao, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater is very important component of the hydrological cycle. It is an important source of water for drinking, domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. It plays a key role in meeting the water needs of various users sectors in India. Ground water resource is contributed by two major sources - rainfall and the other seepage from irrigation of the crops. A man-made effort through artificial recharge for water conservation structures adds to the ground water. The ground water behaviour in Indian sub-continent is highly complicated due to the occurrence of diversified geological formations with considerable lithological and chronological variations, complex tectonic framework, climatological dissimilarities and various hydro-chemical conditions. Assessment of ground water resources of an area requires proper identification and mapping of geological structures, geomorphic features along with sound information regarding slope, drainage, lithology, soil as well as thickness of the weathered zones. This study is to understand the ground water scenario in the water logged areas of Dharoi command while the surrounding areas showing continuous decline of water levels. The area falls in the command area of Dhorai dam and is in Mehsana District of Gujarat State. A part of northern command of Dharoi Command area falls in hard rock areas while the lower and southern portion fall in alluvial areas in the Dharoi Command (RBC) area in Mahsana Mehsana District of the Gujarat State. The study highlights the application of GIS in establishing the basic parameters of soil, land use and the distribution of water logging over a period of time and the groundwater modelling identifies the groundwater regime of the area and estimates the total recharge to the area due to surface water irrigation and rainfall and suggests suitable method to control water logging in the area.

  10. Analytic Models of High-Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Olson, R.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Leeper, R.J.

    2000-11-29

    A unified set of high-temperature-hohlraum models has been developed. For a simple hohlraum, P{sub s} = [A{sub s}+(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4} + (4V{sigma}/c)(dT{sub R}{sup r}/dt) where P{sub S} is the total power radiated by the source, A{sub s} is the source area, A{sub W} is the area of the cavity wall excluding the source and holes in the wall, A{sub H} is the area of the holes, {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T{sub R} is the radiation brightness temperature, V is the hohlraum volume, and c is the speed of light. The wall albedo {alpha}{sub W} {triple_bond} (T{sub W}/T{sub R}){sup 4} where T{sub W} is the brightness temperature of area A{sub W}. The net power radiated by the source P{sub N} = P{sub S}-A{sub S}{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4}, which suggests that for laser-driven hohlraums the conversion efficiency {eta}{sub CE} be defined as P{sub N}/P{sub LASER}. The characteristic time required to change T{sub R}{sup 4} in response to a change in P{sub N} is 4V/C[(l{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]. Using this model, T{sub R}, {alpha}{sub W}, and {eta}{sub CE} can be expressed in terms of quantities directly measurable in a hohlraum experiment. For a steady-state hohlraum that encloses a convex capsule, P{sub N} = {l_brace}(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}+[(1{minus}{alpha}{sub C})(A{sub S}+A{sub W}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub C}/A{sub T}]{r_brace}{sigma}T{sub RC}{sup 4} where {alpha}{sub C} is the capsule albedo, A{sub C} is the capsule area, A{sub T} {triple_bond} (A{sub S}+A{sub W}+A{sub H}), and T{sub RC} is the brightness temperature of the radiation that drives the capsule. According to this relation, the capsule-coupling efficiency of the baseline National-Ignition-Facility (NIF) hohlraum is 15% higher than predicted by previous analytic expressions. A model of a hohlraum that encloses a z pinch is also presented.

  11. Subsurface temperature of the onshore Netherlands: new temperature dataset and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonté, D.; Wees, J.-D. van; Verweij, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface temperature is a key parameter for geothermal energy prospection in sedimentary basins. Here, we present the results of a 3D temperature modelling using a thermal-tectonic forward modelling method, calibrated with subsurface temperature measurements in the Netherlands. The first step invo

  12. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  13. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment concentrati

  14. 录井油气层解释图版ActiveX控件设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Logging Interpretation Model Based on ActiveX Controls for Oil and Gas Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萍; 何贞铭; 谢飞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a system design proposal of Logging Interpretation Models Based on ActiveX Controls for Oil and Gas Layer is put forward. By using method of Object-oriented analysis and design, through extracting from common interpretation models at home and abroad at present, it achieves a set of ActiveX controls of logging interpretation models for oil and gas, based on which Integrative Interpretation Evaluation System is developed. The system contains polytechnic logging such as geology logging, quantitative fluorescence logging, gas logging, geochemistry logging etc. Practical application has proved in oil field that the design proposal had greatly improved logging geologists' work efficiency. It increases commonality and expansibility of interpretation models, so it can be used in the different oil field. The proposal is effective.%文章提出了录井油气层解释图版ActiveX控件的软件设计方案.利用面向对象的分析与设计方法,通过对目前国内外常用的解释图版进行抽象,实现了一套录井油气层解释图版ActiveX控件,并以此ActiveX控件为基础开发了集地质、定量荧光、气测、地化等多项油气层录井技术的综合解释评价系统.在油田的实际应用表明,该设计方案提高了解释图版的通用性和扩展性,能够适应不同油田对解释图版需求存在差异的现状,大幅提高了录井地质工作者的工作效率.该方案是行之有效的.

  15. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  16. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  17. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  18. Replenishment policy for Entropic Order Quantity (EnOQ model with two component demand and partial back-logging under inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanupriya Dash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replenishment policy for entropic order quantity model with two component demand and partial backlogging under inflation is an important subject in the stock management. Methods: In this paper an inventory model for  non-instantaneous  deteriorating items with stock dependant consumption rate and partial back logged in addition the effect of inflection and time value of money on replacement policy with zero lead time consider was developed. Profit maximization model is formulated by considering the effects of partial backlogging under inflation with cash discounts. Further numerical example presented to evaluate the relative performance between the entropic order quantity and EOQ models separately. Numerical example is present to demonstrate the developed model and to illustrate the procedure. Lingo 13.0 version software used to derive optimal order quantity and total cost of inventory. Finally sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to different parameters of the system carried out. Results and conclusions: The obtained inventory model is very useful in retail business. This model can extend to total backorder.

  19. Modeling Phloem Temperatures Relative to Mountain Pine Beetle Phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matthew Jared

    2011-01-01

    We explore a variety of methods to estimate phloem temperatures from ambient air temperatures suitable for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. A model's ability to induce the same phenology generated from observed phloem temperatures measures its effectiveness rather than a simple reconstruction of phloem temperatures. From a model's phenology results we are able to ascertain whether the model produces a similar amount of developmental energy exhibited by observed phloem temper...

  20. DETAILED STUDY ON THE WELL LOGGING INTERPRETATION MODELS OF POROSITY PARAMETER%孔隙度参数测井解释模型细化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠波

    2012-01-01

    基于大庆油田萨中开发区葡一组沉积特征,充分利用测井资料和密闭取心井资料,采用多元线性回归分析等数学方法,建立了三角洲内前缘相、泛滥平原相曲流河、分流平原相的孔隙度模型.模型精度达到生产井测井解释标准及地质储量规范的计算要求,使三维地质建模能够更加精确地描述葡一组储层非均质性,为进一步挖掘厚油层内部剩余油奠定了基础.%On the basis of the sedimentary characteristics of PI Formation in Sazhong development block of Daqing Oilfield, and making full use of the data of well logging and closed coring well, the porosity models of inner front facies of the delta, meandering facies of flooded plain facies and distributary plain facies are established by means of the mathmetical methods such as multiple regression analysis and so on. The models' precisions are all up to the standard of production well logging interpretation and the calculation requirements of geological reserves regulations, thus the 3D geological modeling can more accurately characterize the heterogeneity of P1 Formation reservoirs, and furthermore it has laid foundation for the further tapping of inner remained oil in those thick reservoirs.

  1. Modelling of temperatures in continental convergence zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M.N.; Bird, P.

    1977-08-03

    The thermal histories of continent-continent convergence zones are modelled by a finite-difference technique in an attempt to explain geologic observations of heating and melting in such zones. The suture zone between two converging continents divides a passively heated overriding plate from a quiet continental margin which is suddenly deformed in the collision. Both regions may be metamorphosed and intruded. On the continental-shelf side where mountains are formed by underthrusting within the crust, it was found that adiabatic and radioactive heating are negligible during the orogeny. Shear-strain heating may raise the fault zones to about 500/sup 0/C. At higher temperatures, dislocation creep of crustal rocks would be expected from laboratory results. Even high crustal radioactivity will not produce melting in less than 40 m.y. Thus any plutons in this zone (the granites of the Zagros, Urals, and Himalayas) probably result indirectly by melting of crust that is heated by deep asthenospheric intrusions, which may reach the crust at the time of detachment of the oceanic slab, combined with the effects of friction and water along the subduction plane. Across the suture, the thermal history begins before the collision during the oceanic subduction phase. The sinking slab creates asthenospheric circulations, which warm the passive plate from below and intrude it in an Andean-type arc along the suture (Zagros and Himalayan region). If total subduction exceeds about 3000 km the slow warming has time to weaken the plate and extensive crustal shortening may follow the collision. Crustal shortening and thickening is accompanied by differentiation and volcanism (Tibetan and Grenville orogenies). Thermal modelling of Tibet shows that volcanism cannot be produced in the available time by crustal thickening alone, but requires the initial warming phase as well.

  2. Logging on to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  3. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region − borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    We present a regional 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day conductive thermal field of the Danish-German border region located in the North German Basin. A comprehensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a regional scale is conducted to derive both the model...... structures and marked lateral variations in the thickness of basin sediments. The associated variations in rock thermal conductivity generate significant variations in model heat flow and large variations in temperature gradients. Major geothermal sandstone reservoirs (e.g. Rhaetian and Middle Buntsandstein......-Graben area). In combination with the structural geological model and information on reservoir hydraulic properties, the presented temperature model will constitute a very valuable base for planning and management the subsurface geothermal resources and help preventing conflicts of use in the Danish...

  4. Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher M; Smith, Michael B; Turner, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Experimental results for changes in brain temperature during functional activation show large variations. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a careful numerical model for such changes. Here, a three-dimensional model of temperature in the human head using the bioheat equation, which includes effects of metabolism, perfusion, and thermal conduction, is employed to examine potential temperature changes due to functional activation in brain. It is found that, depending on location in brain and corresponding baseline temperature relative to blood temperature, temperature may increase or decrease on activation and concomitant increases in perfusion and rate of metabolism. Changes in perfusion are generally seen to have a greater effect on temperature than are changes in metabolism, and hence active brain is predicted to approach blood temperature from its initial temperature. All calculated changes in temperature for reasonable physiological parameters have magnitudes <0.12 degrees C and are well within the range reported in recent experimental studies involving human subjects.

  5. A Two-Tiered Model for Analyzing Library Web Site Usage Statistics, Part 1: Web Server Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura B.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a two-tiered model for analyzing web site usage statistics for academic libraries: one tier for library administrators that analyzes measures indicating library use, and a second tier for web site managers that analyzes measures aiding in server maintenance and site design. Discusses the technology of web site usage statistics, and…

  6. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  7. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor;

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... exhibits three distinct thermal regimes within a 2 km reach length due to two major interactions. An energy balance model is used to simulate the instream temperature and to quantify the effect of these interactions on the stream temperature. This research demonstrates the effect of reach level small scale...

  8. RT-PLG: Real Time Process Log Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, Bernardo Nugroho; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Choi, Woosik;

    2016-01-01

    . This paper aims to develop a real time process log generator for the usage of streaming process mining tool. The real time process log generator (RT-PLG) is constructed in an independent tool. Afterward, the RT-PLG is utilized to generate a synthetic log for streaming process mining. The tool has been...... evaluated using an existing simulation model....

  9. Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Edward A. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    We use two rate-process models to describe cell mortality at elevated temperatures as a means of understanding vascular cambium cell death during surface fires. In the models, cell death is caused by irreversible damage to cellular molecules that occurs at rates that increase exponentially with temperature. The models differ in whether cells show cumulative effects of...

  10. Verifikasi Model Sistem Pengelolaan Tegakan Hutan Alam Setelah Penebangan dengan Tebang Pilih Tanam Indonesia (TPTI II (Verification of System Model of Natural Forest Stand Management after Logging with The Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting Sys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Indrawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Lowland Tropical Rain Forest in Forest concession (HPH PT. Inhutani II, Stagen Pulau Laut, South Kalimantan, and in forest concession PT. Ratah Timber Co, are climax forest under dynamic equilibrium, which are dominated by tree species from Dipterocarps family. Mechanical logging which is conducted in forest concession area will result in the formation of forest with certain composition and structure. Recovery of the forest is left to proceed naturally and will take a certain amount of time, and will affect the next duration of rotation. From the simulation result which were made on the basis of data from permanen plot in area of PT. Inhutani II, it was found that respond of simulation or respond of logged over natural forest management system in permanen plot, revealed that cutting cycle I after logging require ± 24 years time, whereas cutting cycle II require ± 37 years time. Model obtained from simulation result which were made on the basis of data obtained from permanen plot in area of PT. Inhutani II, is used for data which were obtained from non permanen plot at forest concession area of PT. Ratah Timber Co. Respon of simulation from forest concession of PT. Ratah Timber Co reveal that cutting cycle I after logging require ± 30 years time, whereas cutting cycle II require ± 43 years of time. This Phenomena imply that cutting cycles, are not always constant and will change in line with the composition and structure of logged over natural forest and their development with time.  

  11. Alternative methods for estimating common descriptors for QSAR studies of dyes and fluorescent probes using molecular modeling software. 2. Correlations between log P and the hydrophilic/lipophilic index, and new methods for estimating degrees of amphiphilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, Richard W; Horobin, Richard W

    2013-11-01

    The log P descriptor, despite its usefulness, can be difficult to use, especially for researchers lacking skills in physical chemistry. Moreover this classic measure has been determined in numerous ways, which can result in inconsistant estimates of log P values, especially for relatively complex molecules such as fluorescent probes. Novel measures of hydrophilicity/lipophilicity (the Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Index, HLI) and amphiphilicity (hydrophilic/lipophilic indices for the head group and tail, HLIT and HLIHG, respectively) therefore have been devised. We compare these descriptors with measures based on log P, the standard method for quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) studies. HLI can be determined using widely available molecular modeling software, coupled with simple arithmetic calculations. It is based on partial atomic charges and is intended to be a stand-alone measure of hydrophilicity/lipophilicity. Given the wide application of log P, however, we investigated the correlation between HLI and log P using a test set of 56 fluorescent probes of widely different physicochemical character. Overall correlation was poor; however, correlation of HLI and log P for probes of narrowly specified charge types, i.e., non-ionic compounds, anions, conjugated cations, or zwitterions, was excellent. Values for probes with additional nonconjugated quaternary cations, however, were less well correlated. The newly devised HLI can be divided into domain-specific descriptors, HLIT and HLIHG in amphiphilic probes. Determinations of amphiphilicity, made independently by the authors using their respective methods, showed excellent agreement. Quantifying amphiphilicity from partial log P values of the head group (head group hydrophilicity; HGH) and tail (amphiphilicity index; AI) has proved useful for understanding fluorescent probe action. The same limitations of log P apply to HGH and AI, however. The novel descriptors, HLIT and HLIHG, offer analogous advantages

  12. 声波测井压电振子温度性能一致性实验研究%Experimental Investigation on Temperature Performance Consistency of Piezoelectric Benders Used in Acoustic Well Logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金平; 乔文孝; 车小花; 吴文河; 丁燕; 邓林

    2012-01-01

    新一代声波测井技术采用了相控圆弧阵作为声波辐射器,构成圆弧阵的压电振子的耐高温性能一致性是一项重要的技术指标.以相控圆弧阵所使用的阵元为例实验研究了压电振子的耐高温性能以及阻抗特性一致性随温度的变化.测试结果表明,压电振子的谐振频率和静态电容随着温度的升高而增大,而最大电导和脉冲响应幅度随着温度的升高而降低;压电振子的阻抗特性一致性随着温度的升高相对下降,150℃下相对变化量可控制在4%以内.将压电振子从高温环境冷却至常温27℃后,压电振子的阻抗特性具有可恢复性.经测试的压电振子的耐温指标能够达到150℃左右,且高温下阻抗特性一致性较好,能够满足井下高温环境的应用要求.%Since the acoustic phased arc array transmitter is used in the latest generation acoustic logging, the temperature-resistant consistency of benders which are employed to form arc array transmitter has become a key technical index. High temperature resistance and impedance characteristics consistency of benders, which vary with temperature, are investigated by experiments. Experimental results show that, as the temperature rises, the resonance frequency and shunt capacitance increase, but the maximum conductance and impulse response magnitude decrease. The relative variation is not greater than 4% in 150 ℃ although impedance characteristics consistency decrease slightly. With the temperature reducing to 27℃, impedance characteristics of benders are restorable. Finally, it is considered that the temperature index of benders tested can reach around 150 ℃, and they maintain relative good impedance characteristics consistency in high temperature, which fully satisfies application demands of downhole high temperature environment.

  13. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  14. Solving SDD linear systems in time $\\tilde{O}(m\\log{n}\\log(1/\\epsilon))$

    CERN Document Server

    Koutis, Ioannis; Peng, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm that on input of an $n\\times n$ symmetric diagonally dominant matrix $A$ with $m$ non-zero entries constructs in time ${\\tilde O}(m\\log n)$ in the RAM model a solver which on input of a vector $b$ computes a vector ${x}$ satisfying $||{x}-A^{+}b||_A<\\epsilon ||A^{+}b||_A $ in time ${\\tilde O}(m\\log n \\log (1/\\epsilon))$ The $\\tilde{O}$ notation hides a $(\\log\\log n)^2$ factor. The new algorithm exploits previously unknown structural properties of the output of the incremental sparsification algorithm given in \\cite{KoutisMP10}. It is also based on an accelerated construction of low-stretch spanning trees in the RAM model via substituting Fibonacci heaps with RAM-based priority queues.

  15. Experiences in the use of an electronic tool to measure pressure, temperature and spinner logs in the Mexican geothermal fields; Experiencias en el uso de sondas electronicas de presion, temperatura y flujo en campos geotermicos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly; Jaimes Maldonado, Guillermo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    In this article are exposed the results of an electronic tool to measure pressure-temperature and spinner profiles in the geothermal wells of Mexico, utilized in order to identify unobservable phenomena with traditional Kuster type pressure and temperature logs. Some examples of the applications are the identifications of production zones, interaction from between two or more zones of contribution under several conditions of operation, casing damages and apparition of sink flow intervals into the formation in producer wells. It is also presented the quantitative method utilized to calculate the masic contribution of the intervals of interest. [Spanish] En este articulo se exponen los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una sonda electronica para la medicion de presion-temperatura y flujo en los pozos geotermicos de Mexico, utilizada para identificar fenomenos que no son observables con las mediciones tradicionales tipo Kuster de presion y temperatura. Se ejemplifican algunas de las aplicaciones hechas, tales como la identificacion de zonas de produccion, forma de interaccion entre dos o mas zonas de aporte bajo diferentes condiciones de operacion, roturas en tuberias y aparicion de zonas ladronas en pozos. Se presenta brevemente el metodo cuantitativo utilizado para calcular el aporte masico de las intervalos de interes.

  16. Temperature dependence of electronic heat capacity in Holstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Fialko, N S; Lakhno, V D

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of charge migration was modeled to calculate temperature dependencies of its thermodynamic equilibrium values such as energy and electronic heat capacity in homogeneous adenine fragments. The energy varies from nearly polaron one at T~0 to midpoint of the conductivity band at high temperatures. The peak on the graph of electronic heat capacity is observed at the polaron decay temperature.

  17. THE TWO-LEVEL MODEL AT FINITE-TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.L.

    1980-07-01

    The finite-temperature HFB cranking equations are solved for the two-level model. The pair gap, moment of inertia and internal energy are determined as functions of spin and temperature. Thermal excitations and rotations collaborate to destroy the pair correlations. Raising the temperature eliminates the backbending effect and improves the HFB approximation.

  18. Water temperature modeling in the Garonne River (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larnier K.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream water temperature is one of the most important parameters for water quality and ecosystem studies. Temperature can influence many chemical and biological processes and therefore impacts on the living conditions and distribution of aquatic ecosystems. Simplified models such as statistical models can be very useful for practitioners and water resource management. The present study assessed two statistical models – an equilibrium-based model and stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs – in modeling daily mean water temperatures in the Garonne River from 1988 to 2005. The equilibrium temperature-based model is an approach where net heat flux at the water surface is expressed as a simpler form than in traditional deterministic models. The stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs consists of decomposing the water temperature time series into a seasonal component and a short-term component (residual component. The seasonal component was modeled by Fourier series and residuals by a second-order autoregressive process (Markov chain with use of short-term air temperatures as exogenous input. The models were calibrated using data of the first half of the period 1988–2005 and validated on the second half. Calibration of the models was done using temperatures above 20 °C only to ensure better prediction of high temperatures that are currently at stake for the aquatic conditions of the Garonne River, and particularly for freshwater migrating fishes such as Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.. The results obtained for both approaches indicated that both models performed well with an average root mean square error for observed temperatures above 20 °C that varied on an annual basis from 0.55 °C to 1.72 °C on validation, and good predictions of temporal occurrences and durations of three temperature threshold crossings linked to the conditions of migration and survival of Atlantic Salmon.

  19. A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torregrosa, A.; Olmeda, P.; Degraeuwe, B. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Reyes, M. [Centro de Mecanica de Fluidos y Aplicaciones, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2006-08-15

    A concise resistor model for wall temperature prediction in diesel engines with piston cooling is presented here. The model uses the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and some usually measured operational parameters to predict the temperature of the structural elements of the engine. The resistor model was adjusted by means of temperature measurements in the cylinder head, the liner and the piston. For each model parameter, an expression as a function of the engine geometry, operational parameters and material properties was derived to make the model applicable to other similar engines. The model predicts well the cylinder head, liner and piston temperature and is sensitive to variations of operational parameters such as the start of injection, coolant and oil temperature and engine speed and load. (author)

  20. Modelling of tandem cell temperature coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses the temperature dependence of the basic solar-cell operating parameters for a GaInP/GaAs series-connected two-terminal tandem cell. The effects of series resistance and of different incident solar spectra are also discussed.

  1. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  2. Modelling of temperature in deep boreholes and evaluation of geothermal heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders (GEO INNOVA AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with

  3. Can a regional climate model reproduce observed extreme temperatures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Craigmile

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using output from a regional Swedish climate model and observations from the Swedish synoptic observational network, we compare seasonal minimum temperatures from model output and observations using marginal extreme value modeling techniques. We make seasonal comparisons using generalized extreme value models and empirically estimate the shift in the distribution as a function of the regional climate model values, using the Doksum shift function. Spatial and temporal comparisons over south central Sweden are made by building hierarchical Bayesian generalized extreme value models for the observed minima and regional climate model output. Generally speaking the regional model is surprisingly well calibrated for minimum temperatures. We do detect a problem in the regional model to produce minimum temperatures close to 0◦C. The seasonal spatial effects are quite similar between data and regional model. The observations indicate relatively strong warming, especially in the northern region. This signal is present in the regional model, but is not as strong.

  4. Cascade recursion models of computing the temperatures of underground layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Liqun; BI; Siwen; SONG; Shixin

    2006-01-01

    An RBF neural network was used to construct computational models of the underground temperatures of different layers, using ground-surface parameters and the temperatures of various underground layers. Because series recursion models also enable researchers to use above-ground surface parameters to compute the temperatures of different underground layers, this method provides a new way of using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the suture zones of large areas of blocks and to research thermal anomalies in geologic structures.

  5. 3D subsurface temperature model of Europe for geothermal exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Wees, J.D. van

    2014-01-01

    For the assessment of geothermal resources in Europe we constructed a digital 3D temperature model of the European crust and sedimentary basins, incorporating publicly available temperature data. Using European crustal thickness models and indirect parameters such as surface heat flow measurements,

  6. 3D subsurface temperature model of Europe for geothermal exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Wees, J.D. van

    2014-01-01

    For the assessment of geothermal resources in Europe we constructed a digital 3D temperature model of the European crust and sedimentary basins, incorporating publicly available temperature data. Using European crustal thickness models and indirect parameters such as surface heat flow measurements,

  7. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  8. Green Granary Temperature Control System Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingsheng

    As an important link of food production and distribution process, Granary's temperature control performance seriously affects the food quality and storage costs. Based on the analysis of granary components, granary temperature control model is established. The simulation results show the validity of established model.

  9. Temperature Calculations in the Coastal Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    sediment can be controlled by the density-driven flow and mixing. Temperature can alter the water physical environment that impacts marine organisms ...survey station locations. In application of the CMS to the Corrotoman River, a quadtree grid system was developed to discretize the computational...601-634-2840; fax: 601-634-3080) of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL). The CIRP

  10. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  11. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  12. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  13. Modeling, Prediction, and Control of Heating Temperature for Tube Billet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular furnaces have multivariate, nonlinear, large time lag, and cross coupling characteristics. The prediction and control of the exit temperature of a tube billet are important but difficult. We establish a prediction model for the final temperature of a tube billet through OS-ELM-DRPLS method. We address the complex production characteristics, integrate the advantages of PLS and ELM algorithms in establishing linear and nonlinear models, and consider model update and data lag. Based on the proposed model, we design a prediction control algorithm for tube billet temperature. The algorithm is validated using the practical production data of Baosteel Co., Ltd. Results show that the model achieves the precision required in industrial applications. The temperature of the tube billet can be controlled within the required temperature range through compensation control method.

  14. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  15. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time...

  16. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high-temperature superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Islam M R; Maruf H M A R; Chowdhury F-U-Z

    2016-04-01

    We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions. The pseudogap temperature T $^∗$ is found to depend on dimension and is calculated for 2D and 3D superconducting samples. Numerical calculation is given in favour of the YBCO and doped SmFeAsO$_{1−x}$ samples.

  17. The Impact of the Variability of Precipitation and Temperatures on the Efficiency of a Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleziak, P.; Szolgay, J.; Hlavčová, K.; Parajka, J.

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of the paper is to understand how the model's efficiency and the selected climatic indicators are related. The hydrological model applied in this study is a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (the TUW model), which was developed at the Vienna University of Technology. This model was calibrated over three different periods between 1981-2010 in three groups of Austrian catchments (snow, runoff, and soil catchments), which represent a wide range of the hydroclimatic conditions of Austria. The model's calibration was performed using a differential evolution algorithm (Deoptim). As an objective function, we used a combination of the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and the logarithmic Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (logNSE). The model's efficiency was evaluated by Volume error (VE). Subsequently, we evaluated the relationship between the model's efficiency (VE) and changes in the climatic indicators (precipitation ΔP, air temperature ΔT). The implications of findings are discussed in the conclusion.

  18. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    1999-12-27

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  19. Fundamental Thermodynamic Model for Analysis of Stream Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.; Reiter, M.; Groom, J.; Dent, L.

    2012-12-01

    Stream temperature is a critical aquatic ecosystem parameter and has been extensively studied for many years. Complex models have been built as a way to understand stream temperature dynamics and estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic influences on temperature. These models have proven very useful in estimating the relative contribution of various thermal energy sources to the stream heat budget and how management can alter the heat budget. However, the large number of measured or estimated input parameters required by such models makes their application to the analysis of specific stream temperature data difficult when the necessary input data is not readily available. To gain insight into the physical processes governing stream temperature behavior in forested streams we analyzed data based on fundamental thermodynamic concepts. The dataset we used is from a recent multi-year study on the effects of timber harvest on stream temperature in the Oregon Coast Range. From the hourly temperature data we extracted time-averaged diurnal heating and cooling rates. Examining the data in this context allowed us to qualitatively assess changes in the relative magnitude of stream temperature (T), stream equilibrium temperature (Teq), and effective heat transfer coefficient (h) across years and treatments. A benefit of analyzing the data in this way is that it separates the influence of timber harvest on stream temperature from that of climate variation. To categorize longitudinal temperature behaviors before and after timber harvest we developed a data-event matrix which specifies qualitative constraints (i.e., what is physically possible for T, Teq and h) for a given set of observed stream temperature responses. We then analyzed data from 18 different streams to categorize the temperature response to management. Understanding stream temperature dynamics using fundamental thermodynamic concepts provides insight into the processes governing stream temperature and the pathways

  20. Numerical modeling of temperature distributions within the neonatal head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, G M; Hand, J W; Lagendijk, J J; Azzopardi, D V; Edwards, A D

    2000-09-01

    Introduction of hypothermia therapy as a neuroprotection therapy after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn infants requires appraisal of cooling methods. In this numerical study thermal simulations were performed to test the hypothesis that cooling of the surface of the cranium by the application of a cooling bonnet significantly reduces deep brain temperature and produces a temperature differential between the deep brain and the body core. A realistic three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of infant head anatomy was used, derived from magnetic resonance data from a newborn infant. Temperature distributions were calculated using the Pennes heatsink model. The cooling bonnet was at a constant temperature of 10 degrees C. When modeling head cooling only, a constant body core temperature of 37 degrees C was imposed. The computed result showed no significant cooling of the deep brain regions, only the very superficial regions of the brain are cooled to temperatures of 33-34 degrees C. Poor efficacy of head cooling was still found after a considerable increase in the modeled thermal conductivities of the skin and skull, or after a decrease in perfusion. The results for the heatsink thermal model of the infant head were confirmed by comparison of results computed for a scaled down adult head, using both the heatsink description and a discrete vessel thermal model with both anatomy and vasculature obtained from MR data. The results indicate that significant reduction in brain temperature will only be achieved if the infant's core temperature is lowered.

  1. Thermal Properties of Bazhen fm. Sediments from Thermal Core Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasennykh, Mikhail; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Romushkevich, Raisa; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya; Belenkaya, Irina; Zhukov, Vladislav; Karpov, Igor; Saveliev, Egor; Gabova, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    The Bazhen formation (B. fm.) is the hugest self-contained source-and-reservoir continuous petroleum system covering by more than 1 mln. km2 (West Siberia, Russia). High lithological differentiation in Bazhen deposits dominated by silicic shales and carbonates accompanied by extremely high total organic carbon values (of up to 35%), pyrite content and brittle mineralogical composition deteriorate standard thermal properties assessment for low permeable rocks. Reliable information of unconventional system thermal characteristics is the necessary part of works such as modelling of different processes in reservoir under thermal EOR for accessing their efficiency, developing and optimizing design of the oil recovery methods, interpretation of the well temperature logging data and for the basin petroleum modelling. A unique set of data including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, thermal anisotropy for the B.fm. rocks was obtained from thermal core logging (high resolution continuous thermal profiling) on more than 4680 core samples (2000 of B.fm. samples are among) along seven wells for four oil fields. Some systematic peculiarities of the relation between thermal properties of the B.fm. rocks and their mineralogical composition, structural and texture properties were obtained. The high-resolution data are processed jointly with the standard petrophysical logging that allowed us to provide better separation of the formation. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  2. Modelling temperature and concentration dependent solid/liquid interfacial energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Stephanie; Jung, In-Ho; Paliwal, Manas; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Models for the prediction of the solid/liquid interfacial energy in pure substances and binary alloys, respectively, are reviewed and extended regarding the temperature and concentration dependence of the required thermodynamic entities. A CALPHAD-type thermodynamic database is used to introduce temperature and concentration dependent melting enthalpies and entropies for multicomponent alloys in the temperature range between liquidus and solidus. Several suitable models are extended and employed to calculate the temperature and concentration dependent interfacial energy for Al-FCC with their respective liquids and compared with experimental data.

  3. Well logging utilizing superposition of step-profile responses of logging tools to improve logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmundson, H. N.

    1984-11-20

    Disclosed is a method of improving well logs, such as induction logs and laterologs, by taking into account the effect on a logs and laterologs, by taking into account the effect on a log measurement both of the particular bed in which it is taken and of one or more other beds. In one example the process starts with an original induction log and a provisional layered formation which is based thereon and is characterized by bed boundaries and constant induction log levels within a bed. A provisional reconstructed log is built up by applying the tool response to the layered formation by a new technique which makes this expedient enough to be practicable. The reconstructed log is matched against the original log, and the layered formation is refined accordingly, by adding and/or shifting boundaries and/or by changing the measurement levels within beds, until the match is satisfactory. The original log is then converted to an improved an improved log on the basis of the latest layered formation. Modifications include use of laterologs and to improve induction logs.

  4. Multiaxial Temperature- and Time-Dependent Failure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David; McLennan, Michael; Anderson, Gregory; Macon, David; Batista-Rodriquez, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    A temperature- and time-dependent mathematical model predicts the conditions for failure of a material subjected to multiaxial stress. The model was initially applied to a filled epoxy below its glass-transition temperature, and is expected to be applicable to other materials, at least below their glass-transition temperatures. The model is justified simply by the fact that it closely approximates the experimentally observed failure behavior of this material: The multiaxiality of the model has been confirmed (see figure) and the model has been shown to be applicable at temperatures from -20 to 115 F (-29 to 46 C) and to predict tensile failures of constant-load and constant-load-rate specimens with failure times ranging from minutes to months..

  5. Modelling of a Multi-Temperature Plasma Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Liani; R.Benallal; Z.Bentalha

    2005-01-01

    @@ Knowledge of plasma composition is very important for various plasma applications and prediction of plasma properties. We use the Saha equation and Debye length equation to calculate the non-local thermodynamicequilibrium plasma composition. It has been shown that the model to 2T with T representing the temperature (electron temperature and heavy-particle temperature) described by Chen and Han [J. Phys. D 32 (1999)1711]can be applied for a mixture of gases, where each atomic species has its own temperature, but the model to 4T is more general because it can be applicable to temperatures distant enough of the heavy particles. This can occur in a plasma composed of big- or macro-molecules. The electron temperature Te varies in the range 8000*20000 K at atmospheric pressure.

  6. Monte Carlo grain growth modeling with local temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y.; Maniatty, A. M.; Zheng, C.; Wen, J. T.

    2017-09-01

    This work investigated the development of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach to modeling grain growth in the presence of non-uniform temperature field that may vary with time. We first scale the MC model to physical growth processes by fitting experimental data. Based on the scaling relationship, we derive a grid site selection probability (SSP) function to consider the effect of a spatially varying temperature field. The SSP function is based on the differential MC step, which allows it to naturally consider time varying temperature fields too. We verify the model and compare the predictions to other existing formulations (Godfrey and Martin 1995 Phil. Mag. A 72 737-49 Radhakrishnan and Zacharia 1995 Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26 2123-30) in simple two-dimensional cases with only spatially varying temperature fields, where the predicted grain growth in regions of constant temperature are expected to be the same as for the isothermal case. We also test the model in a more realistic three-dimensional case with a temperature field varying in both space and time, modeling grain growth in the heat affected zone of a weld. We believe the newly proposed approach is promising for modeling grain growth in material manufacturing processes that involves time-dependent local temperature gradient.

  7. Model-based control of district heating supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Linn

    2010-11-15

    A model-based control strategy for the supply temperature to a district heating network was tested during three weeks at Idbaecken's CHP plant. The aim was to increase the electricity efficiency by a lower supply temperature, without risking the delivery reliability of heat to the district heating customers. Simulations and tests showed that at high loads, the mean supply temperature could be reduced by 4 deg C and the electricity production could be increased by 2.5%

  8. Statistical Modeling for Wind-Temperature Meteorological Elements in Troposphere

    CERN Document Server

    Virtser, A; Golbraikh, E

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive statistical model for vertical profiles of the horizontal wind and temperature throughout the troposphere is presented. The model is based on radiosonde measurements of wind and temperature during several years. The profiles measured under quite different atmospheric conditions exhibit qualitative similarity, and a proper choice of the reference scales for the wind, temperature and altitude levels allows to consider the measurement data as realizations of a random process with universal characteristics: means, the basic functions and parameters of standard distributions for transform coefficients of the Principal Component Analysis. The features of the atmospheric conditions are described by statistical characteristics of the wind-temperature ensemble of dimensional reference scales. The high effectiveness of the proposed approach is provided by a similarity of wind - temperature vertical profiles, which allow to carry out the statistical modeling in the low-dimension space of the dimensional ...

  9. Heat propagation models for superconducting nanobridges at millikelvin temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, A.; Rozhko, S.; Hao, L.; Gallop, J. C.; Romans, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs) most commonly use Dayem bridges as Josephson elements to reduce the loop size and achieve high spin sensitivity. Except at temperatures close to the critical temperature T c, the electrical characteristics of these bridges exhibit undesirable thermal hysteresis which complicates device operation. This makes proper thermal analysis an essential design consideration for optimising nanoSQUID performance at ultralow temperatures. However the existing theoretical models for this hysteresis were developed for micron-scale devices operating close to liquid helium temperatures, and are not fully applicable to a new generation of much smaller devices operating at significantly lower temperatures. We have therefore developed a new analytic heat model which enables a more accurate prediction of the thermal behaviour in such circumstances. We demonstrate that this model is in good agreement with experimental results measured down to 100 mK and discuss its validity for different nanoSQUID geometries.

  10. Well logging: utilizing superposition of step-profile responses of logging tools to improve logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour-Gayet, Ph. J.

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed is a method of improving well logs, such as induction logs and LATEROLOGS, by taking into account the effect on a log measurement both of the particular bed in which it is taken and of one or more other beds. In one example the process starts with an original induction log and a provisional layered formation which is based thereon and is characterized by bed boundaries and constant induction log levels within a bed. A provisional reconstructed log is built up by applying the tool response to the layered formation by a new technique which makes this expedient enough to be practicable. The reconstructed log is matched against the original log, and the layered formation is refined accordingly, by adding and/or shifting boundaries and/or by changing the measurement levels within beds, until the match is satisfactory. The original log is then converted to an improved log on the basis of the latest layered formation. Modifications include use of LATEROLOG measurements to improve LATEROLOGS and to improve induction logs.

  11. Well logging utilizing superposition of step-profile responses of logging tools to improve logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, J.-C.

    1984-11-13

    Disclosed is a method of improving well logs, such as induction logs and LATERLOGS, by taking into account the effect on a log measurement both of the particular bed in which it is taken and of one or more other beds. In one example the process starts with an original induction log and a provisional layered formation which is based thereon and is characterized by bed boundaries and constant induction log levels within a bed. A provisional reconstructed log is built up by applying the tool response to the layered formation by a new technique which makes this expedient enough to be practicable. The reconstructed log is matched against the original log, and the layered formation is refined accordingly, by adding and/or shifting boundaries and/or by changing the measurement levels within beds, until the match is satisfactory. The original log is then converted to an improved log on the basis of the latest layered formation. Modifications include use of LATEROLOG measurements to improve LATEROLOGS and to improve induction logs.

  12. Subsurface temperatures in Denmark – measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, N.; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Bording, Thue Sylvester;

    2014-01-01

    lithologies of different conductivity. Mean geothermal gradients from surface to depths of 1000 to 3000 m are generally between 20 and 30 °C/km. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Gassum geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures largely between 35 and 90 °C for depths of interest....

  13. Temperature sensitivity of a numerical pollen forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Meran, Ingrid; Szabo, Barbara; Gallaun, Heinz; Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis has become a global health problem especially affecting children and adolescence. Timely and reliable warning before an increase of the atmospheric pollen concentration means a substantial support for physicians and allergy suffers. Recently developed numerical pollen forecast models have become means to support the pollen forecast service, which however still require refinement. One of the problem areas concerns the correct timing of the beginning and end of the flowering period of the species under consideration, which is identical with the period of possible pollen emission. Both are governed essentially by the temperature accumulated before the entry of flowering and during flowering. Phenological models are sensitive to a bias of the temperature. A mean bias of -1°C of the input temperature can shift the entry date of a phenological phase for about a week into the future. A bias of such an order of magnitude is still possible in case of numerical weather forecast models. If the assimilation of additional temperature information (e.g. ground measurements as well as satellite-retrieved air / surface temperature fields) is able to reduce such systematic temperature deviations, the precision of the timing of phenological entry dates might be enhanced. With a number of sensitivity experiments the effect of a possible temperature bias on the modelled phenology and the pollen concentration in the atmosphere is determined. The actual bias of the ECMWF IFS 2 m temperature will also be calculated and its effect on the numerical pollen forecast procedure presented.

  14. Estimation of Hazard Functions in the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Risk Associated with Geographical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient computing procedure for estimating the age-specific hazard functions by the log-linear age-period-cohort (LLAPC model is proposed. This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer incidence rates and estimates the hazard function for populations with different exposures to a given categorical risk factor. For these populations, the ratio of the corresponding age-specific hazard functions is proposed for use as a measure of relative hazard. This procedure was used for estimating the risks of lung cancer (LC for populations living in different geographical areas. For this purpose, the LC incidence rates in white men and women, in three geographical areas (namely: San Francisco-Oakland, Connecticut and Detroit, collected from the SEER 9 database during 1975–2004, were utilized. It was found that in white men the averaged relative hazard (an average of the relative hazards over all ages of LC in Connecticut vs. San Francisco-Oakland is 1.31 ± 0.02, while in Detroit vs. San Francisco-Oakland this averaged relative hazard is 1.53 ± 0.02. In white women, analogous hazards in Connecticut vs. San Francisco-Oakland and Detroit vs. San Francisco-Oakland are 1.22 ± 0.02 and 1.32 ± 0.02, correspondingly. The proposed computing procedure can be used for assessing hazard functions for other categorical risk factors, such as gender, race, lifestyle, diet, obesity, etc.

  15. Blocking layer modeling for temperature analysis of electron transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blocking layer modeling for temperature analysis of electron transfer rate in quantum dot sensitized solar cells. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... of the quantum dots and free energy of system and finally the Marcus equation.

  16. Electronic Modeling and Design for Extreme Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing CAD tools, models and methodologies for electronics design for circuit operation in extreme environments with focus on very low temperatures...

  17. On the Temperature Dependence of the UNIQUAC/UNIFAC Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Steen; Rasmussen, Peter; Fredenslund, Aage

    1980-01-01

    Local composition models for the description of the properties of liquid mixtures do not in general give an accurate representation of excess Gibbs energy and excess enthalpy simultaneously. The introduction of temperature dependent interaction parameters leads to considerable improvements...

  18. Modeling the Temperature Effect of Orientations in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahat Arif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal comfort in a building has been an important issue for the environmental sustainability. It is an accepted fact that their designs and planning consume a lot of energy in the modern architecture of 20th and 21st centuries. An appropriate orientation of a building can provide thermally comfortable indoor temperatures which otherwise can consume extra energy to condition these spaces through all the seasons. This experimental study investigates the potential effect of this solar passive design strategy on indoor temperatures and a simple model is presented for predicting indoor temperatures based upon the ambient temperatures.

  19. A THERMODYNAMIC CAVITATION MODEL APPLICABLE TO HIGH TEMPERATURE FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Min Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is not only related with pressure, but also affected by temperature. Under high temperature, temperature depression of liquids is caused by latent heat of vaporization. The cavitation characteristics under such condition are different from those under room temperature. The paper focuses on thermodynamic cavitation based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and modifies the mass transfer equation with fully consideration of the thermodynamic effects and physical properties. To validate the modified model, the external and internal flow fields, such as hydrofoil NACA0015 and nozzle, are calculated, respectively. The hydrofoil NACA0015's cavitation characteristic is calculated by the modified model at different temperatures. The pressure coefficient is found in accordance with the experimental data. The nozzle cavitation under the thermodynamic condition is calculated and compared with the experiment.

  20. Finite Temperature Casimir Effect in Randall-Sundrum Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rypestøl, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The finite temperature Casimir effect for a scalar field in the bulk region of the two Randall-Sundrum models, RSI and RSII, is studied. We calculate the Casimir energy and the Casimir force for two parallel plates with separation $a$ on the visible brane in the RSI model. High-temperature and low-temperature cases are covered. Attractiveness versus repulsiveness of the temperature correction to the force is discussed in the typical special cases of Dirichlet-Dirichlet, Neumann-Neumann, and Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions at low temperature. The Abel-Plana summation formula is made use of, as this turns out to be most convenient. Some comments are made on the related contemporary literature.

  1. Modelling of the plasma-MIG welding temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yan; Gao Hongming; Wu Lin; Shi Lei

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional simulation model for the plasma-MIG welding process, which takes the interaction between the plasma arc and MIG arc into account, is presented and the quasi-steady temperature fields on the workpiece are calculated with the model. The 10 mm-5A06 aluminum alloy is welded and the temperature fields are measured with the thermoelectric couple. The simulation results and measured results show that the biggest deviation of peak temperature between them is below 20 ℃ , which indicates good coincidence between the simulation and measurement.

  2. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  3. Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.

    2016-08-01

    The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.

  4. A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, as nodes are powered by chemical batteries with an upper bounded lifetime. Estimating the lifetime of batteries is a difficult task, as it depends on several factors, such as operating temperatures and discharge rates. Analytical battery models can be used for estimating both the battery lifetime and the voltage behavior over time. Still, available models usually do not consider the impact of operating temperatures on the battery behavior. The target of this work is to extend the widely-used Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM to include the effect of temperature on the battery behavior. The proposed Temperature-Dependent KiBaM (T-KiBaM is able to handle operating temperatures, providing better estimates for the battery lifetime and voltage behavior. The performed experimental validation shows that T-KiBaM achieves an average accuracy error smaller than 0.33%, when estimating the lifetime of Ni-MH batteries for different temperature conditions. In addition, T-KiBaM significantly improves the original KiBaM voltage model. The proposed model can be easily adapted to handle other battery technologies, enabling the consideration of different WSN deployments.

  5. A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonardo M; Montez, Carlos; Moraes, Ricardo; Portugal, Paulo; Vasques, Francisco

    2017-02-22

    Energy consumption is a major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as nodes are powered by chemical batteries with an upper bounded lifetime. Estimating the lifetime of batteries is a difficult task, as it depends on several factors, such as operating temperatures and discharge rates. Analytical battery models can be used for estimating both the battery lifetime and the voltage behavior over time. Still, available models usually do not consider the impact of operating temperatures on the battery behavior. The target of this work is to extend the widely-used Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM) to include the effect of temperature on the battery behavior. The proposed Temperature-Dependent KiBaM (T-KiBaM) is able to handle operating temperatures, providing better estimates for the battery lifetime and voltage behavior. The performed experimental validation shows that T-KiBaM achieves an average accuracy error smaller than 0.33%, when estimating the lifetime of Ni-MH batteries for different temperature conditions. In addition, T-KiBaM significantly improves the original KiBaM voltage model. The proposed model can be easily adapted to handle other battery technologies, enabling the consideration of different WSN deployments.

  6. A Temperature-Dependent Battery Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonardo M.; Montez, Carlos; Moraes, Ricardo; Portugal, Paulo; Vasques, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as nodes are powered by chemical batteries with an upper bounded lifetime. Estimating the lifetime of batteries is a difficult task, as it depends on several factors, such as operating temperatures and discharge rates. Analytical battery models can be used for estimating both the battery lifetime and the voltage behavior over time. Still, available models usually do not consider the impact of operating temperatures on the battery behavior. The target of this work is to extend the widely-used Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM) to include the effect of temperature on the battery behavior. The proposed Temperature-Dependent KiBaM (T-KiBaM) is able to handle operating temperatures, providing better estimates for the battery lifetime and voltage behavior. The performed experimental validation shows that T-KiBaM achieves an average accuracy error smaller than 0.33%, when estimating the lifetime of Ni-MH batteries for different temperature conditions. In addition, T-KiBaM significantly improves the original KiBaM voltage model. The proposed model can be easily adapted to handle other battery technologies, enabling the consideration of different WSN deployments. PMID:28241444

  7. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  8. Discovering the Local Landscape: Pioneer Log Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Bob; And Others

    Building structures made from logs appeared in the eastern United States during the late 17th century, and immigrants from Sweden, Finland, and Germany are credited with their construction. There were two types of structures: the horizontal design introduced by the Scandinavians and the German or Pennsylvania Dutch model that was used by the…

  9. Temperature dependence of heterogeneous nucleation: Extension of the Fletcher model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert; Winkler, Paul; Wagner, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Recently there have been several cases reported where the critical saturation ratio for onset of heterogeneous nucleation increases with nucleation temperature (positive slope dependence). This behavior contrasts with the behavior observed in homogeneous nucleation, where a decreasing critical saturation ratio with increasing nucleation temperature (negative slope dependence) seems universal. For this reason the positive slope dependence is referred to as anomalous. Negative slope dependence is found in heterogeneous nucleation as well, but because so few temperature-dependent measurements have been reported, it is not presently clear which slope condition (positive or negative) will become more frequent. Especially interesting is the case of water vapor condensation on silver nanoparticles [Kupc et al., AS&T 47: i-iv, 2013] where the critical saturation ratio for heterogeneous nucleation onset passes through a maximum, at about 278K, with higher (lower) temperatures showing the usual (anomalous) temperature dependence. In the present study we develop an extension of Fletcher's classical, capillarity-based, model of heterogeneous nucleation that explicitly resolves the roles of surface energy and surface entropy in determining temperature dependence. Application of the second nucleation theorem, which relates temperature dependence of nucleation rate to cluster energy, yields both necessary and sufficient conditions for anomalous temperature behavior in the extended Fletcher model. In particular it is found that an increasing contact angle with temperature is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for anomalous temperature dependence to occur. Methods for inferring microscopic contact angle and its temperature dependence from heterogeneous nucleation probability measurements are discussed in light of the new theory.

  10. Analytic regularization of the Yukawa model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Malbouisson, A P C; Svaiter, N F

    1996-01-01

    We analyse the one-loop fermionic contribution for the scalar effective potential in the temperature dependent Yukawa model. In order to regularize the model a mix between dimensional and analytic regularization procedures is used. We find a general expression for the fermionic contribution in arbitrary spacetime dimension. It is found that in D=3 this contribution is finite.

  11. Temperature Drift Modeling of FOG Based on LS-WSVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; KONG Xiao-mei; FU Meng-yin; WANG Mei-ling; ZHANG Jia-wen; JIANG Ming

    2008-01-01

    Large temperature drift is an important factor for improving the performance of FOG. A trend term of temperature drift of FOG is obtained using stationary wavelets transform, and an FOG drift algorithm with least squares wavelet support vector machine (LS-WSVM) is developed. The algorithm used Maxihat wavelet as a kernel function of LSWSVM to establish an FOG drift model. It has better modeling precise than LS-WSVM model with Gauss kernel. Results indicate the efficiency of this algorithm of LS-WSVM.

  12. Mathematical modelling of steam generator and design of temperature regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanovic, S.S. [EE Institute Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    The paper considers mathematical modelling of once-through power station boiler and numerical algorithm for simulation of the model. Fast and numerically stable algorithm based on the linearisation of model equations and on the simultaneous solving of differential and algebraic equations is proposed. The paper also presents the design of steam temperature regulator by using the method of projective controls. Dynamic behaviour of the system closed with optimal linear quadratic regulator is taken as the reference system. The desired proprieties of the reference system are retained and solutions for superheated steam temperature regulator are determined. (author)

  13. MGP : a tool for wide range temperature modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, A.F. [Inst. Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Seisdedos, L.V. [Univ. de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Dept. de Control Automatico

    2006-07-01

    This paper proposed a practical temperature modelling tool that used genetic multivariate polynomials to determine polynomial expressions of enthalpy and empirical heat transfer equations in superheaters. The model was designed to transform static parameter estimations from distributed into lumped parameter systems. Two dynamic regimes were explored: (1) a power dynamics regime containing major inputs and outputs needed for overall plant control; and (2) a steam temperature dynamics scheme that considered consecutive superheater sections considered in terms of cooling water mass flow and steam mass flow. The single lumped parameters model was developed to provide temperature control for a fossil fuel-fired power plant. The design procedure used enthalpy to determine the plant's energy balance. The enthalpy curve was seen as a function of either temperature and steam pressure. A graphic simulation tool was used to optimize the model by comparing real and simulated plant data. The study showed that the amount of energy taken by the steam mass flow per time unit can be calculated by measuring temperatures and pressures at both ends of the superheater. An algorithm was then developed to determine the polynomial's coefficients according to best curve fitting over the training set and best maximum errors. It was concluded that a unified approach is now being developed to simulate and emulate the dynamics of steam temperature for each section's attemporator-superheater. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. SNG-logs at Skjern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Petersen, Jesper; Aage, Helle Karina

    1998-01-01

    Spectral Natural Gamma-ray logs have been run in two water supply borings at Skjern. The log data have been examined by a new technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - in order to get a detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of uranium and thorium gamma-rays from heavy...

  15. Predicción de quiebras empresariales en economías emergentes: uso de un modelo logístico mixto || Bankruptcy Prediction in Emerging Economies: Use of a Mixed Logistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro, Norma Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo replica y adapta el modelo de Jones y Hensher (2004 a los datos de una economía emergente con el propósito de evaluar su validez externa. Se compara el desempeño del modelo logístico estándar en relación con el modelo logístico mixto para predecir el riesgo de crisis en el periodo 1993-2000, utilizando estados contables de empresas argentinas y ratios definidos en estudios de Altman y Jones y Hensher. Como en estudios anteriores, rentabilidad, rotación, endeudamiento y flujo de fondos operativos explican la probabilidad de crisis financiera. La contribución de esta nueva metodología reduce la tasa de error del tipo I a un 9 %. Se demuestra que el modelo logístico mixto, que tiene en cuenta la heterogeneidad no observada, supera ampliamente el desempeño del modelo logístico estándar. || This study is a replication and adaptation of Jones and Hensher (2004 model in an emerging economy with the purpose of testing its eternal validity. It compares the logistic standard model's performance with the logistic mixed model to predict bankruptcy risk of Argentinean companies between 1993-2000 by using financial statements and ratios defined in previous studies by Altman and Jones and Hensher. Similar to previous studies, profitability, asset turnover, debt and cash flow from operations explain financial distress' probability. The main contribution of this new methodology is the important reduction of error type I to the 9 %. This study asserts that the logistic mixed model, that considers the effect of non-observed heterogeneity, significantly improves the performance of the logistic standard model.

  16. The Thermal Performance and Air Leakage Characteristics of Six Log Homes in Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Carolyn; Eklund, Ken; Baylon, David

    1993-08-01

    The thermal performance and air leakage characteristics of four electrically heated log houses located in Idaho are summarized. The air leakage and construction characteristics of two additional log homes are also examined. The energy consumption of the four homes was submetered at weekly reporting intervals for up to 16 months. Blower door tests and site audits were performed. In addition, conditions at two of these homes, including heat flux through the log walls, indoor and outdoor temperatures, solar flux and envelope tightness, were measured in detail over several days during winter conditions. The energy use and thermal performance of these two homes were then modeled using SUNCODE-PC, an hourly thermal simulation program employing a finite difference technique.

  17. River water temperature and fish growth forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, E.; Pike, A.; Lindley, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Dewitt, L.; Melton, F. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hashimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Water is a valuable, limited, and highly regulated resource throughout the United States. When making decisions about water allocations, state and federal water project managers must consider the short-term and long-term needs of agriculture, urban users, hydroelectric production, flood control, and the ecosystems downstream. In the Central Valley of California, river water temperature is a critical indicator of habitat quality for endangered salmonid species and affects re-licensing of major water projects and dam operations worth billions of dollars. There is consequently strong interest in modeling water temperature dynamics and the subsequent impacts on fish growth in such regulated rivers. However, the accuracy of current stream temperature models is limited by the lack of spatially detailed meteorological forecasts. To address these issues, we developed a high-resolution deterministic 1-dimensional stream temperature model (sub-hourly time step, sub-kilometer spatial resolution) in a state-space framework, and applied this model to Upper Sacramento River. We then adapted salmon bioenergetics models to incorporate the temperature data at sub-hourly time steps to provide more realistic estimates of salmon growth. The temperature model uses physically-based heat budgets to calculate the rate of heat transfer to/from the river. We use variables provided by the TOPS-WRF (Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System - Weather Research and Forecasting) model—a high-resolution assimilation of satellite-derived meteorological observations and numerical weather simulations—as inputs. The TOPS-WRF framework allows us to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of stream temperature predictions. The salmon growth models are adapted from the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. We have made the output from both models available on an interactive website so that water and fisheries managers can determine the past, current and three day forecasted water temperatures at

  18. On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Luigi Delle; Urbano, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically---both at zero and finite temperature---the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. We find that at finite temperature the instability bound excludes values of the top mass $M_t \\gtrsim 173.6$ GeV, assuming $M_h \\simeq 125$ GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.

  19. Moisture Absorption Model of Composites Considering Water Temperature Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of water temperature on composite moisture absorption parameters was investigated in temperature-controlled water bath. Experiments of carbon fiber/bismaleimide resin composites immersed in water of 60℃, 70℃and 80℃ were developed respectively. According to the moisture content-time curves obtained from the experimental results, the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content of the composites immersed in different water temperature could be calculated. What's more, the effect of water temperature on the diffusion coefficient and the balanced moisture content were discussed too. According to the Arrhenius equation and the law of Fick, a moisture absorption model was proposed to simulate the hygroscopic behaviour of the composite laminates immersed in different water temperature which can predict the absorption rate of water of the composites immersed in distilled water of 95℃ at any time precisely and can calculate how long it will take to reach the specific absorption rate.

  20. Modeling the melting temperature of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Tian-Shu

    2016-06-22

    The effect of size, composition and dimension on the melting temperature of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys was investigated by considering the interatomic interaction. The established thermodynamics model without any arbitrarily adjustable parameters can be used to predict the melting temperature of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys. It is found that, the melting temperature and interatomic interaction of nanoscaled bimetallic alloys decrease with the decrease in size and the increasing composition of the lower surface energy metal. Moreover, for the nanoscaled bimetallic alloys with the same size and composition, the dependence of the melting temperature on the dimension can be sequenced as follows: nanoparticles > nanowires > thin films. The accuracy of the developed model is verified by the recent experimental and computer simulation results.

  1. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  2. Integrated flow and temperature modeling at the catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loinaz, Maria Christina; Davidsen, Hasse Kampp; Butts, Michael

    2013-01-01

    , the Silver Creek Basin in Idaho, where stream temperature affects the populations of fish and other aquatic organisms. The model calibration highlights the importance of spatially distributed flow dynamics in the catchment to accurately predict stream temperatures. The results also show the value...... Creek over 0.3°C and 1.5°C, respectively. In spring-fed systems like Silver Creek, it is clearly not feasible to separate river habitat restoration from upstream catchment and groundwater management....

  3. Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hong; Yao, Minjie; Zhao, Wei-Qin

    2008-06-01

    The Friedberg-Lee model is studied at finite temperature and density. By using the finite temperature field theory, the effective potential of the Friedberg-Lee model and the bag constant B(T) and B(T,μ) have been calculated at different temperatures and densities. It is shown that there is a critical temperature TC≃106.6 MeV when μ=0 MeV and a critical chemical potential μ≃223.1 MeV for fixing the temperature at T=50 MeV. We also calculate the soliton solutions of the Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density. It turns out that when T⩽TC (or μ⩽μC), there is a bag constant B(T) [or B(T,μ)] and the soliton solutions are stable. However, when T>TC (or μ>μC) the bag constant B(T)=0 MeV [or B(T,μ)=0 MeV] and there is no soliton solution anymore, therefore, the confinement of quarks disappears quickly.

  4. The Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Hong; Zhao, Wei-Qin

    2007-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee model is studied at finite temperature and density. By using the finite temperature field theory, the effective potential of the Friedberg-Lee model and the bag constant $B(T)$ and $B(T,\\mu)$ have been calculated at different temperatures and densities. It is shown that there is a critical temperature $T_{C}\\simeq 106.6 \\mathrm{MeV}$ when $\\mu=0 \\mathrm{MeV}$ and a critical chemical potential $\\mu \\simeq 223.1 \\mathrm{MeV}$ for fixing the temperature at $T=50 \\mathrm{MeV}$. We also calculate the soliton solutions of the Friedberg-Lee model at finite temperature and density. It turns out that when $T\\leq T_{C}$ (or $\\mu \\leq \\mu_C$), there is a bag constant $B(T)$ (or $B(T,\\mu)$) and the soliton solutions are stable. However, when $T>T_{C}$ (or $\\mu>\\mu_C$) the bag constant $B(T)=0 \\mathrm{MeV}$ (or $B(T,\\mu)=0 \\mathrm{MeV}$) and there is no soliton solution anymore, therefore, the confinement of quarks disappears quickly.

  5. REFINEMENT OF THE STREAM TEMPERATURE NETWORK MODEL WITH CORRECTIONS FOR SOLAR SHADINGS AND INFLOW TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Maeba, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuya; Michioku, Kohji

    A basin-wide stream network model was developed for stream temperature prediction in a river basin. The model used Horton’s geomorphologic laws for channel networks and river basins with stream ordering systems in order to connect channel segments from sources to the river mouth. Within the each segment, a theoretical solution derived from a thermal energy equation was used to predict longitudinal variation of stream temperatures. The model also took into account effects of solar radiation reduction due to both riparian vegetation and topography, thermal advection from the sources and lateral land-use. Comparison of the model prediction with observation in the Ibo River Basin of Japan showed very good agreement for the thermal structure throughout the river basin for almost all seasons, excluding the autumnal month in which the thermal budget on the stream water body was changed from positive to negative.

  6. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  7. Non-Spatial Analysis of Relative Risk of Dengue Disease in Bandung Using Poisson-gamma and Log-normal Models: A Case Study of Dengue Data from Santo Borromeus Hospital in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, R.; Yong, B.; Kristiani, F.

    2017-02-01

    Bandung, one of the cities in Indonesia, is vulnerable to dengue disease for both early-stage (Dengue Fever) and severe-stage (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome). In 2013, there were 5,749 patients in Bandung and 2,032 of the patients were hospitalized in Santo Borromeus Hospital. In this paper, there are two models, Poisson-gamma and Log-normal models, that use Bayesian inference to estimate the value of the relative risk. The calculation is done by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method which is the simulation using Gibbs Sampling algorithm in WinBUGS 1.4.3 software. The analysis results for dengue disease of 30 sub-districts in Bandung in 2013 based on Santo Borromeus Hospital’s data are Coblong and Bandung Wetan sub-districts had the highest relative risk using both models for the early-stage, severe-stage, and all stages. Meanwhile, Cinambo sub-district had the lowest relative risk using both models for the severe-stage and all stages and BojongloaKaler sub-district had the lowest relative risk using both models for the early-stage. For the model comparison using DIC (Deviance Information Criterion) method, the Log-normal model is a better model for the early-stage and severe-stage, but for the all stages, the Poisson-gamma model is a better model which fits the data.

  8. Area under the curve predictions of dalbavancin, a new lipoglycopeptide agent, using the end of intravenous infusion concentration data point by regression analyses such as linear, log-linear and power models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Syed, Muzeeb; Mullangi, Ramesh; Srinivas, Nuggehally

    2017-03-14

    1. Dalbavancin, a lipoglycopeptide, is approved for treating gram-positive bacterial infections. Area under plasma concentration versus time curve (AUCinf) of dalbavancin is a key parameter and AUCinf/MIC ratio is a critical pharmacodynamic marker. 2. Using end of intravenous infusion concentration (i.e. Cmax) Cmax versus AUCinf relationship for dalbavancin was established by regression analyses (i.e. linear, log-log, log-linear and power models) using 21 pairs of subject data. 3. The predictions of the AUCinf were performed using published Cmax data by application of regression equations. The quotient of observed/predicted values rendered fold difference. The mean absolute error (MAE)/root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (r) were used in the assessment. 4. MAE and RMSE values for the various models were comparable. The Cmax versus AUCinf exhibited excellent correlation (r > 0.9488). The internal data evaluation showed narrow confinement (0.84-1.14-fold difference) with a RMSE regression models, a single time point strategy of using Cmax (i.e. end of 30-min infusion) is amenable as a prospective tool for predicting AUCinf of dalbavancin in patients.

  9. Weibull分布对数线性加速模型的可靠性估计方法%Reliability Estimation for Weibull Log-linear Accelerated Life Testing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated life tests,in which more than one stress is often involved, have become widely used in today's industries. The log-linear accelerated model was proposed to describe the relation between multiple-stress and product's lifetime, and Weibull log-linear accelerated models were established. Due to highly nonlinear and non-monotonic of the log likelihood function, the genetic algorithm could be adopted to determine the maximum likelihood estimates of accelerated model parameters, and then reliability assessment and lifetime prediction could be realized under various stress. Finally,simulation results illustrate reasonability of the method proposed in the paper.%针对Weibull分布产品的多应力加速试验,提出采用对数线性加速模型描述多个应力和产品寿命之间的定量关系,建立了Weibull分布对数线性加速试验的可靠性分析模型.鉴于似然函数的高度非线性和非单调特性,采用遗传算法得到了加速模型参数的极大似然估计,可以实现不同应力之间可靠性特性参数的相互转换.仿真算例验证了所提方法的有效性.

  10. Phase behaviors and membrane properties of model liposomes: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing-Lun; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2014-09-01

    The phase behaviors and membrane properties of small unilamellar vesicles have been explored at different temperatures by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The vesicles spontaneously formed by model lipids exhibit pre-transition from gel to ripple phase and main transition from ripple to liquid phase. The vesicle shape exhibits the faceted feature at low temperature, becomes more sphere-like with increasing temperature, but loses its sphericity at high temperature. As the temperature rises, the vesicle size grows but the membrane thickness declines. The main transition (Tm) can be identified by the inflection point. The membrane structural characteristics are analyzed. The inner and outer leaflets are asymmetric. The length of the lipid tail and area density of the lipid head in both leaflets decrease with increasing temperature. However, the mean lipid volume grows at low temperature but declines at high temperature. The membrane mechanical properties are also investigated. The water permeability grows exponentially with increasing T but the membrane tension peaks at Tm. Both the bending and stretching moduli have their minima near Tm. Those results are consistent with the experimental observations, indicating that the main signatures associated with phase transition are clearly observed in small unilamellar vesicles.

  11. Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Portner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems contain formulations for the dependence of respiration on temperature, but the sensitivity of predicted carbon pools and fluxes to these formulations and their parameterization is not understood. Thus, we made an uncertainty analysis of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to its temperature dependency using the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS.

    We used five temperature response functions (Exponential, Arrhenius, Lloyd-Taylor, Gaussian, Van't Hoff. We determined the parameter uncertainty ranges of the functions by nonlinear regression analysis based on eight experimental datasets from northern hemisphere ecosystems. We sampled over the uncertainty bounds of the parameters and run simulations for each pair of temperature response function and calibration site. The uncertainty in both long-term and short-term soil carbon dynamics was analyzed over an elevation gradient in southern Switzerland.

    The function of Lloyd-Taylor turned out to be adequate for modelling the temperature dependency of soil organic matter decomposition, whereas the other functions either resulted in poor fits (Exponential, Arrhenius or were not applicable for all datasets (Gaussian, Van't Hoff. There were two main sources of uncertainty for model simulations: (1 the uncertainty in the parameter estimates of the response functions, which increased with increasing temperature and (2 the uncertainty in the simulated size of carbon pools, which increased with elevation, as slower turn-over times lead to higher carbon stocks and higher associated uncertainties. The higher uncertainty in carbon pools with slow turn-over rates has important implications for the uncertainty in the projection of the change of soil carbon stocks driven by climate change, which turned out to be more uncertain for higher elevations and hence higher latitudes, which are of key importance for the global terrestrial carbon

  12. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-03-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior.

  13. An exospheric temperature model from CHAMP thermospheric density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Libin; Lei, Jiuhou; Sutton, Eric; Dou, Xiankang; Fang, Hanxian

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effective exospheric temperature, named as T∞, derived from thermospheric densities measured by the CHAMP satellite during 2002-2010 was utilized to develop an exospheric temperature model (ETM) with the aid of the NRLMSISE-00 model. In the ETM, the temperature variations are characterized as a function of latitude, local time, season, and solar and geomagnetic activities. The ETM is validated by the independent GRACE measurements, and it is found that T∞ and thermospheric densities from the ETM are in better agreement with the GRACE data than those from the NRLMSISE-00 model. In addition, the ETM captures well the thermospheric equatorial anomaly feature, seasonal variation, and the hemispheric asymmetry in the thermosphere.

  14. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Wheelis, W.B. Jr.; Leslie, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    Simulations of cement bond logging (CBL) have shown that wellbore fluid effects can be segregated from sonic-signal response to changing cement strengths. Traditionally, the effects have been considered negligible and the CBL's have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore. However, large variations in CBL's have become apparent with the increasing number of logs run in completion fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/. To study wellbore fluid effects, physical and numerical models were developed that simulated the wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 9 5/8-in. casings for a range of wellbore fluid types and for both densities and viscosities. Parallel numerical modeling used similar parameters. Results show that bond-log amplitudes varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid acoustic impedance-i.e., there was a 70% increase in signal amplitudes for 11.5 lbm/gal (1370-kg/m/sup 3/) CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a fluid-compensated bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of various wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  15. Altitude dependence of atmospheric temperature trends: Climate models versus observation

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, D H; Singer, F

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of greenhouse forcing, all state of the art general circulation models predict a positive temperature trend that is greater for the troposphere than the surface. This predicted positive trend increases in value with altitude until it reaches a maximum ratio with respect to the surface of as much as 1.5 to 2.0 at about 200 to 400 hPa. However, the temperature trends from several independent observational data sets show decreasing as well as mostly negative values. This disparity indicates that the three models examined here fail to account for the effects of greenhouse forcings.

  16. Last interglacial temperature evolution – a model inter-comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Renssen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of proxy-based reconstructions detailing the climatic changes during the Last Interglacial period. This period is of special interest because large parts of the globe were characterized by a warmer-than-present-day climate, making this period an interesting test bed for climate models in the light of projected global warming. However, mainly because synchronizing the different records is difficult, there is no consensus on a global picture of Last Interglacial temperature changes. Here we present the first model inter-comparison of transient simulations covering the Last Interglacial period. By comparing the different simulations we aim at investigating the robustness of the simulated surface air temperature evolution. The model inter-comparison shows a robust Northern Hemisphere July temperature evolution characterized by a maximum between 130–122 ka BP with temperatures 0.4 to 6.8 K above pre-industrial values. This temperature evolution is in line with the changes in June insolation and greenhouse-gas concentrations. For the evolution of July temperatures in the Southern Hemisphere, the picture emerging from the inter-comparison is less clear. However, it does show that including greenhouse-gas concentration changes is critical. The simulations that include this forcing show an early, 128 ka BP July temperature anomaly maximum of 0.5 to 2.6 K. The robustness of simulated January temperatures is large in the Southern Hemisphere and the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. In these latitudes maximum January temperature anomalies of respectively −2.5 to 2 K and 0 to 2 K are simulated for the period after 118 ka BP. The inter-comparison is inconclusive on the evolution of January temperatures in the high-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Further investigation of regional anomalous patterns and inter-model differences indicate that in specific regions, feedbacks within the climate system are important for the

  17. Hawaiian forest bird trends: using log-linear models to assess long-term trends is supported by model diagnostics and assumptions (reply to Freed and Cann 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Jeffrey, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Freed and Cann (2013) criticized our use of linear models to assess trends in the status of Hawaiian forest birds through time (Camp et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010) by questioning our sampling scheme, whether we met model assumptions, and whether we ignored short-term changes in the population time series. In the present paper, we address these concerns and reiterate that our results do not support the position of Freed and Cann (2013) that the forest birds in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) are declining, or that the federally listed endangered birds are showing signs of imminent collapse. On the contrary, our data indicate that the 21-year long-term trends for native birds in Hakalau Forest NWR are stable to increasing, especially in areas that have received active management.

  18. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  19. Cased-hole log analysis and reservoir performance monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses vital issues, such as the evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and their production. Topics include the cased-hole logging environment, reservoir fluid properties; flow regimes; temperature, noise, cement bond, and pulsed neutron logging; and casing inspection. Production logging charts and tables are included in the appendices. The work serves as a comprehensive reference for production engineers with upstream E&P companies, well logging service company employees, university students, and petroleum industry training professionals. This book also: ·       Provides methods of conveying production logging tools along horizontal well segments as well as measurements of formation electrical resistivity through casing ·       Covers new information on fluid flow characteristics in inclined pipe and provides new and improved nuclear tool measurements in cased wells ·       Includes updates on cased-hole wireline formation testing  

  20. Modeling temperature inversion in southeastern Yellow Sea during winter 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Jae-Hong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Hong, Ji-Seok; Pang, Sung-Jun

    2017-05-01

    A significant temperature inversion with temperature differences larger than 3°C was observed in the southeastern Yellow Sea (YS) during February 2016. By analyzing in situ hydrographic profiles and results from a regional ocean model for the YS, this study examines the spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature inversion and its connection with wind-induced currents in winter. Observations reveal that in winter, when the northwesterly wind prevails over the YS, the temperature inversion occurs largely at the frontal zone southwest of Korea where warm/saline water of a Kuroshio origin meets cold/fresh coastal water. Our model successfully captures the temperature inversion observed in the winter of 2016 and suggests a close relation between northwesterly wind bursts and the occurrence of the large inversion. In this respect, the strong northwesterly wind drove cold coastal water southward in the upper layer via Ekman transport, which pushed the water mass southward and increased the sea level slope in the frontal zone in southeastern YS. The intensified sea level slope propagated northward away from the frontal zone as a shelf wave, causing a northward upwind flow response along the YS trough in the lower layer, thereby resulting in the large temperature inversion. Diagnostic analysis of the momentum balance shows that the westward pressure gradient, which developed with shelf wave propagation along the YS trough, was balanced with the Coriolis force in accordance with the northward upwind current in and around the inversion area.

  1. A Comparative Study of Cox Regression vs. Log-Logistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences ... using non-parametric Cox model and parametric Log-logistic model, factors influencing survival of ... colorectal cancer referred to Taleghani Medical and Training Center of Tehran between 2001 ...

  2. A complex autoregressive model and application to monthly temperature forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Gu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex autoregressive model was established based on the mathematic derivation of the least squares for the complex number domain which is referred to as the complex least squares. The model is different from the conventional way that the real number and the imaginary number are separately calculated. An application of this new model shows a better forecast than forecasts from other conventional statistical models, in predicting monthly temperature anomalies in July at 160 meteorological stations in mainland China. The conventional statistical models include an autoregressive model, where the real number and the imaginary number are separately disposed, an autoregressive model in the real number domain, and a persistence-forecast model.

  3. 应用信息粒方法构建测井岩性解释模型%USING INFORMATION GRANULATION TO CONSTRUCT THE WELL-LOGGING LITHOLO-GY INTERPRETATION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余翔宇; 徐义贤; 骆淼

    2012-01-01

    基于模糊聚类、神经网络等常用测井岩性识别方法,提出应用信息粒(Information Granulation)技术建立测井数据到岩性知识的映射模型.并以中国大陆科学钻探(CCSD)的测井数据为例,详细介绍了这种岩性解释方法的应用过程及其所取得的良好应用效果.%By analyzing some data processing methods which are common used in well-logging as fuzzy clustering, Artificial neural network etc. the paper consequently presents the method based on information granulation (IG) to construct the mapping model from well-logging data to lithol-ogy knowledge. Take the well - logging data from Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) as an instance, the author described how to establish such interpretation model and an excellent results it had achieved.

  4. Tests of the improved Weiland ion temperature gradient transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, J.E.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Weiland theoretically derived transport model for ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes has been improved to include the effects of parallel ion motion, finite beta, and collisionality. The model also includes the effects of impurities, fast ions, unequal ion and electron temperatures, and finite Larmor radius. This new model has been implemented in our time-dependent transport code and is used in conjunction with pressure-driven modes and neoclassical theory to predict the radial particle and thermal transport in tokamak plasmas. Simulations of TFTR, DIII-D, and JET L-mode plasmas have been conducted to test how the new effects change the predicted density and temperature profiles. Comparisons are made with results obtained using the previous version of the model which was successful in reproducing experimental data from a wide variety of tokamak plasmas. Specifically, the older model has been benchmarked against over 50 discharges from at least 7 different tokamaks including L-mode scans in current, heating power, density, and dimensionless scans in normalized gyro-radius, collisionality, and beta. We have also investigated the non-diffusive elements included in the Weiland model, particularly the particle pinch in order to characterize its behavior. This is partly motivated by recent simulations of ITER. In those simulations, the older Weiland model predicted a particle pinch and ignition was more easily obtained.

  5. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  6. Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L.; Fryer, Robert J.; Hannah, David M.; Malcolm, Iain A.

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing use of spatial statistical models to understand and predict river temperature (Tw) from landscape covariates. However, it is not financially or logistically feasible to monitor all rivers and the transferability of such models has not been explored. This paper uses Tw data from four river catchments collected in August 2015 to assess how well spatial regression models predict the maximum 7-day rolling mean of daily maximum Tw (Twmax) within and between catchments. Models were fitted for each catchment separately using (1) landscape covariates only (LS models) and (2) landscape covariates and an air temperature (Ta) metric (LS_Ta models). All the LS models included upstream catchment area and three included a river network smoother (RNS) that accounted for unexplained spatial structure. The LS models transferred reasonably to other catchments, at least when predicting relative levels of Twmax. However, the predictions were biased when mean Twmax differed between catchments. The RNS was needed to characterise and predict finer-scale spatially correlated variation. Because the RNS was unique to each catchment and thus non-transferable, predictions were better within catchments than between catchments. A single model fitted to all catchments found no interactions between the landscape covariates and catchment, suggesting that the landscape relationships were transferable. The LS_Ta models transferred less well, with particularly poor performance when the relationship with the Ta metric was physically implausible or required extrapolation outside the range of the data. A single model fitted to all catchments found catchment-specific relationships between Twmax and the Ta metric, indicating that the Ta metric was not transferable. These findings improve our understanding of the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models and provide a foundation for developing new approaches for predicting Tw at unmonitored locations across

  7. Modelling Brain Temperature and Perfusion for Cerebral Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Stephen; Valluri, Prashant; Marshall, Ian; Andrews, Peter; Harris, Bridget; Thrippleton, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Brain temperature relies heavily on two aspects: i) blood perfusion and porous heat transport through tissue and ii) blood flow and heat transfer through embedded arterial and venous vasculature. Moreover brain temperature cannot be measured directly unless highly invasive surgical procedures are used. A 3D two-phase fluid-porous model for mapping flow and temperature in brain is presented with arterial and venous vessels extracted from MRI scans. Heat generation through metabolism is also included. The model is robust and reveals flow and temperature maps in unprecedented 3D detail. However, the Karmen-Kozeny parameters of the porous (tissue) phase need to be optimised for expected perfusion profiles. In order to optimise the K-K parameters a reduced order two-phase model is developed where 1D vessels are created with a tree generation algorithm embedded inside a 3D porous domain. Results reveal that blood perfusion is a strong function of the porosity distribution in the tissue. We present a qualitative comparison between the simulated perfusion maps and those obtained clinically. We also present results studying the effect of scalp cooling on core brain temperature and preliminary results agree with those observed clinically.

  8. Can sigma models describe finite temperature chiral transitions?

    CERN Document Server

    Kocic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar KOCIC; John KOGUT

    1995-01-01

    Large-N expansions and computer simulations indicate that the universality class of the finite temperature chiral symmetry restoration transition in the 3D Gross-Neveu model is mean field theory. This is a counterexample to the standard 'sigma model' scenario which predicts the 2D Ising model universality class. We trace the breakdown of the standard scenario (dimensional reduction and universality) to the absence of canonical scalar fields in the model. We point out that our results could be generic for theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, such as Quantum Chromodynamics.

  9. Test of modified BCS model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ponomarev, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    A recently suggested modified BCS (MBCS) model has been studied at finite temperature. We show that this approach does not allow the existence of the normal (non-superfluid) phase at any finite temperature. Other MBCS predictions such as a negative pairing gap, pairing induced by heating in closed-shell nuclei, and ``superfluid -- super-superfluid'' phase transition are discussed also. The MBCS model is tested by comparing with exact solutions for the picket fence model. Here, severe violation of the internal symmetry of the problem is detected. The MBCS equations are found to be inconsistent. The limit of the MBCS applicability has been determined to be far below the ``superfluid -- normal'' phase transition of the conventional FT-BCS, where the model performs worse than the FT-BCS.

  10. Temperature Driven Annealing of Perforations in Bicellar Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Raghunathan, V.A. [Raman Research Institute, India; Pabst, Georg [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria; Harroun, Thad [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Nagashima, K [University of Toronto, Mississauga, ON, Canada; Morales, H [University of Toronto, Mississauga, ON, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Macdonald, P [University of Toronto, Mississauga, ON, Canada

    2011-01-01

    Bicellar model membranes composed of 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), with a DMPC/DHPC molar ratio of 5, and doped with the negatively charged lipid 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), at DMPG/DMPC molar ratios of 0.02 or 0.1, were examined using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), {sup 31}P NMR, and {sup 1}H pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR with the goal of understanding temperature effects on the DHPC-dependent perforations in these self-assembled membrane mimetics. Over the temperature range studied via SANS (300-330 K), these bicellar lipid mixtures exhibited a well-ordered lamellar phase. The interlamellar spacing d increased with increasing temperature, in direct contrast to the decrease in d observed upon increasing temperature with otherwise identical lipid mixtures lacking DHPC. {sup 31}P NMR measurements on magnetically aligned bicellar mixtures of identical composition indicated a progressive migration of DHPC from regions of high curvature into planar regions with increasing temperature, and in accord with the 'mixed bicelle model' (Triba, M. N.; Warschawski, D. E.; Devaux, P. E. Biophys. J.2005, 88, 1887-1901). Parallel PFG diffusion NMR measurements of transbilayer water diffusion, where the observed diffusion is dependent on the fractional surface area of lamellar perforations, showed that transbilayer water diffusion decreased with increasing temperature. A model is proposed consistent with the SANS, {sup 31}P NMR, and PFG diffusion NMR data, wherein increasing temperature drives the progressive migration of DHPC out of high-curvature regions, consequently decreasing the fractional volume of lamellar perforations, so that water occupying these perforations redistributes into the interlamellar volume, thereby increasing the interlamellar spacing.

  11. Temperature driven annealing of perforations in bicellar model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Mu-Ping; Raghunathan, V A; Pabst, Georg; Harroun, Thad; Nagashima, Kazuomi; Morales, Hannah; Katsaras, John; Macdonald, Peter

    2011-04-19

    Bicellar model membranes composed of 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), with a DMPC/DHPC molar ratio of 5, and doped with the negatively charged lipid 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), at DMPG/DMPC molar ratios of 0.02 or 0.1, were examined using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), (31)P NMR, and (1)H pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR with the goal of understanding temperature effects on the DHPC-dependent perforations in these self-assembled membrane mimetics. Over the temperature range studied via SANS (300-330 K), these bicellar lipid mixtures exhibited a well-ordered lamellar phase. The interlamellar spacing d increased with increasing temperature, in direct contrast to the decrease in d observed upon increasing temperature with otherwise identical lipid mixtures lacking DHPC. (31)P NMR measurements on magnetically aligned bicellar mixtures of identical composition indicated a progressive migration of DHPC from regions of high curvature into planar regions with increasing temperature, and in accord with the "mixed bicelle model" (Triba, M. N.; Warschawski, D. E.; Devaux, P. E. Biophys. J.2005, 88, 1887-1901). Parallel PFG diffusion NMR measurements of transbilayer water diffusion, where the observed diffusion is dependent on the fractional surface area of lamellar perforations, showed that transbilayer water diffusion decreased with increasing temperature. A model is proposed consistent with the SANS, (31)P NMR, and PFG diffusion NMR data, wherein increasing temperature drives the progressive migration of DHPC out of high-curvature regions, consequently decreasing the fractional volume of lamellar perforations, so that water occupying these perforations redistributes into the interlamellar volume, thereby increasing the interlamellar spacing.

  12. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  13. Modeling and Forecasting Average Temperature for Weather Derivative Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present a feasible model for the daily average temperature on the area of Zhengzhou and apply it to weather derivatives pricing. We start by exploring the background of weather derivatives market and then use the 62 years of daily historical data to apply the mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to describe the evolution of the temperature. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are used to price heating degree day (HDD call option for this city, and the slow convergence of the price of the HDD call can be found through taking 100,000 simulations. The methods of the research will provide a frame work for modeling temperature and pricing weather derivatives in other similar places in China.

  14. Preserving Privacy in Transparency Logging

    OpenAIRE

    Pulls, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is the construction of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) for transparency logging, a technology at the intersection of privacy, transparency, and accountability. Transparency logging facilitates the transportation of data from service providers to users of services and is therefore a key enabler for ex-post transparency-enhancing tools (TETs). Ex-post transparency provides information to users about how their personal data have been processed by service pr...

  15. Modeling Saturn Ring Temperature Variations as Solar Elevation Decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.

    2008-12-01

    After more than four years in orbit around Saturn, the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired a wide-ranging set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division). Temperatures were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar phase angle, spacecraft elevation, solar elevation and local hour angle. To first order, the largest temperature changes on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in temperature with changing spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect. Decreasing ring temperature with decreasing solar elevation are observed for both the lit and unlit faces of the rings after phase angle and local time effects are taken into account. For the lit rings, decreases of 2- 4 K are observed in the C ring and larger decreases, 7-10 and 10 - 13 K, are observed in the A and B rings respectively. Our thermal data cover a range of solar elevations from -21 to -8 degrees (south side of the rings). We test two simple models and evaluate how well they fit the observed decreases in temperature. The first model assumes that the particles are so widely spaced that they do not cast shadows on one another while the second model assumes that the particles are so close together they essentially form a slab. The optically thinnest and optically thickest regions of the rings show the best fits to these two end member models. We also extrapolate to the expected minimum ring temperatures at equinox. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  16. The oscillatory behavior of the high-temperature expansion of Dyson's hierarchical model: A renormalization group analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurice, Y.; Niermann, S.; Ordaz, G.

    1997-04-01

    We calculate 800 coefficients of the high-temperature expansion of the magnetic susceptibility of Dyson's hierarchical model with a Landau-Ginzburg measure. Log-periodic corrections to the scaling laws appear as in the case of an Ising measure. The period of oscillation appears to be a universal quantity given in good approximation by the logarithm of the largest eigenvalue of the linearized RG transformation, in agreement with a possibility suggested by Wilson and developed by Niemeijer and van Leeuwen. We estimate γ to be 1.300 (with a systematic error of the order of 0.002), in good agreement with the results obtained with other methods, such as the ɛ-expansion. We briefly discuss the relationship between the oscillations and the zeros of the partition function near the critical point in the complex temperature plane.

  17. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  18. Control and modelling of vertical temperature distribution in greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bakker, J.C.; Braak, van de N.J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on physical transport processes (radiation, convection and latent heat transfer) a model has been developed to describe the vertical temperature distribution of a greenhouse crop. The radiation exchange factors between heating pipes, crop layers, soil and roof were determined as a function of

  19. Apply a hydrological model to estimate local temperature trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Masao; Shinozawa, Tatsuya

    2014-03-01

    Continuous times series {f(x)} such as a depth of water is written f(x) = T(x)+P(x)+S(x)+C(x) in hydrological science where T(x),P(x),S(x) and C(x) are called the trend, periodic, stochastic and catastrophic components respectively. We simplify this model and apply it to the local temperature data such as given E. Halley (1693), the UK (1853-2010), Germany (1880-2010), Japan (1876-2010). We also apply the model to CO2 data. The model coefficients are evaluated by a symbolic computation by using a standard personal computer. The accuracy of obtained nonlinear curve is evaluated by the arithmetic mean of relative errors between the data and estimations. E. Halley estimated the temperature of Gresham College from 11/1692 to 11/1693. The simplified model shows that the temperature at the time rather cold compared with the recent of London. The UK and Germany data sets show that the maximum and minimum temperatures increased slowly from the 1890s to 1940s, increased rapidly from the 1940s to 1980s and have been decreasing since the 1980s with the exception of a few local stations. The trend of Japan is similar to these results.

  20. Temperature in warm inflation in non minimal kinetic coupling model

    CERN Document Server

    Goodarzi, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Warm inflation in the non minimal derivative coupling model with a general dissipation coefficient is considered. We investigate conditions for the existence of the slow roll approximation and study cosmological perturbations. The spectral index, and the power spectrum are calculated and the temperature of the universe at the end of the slow roll warm inflation is obtained.

  1. Modeling temperature variations in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Domaschko, Max

    2011-05-01

    A model that predicts temperature changes in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester was developed based on fundamental thermodynamic laws. The methodology utilized two simulation strategies. In the first, model equations were solved through a searching routine based on a minimal square optimization criterion, from which the overall heat transfer coefficient values, for both biodigester and heat exchanger, were determined. In the second, the simulation was performed with variable values of these overall coefficients. The prediction with both strategies allowed reproducing experimental data within 5% of the temperature span permitted in the equipment by the system control, which validated the model. The temperature variation was affected by the heterogeneity of the feeding and extraction processes, by the heterogeneity of the digestate recirculation through the heating system and by the lack of a perfect mixing inside the biodigester tank. The use of variable overall heat transfer coefficients improved the temperature change prediction and reduced the effect of a non-ideal performance of the pilot plant modeled.

  2. Last interglacial temperature evolution – a model inter-comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bakker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of proxy-based reconstructions detailing the climatic changes that occurred during the last interglacial period (LIG. This period is of special interest, because large parts of the globe were characterized by a warmer-than-present-day climate, making this period an interesting test bed for climate models in light of projected global warming. However, mainly because synchronizing the different palaeoclimatic records is difficult, there is no consensus on a global picture of LIG temperature changes. Here we present the first model inter-comparison of transient simulations covering the LIG period. By comparing the different simulations, we aim at investigating the common signal in the LIG temperature evolution, investigating the main driving forces behind it and at listing the climate feedbacks which cause the most apparent inter-model differences. The model inter-comparison shows a robust Northern Hemisphere July temperature evolution characterized by a maximum between 130–125 ka BP with temperatures 0.3 to 5.3 K above present day. A Southern Hemisphere July temperature maximum, −1.3 to 2.5 K at around 128 ka BP, is only found when changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations are included. The robustness of simulated January temperatures is large in the Southern Hemisphere and the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. For these regions maximum January temperature anomalies of respectively −1 to 1.2 K and −0.8 to 2.1 K are simulated for the period after 121 ka BP. In both hemispheres these temperature maxima are in line with the maximum in local summer insolation. In a number of specific regions, a common temperature evolution is not found amongst the models. We show that this is related to feedbacks within the climate system which largely determine the simulated LIG temperature evolution in these regions. Firstly, in the Arctic region, changes in the summer sea-ice cover control the evolution of LIG winter

  3. Modelling heat and moisture transport in the Andra/SKB temperature buffer test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukmark, H.; Fulth, B.; Bbrgesson, L. [Clay Technology (Sweden); Ledesma, A. [Technical University of Catalonia (Spain); Lassabatere, T.; Sellali, N.; Semete, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Robinet, J.C. [EuroGeomat, 45 - Orleans (France)

    2005-07-01

    For Andra program for thermal nuclear waste geological disposal, there is an interest in improving the understanding of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical properties and behaviour of bentonite-based buffer materials during the saturation process, in particular in the high temperature range above 100 C. To meet the need for experimental data, a large-scale field test, the Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) has been designed and set up at 420 m depth below ground surface in crystalline rock at the Aspd Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. The test, which is jointly operated by Andra and SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management, is in operation since March 2003. Two heaters, each 3 m long, 0,6 m in diameter and generating 1500 W of thermal power, are stacked on top of each other within a bentonite buffer inside a vertical, 8 m deep and 1,8 m diameter, deposition hole. Ring-shaped blocks of bentonite are directly in contact with the lower heater, while there is a 0,2 m sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite. Cylinder-shaped blocks of bentonite are set below, between and above the heaters. An anchored plug seals the hole and confines the experiment mechanically in the vertical direction. A sand filter is installed between the bentonite buffer and the rock wall to allow for control of the hydraulic boundary. Temperatures, relative humidities, total stresses, pore pressures, water inflow and forces take n up by the plug anchoring are monitored continuously, logged hourly and reported monthly. Prior to finalizing the design, numerical simulations were performed in order to establish the necessary heat output and to get a first estimate of the desaturation / re-saturation time-scale and of the temperature levels. Prior to test start, a program for predictive modelling was defined. Modelling teams organize d by Andra, SKB and Enresa made blind predictions of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical evolution of the test. A number of codes were

  4. Modelling of temperature and perfusion during scalp cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, F E M; Leeuwen, G M J van; Steenhoven, A A van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-09-07

    Hair loss is a feared side effect of chemotherapy treatment. It may be prevented by cooling the scalp during administration of cytostatics. The supposed mechanism is that by cooling the scalp, both temperature and perfusion are diminished, affecting drug supply and drug uptake in the hair follicle. However, the effect of scalp cooling varies strongly. To gain more insight into the effect of cooling, a computer model has been developed that describes heat transfer in the human head during scalp cooling. Of main interest in this study are the mutual influences of scalp temperature and perfusion during cooling. Results of the standard head model show that the temperature of the scalp skin is reduced from 34.4 deg. C to 18.3 deg. C, reducing tissue blood flow to 25%. Based upon variations in both thermal properties and head anatomies found in the literature, a parameter study was performed. The results of this parameter study show that the most important parameters affecting both temperature and perfusion are the perfusion coefficient Q{sub 10} and the thermal resistances of both the fat and the hair layer. The variations in the parameter study led to skin temperature ranging from 10.1 deg. C to 21.8 deg. C, which in turn reduced relative perfusion to 13% and 33%, respectively.

  5. Modelling of temperature and perfusion during scalp cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, F. E. M.; Van Leeuwen, G. M. J.; Van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2005-09-01

    Hair loss is a feared side effect of chemotherapy treatment. It may be prevented by cooling the scalp during administration of cytostatics. The supposed mechanism is that by cooling the scalp, both temperature and perfusion are diminished, affecting drug supply and drug uptake in the hair follicle. However, the effect of scalp cooling varies strongly. To gain more insight into the effect of cooling, a computer model has been developed that describes heat transfer in the human head during scalp cooling. Of main interest in this study are the mutual influences of scalp temperature and perfusion during cooling. Results of the standard head model show that the temperature of the scalp skin is reduced from 34.4 °C to 18.3 °C, reducing tissue blood flow to 25%. Based upon variations in both thermal properties and head anatomies found in the literature, a parameter study was performed. The results of this parameter study show that the most important parameters affecting both temperature and perfusion are the perfusion coefficient Q10 and the thermal resistances of both the fat and the hair layer. The variations in the parameter study led to skin temperature ranging from 10.1 °C to 21.8 °C, which in turn reduced relative perfusion to 13% and 33%, respectively.

  6. Transformations for temperature flux in multiscale models of the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biello, Joseph A.; Majda, Andrew J. [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-11-15

    How much of the observed planetary-scale heating in the tropics is due to eddy flux convergence? A mathematical framework to address this important practical issue is developed here. We describe a pair of velocity transformations that remove components of the upscale temperature flux in the multiscale intraseasonal, planetary, equatorial synoptic-scale dynamics (IPESD) framework derived by Majda and Klein [J. Atmos. Sci. 60: 393-408, (2003)]. Using examples from the models of the Madden-Julian Oscillation of Biello and Majda [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101: 4736-4741, (2004); J. Atmos. Sci. 62: 1694-1721, (2005); Dyn. Oceans Atmos., in press] we demonstrate that the transformation for the meridional temperature flux convergence is possible with any restrictions on the heating profile, we show under which conditions the transformation for the vertical temperature flux convergence exists and, further, that the meridional transformation leads to a reinterpretation of lower troposphere Ekman dissipation as active heating plus zonal momentum drag. The meridional temperature flux transformation and induced meridional circulation is a new, tropical wave example of the transformed Eulerian mean theory in the case of strong vertical stratification of potential temperature. The asymptotic ordering of the flows means that the removal of the meridional temperature flux convergence has implications for how planetary-scale heating rates are inferred from velocity convergence measurements. (orig.)

  7. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  8. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  9. Interpretation And Mathematical Modelling Of Temporal Changes Of Temperature Observed In Borehole Yaxcopoil-1 Within The Chicxulub Ipact Structure, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safanda, J.; Wilhelm, H.; Heidinger, P.; Cermak, V.

    2007-05-01

    The geothermal research of the Chicxulub impact structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, included repeated temperature logs of the 1.5 km deep borehole Yaxcopoil-1, which were done following 0.3-0.8, 15, 24, 34 and 50 months after shut-in of drilling operations. A gradual distortion of the linear temperature profile by a cold wave of the 0.8 -1.6°C amplitude was detected propagating downward from 145 m to 317 m within the observational period of 50 months (March 2002 - April 2006). As an explanation of this unusual phenomenon, the hypothesis of a downward migration of the drilling mud, accumulated within the overlying and cooler highly porous and permeable karstic rocks during the drilling, was proposed. Velocity of the downward propagation of the cold wave decreased appreciably between the last two logs (December 2004 - April 2006). It may indicate that the mud migrating downward through the system of interconnected caverns and conduits reached a bottom of the secondary porosity zone. We present results of simulations of thermal effects of the downward migrating drilling mud, obtained by a numerical solution of the heat transfer equation in a set of geothermal models of the borehole and its surroundings.

  10. 页岩气储层测井解释模型建立与评价方法研究%The Model Establishment and Evaluation Methods of Shale Gas Reservoir Well Logging Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金力钻; 孙玉红; 杨铁梅

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of Cretaceous shale Toolebuc reservoir in the north eastern margin of EROMANGA basin,the core of well logging was determined,and the shale contents of main minerals and total porosity were established using logging data and experimental results regression method.A set of logging interpretation models of hydrocarbon saturation,permeability and the total content of gas were established,comprehensive interpretation and evaluation method for the area of shale gas reservoir layer were also built.The method can provide refined interpretation for shale reservoirs of Toobeluc and has a good application effect.%针对 EROMANGA 盆地北东缘白垩系 Toolebuc 页岩储层特征,从测井岩心刻度出发,利用测井数据与实验结果回归方法,建立页岩的主要矿物含量以及总孔隙度、含烃饱和度、渗透率、总含气量等测井解释模型,建立一套适合于该地区的页岩气储层综合解释评价方法,用此方法对 Toobeluc 页岩储层进行精细解释,具有较好的应用效果。

  11. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Gyro Temperature Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J. N.; Noonan, C. H.; Garrick, J.

    1996-01-01

    The geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 1/M series of spacecraft are geostationary weather satellites that use the latest in weather imaging technology. The inertial reference unit package onboard consists of three gyroscopes measuring angular velocity along each of the spacecraft's body axes. This digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) is calibrated and used to maintain spacecraft attitude during orbital delta-V maneuvers. During the early orbit support of GOES-8 (April 1994), the gyro drift rate biases exhibited a large dependency on gyro temperature. This complicated the calibration and introduced errors into the attitude during delta-V maneuvers. Following GOES-8, a model of the DIRA temperature and drift rate bias variation was developed for GOES-9 (May 1995). This model was used to project a value of the DIRA bias to use during the orbital delta-V maneuvers based on the bias change observed as the DIRA warmed up during the calibration. The model also optimizes the yaw reorientation necessary to achieve the correct delta-V pointing attitude. As a result, a higher accuracy was achieved on GOES-9 leading to more efficient delta-V maneuvers and a propellant savings. This paper summarizes the: Data observed on GOES-8 and the complications it caused in calibration; DIRA temperature/drift rate model; Application and results of the model on GOES-9 support.

  12. A model of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Cane, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the climatological mean sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical Pacific Ocean is developed. The upper ocean response is computed using a time dependent, linear, reduced gravity model, with the addition of a constant depth frictional surface layer. The full three-dimensional temperature equation and a surface heat flux parameterization that requires specification of only wind speed and total cloud cover are used to evaluate the SST. Specification of atmospheric parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, over which the ocean has direct influence, is avoided. The model simulates the major features of the observed tropical Pacific SST. The seasonal evolution of these features is generally captured by the model. Analysis of the results demonstrates the control the ocean has over the surface heat flux from ocean to atmosphere and the crucial role that dynamics play in determining the mean SST in the equatorial Pacific. The sensitivity of the model to perturbations in the surface heat flux, cloud cover specification, diffusivity, and mixed layer depth is discussed.

  13. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  14. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  15. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...

  16. A Two-Temperature Model of Magnetized Protostellar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang-Yao; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Chiang, Tzu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    We explore kinematics and morphologies of molecular outflows driven by young protostars using magnetohydrodynamic simulations in the context of the unified wind model of Shang et al. The model explains the observed high-velocity jet and low-velocity shell features. In this work we investigate how these characteristics are affected by the underlying temperature and magnetic field strength. We study the problem of a warm wind running into a cold ambient toroid by using a tracer field that keeps track of the wind material. While an isothermal equation of state is adopted, the effective temperature is determined locally based on the wind mass fraction. In the unified wind model, the density of the wind is cylindrically stratified and highly concentrated toward the outflow axis. Our simulations show that for a sufficiently magnetized wind, the jet identity can be well maintained even at high temperatures. However, for a high temperature wind with low magnetization, the thermal pressure of the wind gas can drive ma...

  17. Global Surface Temperature Response Explained by Multibox Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, H. B.; Rypdal, M.

    2016-12-01

    We formulate a multibox energy balance model, from which global temperature evolution can be described by convolving a linear response function and a forcing record. We estimate parameters in the response function from instrumental data and historic forcing, such that our model can produce a response to both deterministic forcing and stochastic weather forcing consistent with observations. Furthermore, if we make separate boxes for upper ocean layer and atmosphere over land, we can also make separate response functions for global land and sea surface temperature. By describing internal variability as a linear response to white noise, we demonstrate that the power-law form of the observed temperature spectra can be described by linear dynamics, contrary to a common belief that these power-law spectra must arise from nonlinear processes. In our multibox model, the power-law form can arise due to the multiple response times. While one of our main points is that the climate system responds over a wide range of time scales, we cannot find one set of time scales that can be preferred compared to other choices. Hence we think the temperature response can best be characterized as something that is scale-free, but still possible to approximate by a set of well separated time scales.

  18. Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Storozhenko, A N; Vdovin, A I

    1997-01-01

    The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is used to examine the validity of some approximate methods in a many-body theory at finite temperatures. Namely, the thermal random phase approximation (TRPA) and the thermal renormalized random phase approximation (TRRPA) are studied. An average energy of the system, an average quasispin projection and a particle number variance are calculated within these approximation and exactly with the grand canonical ensemble partition function. On the whole the results of TRRPA are found to be in better agreement with the exact ones. The validity of the both approximation becomes better with increasing temperature as well as particle number.

  19. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  20. Surface air temperature variability in global climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Davy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

  1. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Before operational use or for decision making, models must be validated, and the degree of trust in model outputs should be quantified. Often, model validation is performed at single locations due to the lack of spatially-distributed data. Since the analysis of parametric model uncertainties can be performed independently of observations, it is a suitable method to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainty of a physically-based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography consisting of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by their hydraulic properties. The analyses performed for all combinations of topographic factors and ground types allowed to quantify the variability of model sensitivity and uncertainty within mountain regions. We found that modeled snow duration considerably influences the mean annual ground temperature (MAGT. The melt-out day of snow (MD is determined by processes determining snow accumulation and melting. Parameters such as the temperature and precipitation lapse rate and the snow correction factor have therefore a great impact on modeled MAGT. Ground albedo changes MAGT from 0.5 to 4°C in dependence of the elevation, the aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter snow cover. Snow albedo and other parameters determining the amount of reflected solar radiation are important, changing MAGT at different depths by more than 1°C. Parameters influencing the turbulent fluxes as the roughness length or the dew temperature are more sensitive at low elevation sites due to higher air temperatures and decreased solar radiation. Modeling the individual terms of the energy

  2. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  3. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  4. Dynamic Model and Simulation of Lifiing Log Bundle Deflection Systems for Cranes in Forestry%林用起重机起吊木捆偏摆系统的动力学模型与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟; 郭永娟

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish a dynamic model of log bundle deflection system for gantry crane in forestry. Relationships between swing angle of log bundle in the vertical direction and trolley' s acceleration, rope length and lifting speed of log bundle are obtained by linear simplification, while the horizontal swing angle is related with the torsion coefficient of wire rope and its inertia. Load shimmy differential equations of uniform descent of log bundle after the trolley brake are set up. Moreover, vibration differential equations are simulated by Simulink. Results show that rope length, rate of decline and material length have major impacts on the lifting log bundle deflection system. The simulation results further improve the previous achievements in theoretical research, which make the model more consistent with the actual system by considering the system damping%建立了林用起重机木捆偏摆系统的动力学模型,并经过线性简化得出木捆在垂直方向的摆角主要与其同向的小车加(减)速度和绳长,以及木捆升降速度有关,而水平摆角与自身的转动惯量和钢丝绳的扭转系数有关.建立了小车制动后木捆匀速下降过程的二自由度木捆摆振微分方程,最后采用Simulink对振动微分方程进行仿真,结果表明绳索长度、木捆下降速度以及木捆材长对木捆偏摆系统动力响应有重要影响.所得仿真结果进一步完善了先前理论分析研究成果,理论上考虑了系统阻尼,从而使模型更加与实际系统一致.

  5. Kinetic modeling of temperature driven flows in short microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeenko, Alina A.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.; Muntz, E. Phillip [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Ketsdever, Andrew D. [Propulsion Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA 93524 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The temperature driven gas flows in both a two-dimensional finite length microchannel and a cylindrical tube have been studied numerically, with a goal of investigating performance optimization for a nano-membrane-based Knudsen Compressor. The numerical solutions were obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and a discrete ordinate method for the ellipsoidal statistical and Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook models. The Knudsen number was 0.2 and the length-to-height ratio 5. Three different wall temperature distributions were considered: linear, step-wise, and a non-monotonic profile typical for a radiantly heated Knudsen Compressor's membrane. The short channel end effects are characterized, and the sensitivity of the mass flow to a non-monotonic temperature distribution is shown. (author)

  6. Constitutive model of discontinuous plastic flow at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, B; Bielski, J; Marcinek, D

    2010-01-01

    FCC metals and alloys are frequently used in cryogenic applications, nearly down to the temperature of absolute zero, because of their excellent physical and mechanical properties including ductility. Some of these materials, often characterized by the low stacking fault energy (LSFE), undergo at low temperatures three distinct phenomena: dynamic strain ageing (DSA), plastic strain induced transformation from the parent phase (gamma) to the secondary phase (alpha) and evolution of micro-damage. The constitutive model presented in the paper is focused on the discontinuous plastic flow (serrated yielding) and takes into account the relevant thermodynamic background. The discontinuous plastic flow reflecting the DSA effect is described by the mechanism of local catastrophic failure of Lomer-Cottrell (LC) locks under the stress fields related to the accumulating edge dislocations (below the transition temperature from the screw dislocations to the edge dislocations mode T-1). The failure of LC locks leads to mass...

  7. Generalized Stefan models accounting for a discontinuous temperature field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, A.

    We construct a class of generalized Stefan models able to account for a discontinuous temperature field across a nonmaterial interface. The resulting theory introduces a constitutive scalar interfacial field, denoted by /lineθ and called the equivalent temperature of the interface. A classical procedure, based on the interfacial dissipation inequality, relates the interfacial energy release to the interfacial mass flux and restricts the equivalent temperature of the interface. We show that previously proposed theories are obtained as particular cases when /lineθ = ⪉θ > or /lineθ = ⪉(1)/(θ )>-1 or, more generally, when /lineθ = ⪉θ r ⪉ 1/θ1-r-1 for 0<= r<= 1. We study in a particular constitutive framework the solidification of an under-cooled liquid and we are able to give a sufficient condition for the existence of travelling wave solutions.

  8. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  9. Modeling the surface temperature of Earth-like planets

    CERN Document Server

    Vladilo, G; Murante, G; Filippi, L; Provenzale, A

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial-temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface Energy Balance Model complemented by: radiative-convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically-based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (epsilon >= 45^o). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ~5K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5 <= Omega/Omega_o <= 2, 0.75 <= S/S_o <= 1.25, 0.3 <= p/(1 bar) <= 10, and 0.5 <= R/R_o <= 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely l...

  10. A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.

  11. Low temperature expansion of the gonihedric Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Pietig, R

    1998-01-01

    We investigate a model of closed $(d-1)$-dimensional soft-self-avoiding random surfaces on a $d$-dimensional cubic lattice. The energy of a surface configuration is given by $E=J(n_{2}+4k n_{4})$, where $n_{2}$ is the number of edges, where two plaquettes meet at a right angle and $n_{4}$ is the number of edges, where 4 plaquettes meet. This model can be represented as a next-nearest-neighbour- and plaquette-interaction. It corresponds to a special case of a general class of spin systems introduced by Wegner and Savvidy. Since there is no term proportional to the surface area, the bare surface tension of the model vanishes, in contrast to the ordinary Ising model. By a suitable adaption of Peierls argument, we prove the existence of infinitely many ordered low temperature phases for the case $k=0$. A low temperature expansion of the free energy in 3 dimensions up to order $x^{38}$ ($x={e}^{-\\beta J}$) shows, that for $k>0$ only the ferromagnetic low temperature phases remain stable. An analysis of low tempera...

  12. Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Ruby Leung, L.; Tesfa, Teklu; Voisin, Nathalie; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie; Wu, Huan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-12-01

    A new large-scale stream temperature model has been developed within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The model is coupled with the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) that represents river routing and a water management model (WM) that represents the effects of reservoir operations and water withdrawals on flow regulation. The coupled models allow the impacts of reservoir operations and withdrawals on stream temperature to be explicitly represented in a physically based and consistent way. The models have been applied to the Contiguous United States driven by observed meteorological forcing. Including water management in the models improves the agreement between the simulated and observed streamflow at a large number of stream gauge stations. It is then shown that the model is capable of reproducing stream temperature spatiotemporal variation satisfactorily by comparing against the observed data from over 320 USGS stations. Both climate and water management are found to have important influence on the spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature. Furthermore, it is quantitatively estimated that reservoir operation could cool down stream temperature in the summer low-flow season (August-October) by as much as 1˜2°C due to enhanced low-flow conditions, which have important implications to aquatic ecosystems. Sensitivity of the simulated stream temperature to input data and reservoir operation rules used in the WM model motivates future directions to address some limitations in the current modeling framework.

  13. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  14. On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Lecce,via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Urbano, Alfredo [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies,via Bonomea 256, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-05-10

    In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically — both at zero and finite temperature — the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. Assuming a maximum temperature in the early Universe of the order of 10{sup 18} GeV, we find that the instability bound excludes values of the top mass M{sub t}≳173.6 GeV, with M{sub h}≃125 GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.

  15. The O(2) model in polar coordinates at nonzero temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Grahl, Martin; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H

    2011-01-01

    We study restoration of spontaneously broken symmetry at nonzero temperature in the framework of the O(2) model by using polar coordinates. We apply the CJT formalism to calculate the masses and the condensate in the double-bubble approximation, both with and without a term that explicitly breaks the O(2) symmetry. We find that, in the case with explicitly broken symmetry, the mass of the angular degree of freedom becomes tachyonic above a temperature of about 300 MeV. Taking the term that explicitly breaks the symmetry to be infinitesimally small, we find that the Goldstone theorem is respected below the critical temperature. However, this limit cannot be performed for temperatures above the phase transition. We find that, no matter whether we break the symmetry explicitly or not, there is no region of temperature in which the radial and the angular degree of freedom become degenerate in mass. These results hold also when the mass of the radial mode is sent to infinity.

  16. Hamiltonian simulation of the Schwinger model at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Buyens, Boye; Van Acoleyen, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Using Matrix Product Operators (MPO) the Schwinger model is simulated in thermal equilibrium. The variational manifold of gauge invariant MPO is constructed to represent Gibbs states. As a first application the chiral condensate in thermal equilibrium is computed and agreement with earlier studies is found. Furthermore, as a new application the Schwinger model is probed with a fractional charged static quark-antiquark pair separated infinitely far from each other. A critical temperature beyond which the string tension is exponentially suppressed is found, which is in qualitative agreement with analytical studies in the strong coupling limit. Finally, the CT symmetry breaking is investigated and our results strongly suggest that the symmetry is restored at any nonzero temperature.

  17. Hamiltonian simulation of the Schwinger model at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Boye; Verstraete, Frank; Van Acoleyen, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Using matrix product operators, the Schwinger model is simulated in thermal equilibrium. The variational manifold of gauge-invariant matrix product operators is constructed to represent Gibbs states. As a first application, the chiral condensate in thermal equilibrium is computed, and agreement with earlier studies is found. Furthermore, as a new application, the Schwinger model is probed with a fractional charged static quark-antiquark pair separated infinitely far from each other. A critical temperature beyond which the string tension is exponentially suppressed is found and is in qualitative agreement with analytical studies in the strong coupling limit. Finally, the C T symmetry breaking is investigated, and our results strongly suggest that the symmetry is restored at any nonzero temperature.

  18. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagel, Daryl; GROSSETETE, GRANT; Maccallum, Danny O.

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  19. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  20. IUKF neural network modeling for FOG temperature drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zha; Jiangning Xu; Jingshu Li; Hongyang He

    2013-01-01

    A novel neural network based on iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF) algorithm is established to model and com-pensate for the fiber optic gyro (FOG) bias drift caused by tempe-rature. In the network, FOG temperature and its gradient are set as input and the FOG bias drift is set as the expected output. A 2-5-1 network trained with IUKF algorithm is established. The IUKF algorithm is developed on the basis of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The weight and bias vectors of the hidden layer are set as the state of the UKF and its process and measurement equations are deduced according to the network architecture. To solve the unavoidable estimation deviation of the mean and covariance of the states in the UKF algorithm, iterative computation is introduced into the UKF after the measurement update. While the measure-ment noise R is extended into the state vectors before iteration in order to meet the statistic orthogonality of estimate and mea-surement noise. The IUKF algorithm can provide the optimized estimation for the neural network because of its state expansion and iteration. Temperature rise (-20-20◦C) and drop (70-20◦C) tests for FOG are carried out in an attemperator. The temperature drift model is built with neural network, and it is trained respec-tively with BP, UKF and IUKF algorithms. The results prove that the proposed model has higher precision compared with the back-propagation (BP) and UKF network models.

  1. Chaos in Temperature in Generic 2 p-Spin Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    We prove chaos in temperature for even p-spin models which include sufficiently many p-spin interaction terms. Our approach is based on a new invariance property for coupled asymptotic Gibbs measures, similar in spirit to the invariance property that appeared in the proof of ultrametricity in Panchenko (Ann Math (2) 177(1):383-393, 2013), used in combination with Talagrand's analogue of Guerra's replica symmetry breaking bound for coupled systems.

  2. Reheating temperature in non-minimal derivative coupling model

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, H Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    We consider the inflaton as a scalar field described by a non-minimal derivative coupling model with a power law potential. We study the slow roll inflation, the rapid oscillation phase, the radiation dominated and the recombination eras respectively, and estimate e-folds numbers during these epochs. Using these results we determine the reheating temperature in terms of the spectral index and the amplitude of the power spectrum of scalar perturbations.

  3. Temperature Modeling of the Molten Glass in Tin Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhihua; CHEN Jinshu; NIE Yingsong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the experimental investigation by quantitative analysis, temperature fields of the molten glass in tin bath were numerically simulated by the finite elememt method. The ex-perimental results show that the cooling rate of glass is directly proportional to the draught speed, but inversely proportional to the thickness of the glass. This model lays the foundation for computer simulation system about float glass.

  4. Ultra wideband reflector antenna log-periodic feed with operating frequency range 1–20 GHz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Dubrovka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of modeling and optimization of electric characteristics of ultra wideband reflector antenna log-periodic feed, based on two log-periodic antennas array for operating over frequency range 1 -20 GHz, are presented.

  5. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  6. Finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y; Rho, M; Kim, Youngman; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model using the effective potential formalism. Assuming that the dilaton limit is applicable at some short length scale, we interpret the results to represent the behavior of hadrons in dense {\\it and} hot matter. We obtain the scaling law, \\frac{f_{\\pi}(T)}{f_{\\pi}} = \\frac{m_Q (T)}{m_Q} \\simeq \\frac{m_{\\sigma}(T)}{m_{\\sigma}} while we argue, using PCAC, that pion mass does not scale within the temperature range involved in our Lagrangian. It is found that the hadron masses and the pion decay constant drop faster with temperature in the dilated chiral quark model than in the conventional linear sigma model that does not take into account the QCD scale anomaly. We attribute the difference in scaling in heat bath to the effect of baryonic medium on thermal properties of the hadrons. Our finding would imply that the AGS experiments (dense {\\it and} hot matter) and the RHIC experiments (hot and dilute matter) will ``see" different hadron...

  7. A Logical Method for Policy Enforcement over Evolving Audit Logs

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Deepak; Datta, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    We present an iterative algorithm for enforcing policies represented in a first-order logic, which can, in particular, express all transmission-related clauses in the HIPAA Privacy Rule. The logic has three features that raise challenges for enforcement --- uninterpreted predicates (used to model subjective concepts in privacy policies), real-time temporal properties, and quantification over infinite domains (such as the set of messages containing personal information). The algorithm operates over audit logs that are inherently incomplete and evolve over time. In each iteration, the algorithm provably checks as much of the policy as possible over the current log and outputs a residual policy that can only be checked when the log is extended with additional information. We prove correctness and termination properties of the algorithm. While these results are developed in a general form, accounting for many different sources of incompleteness in audit logs, we also prove that for the special case of logs that m...

  8. Detecting Botnets Through Log Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hammadi, Yousof

    2010-01-01

    Botnets, which consist of thousands of compromised machines, can cause significant threats to other systems by launching Distributed Denial of Service (SSoS) attacks, keylogging, and backdoors. In response to these threats, new effective techniques are needed to detect the presence of botnets. In this paper, we have used an interception technique to monitor Windows Application Programming Interface (API) functions calls made by communication applications and store these calls with their arguments in log files. Our algorithm detects botnets based on monitoring abnormal activity by correlating the changes in log file sizes from different hosts.

  9. Small velocity and finite temperature variations in kinetic relaxation models

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A small Knuden number analysis of a kinetic equation in the diffusive scaling is performed. The collision kernel is of BGK type with a general local Gibbs state. Assuming that the flow velocity is of the order of the Knudsen number, a Hilbert expansion yields a macroscopic model with finite temperature variations, whose complexity lies in between the hydrodynamic and the energy-transport equations. Its mathematical structure is explored and macroscopic models for specific examples of the global Gibbs state are presented. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  10. Design and Modelling of Small Scale Low Temperature Power Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, Jorrit

    impact on the work output of the expander.The final part of this report deals with the performance of plate heat exchangers. Several plate heat exchanger correlations were reviewed focussing on their applicability to ORC systems. A framework for dynamic heat exchanger modelling was developed......he work presented in this report contributes to the state of the art within design and modelling of small scale low temperature power cycles. The study is divided into three main parts: (i) fluid property evaluation, (ii) expansion device investigations and (iii) heat exchanger performance...... times and below 10−7 away from the phase boundaries.Regarding expansion devices for small scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems,this work focussed on reciprocating machines. A prototype of a reciprocating expander with a swept volume of 736 cm3 was tested and modelled. he model was written in object...

  11. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  12. MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN A SOLID HEAT ACCUMULLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belimenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently, one of the priorities of energy conservation is a cost savings for heating in commercial and residential buildings by the stored thermal energy during the night and its return in the daytime. Economic effect is achieved due to the difference in tariffs for the cost of electricity in the daytime and at night. One of the most common types of devices that allow accumulating and giving the resulting heat are solid heat accumulators. The main purpose of the work: 1 software development for the calculation of the temperature field of a flat solid heat accumulator, working due to the heat energy accumulation in the volume of thermal storage material without phase transition; 2 determination the temperature distribution in its volumes at convective heat transfer. Methodology. To achieve the study objectives a heat transfer theory and Laplace integral transform were used. On its base the problems of determining the temperature fields in the channels of heat accumulators, having different cross-sectional shapes were solved. Findings. Authors have developed the method of calculation and obtained solutions for the determination of temperature fields in channels of the solid heat accumulator in conditions of convective heat transfer. Temperature fields over length and thickness of channels were investigated. Experimental studies on physical models and industrial equipment were conducted. Originality. For the first time the technique of calculating the temperature field in the channels of different cross-section for the solid heat accumulator in the charging and discharging modes was proposed. The calculation results are confirmed by experimental research. Practical value. The proposed technique is used in the design of solid heat accumulators of different power as well as full-scale production of them was organized.

  13. Predictive modeling for growth of non- and cold-adapted Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Huang, Lihan; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, with and without cold-adaption, on fresh-cut cantaloupe under different storage temperatures. Fresh-cut samples, spot inoculated with a 4-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (∼3.2 log CFU/g), were exposed to constant storage temperatures held at 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 °C. All growth curves of L. monocytogenes were fitted to the Baranyi, modified Gompertz, and Huang models. Regardless of conditions under which cells grew, the time needed to reach 5 log CFU/g decreased with the elevated storage temperature. Experimental results showed that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the maximum growth rate k (log CFU/g h(-1) ) and lag phase duration λ (h) between the cultures of L. monocytogenes with or without previous cold-adaption treatments. No distinct difference was observed in the growth pattern among 3 primary models at various storage temperatures. The growth curves of secondary modeling were fitted on an Arrhenius-type model for describing the relationship between k and temperature of the L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe from 10 to 30 °C. The root mean square error values of secondary models for non- and cold-adapted cells were 0.018, 0.021, and 0.024, and 0.039, 0.026, and 0.017 at the modified Gompertz, Baranyi, and Huang model, respectively, indicating that these 3 models presented the good statistical fit. This study may provide valuable information to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupes at different storage conditions. Listeriosis has occurred and increased along with the increased demand of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to predict the growth of non- and cold-adapted L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe at different temperature using mathematical model. These results can be helpful for risk assessments of L. monocytogenes in fresh-cut cantaloupe. This study provides valuable

  14. Processing, Analysis, and General Evaluation of Well-Driller Logs for Estimating Hydrogeologic Parameters of the Glacial Sediments in a Ground-Water Flow Model of the Lake Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study for the National Assessment of Water Availability and Use Program to assess the availability of water and water use in the Great Lakes Basin. Part of the study involves constructing a ground-water flow model for the Lake Michigan part of the Basin. Most ground-water flow occurs in the glacial sediments above the bedrock formations; therefore, adequate representation by the model of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments is important to the accuracy of model simulations. This work processed and analyzed well records to provide the hydrogeologic parameters of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and ground-water levels for the model layers used to simulated ground-water flow in the glacial sediments. The methods used to convert (1) lithology descriptions into assumed values of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for entire model layers, (2) aquifer-test data into point values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and (3) static water levels into water-level calibration data are presented. A large data set of about 458,000 well driller well logs for monitoring, observation, and water wells was available from three statewide electronic data bases to characterize hydrogeologic parameters. More than 1.8 million records of lithology from the well logs were used to create a lithologic-based representation of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments. Specific-capacity data from about 292,000 well logs were converted into horizontal hydraulic conductivity values to determine specific values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and its aerial variation. About 396,000 well logs contained data on ground-water levels that were assembled into a water-level calibration data set. A lithology-based distribution of hydraulic conductivity was created by use of a computer program to convert well-log lithology descriptions into aquifer or

  15. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    consists of a prototype cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes and runs on pure hydrogen in a dead-end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  16. Rheological modelling of physiological variables during temperature variations at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaere, P.; de Meyer, F.

    1990-06-01

    The evolution with time of cardio-respiratory variables, blood pressure and body temperature has been studied on six males, resting in semi-nude conditions during short (30 min) cold stress exposure (0°C) and during passive recovery (60 min) at 20°C. Passive cold exposure does not induce a change in HR but increases VO 2, VCO 2 Ve and core temperature T re, whereas peripheral temperature is significantly lowered. The kinetic evolution of the studied variables was investigated using a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The results suggest that the human body, and by extension the measured physiological variables of its functioning, does not react as a perfect viscoelastic system. Cold exposure induces a more rapid adaptation for heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures than that observed during the rewarming period (20°C), whereas respiratory adjustments show an opposite evolution. During the cooling period of the experiment the adaptative mechanisms, taking effect to preserve core homeothermy and to obtain a higher oxygen supply, increase the energy loss of the body.

  17. Computer Modeling of Planetary Surface Temperatures in Introductory Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Timothy; Goodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Barker, T., and Goodman, J. C., Wheaton College, Norton, MA Computer modeling is an essential part of astronomical research, and so it is important that students be exposed to its powers and limitations in the first (and, perhaps, only) astronomy course they take in college. Building on the ideas of Walter Robinson (“Modeling Dynamic Systems,” Springer, 2002) we have found that STELLA software (ISEE Systems) allows introductory astronomy students to do sophisticated modeling by the end of two classes of instruction, with no previous experience in computer programming or calculus. STELLA’s graphical interface allows students to visualize systems in terms of “flows” in and out of “stocks,” avoiding the need to invoke differential equations. Linking flows and stocks allows feedback systems to be constructed. Students begin by building an easily understood system: a leaky bucket. This is a simple negative feedback system in which the volume in the bucket (a “stock”) depends on a fixed inflow rate and an outflow that increases in proportion to the volume in the bucket. Students explore how changing inflow rate and feedback parameters affect the steady-state volume and equilibration time of the system. This model is completed within a 50-minute class meeting. In the next class, students are given an analogous but more sophisticated problem: modeling a planetary surface temperature (“stock”) that depends on the “flow” of energy from the Sun, the planetary albedo, the outgoing flow of infrared radiation from the planet’s surface, and the infrared return from the atmosphere. Students then compare their STELLA model equilibrium temperatures to observed planetary temperatures, which agree with model ones for worlds without atmospheres, but give underestimates for planets with atmospheres, thus introducing students to the concept of greenhouse warming. We find that if we give the students part of this model at the start of a 50-minute class they are

  18. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  19. Tantalum strength model incorporating temperature, strain rate and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt

    Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain rate and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-based strength model for tantalum that incorporates effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. A constitutive model for single crystal tantalum is developed based on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The model is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength model is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. PHD TUTORIAL: Finite-temperature models of Bose Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Jackson, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The theoretical description of trapped weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is characterized by a large number of seemingly very different approaches which have been developed over the course of time by researchers with very distinct backgrounds. Newcomers to this field, experimentalists and young researchers all face a considerable challenge in navigating through the 'maze' of abundant theoretical models, and simple correspondences between existing approaches are not always very transparent. This tutorial provides a generic introduction to such theories, in an attempt to single out common features and deficiencies of certain 'classes of approaches' identified by their physical content, rather than their particular mathematical implementation. This tutorial is structured in a manner accessible to a non-specialist with a good working knowledge of quantum mechanics. Although some familiarity with concepts of quantum field theory would be an advantage, key notions, such as the occupation number representation of second quantization, are nonetheless briefly reviewed. Following a general introduction, the complexity of models is gradually built up, starting from the basic zero-temperature formalism of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This structure enables readers to probe different levels of theoretical developments (mean field, number conserving and stochastic) according to their particular needs. In addition to its 'training element', we hope that this tutorial will prove useful to active researchers in this field, both in terms of the correspondences made between different theoretical models, and as a source of reference for existing and developing finite-temperature theoretical models.

  1. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  2. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  3. Log-periodic oscillations in the specific heat behaviour for self-similar Ising type spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzin, A. A.; Nigmatullin, R. R.; Popov, I. I.; Zhelifonov, M. P.

    2012-11-01

    The self-similar model of spin-system of the Ising type is formulated. The thermodynamic properties of this model are considered. Analytically and numerically the specific heat of this system is calculated in the nearest neighbor approximation (only the influence of two neighboring spins was taken into account). It is shown that in temperature dependence of the specific heat the log-periodic oscillations are appeared. These oscillations are imposed on the expected power-law dependence.

  4. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayalee Narkhede

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes of log data in a day.These datasets are huge. In order to analyze such large datasets we need parallel processing system andreliable data storage mechanism. Virtual database system is an effective solution for integrating the databut it becomes inefficient for large datasets. The Hadoop framework provides reliable data storage byHadoop Distributed File System and MapReduce programming model which is a parallel processingsystem for large datasets. Hadoop distributed file system breaks up input data and sends fractions of theoriginal data to several machines in hadoop cluster to hold blocks of data. This mechanism helps toprocess log data in parallel using all the machines in the hadoop cluster and computes result efficiently.The dominant approach provided by hadoop to “Store first query later”, loads the data to the HadoopDistributed File System and then executes queries written in Pig Latin. This approach reduces the responsetime as well as the load on to the end system. This paper proposes a log analysis system using HadoopMapReduce which will provide accurate results in minimum response time.

  5. [Study on temperature correctional models of quantitative analysis with near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-06-01

    Effect of enviroment temperature on near infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis was studied. The temperature correction model was calibrated with 45 wheat samples at different environment temperaturs and with the temperature as an external variable. The constant temperature model was calibated with 45 wheat samples at the same temperature. The predicted results of two models for the protein contents of wheat samples at different temperatures were compared. The results showed that the mean standard error of prediction (SEP) of the temperature correction model was 0.333, but the SEP of constant temperature (22 degrees C) model increased as the temperature difference enlarged, and the SEP is up to 0.602 when using this model at 4 degrees C. It was suggested that the temperature correctional model improves the analysis precision.

  6. Bi-log-concave Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümbgen, Lutz; Kolesnyk, Petro; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Nonparametric statistics for distribution functions F or densities f=F′ under qualitative shape constraints constitutes an interesting alternative to classical parametric or entirely nonparametric approaches. We contribute to this area by considering a new shape constraint: F is said to be bi......-log-concave, if both logF and log(1−F) are concave. Many commonly considered distributions are compatible with this constraint. For instance, any c.d.f. F with log-concave density f=F′ is bi-log-concave. But in contrast to log-concavity of f, bi-log-concavity of F allows for multimodal densities. We provide various...

  7. Analysis of Variation Characters and Prediction Model of Soil Temperature in Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the soil temperature changes and its forecast model in greenhouse by solar heat. [Method] Annual and daily variation characters of soil temperature were analyzed in this paper by using the observation data of air temperature out of solar greenhouse and different layers soil temperature in it. The soil temperature (daily maximum, daily minimum and daily mean) forecasting models were also studied. Simulation and test were conducted to the forecast model of soil temperature in ...

  8. Theoretical temperature model with experimental validation for CLIC Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2126138; Vamvakas, Alex; Alme, Johan

    Micron level stability of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) components is one of the main requirements to meet the luminosity goal for the future $48 \\,km$ long underground linear accelerator. The radio frequency (RF) power used for beam acceleration causes heat generation within the aligned structures, resulting in mechanical movements and structural deformations. A dedicated control of the air- and water- cooling system in the tunnel is therefore crucial to improve alignment accuracy. This thesis investigates the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC Accelerating Structure (AS). In CLIC, the AS must be aligned to a precision of $10\\,\\mu m$. The thesis shows that a relatively simple theoretical model can be used within reasonable accuracy to predict the temperature response of an AS as a function of the applied RF power. During failure scenarios or maintenance interventions, the RF power is turned off resulting in no heat dissipation and decrease in the overall temperature of the components. The theoretica...

  9. A schematic model for QCD at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Lerma, S; Hess, P O; Civitarese, O; Reboiro, M

    2002-01-01

    The simplest version of a class of toy models for QCD is presented. It is a Lipkin-type model, for the quark-antiquark sector, and, for the gluon sector, gluon pairs with spin zero are treated as elementary bosons. The model restricts to mesons with spin zero and to few baryonic states. The corresponding energy spectrum is discussed. We show that ground state correlations are essential to describe physical properties of the spectrum at low energies. Phase transitions are described in an effective manner, by using coherent states. The appearance of a Goldstone boson for large values of the interaction strength is discussed, as related to a collective state. The formalism is extended to consider finite temperatures. The partition function is calculated, in an approximate way, showing the convenience of the use of coherent states. The energy density, heat capacity and transitions from the hadronic phase to the quark-gluon plasma are calculated.

  10. Methodology to characterize an unsampled oil interval, integrating PVT (Pressure/Volumen/Temperature) analysis and production log; Metodologia para caracterizacao de oleo de intervalo nao-amostrado, integrando analise PVT e perfil de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Diogo Reato; Souza, Ana Paula Martins de; Vieira, Alexandre J.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a new methodology for characterizing an unsampled oil interval, using basically production log data and PVT analyses available in the well. The methodology was applied to a real case, where the live oil samples were collected during a well test run in three different depths, revealing some evidence of a compositional grading due to gravity. Each individual sample was a mixture of the fluid produced from the reservoir bottom to the sampling point, since the whole interval was perforated and the isolation had to be made with a packer. The first sample was corresponding to the mixture of lower and all upper oils. The other two samples are only the heavier and that oil with part of the one from the upper interval. In order to identify the fluid properties from the upper interval, needed for production development studies, the following procedure was devised: equation-of-state tuning, reproducing the sampled fluid properties; conversion of volumetric flowrates from production log into mass and molar flowrates; flowrate ratio calculation, between the upper and lower intervals; upper interval fluid composition estimative; upper interval fluid properties simulation, using the previously tuned equation-of-state, thus generating what was considered a representative, synthetic PVT analysis. (author)

  11. Development of a predictive model for Salmonella spp. reduction in meat jerky product with temperature, potassium sorbate, pH, and water activity as controlling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Heperkan, Dilek; Bautista, Derrick; Anderson, David; Hwang, Cheng-An; Peña-Ramos, Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Torrentera-Olivera, Noemi

    2016-11-07

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for the inactivation of Salmonella spp. in ground beef jerky as a function of temperature (T), pH, potassium sorbate (PS), and final water activity (aw). Following a central composite design, ground beef was combined with PS (0 to 0.3%, w/w), pH adjusted from 5 to 7, inoculated with a cocktail of 6 serotypes of Salmonella spp. and heat processed at temperatures between 65 and 85°C until the final aw ranging from 0.65 to 0.85 was achieved. Surviving Salmonella cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar overlaid with xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (pre-tempered to 47°C) after incubation for 48h at 30°C. Bacterial inactivation was quantified in terms of logarithmic reductions of Salmonella counts (log10CFU/g) and inactivation rate (log10(CFU/g)/h). The results indicated that pH, PS and T significantly (pSalmonella in beef jerky. Decreasing meat pH significantly (pSalmonella spp. Beef jerky processed at 82°C, pH5.5, with 0.25% PS to a final aw of 0.7 resulted in a maximum Salmonella logarithmic reduction of 5.0log10CFU/g and an inactivation rate of 1.3log10(CFU/g)/h. The predictive model developed can be used to effectively design drying processes for beef jerky under low humidity conditions and thereby, ensuring an adequate degree of protection against risks associated with Salmonella spp.

  12. Modelo para avaliar o desempenho de operadores logísticos: um estudo de caso na indústria têxtil Model for assessing logistics providers performance: a case study in the textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Cristiano Zamcopé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A evolução das relações logísticas trouxe resultados positivos, mas também se tornou fonte de fracassos e desapontamentos para muitas empresas, evidenciando a necessidade de buscar métodos eficazes para medir a eficiência e monitorar o desempenho dos Operadores Logísticos. A Metodologia Multicritério de Apoio à Decisão - Construtivista (MCDA-C vem de encontro a esta necessidade, já que possibilita apoiar os decisores em contextos onde reconhecem suas limitações quanto ao entendimento das consequências relevantes de cada alternativa e desejam desenvolver o conhecimento para tomar decisões conscientes e fundamentadas. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo se propõe a construir um modelo para avaliar o desempenho de Operadores Logísticos, considerando o aperfeiçoamento contínuo da cadeia com foco nas necessidades dos clientes. Assim, foi desenvolvido um estudo de caso em uma indústria têxtil paranaense de médio porte, utilizando como instrumento de intervenção a MCDA-C, por essa possibilitar: i a identificação dos aspectos considerados como mais importantes na cadeia logística da empresa em análise; ii a construção de escalas para mensurar o quanto o operador logístico está contribuindo em cada uma destas propriedades; e iii ter um processo para o operador aperfeiçoar a sua performance. O modelo de avaliação construído permitiu gerar estratégias de aperfeiçoamento para a cadeia logística da empresa analisada.The evolution of logistics relationships has brought positive results, but it also has become the source of failures and disappointments for many companies highlighting the need to seek effective methods to measure the efficiency and monitor the performance of logistics operators. The Multicriteria Decision Aid - Constructivist (MCDA-C approach can fulfill this need since it assists decision makers in understanding the relevant consequences of the alternatives of specific complex contexts and choosing

  13. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  14. Comparison of ET estimations by the three-temperature model, SEBAL model and eddy covariance observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyao; Bi, Shaojie; Yang, Yonghui; Tian, Fei; Ren, Dandan

    2014-11-01

    The three-temperature (3T) model is a simple model which estimates plant transpiration from only temperature data. In-situ field experimental results have shown that 3T is a reliable evapotranspiration (ET) estimation model. Despite encouraging results from recent efforts extending the 3T model to remote sensing applications, literature shows limited comparisons of the 3T model with other remote sensing driven ET models. This research used ET obtained from eddy covariance to evaluate the 3T model and in turn compared the model-simulated ET with that of the more traditional SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) model. A field experiment was conducted in the cotton fields of Taklamakan desert oasis in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Radiation and surface temperature were obtained from hyperspectral and thermal infrared images for clear days in 2013. The images covered the time period of 0900-1800 h at four different phenological stages of cotton. Meteorological data were automatically recorded in a station located at the center of the cotton field. Results showed that the 3T model accurately captured daily and seasonal variations in ET. As low dry soil surface temperatures induced significant errors in the 3T model, it was unsuitable for estimating ET in the early morning and late afternoon periods. The model-simulated ET was relatively more accurate for squaring, bolling and boll-opening stages than for seedling stage of cotton during when ET was generally low. Wind speed was apparently not a limiting factor of ET in the 3T model. This was attributed to the fact that surface temperature, a vital input of the model, indirectly accounted for the effect of wind speed on ET. Although the 3T model slightly overestimated ET compared with SEBAL and eddy covariance, it was generally reliable for estimating daytime ET during 0900-1600 h.

  15. Towards an Entropy-based Analysis of Log Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, Christoffer Olling; Slaats, Tijs; Debois, Søren

    2017-01-01

    the development of hybrid miners: given a (sub-)log, can we determine a priori whether the log is best suited for imperative or declarative mining? We propose using the concept of entropy, commonly used in information theory. We consider different measures for entropy that could be applied and show through...... and unstructured parts and therefore do not fit strictly in one category or the other. This has led to the recent introduction of hybrid miners, which aim to combine flow- and constraint-based models to provide the best possible representation of a log. In this paper we focus on a core question underlying...

  16. Workflow logs analysis system for enterprise performance measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Workflow logs that record the execution of business processes offer very valuable data resource for real-time enterprise performance measurement. In this paper, a novel scheme that uses the technology of data warehouse and OLAP to explore workflow logs and create complex analysis reports for enterprise performance measurement is proposed. Three key points of this scheme are studied: 1) the measure set; 2) the open and flexible architecture for workflow logs analysis system; 3) the data models in WFMS and data warehouse. A case study that shows the validity of the scheme is also provided.

  17. Moments of the log non-central chi-square distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Pav, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulants and moments of the log of the non-central chi-square distribution are derived. For example, the expected log of a chi-square random variable with v degrees of freedom is log(2) + psi(v/2). Applications to modeling probability distributions are discussed.

  18. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  19. Understanding the tropical warm temperature bias simulated by climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brient, Florent; Schneider, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    The state-of-the-art coupled general circulation models have difficulties in representing the observed spatial pattern of surface tempertaure. A majority of them suffers a warm bias in the tropical subsiding regions located over the eastern parts of oceans. These regions are usually covered by low-level clouds scattered from stratus along the coasts to more vertically developed shallow cumulus farther from them. Models usually fail to represent accurately this transition. Here we investigate physical drivers of this warm bias in CMIP5 models through a near-surface energy budget perspective. We show that overestimated solar insolation due to a lack of stratocumulus mostly explains the warm bias. This bias also arises partly from inter-model differences in surface fluxes that could be traced to differences in near-surface relative humidity and air-sea temperature gradient. We investigate the role of the atmosphere in driving surface biases by comparing historical and atmopsheric (AMIP) experiments. We show that some differences in boundary-layer characteristics, mostly those related to cloud fraction and relative humidity, are already present in AMIP experiments and may be the drivers of coupled biases. This gives insights in how models can be improved for better simulations of the tropical climate.

  20. Low reheating temperatures in monomial and binomial inflationary models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-06-23

    We investigate the allowed range of reheating temperature values in light of the Planck 2015 results and the recent joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck experiments, using monomial and binomial inflationary potentials. While the well studied ϕ{sup 2} inflationary potential is no longer favored by current CMB data, as well as ϕ{sup p} with p>2, a ϕ{sup 1} potential and canonical reheating (w{sub re}=0) provide a good fit to the CMB measurements. In this last case, we find that the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit upper bound on the spectral index, n{sub s}, implies an upper bound on the reheating temperature of T{sub re}≲6×10{sup 10} GeV, and excludes instantaneous reheating. The low reheating temperatures allowed by this model open the possibility that dark matter could be produced during the reheating period instead of when the Universe is radiation dominated, which could lead to very different predictions for the relic density and momentum distribution of WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, and axions. We also study binomial inflationary potentials and show the effects of a small departure from a ϕ{sup 1} potential. We find that as a subdominant ϕ{sup 2} term in the potential increases, first instantaneous reheating becomes allowed, and then the lowest possible reheating temperature of T{sub re}=4 MeV is excluded by the Planck 2015 68% confidence limit.

  1. The mass and temperature functions in a moving barrier model

    CERN Document Server

    Popolo, A D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, I use the extension of the excursion set model of Sheth & Tormen (2002) and the barrier shape obtained in Del Popolo & Gambera (1998) to calculate the unconditional halo mass function, and the conditional mass function in several cosmological models. I show that the barrier obtained in Del Popolo & Gambera (1998), which takes account of tidal interaction between proto-haloes, is a better description of the mass functions than the spherical collapse and is in good agreement with numerical simulations (Tozzi & Governato 1998, and Governato et al. 1999). The results are also in good agreement with those obtained by Sheth & Tormen (2002), only slight differences are observed expecially at the low mass end. I moreover calculate, and compare with simulations, the temperature function obtained by means of the mass functions previously calculated and also using an improved version of the M-T relation, which accounts for the fact that massive clusters accrete matter quasi-continuousl...

  2. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  3. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  4. Logística empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Sahid

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  5. A Simple Model for the Viscosity of Rhyolites as a Function of Temperature, Pressure and Water Content: Implications for Obsidian Flow Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, A. G.; Romine, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of rhyolitic conduits and lava flows, requires precise knowledge of how viscosity (η) varies with temperature (T), pressure (P) and volatile content (X). In order to address the paucity of viscosity data for high-silica rhyolite at low water contents, which represent water saturation at near-surface conditions, we made 245 viscosity measurements on Mono Craters (California) rhyolites containing between 0.01 and 1.1 wt.% H2O, at temperatures between 796 and 1774 K using parallel plate and concentric cylinder methods at atmospheric pressure. We then developed and calibrated a new empirical model for the log of the viscosity of rhyolitic melts, where non-linear variations due to temperature and water content are nested within a linear dependence of log η on P. The model was fitted to a total of 563 data points: our 245 new data, 255 published data from rhyolites across a wide P-T-X space, and 63 data on haplogranitic and granitic melts under high P-T conditions. Statistically insignificant parameters were eliminated from the model in an effort to increase parsimony and the final model is simple enough for use in numerical models of conduit or lava flow dynamics: log η = -5.142+(13080-2982log⁡(w+0.229))/(T-(98.9-175.9 log⁡(w+0.229)))- P(0.0007-0.76/T ) where η is in Pa s, w is water content in wt.%, P is in MPa and T is in K. The root mean square deviation (rmsd) between the model predictions and the 563 data points used in calibration is 0.39 log units. Experimental constraints have led previously to spurious correlations between P, T, X and η in viscosity data sets, so that predictive models may struggle to correctly resolve the individual effects of P, T and X, and especially their cross-correlations. The increasing water solubility with depth inside a simple isothermal sheet of obsidian suggests that viscosity should decrease by ~1 order of magnitude at ~20m depth and by ~2 orders of magnitude at ~100m depth. If equilibrium water

  6. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Chiral Logs in Quenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, S J; Horváth, I; Lee, F X; Liu, K F; Mathur, N; Zhang, J B

    2003-01-01

    The quenched chiral logs are examined on a $16^3 \\times 28$ lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant $f_{\\pi}$ is used to set the lattice spacing, $a = 0.200(3)$ fm. With pion mass as low as $\\sim 180 {\\rm MeV}$, we see the quenched chiral logs clearly in $m_{\\pi}^2/m$ and $f_P$, the pseudoscalar decay constant. We analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT) to apply. With the constrained curve fitting, we are able to extract the quenched chiral log parameter $\\delta$ together with the chiral cutoff $\\Lambda_{\\chi}$ and other parameters. Only for $m_{\\pi} \\leq 300 {\\rm MeV}$ do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant $\\delta$ which we determine to be 0.23(2). By comparing to the $12^3 \\times 28$ lattice, we estimate the finite volume effect to be about 1.8% for the smallest pion mass. We also study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon and the $\\rho$ masses...

  8. Report on the 5th International Bio-logging Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...LONG-TERM GOALS Bio-logging originated in the marine (polar) realm, which explains why marine mammals remain today the main biological models in...www.animalbiotelemetry.com/) and Movement Ecology (http://www.movementecologyjournal.com/). A book on Bio-logging, commissioned on Springer will be

  9. The Log-Linear Return Approximation, Bubbles, and Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We study in detail the log-linear return approximation introduced by Campbell and Shiller (1988a). First, we derive an upper bound for the mean approximation error, given stationarity of the log dividend-price ratio. Next, we simulate various rational bubbles which have explosive conditional....... Finally, we show that a bubble model in which expected returns are constant can explain the predictability of stock returns from the dividend-price ratio that many previous studies have documented....

  10. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  11. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  12. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Marnier

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b).

  13. MELCOR Model Development of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Changyong; Huh, Changwook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor is one of the major challenging issues on the development of licensing technology for HTGR. The safety evaluation tools of HTGR can be developed in two ways - development of new HTGR-specific codes or revision of existing codes. The KINS is considering using existing analytic tools to the extent feasible, with appropriate modifications for the intended purpose. The system-level MELCOR code is traditionally used for LWR safety analysis, which is capable of performing thermal-fluid and accident analysis, including fission-product transport and release. Recently, this code is being modified for the NGNP HTGR by the NRC. In this study, the MELCOR input model for HTGR with Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) was developed and the steady state performance was analyzed to evaluate the applicability in HTGR. HTGR model with design characteristics of GT-MHR was developed using MELCOR 2.1 code to validate the applicability of MELCOR code to HTGR. In addition, the steady state of GT-MHR was analyzed with the developed model. It was evaluated to predict well the design parameters of GT-MHR. The developed model can be used as the basis for accident analysis of HTGR with further update of packages such as Radio Nuclide (RN) package.

  14. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LOG SENSOR STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Avanesov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The problems of insufficient strength of the EM log sensor are studied. The EM log sensor design for deep-sea vehicles is analyzed; a mathematical model of EM log sensor is built. The design and technological solutions that improve the performance of this type of log are shown. Method. The study was performed using the finite element method in the ANSYS software. The calculations were performed in the static structural module, in which the load was created in the way that simulated the external hydrostatic pressure. To check the reproducibility the analysis of model was carried out by built-in assessment of the quality elements. All materials are taken to be isotropic. Main Results. The ways of increasing the strength of outboard tools for measuring the ship speed are presented. Calculating results of the stress-strain state of devices under the influence of seawater at various depths were obtained by the method of finite element analysis. The technological features of the sensor production are shown. The recommendations for changing the log construction to increase its strength, supported by computer modeling, are given. Practical Relevance. The discussed ways of increasing the strength of the device enable to expand implementation area. The results can be applied in the modernization of the design and construction of new EM log sensor operating at high pressures.

  15. Modeling temperature and stress in rocks exposed to the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Mackenzie, P.; Shi, J.; Eppes, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The potential contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is recognized but under studied. To shed light on this contribution we have launched a collaborative study integrating modern instrumental and numerical approaches to define surface temperatures, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the thermo-mechanical response of boulders to diurnal solar exposure. The instrumental portion of our study is conducted by M. Eppes and coworkers who have monitored the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for one and tow years, respectively. Each boulder is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 acoustic emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously and to locate it within 2.5 cm. Herein, we focus on the numerical modeling. Using a commercially available finite element program, MSC.Marc®2008r1, we have developed an adaptable, realistic thermo-mechanical model to investigate quantitatively the temporal and spatial distributions of both temperature and stress throughout a boulder. The model accounts for the effects of latitude and season (length of day and the sun's path relative to the object), atmospheric damping (reduction of solar radiation when traveling through the Earth's atmosphere), radiative interaction between the boulder and its surrounding soil, secondary heat exchange of the rock with air, and transient heat conduction in both rock and soil. Using representative thermal and elastic rock properties, as well as realistic representations of the size, shape and orientation of a boulder instrumented in the field in North Carolina, the model is validated by comparison with direct measurements of temperature and strain on the surface of one boulder exposed to the sun. Using the validated

  16. Well-log based prediction of thermal conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    Rock thermal conductivity (TC) is paramount for the determination of heat flow and the calculation of temperature profiles. Due to the scarcity of drill cores compared to the availability of petrophysical well logs, methods are desired to indirectly predict TC in sedimentary basins. Most...

  17. Modelling near subsurface temperature with mixed type boundary condition for transient air temperature and vertical groundwater flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeev Ranjan Kumar; D V Ramana; R N Singh

    2012-10-01

    Near-subsurface temperatures have signatures of climate change. Thermal models of subsurface have been constructed by prescribing time dependent Dirichlet type boundary condition wherein the temperature at the soil surface is prescribed and depth distribution of temperature is obtained. In this formulation it is not possible to include the relationship between air temperatures and the temperature of soil surface. However, if one uses a Robin type boundary condition, a transfer coefficient relates the air and soil surface temperatures which helps to determine both the temperature at the surface and at depth given near surface air temperatures. This coefficient is a function of meteorological conditions and is readily available. We have developed such a thermal model of near subsurface region which includes both heat conduction and advection due to groundwater flows and have presented numerical results for changes in the temperature–depth profiles for different values of transfer coefficient and groundwater flux. There are significant changes in temperature and depth profiles due to changes in the transfer coefficient and groundwater flux. The analytical model will find applications in the interpretation of the borehole geothermal data to extract both climate and groundwater flow signals.

  18. Deterministic Modeling of the High Temperature Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, J.; Cogliati, J. J.; Pope, M. A.; Ferrer, R. M.; Ougouag, A. M.

    2010-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with the development of reactor physics analysis capability of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) project. In order to examine INL’s current prismatic reactor deterministic analysis tools, the project is conducting a benchmark exercise based on modeling the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). This exercise entails the development of a model for the initial criticality, a 19 column thin annular core, and the fully loaded core critical condition with 30 columns. Special emphasis is devoted to the annular core modeling, which shares more characteristics with the NGNP base design. The DRAGON code is used in this study because it offers significant ease and versatility in modeling prismatic designs. Despite some geometric limitations, the code performs quite well compared to other lattice physics codes. DRAGON can generate transport solutions via collision probability (CP), method of characteristics (MOC), and discrete ordinates (Sn). A fine group cross section library based on the SHEM 281 energy structure is used in the DRAGON calculations. HEXPEDITE is the hexagonal z full core solver used in this study and is based on the Green’s Function solution of the transverse integrated equations. In addition, two Monte Carlo (MC) based codes, MCNP5 and PSG2/SERPENT, provide benchmarking capability for the DRAGON and the nodal diffusion solver codes. The results from this study show a consistent bias of 2–3% for the core multiplication factor. This systematic error has also been observed in other HTTR benchmark efforts and is well documented in the literature. The ENDF/B VII graphite and U235 cross sections appear to be the main source of the error. The isothermal temperature coefficients calculated with the fully loaded core configuration agree well with other benchmark participants but are 40% higher than the experimental values. This discrepancy with the measurement stems from the fact that during the experiments the

  19. The Log Log Prior for the Frequency of Extraterrestrial Intelligences

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how frequently life and intelligence arise on planets. I consider a Bayesian prior for the probability P(ETI) that intelligence evolves at a suitable site, with weight distributed evenly over ln(1 - ln P(ETI)). This log log prior can handle a very wide range of P(ETI) values, from 1 to 10^(-10^122), while remaining responsive to evidence about extraterrestrial societies. It is motivated by our uncertainty in the number of conditions that must be fulfilled for intelligence to arise, and it is related to considerations of information, entropy, and state space dimensionality. After setting a lower limit to P(ETI) from the number of possible genome sequences, I calculate a Bayesian confidence of 18% that aliens exist within the observable Universe. With different assumptions about the minimum P(ETI) and the number of times intelligence can appear on a planet, this value falls between 1.4% and 47%. Overall, the prior leans towards our being isolated from extraterrestrial intelligences, but indicates ...

  20. A moment model for phonon transport at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Struchtrup, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Heat transfer in solids is modeled by deriving the macroscopic equations for phonon transport from the phonon-Boltzmann equation. In these equations, the Callaway model with frequency-dependent relaxation time is considered to describe the Resistive and Normal processes in the phonon interactions. Also, the Brillouin zone is considered to be a sphere, and its diameter depends on the temperature of the system. A simple model to describe phonon interaction with crystal boundary is employed to obtain macroscopic boundary conditions, where the reflection kernel is the superposition of diffusive reflection, specular reflection and isotropic scattering. Macroscopic moments are defined using a polynomial of the frequency and wave vector of phonons. As an example, a system of moment equations, consisting of three directional and seven frequency moments, i.e., 63 moments in total, is used to study one-dimensional heat transfer, as well as Poiseuille flow of phonons. Our results show the importance of frequency dependency in relaxation times and macroscopic moments to predict rarefaction effects. Good agreement with data reported in the literature is obtained.

  1. Constructing warm inflationary model in finite temperature BIon

    CERN Document Server

    Setare, M R

    2014-01-01

    We study warm inflationary universe model on the BIon in thermal background. The BIon is a configuration in flat space of a D-brane and a parallel anti-D-brane connected by a wormhole with F-string charge. When the branes and antibranes are well separated and the brane's spike is far from the antibrane's spike, wormhole isn't formed however when two branes are close to each other, they can be connected by a wormhole. In this condition, there exists many channels for flowing energy from extra dimensions into our universe and inflation may naturally occur in a warm region. We present a model that allows all cosmological parameters like the scale factor $a$, the Hubble parameter $H$ and universe energy density depend on the shape function and temperature of wormhole in transverse dimension between two branes. In our model, the expansion of 4D universe is controlled by the thermal wormhole between branes and ends up in Big-Rip singularity. We show that at this singularity, universe would be destroyed and one blac...

  2. Research on the physical properties of supercritical CO2 and the log evaluation of CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baozhi; Lei, Jian; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Yuhang

    2017-10-01

    CO2-bearing reservoirs are difficult to distinguish from other natural gas reservoirs during gas explorations. Due to the lack of physical parameters for supercritical CO2, particularly neutron porosity, at present a hydrocarbon gas log evaluation method is used to evaluate CO2-bearing reservoirs. The differences in the physical properties of hydrocarbon and CO2 gases have led to serious errors. In this study, the deep volcanic rock of the Songliao Basin was the research area. In accordance with the relationship between the density and acoustic velocity of supercritical CO2 and temperature and pressure, the regularity between the CO2 density and acoustic velocity, and the depth of the area was established. A neutron logging simulation was completed based on a Monte Carlo method. Through the simulation of the wet limestone neutron logging, the relationship between the count rate ratio of short and long space detectors and the neutron porosity was acquired. Then, the nature of the supercritical CO2 neutron moderation was obtained. With consideration given to the complexity of the volcanic rock mineral composition, a volcanic rock volume model was established, and the matrix neutron and density parameters were acquired using the ECS log. The properties of CO2 were applied in the log evaluation of the CO2-bearing volcanic reservoirs in the southern Songliao Basin. The porosity and saturation of CO2 were obtained, and a reasonable application was achieved in the CO2-bearing reservoir.

  3. Temperature characteristics of quantum dot devices: Rate vs. Master Equation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Bischoff, Svend; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg;

    2001-01-01

    The change of transparency current with temperature for quantum dot devices depends strongly on whether a rate or master equation model is used. The master equation model successfully explains experimental observations of negative characteristic temperatures.......The change of transparency current with temperature for quantum dot devices depends strongly on whether a rate or master equation model is used. The master equation model successfully explains experimental observations of negative characteristic temperatures....

  4. Two-Temperature Model of Nonequilibrium Electron Relaxation:. a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navinder

    The present paper is a review of the phenomena related to nonequilibrium electron relaxation in bulk and nano-scale metallic samples. The workable Two-Temperature Model (TTM) based on Boltzmann-Bloch-Peierls kinetic equation has been applied to study the ultra-fast (femto-second) electronic relaxation in various metallic systems. The advent of new ultra-fast (femto-second) laser technology and pump-probe spectroscopy has produced wealth of new results for micro- and nano-scale electronic technology. The aim of this paper is to clarify the TTM, conditions of its validity and nonvalidity, its modifications for nano-systems, to sum-up the progress, and to point out open problems in this field. We also give a phenomenological integro-differential equation for the kinetics of nondegenerate electrons that goes beyond the TTM.

  5. Long-term surface temperature modeling of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard P.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. A.; Ennico, K.; Grundy, W.; Olkin, C. B.; Weaver, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system has revealed at high resolution the striking albedo contrasts from polar to equatorial latitudes on Pluto, as well as the sharpness of boundaries for longitudinal variations. These contrasts suggest that Pluto must undergo dynamic evolution that drives the redistribution of volatiles. Using the New Horizons results as a template, we explore the surface temperature variations driven seasonally on Pluto considering multiple timescales. These timescales include the current orbit (248 years) as well as the timescales for obliquity precession (peak-to-peak amplitude of 23° over 3 million years) and regression of the orbital longitude of perihelion (3.7 million years). These orbital variations create epochs of ;Extreme Seasons; where one pole receives a short, relatively warm summer and long winter, while the other receives a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter. We use thermal modeling to build upon the long-term insolation history model described by Earle and Binzel (2015) and investigate how these seasons couple with Pluto's albedo contrasts to create temperature effects. From this study we find that a bright region at the equator, once established, can become a site for net deposition. We see the region informally known as Sputnik Planitia as an example of this, and find it will be able to perpetuate itself as an ;always available; cold trap, thus having the potential to survive on million year or substantially longer timescales. Meanwhile darker, low-albedo, regions near the equator will remain relative warm and generally not attract volatile deposition. We argue that the equatorial region is a ;preservation zone; for whatever albedo is seeded there. This offers insight as to why the equatorial band of Pluto displays the planet's greatest albedo contrasts.

  6. Interpretation and mathematical modeling of temporal changes of temperature observed in borehole Yaxcopoil-1 within the Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafanda, Jan; Wilhelm, Helmut; Heidinger, Philipp; Čermák, Vladimír

    2009-06-01

    SummaryGeothermal research of the Chicxulub impact structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, included repeated temperature logs following 0.3-0.8, 15, 24, 34 and 50 months after shut-in of drilling operations at the 1.5 km deep Yaxcopoil-1 borehole. A gradual distortion of the linear temperature profile by a cold wave propagating downward from 145 m to 317 m was detected within the observational period of 49 months (March 2002-April 2006). The amplitude of the cold wave was increasing with depth and time in the range of 0.8-1.6 °C. As an explanation of this unusual phenomenon, the hypothesis of downward migration of a large volume of drilling mud, reported lost during drilling within the overlying and cooler highly porous and permeable karstic rocks, has been proposed. The thermal effects of the migrating fluid have been evaluated by solving numerically the heat conduction-convection equation in appropriate geothermal models. The best coincidence between the observed data and the simulations was yielded by the model of the drilling mud migrating as a large body. Parameters of this model are constrained by the measured temperature logs relatively tightly: (i) the vertical extent of the downward migrating fluid body is about 5-10 m, possibly increasing within the observational period of 49 months by a factor of 2; (ii) the horizontal extent of the body must be at least 15-20 m, i.e. by order(s) of magnitude larger than the diameter of the borehole; (iii) the average speed of the migration is about 5 metres per month and (iv) the fluid must migrate through a highly porous rock (80% porosity or more). This high porosity, which is necessary for the model to fit the observed data, and the observed relatively stable velocity of the migration indicate the existence of a well-developed system of interconnected cavities down to more than 300 m about 150 m more than the deepest cave system known in Yucatan yet.

  7. Modelling Cerebral Blood Flow and Temperature Using a Vascular Porous Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Stephen; Thrippleton, Michael; Marshall, Ian; Harris, Bridget; Andrews, Peter; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    Macro-modelling of cerebral blood flow can assist in determining the impact of temperature intervention to reduce permanent tissue damage during instances of brain trauma. Here we present a 3D two phase fluid-porous model for simulating blood flow through the capillary region linked to intersecting 1D arterial and venous vessel trees. This combined vasculature porous (VaPor) model simulates both flow and energy balances, including heat from metabolism, using a vasculature extracted from MRI data which are expanded upon using a tree generation algorithm. Validation of temperature balance has been achieved using rodent brain data. Direct flow validation is not as straight forward due to the method used in determining regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In-vivo measurements are achieved using a tracer, which disagree with direct measurements of simulated flow. However, by modelling a virtual tracer, rCBF values are obtained that agree with those found in literature. Temperature profiles generated with the VaPor model show a reduction in core brain temperature after cooling the scalp not seen previously in other models.

  8. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  9. A Model of Temperature-Dependent Young's Modulus for Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the different sensitivities of material properties to temperature between ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs and traditional ceramics, the original empirical formula of temperature-dependent Young's modulus of ceramic materials is unable to describe the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of UHTCs which are used as thermal protection materials. In this paper, a characterization applied to Young's modulus of UHTC materials under high temperature which is revised from the original empirical formula is established. The applicable temperature range of the characterization extends to the higher temperature zone. This study will provide a basis for the characterization for strength and fracture toughness of UHTC materials and provide theoretical bases and technical reserves for the UHTC materials' design and application in the field of spacecraft.

  10. The Closed Form on a Kind of Log-cosine and Log-sine Integral%一类log-cosine和log-sine积分的闭形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商妮娜; 秦惠增

    2012-01-01

    We consider some recursion formulas for the partial derivative of Beta function. Using these recursion formulas, we give the closed form of the log-cosine and log-sine integral.%考虑了Beta函数偏导数的递推公式的表示问题.利用Beta函数偏导数的递推公式,给出一类log-cosine和log-sine积分的闭形式.

  11. Dose estimative in operators during petroleum wells logging with nuclear wireless probes through computer modelling; Estimativa da dose em operadores durante procedimentos de perfilagem de pocos de petroleo com sondas wireless nucleares atraves de modelagem computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Lima, Inaya C.B., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda, E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Paula L.F., E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)., RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the absorbed dose and the effective dose on operators during the petroleum well logging with nuclear wireless that uses gamma radiation sources. To obtain the data, a typical scenery of a logging procedure will be simulated with MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulated logging probe was the Density Gamma Probe - TRISOND produced by Robertson Geolloging. The absorbed dose values were estimated through the anthropomorphic simulator in male voxel MAX. The effective dose values were obtained using the ICRP 103

  12. Modeling the effects of temperature and pH on the resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in conventional heat-treated fruit beverages through a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo P; Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Cadavez, Vasco; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2015-04-01

    In this work, all publicly-accessible published findings on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris heat resistance in fruit beverages as affected by temperature and pH were compiled. Then, study characteristics (protocols, fruit and variety, °Brix, pH, temperature, heating medium, culture medium, inactivation method, strains, etc.) were extracted from the primary studies, and some of them incorporated to a meta-analysis mixed-effects linear model based on the basic Bigelow equation describing the heat resistance parameters of this bacterium. The model estimated mean D* values (time needed for one log reduction at a temperature of 95 °C and a pH of 3.5) of Alicyclobacillus in beverages of different fruits, two different concentration types, with and without bacteriocins, and with and without clarification. The zT (temperature change needed to cause one log reduction in D-values) estimated by the meta-analysis model were compared to those ('observed' zT values) reported in the primary studies, and in all cases they were within the confidence intervals of the model. The model was capable of predicting the heat resistance parameters of Alicyclobacillus in fruit beverages beyond the types available in the meta-analytical data. It is expected that the compilation of the thermal resistance of Alicyclobacillus in fruit beverages, carried out in this study, will be of utility to food quality managers in the determination or validation of the lethality of their current heat treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Log-periodicity: Sources, characterization, identification, and possible applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueqiang

    1999-11-01

    We investigate theoretically the log-periodic oscillations that have recently been observed in several rupture processes ranging from earthquakes to financial crashes. A possible source of log-periodic oscillations is an underlying discrete scale invariance (DSI). The first chapter of this dissertation is devoted to understanding how DSI could appear spontaneously in a physical system. We consider the example of crack arrays, and argue that the short-wavelength Mullins-Sekerka instability, together with strong screening effects, could indeed generate DSI. This is backed by extensive numerical simulations, as well as some experimental observations. In the second chapter of this dissertation, we study in more details how DSI at the geometrical level can give rise to log-periodic oscillations in a rupture process: to do so, we explore in details a simple cellular automaton model of earthquakes on a fractal lattice and show how the divergence of the correlation length, combined with the fractal geometrical structure, determines the log-periodic oscillations. Despite its simplicity, we demonstrate that our model reproduces remarkably well the statistical aspects of earthquakes, in contrast with original, erroneous conclusions of early works on the matter. The key issue here is the interplay of self-organized criticality, finite size effects, and dissipation. Besides DSI, we point out that there are other possible sources of log-periodicity arising from data analysis. We discuss in considerable details the effects of noise integration in power laws. We point out that this mechanism calls for a re-examination of the interpretation of many previously observed log-periodic oscillations. We re-visit two early observations, the Loma Prieta case and the Kobe case, and unfortunately find that the observed log-periodic oscillations are not as significant as originally claimed. Finally, this dissertation also contains an important observational part in which we analyze in details

  14. Modelo logístico difásico no estudo do crescimento de fêmeas da raça Hereford Difasics logistic model in the study of the growth of Hereford breed females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Neves Mendes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar modelos logísticos difásicos ponderados aplicados ao estudo de curvas de crescimento de fêmeas Hereford com três diferentes estruturas de erros: erros independentes (EI, auto-regressivos de primeira ordem (AR (1 e auto-regressivo de segunda ordem (AR (2 a dados de peso-idade de 55 fêmeas da raça Hereford avaliadas desde o nascimento até 675 dias de idade. Utilizou-se o procedimento model do software Statistical Analysis System (SAS por meio das opções weight e %AR. A comparação entre os modelos foi realizada com base na interpretação biológica dos parâmetros e nos avaliadores de qualidade de ajuste (coeficiente de determinação ajustado, teste de Durbin-Watson, desvio padrão residual, número de iterações, além do critério de informação de Akaike (AIC e do teste F para comparação de modelos. Os resultados obtidos para o ajuste dos modelos aos dados médios indicaram que o modelo logístico difásico AR (2 foi o mais eficiente para descrever a curva de crescimento do rebanho. Ao se considerar o conjunto de dados individuais, nenhum dos modelos abordados foi recomendado por produzirem estimativas não condizentes com a realidade.This study had the objective of comparing weighted difasics logistic models applied to the study of Hereford females growth curves with three different error structures: independent errors (IE, first-order auto-regressive (AR (1 and second-order auto-regressive (AR (2 to weight-age data of 55 females of the Hereford breed, raised in the Bagé region, RS, Brazil, evaluated from birth to 675 days old. The weight and %AR options of model procedure, available in the software Statistical Analysis System (SAS, was used to fit data. The comparison among the models was carried out through the biological interpretation basis of the parameters and in the adjustment of quality measures (adjusted determination coefficient, Durbin-Watson test, residual standard

  15. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  17. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  18. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  19. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  20. New temperature model of the Netherlands from new data and novel modelling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; Struijk, Maartje; Békési, Eszter; Cloetingh, Sierd; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2017-04-01

    Deep geothermal energy has grown in interest in Western Europe in the last decades, for direct use but also, as the knowledge of the subsurface improves, for electricity generation. In the Netherlands, where the sector took off with the first system in 2005, geothermal energy is seen has a key player for a sustainable future. The knowledge of the temperature subsurface, together with the available flow from the reservoir, is an important factor that can determine the success of a geothermal energy project. To support the development of deep geothermal energy system in the Netherlands, we have made a first assessment of the subsurface temperature based on thermal data but also on geological elements (Bonté et al, 2012). An outcome of this work was ThermoGIS that uses the temperature model. This work is a revision of the model that is used in ThermoGIS. The improvement from the first model are multiple, we have been improving not only the dataset used for the calibration and structural model, but also the methodology trough an improved software (called b3t). The temperature dataset has been updated by integrating temperature on the newly accessible wells. The sedimentary description in the basin has been improved by using an updated and refined structural model and an improved lithological definition. A major improvement in from the methodology used to perform the modelling, with b3t the calibration is made not only using the lithospheric parameters but also using the thermal conductivity of the sediments. The result is a much more accurate definition of the parameters for the model and a perfected handling of the calibration process. The result obtain is a precise and improved temperature model of the Netherlands. The thermal conductivity variation in the sediments associated with geometry of the layers is an important factor of temperature variations and the influence of the Zechtein salt in the north of the country is important. In addition, the radiogenic heat

  1. Log-periodic oscillations of transverse momentum distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Large p_T transverse momentum distributions exhibit apparently a power-like behavior. We argue that, under closer inspection, this behavior is in fact decorated with some log-periodic oscillations. Assuming that this is genuine effect and not experimental artefact, it suggests that either the exponent of the power-like behavior is in reality complex number or that there is a scale parameter which exhibits specific log-eriodic oscillations. This problem is discussed using Tsallis distributions with scale parameter being a temperature T.

  2. Considerations for modeling thin cirrus effects via brightness temperature differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E. O.; Arduini, R. F.; Wielicki, B. A.; Stone, R. S.; Tsay, S.-C.

    1995-01-01

    Brightness temperature difference (BTD) values are calculated for selected Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-6) channels (3.9, 12.7 micrometer) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer channels (3.7, 12.0 micrometer). Daytime and nighttime discrimination of particle size information is possible given the infrared cloud extinction optical depth and the BTD value. BTD values are presented and compared for cirrus clouds composed of equivalent ice spheres (volume, surface area) versus randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals. The effect of the hexagonal ice crystals is to increase the magnitude of the BTD values calculated relative to equivalent ice sphere (volume, surface area) BTDs. Equivalent spheres (volume or surface area) do not do a very good job of modeling hexagonal ice crystal effects on BTDs; however, the use of composite spheres improves the simulation and offers interesting prospects. Careful consideration of the number of Legendre polynomial coefficients used to fit the scattering phase functions is crucial to realistic modeling of cirrus BTDs. Surface and view-angle effects are incorporated to provide more realistic simulation.

  3. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  4. The Effects of Selective Logging Behaviors on Forest Fragmentation and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rondon, Xanic J.; Cumming, Graeme S; Cossío, Rosa E.; Jane Southworth

    2012-01-01

    To study the impacts of selective logging behaviors on a forest landscape, we developed an intermediate-scale spatial model to link cross-scale interactions of timber harvesting, a fine-scale human activity, with coarse-scale landscape impacts. We used the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with Holling’s functional response II to simulate selective logging, coupled with a cellular automaton model to simulate logger mobility and forest fragmentation. Three logging scenarios were simulated, ea...

  5. Error Checking for Chinese Query by Mining Web Log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the search engine, error-input query is a common phenomenon. This paper uses web log as the training set for the query error checking. Through the n-gram language model that is trained by web log, the queries are analyzed and checked. Some features including query words and their number are introduced into the model. At the same time data smoothing algorithm is used to solve data sparseness problem. It will improve the overall accuracy of the n-gram model. The experimental results show that it is effective.

  6. Quality control for quantitative geophysical logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Hwang, Se Ho; Hwang, Hak Soo; Park, In Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Despite the great availability of geophysical data obtained from boreholes, the interpretation is subject to significant uncertainties. More accurate data with less statistical uncertainties should require an employment of more quantitative techniques in log acquisition and interpretation technique. The long-term objective of this project is the development of techniques in both quality control of log measurement and the quantitative interpretation. In the first year, the goals of the project will include establishing the procedure of log acquisition using various tests, analysing the effect of logging velocity change on the logging data, examining the repeatability and reproducibility, analyzing of filtering effect on the log measurements, and finally the zonation and the correlation of single-and inter-well log data. For the establishment of logging procedure, we have tested the multiple factors affecting the accuracy in depth. The factors are divided into two parts: human and mechanical. These factors include the zero setting of depth, the calculation of offset for the sonde, the stretching effect of cable, and measuring wheel accuracy. We conclude that the error in depth setting results primarily from human factor, and also in part from the stretching of cable. The statistical fluctuation of log measurements increases according to increasing the logging speed for the zone of lower natural gamma. Thus, the problem related with logging speed is a trifling matter in case of the application of resources exploration, the logging speed should run more slowly to reduce the statistical fluctuation of natural gamma with lithologic correlation in mind. The repeatability and reproducibility of logging measurements are tested. The results of repeatability test for the natural gamma sonde are qualitatively acceptable in the reproducibility test, the errors occurs in logging data between two operators and successive trials. We conclude that the errors result from the

  7. Homeostasis of the temperature sensitivity of respiration over a range of growth temperatures indicated by a modified Arrhenius model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ko; Yamori, Wataru; Hikosaka, Kouki; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of plant respiratory rate (R) changes in response to growth temperature. Here, we used a modified Arrhenius model incorporating the temperature dependence of activation energy (Eo ), and compared the temperature dependence of R between cold-sensitive and cold-tolerant species. We analyzed the temperature dependences of leaf CO2 efflux rate of plants cultivated at low (LT) or high temperature (HT). In plants grown at HT (HT plants), Eo at low measurement temperature varied among species, but Eo at growth temperature in HT plants did not vary and was comparable to that in plants grown at LT (LT plants), suggesting that the limiting process was similar at the respective growth temperatures. In LT plants, the integrated value of loge R, a measure of respiratory capacity, in cold-sensitive species was lower than that in cold-tolerant species. When plants were transferred from HT to LT, the respiratory capacity changed promptly after the transfer compared with the other parameters. These results suggest that a similar process limits R at different growth temperatures, and that the lower capacity of the respiratory system in cold-sensitive species may explain their low growth rate at LT.

  8. 4D reservoir characterization using well log data for feasible CO2-enhanced oil recovery at Ankleshwar, Cambay Basin - A rock physics diagnostic and modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Shib Sankar; Vedanti, Nimisha; Dimri, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, rock physics modeling has become an integral part of reservoir characterization as it provides the fundamental relationship between geophysical measurements and reservoir rock properties. These models are also used to quantify the effect of fluid saturation and stress on reservoir rocks by tracking the changes in elastic properties during production. Additionally, various rock physics models can be applied to obtain the information of rock properties away from existing drilled wells, which can play a crucial role in the feasibility assessment of CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operation at field. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a rock-physics model of the Ankleshwar reservoir to predict the reservoir response under CO2-EOR. The Ankleshwar oil field is a mature field situated in Cambay Basin (Western India) that witnessed massive peripheral water flooding for around 40 years. Since the field was under water flooding for a long term, reasonable changes in reservoir elastic properties might have occurred. To identify potential reservoir zone with significant bypassed (or residual) oil saturation, we applied the diagnostic rock physics models to two available wells from the Ankleshwar oil field. The results clearly indicate transitions from clean sands to shaly sands at the base, and from sandy shale to pure shale at the top of the reservoir pay zone, suggesting a different seismic response at the top when compared to the base of the reservoir in both the wells. We also found that clay content and sorting affects the elastic properties of these sands, indicating different depositional scenario for the oil sands encountered in the Ankleshwar formation. Nevertheless, the rock physics template (RPT) analysis of the well data provides valuable information about the residual oil zone, a potential target for CO2-EOR. Further, a 4D reservoir characterization study has been conducted to assess the seismic detectability of CO2-EOR, and we

  9. Temperature dependency of the silicon heterojunction lifetime model based on the amphoteric nature of dangling bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R.; Poli, I.; Deligiannis, D.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A. H. M.

    2016-11-01

    This work adapts a model to simulate the carrier injection dependent minority carrier lifetime of crystalline silicon passivated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon at elevated temperatures. Two existing models that respectively calculate the bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity are used and the full temperature dependency of these models are explored. After a thorough description of these temperature dependencies, experimental results using this model show that the minority carrier lifetime changes upon annealing of silicon heterojunction structures are not universal. Furthermore, comparisons of the temperature dependent model to using the room temperature model at elevated temperatures is given and significant differences are observed when using temperatures above 100 °C. This shows the necessity of taking temperature effects into account during in-situ annealing experiments.

  10. Fluid temperatures: Modeling the thermal regime of a river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Ashley Steel

    2017-01-01

    Water temperature drives the complex food web of a river network. Aquatic organisms hatch, feed, and reproduce in thermal niches within the tributaries and mainstem that comprise the river network. Changes in water temperature can synchronize or asynchronize the timing of their life stages throughout the year. The water temperature fluctuates over time and place,...

  11. Model fit versus biological relevance: Evaluating photosynthesis-temperature models for three tropical seagrass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew P.; Collier, Catherine J.; Uthicke, Sven; Ow, Yan X.; Langlois, Lucas; O’Brien, Katherine R.

    2017-01-01

    When several models can describe a biological process, the equation that best fits the data is typically considered the best. However, models are most useful when they also possess biologically-meaningful parameters. In particular, model parameters should be stable, physically interpretable, and transferable to other contexts, e.g. for direct indication of system state, or usage in other model types. As an example of implementing these recommended requirements for model parameters, we evaluated twelve published empirical models for temperature-dependent tropical seagrass photosynthesis, based on two criteria: (1) goodness of fit, and (2) how easily biologically-meaningful parameters can be obtained. All models were formulated in terms of parameters characterising the thermal optimum (Topt) for maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax). These parameters indicate the upper thermal limits of seagrass photosynthetic capacity, and hence can be used to assess the vulnerability of seagrass to temperature change. Our study exemplifies an approach to model selection which optimises the usefulness of empirical models for both modellers and ecologists alike.

  12. The application of well logging and seismic modeling to assess the degree of gas saturation in Miocene strata (Carpathian Foredeep, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Paweł; Niepsuj, Magdalena; Bała, Maria; Pietsch, Kaja

    2014-02-01

    The presence of natural gas in the pore space of reservoir rocks results in a significant decrease in P-wave velocity. Even low gas saturation can generate seismic anomalies (DHI) and false image of gas accumulation of economic importance. This article presents an attempt to evaluate gas saturation from 2D seismic section in the Miocene sandstone strata in the south-eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. The ESTYMACJA program and the Biot-Gassmann model were used to study the dependence between elastic parameters and saturating fluids (water and gas) recorded in wells. Series of calculations was carried out using a method of fluid substitution for various gas saturation. The applicability of seismic data for evaluating gas saturation of reservoir beds was assessed with the use of 1D modelling (synthetic seismograms) and 2D modelling (theoretical seismic section) calculated for different gas saturation. The proposed methodology can be used to identify low and high gas-saturated zones and contour the reservoir.

  13. Erroneous Arrhenius: modified arrhenius model best explains the temperature dependence of ectotherm fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Jennifer L; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2010-08-01

    The initial rise of fitness that occurs with increasing temperature is attributed to Arrhenius kinetics, in which rates of reaction increase exponentially with increasing temperature. Models based on Arrhenius typically assume single rate-limiting reactions over some physiological temperature range for which all the rate-limiting enzymes are in 100% active conformation. We test this assumption using data sets for microbes that have measurements of fitness (intrinsic rate of population growth) at many temperatures and over a broad temperature range and for diverse ectotherms that have measurements at fewer temperatures. When measurements are available at many temperatures, strictly Arrhenius kinetics are rejected over the physiological temperature range. However, over a narrower temperature range, we cannot reject strictly Arrhenius kinetics. The temperature range also affects estimates of the temperature dependence of fitness. These results indicate that Arrhenius kinetics only apply over a narrow range of temperatures for ectotherms, complicating attempts to identify general patterns of temperature dependence.

  14. Modeling of scalar dissipation rates in flamelet models for low temperature combustion engine simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Saurabh; Pal, Pinaki; Im, Hong G

    2014-01-01

    The flamelet approach offers a viable framework for combustion modeling of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines under stratified mixture conditions. Scalar dissipation rate acts as a key parameter in flamelet-based combustion models which connects the physical mixing space to the reactive space. The aim of this paper is to gain fundamental insights into turbulent mixing in low temperature combustion (LTC) engines and investigate the modeling of scalar dissipation rate. Three direct numerical simulation (DNS) test cases of two-dimensional turbulent auto-ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture with different correlations of temperature and mixture fraction are considered, which are representative of different ignition regimes. The existing models of mean and conditional scalar dissipation rates, and probability density functions (PDFs) of mixture fraction and total enthalpy are a priori validated against the DNS data.

  15. Discrimination of Natural Fractures Using Well Logging Curve Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongqi; Peng Shimi; Zhou Yongyi; Xue Yongchao

    2004-01-01

    It is very difficult to discriminate natural fractures using conventional well log data, especially for most of the matured oilfields in China, because the raw data were acquired with relatively obsolete tools. The raw data include only GR and SP curves, indicative of lithology, AC curves, used to calculate the porosity of the formation, and a set of logging curves from various electrode length resistivity by laterolog. On the other hand, these oilfields usually have a large amount of core data which directly display the characteristics of the formation, and enough information of injection and production. This paper describes an approach through which logging curves are calibrated in terms of the raw data, and then a prototype model of natural fractures is established based on the investigation of core data from 43 wells, totaling 4 000 m in length. A computer program has been developed according to this method. Through analysis and comparison of the features of logging curves, this paper proposes a new concept, the well logging curve unit. By strictly depicting its shape through mathematical methods, the natural facture can be discriminated. This work also suggests an equation to estimate the probability of fracture occurrence, and finally other fracture parameters are calculated using some experimental expressions. With this methodology, logging curves from 100 wells were interpreted, the results of which agree with core data and field information.

  16. Modeling of the jack rabbit series of experiments with a temperature based reactive burn model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The Jack Rabbit experiments, performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, focus on detonation wave corner turning and shock desensitization. Indeed, while important for safety or charge design, the behaviour of explosives in these regimes is poorly understood. In this paper, our temperature based reactive burn model is calibrated for LX-17 and compared to the Jack Rabbit data. It is shown that our model can reproduce the corner turning and shock desensitization behaviour of four out of the five experiments.

  17. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  18. LHCb: Universal Logging System for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Nikolaidis, F; Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N

    2010-01-01

    In a large-scale IT infrastructure such as the LHCb Online system many applications are running on thousands of machines producing many GBs of logs every day. Although most of the logs are just routine logs, some of them may indicate an attack, a malfunction or provide vital debugging information. Due to their volume only automatisation of the analysis of the logs can provide us with an efficient way to handle all of these logs, ensuring that even the most rare logs will be processed. We present a centralized logging system which allow us to do in-depth analysis of every log. The description of the architecture includes information from how we integrate logging from many devices to a centralized server using syslog and in particular how a correlation can indicate an attack. Special emphasis is given both to security monitoring as well as to the logs that indicate developing malfunctions. To secure our network we have deployed the most known of HIDS, NIDS , LIDS (Host , Network, Log intrusion detection). Each ...

  19. New method for prediction of shale gas content in continental shale formation using well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Zhe; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Shao, Yu; Liao, Wei; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    Shale needs to contain a sufficient amount of gas to make it viable for exploitation. The continental heterogeneous shale formation in the Yan-chang (YC) area is investigated by firstly measuring the shale gas content in a laboratory and then investigating use of a theoretical prediction model. Key factors controlling the shale gas content are determined, and a prediction model for free gas content is established according to the equation of gas state and a new petrophysical volume model. Application of the Langmuir volume constant and pressure constant obtained from results of adsorption isotherms is found to be limited because these constants are greatly affected by experimental temperature and pressures. Therefore, using measurements of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic theory, the influence of temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), and mineralogy on Langmuir volume constants and pressure constants are investigated in detail. A prediction model for the Langmuir pressure constant with a correction of temperatures is then established, and a prediction model for the Langmuir volume constant with correction of temperature, TOC, and quartz contents is also proposed. Using these corrected Langmuir constants, application of the Langmuir model determined using experimental adsorption isotherms is extrapolated to reservoir temperature, pressure, and lithological conditions, and a method for the prediction of shale gas content using well logs is established. Finally, this method is successfully applied to predict the shale gas content of the continental shale formation in the YC area, and practical application is shown to deliver good results with high precision.

  20. Adoption of projected mortality table for the Slovenian market using the Poisson log-bilinear model to test the minimum standard for valuing life annuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Medved

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of Solvency II a consistent market approach to the valuation of insurance assets and liabilities is required. For the best estimate of life annuity provisions one should estimate the longevity risk of the insured population in Slovenia. In this paper the current minimum standard in Slovenia for calculating pension annuities is tested using the Lee-Carter model. In particular, the mortality of the Slovenian population is projected using the best fit from the stochastic mortality projections method. The projected mortality statistics are then corrected with the selection effect and compared with the current minimum standard.

  1. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  2. Application of High Temperature Caliper-gamma-CCL Logging Tools to Jidong Oilfield%高温井径伽马磁定位组合测井仪在冀东油田的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大鹏

    2016-01-01

    The multi-arm caliper imaging logging tool is used to evaluate the casing damage, detect the quality of the perforation and the cas-ing. Since the two-time lifting and lowering of the tool can increase the intensity of labor, a type of gamma-CCL tool is designed to be com-bined with multi-arm caliper instrument. Hence one-time lowering of the tool could complete the extraction of well diameter, gamma and CCL signal. After the completion of the instrument, field experiments are carried out in Daqing oil field. It has been proved that the instru-ment can work stably and reliably under 150 /80MPa. The production taskes of 10 wells in Jidong oilfield show the new instrument can ac-curately measure the casing corrosion and deformation degree. It can provide detailed and reliable basis for monitoring casing conditions and prolonging the service life of the oil wells.%多臂井径成像测井仪是用来评价套损、检测射孔质量和检测套管状况的仪器。两次起下仪器增加劳动强度,设计一种伽马磁定位仪器,组合多臂井径仪器,一次下井完成井径、伽马和磁定位信号的录取。仪器研制完成后,在大庆油田进行了现场试验,仪器能在150℃/80 MPa下稳定、可靠地工作。在冀东油田完成10口井的生产任务,能准确地测量套管腐蚀变形程度。该仪器能为监测套管的状况,延长油水井的使用寿命,提供详实可靠的资料。

  3. Log-ω-hyponormal Operators%Log-ω亚正规算子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张敏

    2008-01-01

    Let T be an operator on a separable Hilbert space H and T=U|T|bethe polaf decomposition.T is said to be log-ω-hyponormal if log|T|≥log|T|≥log|(T)*|In this paper we prove that the point spectrum of T is equal to its joint point spectrum if T is log-ω-hyponormal.We also prove that a log-ω-hyponormal operator is normaloid,i.e.,r(T)=‖T‖.Finally,we obtain Putnam's theorem for log-ω-hyponormal Operators.

  4. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  5. Improving the temperature predictions of subsurface thermal models by using high-quality input data. Part 2: A case study from the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We present a 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyse the present-day conductive thermal field of the Danish-German border region. The model region covers the northernmost part of the North German Basin, a transition zone between the deep-reaching sedimentary rocks of the Glückstadt...... distribution of rock thermal conductivity across the study area, and to calculate heat flow values. New values of terrestrial surface heat flow are reported for eight deep boreholes in the North German Basin ranging from 72 to 84 mW/m2 with a mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m2. The values are computed from continuous...... temperature logs, carefully corrected BHT values, drill-stem tests and well-log derived rock thermal properties (thermal conductivity, radiogenic heat production) and were included in the setup of the numerical lower boundary conditions. New surface heat flow is up to 20 mW/m2 higher than low values reported...

  6. Road to room-temperature superconductivity: A universal model

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In a semiclassical view superconductivity is attributed exclusively to the advance of atoms' outer s electrons through the nuclei of neighbor atoms in a solid. The necessary progression of holes in the opposite direction has the electric and magnetic effect as if two electrons were advancing instead of each actual one. Superconductivity ceases when the associated lateral oscillation of the outer s electrons extends between neighbor atoms. If such overswing occurs already at T = 0, then the material is a normal conductor. Otherwise, lateral overswing can be caused by lattice vibrations at a critical temperature Tc or by a critical magnetic field Bc. Lateral electron oscillations are reduced - and Tc is increased - when the atoms of the outer s electrons are squeezed, be it in the bulk crystal, in a thin film, or under external pressure on the sample. The model is applied to alkali metals and alkali-doped fullerenes. Aluminum serves as an example of a simple metal with superconductivity. Application of the mode...

  7. Effect of irradiation temperature in PWR RPV materials and its inclusion in semi-mechanistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debarberis, L. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Acosta, B. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: beatriz.acosta-iborra@jrc.nl; Zeman, A. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sevini, F. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ballesteros, A. [Tecnatom, Avd. Montes de Oca 1, San Sebasitan de los Reyes, E-28709 Madrid (Spain); Kryukov, A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gillemot, F. [AEKI Atomic Research Institute, Konkoly Thege M. ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Brumovsky, M. [NRI, Nuclear Research Institute, Husinec, Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2005-09-15

    The irradiation temperature is a very important parameter in radiation damage kinetics. In this article the challenge of including temperature into a general semi-mechanistic model for radiation embrittlement is presented. In this manner the model allows data obtained at different temperatures, both in surveillance programmes and in research reactors, to be understood.

  8. An analysis of the numerical model influence on the ground temperature profile determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczur, Marek; Polepszyc, Inga; Sapińska-Śliwa, Aneta; Gonet, Andrzej

    2017-02-01

    The estimation of the ground temperature profile with respect to the depth and time is the key issue in many engineering applications which use the ground as a source of thermal energy. In the present work, the influence of the model components on the calculated ground temperature distribution has been analysed in order to develop an accurate and robust model for the prediction of the ground temperature profile. The presented mathematical model takes into account all the key phenomena occurring in the soil and on its top surface. The impact of individual model elements on the temperature of the soil has been analysed. It has been found that the simplest models and the most complex model result in a similar temperature variation over the simulation period, but only at a low depth. A detailed analysis shows that a larger depth requires more complex models and the calculation with the use of simple models results in an incorrect temperature and a theoretical COP estimation.

  9. SWMM Model Based on Cangzhou City Water Logging%基于SWMM模型的沧州市城区内涝研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯书仓

    2016-01-01

    城市化水平的提高,使得人口、财产愈加集中,城区范围大幅扩张,不透水面积和比例越来越高,导致生活污水量加大,且同等降雨量情况下的灾害损失更加严重,城市除涝减灾成为城市化进程中必须予以重视的问题。通过对沧州市城区部分已有降雨和积水监测资料的分析,调试率定相关参数,建立SWMM模型。经对另外其他暴雨场次的模拟,验证所建模型具备较好的效果。进而演算出沧州市城区不同设计暴雨标准下的各积水点及相关情况,为今后沧州市加强城区暴雨积水预警预报系统的建设和应用,为城市规划设计、建设和健康发展提供部分科学依据。%To improve the level of urbanization, making the population, property increasingly con-centrated, substantial expansion of the city limits, and the increasing proportion of impervious area, resulting in increased volume of sewage, and the same disaster losses in case of a more severe rain-fall, the city waterlogging disaster reduction becomes a problem that must be seriously urbanization process . Cangzhou City through some of the existing rainfall and water monitoring data analysis, de-bugging calibration parameters to establish SWMM model . Other screenings for another storm was simulated to verify that the model has a good effect . Further calculations point out the various differ-ent design storm water standards and related Cangzhou City , the water warning system construction and application , as part of urban planning designed to provide a scientific basis for the future strengthening of urban storm Cangzhou City , construction and health development.

  10. Modelagem de redes logísticas com custos de inventário calculados a partir da cobertura de estoque Logistic networks modeling with inventory carrying costs calculated using inventory turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hamad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A consideração dos custos de inventário tem se tornado cada vez mais importante na análise dos trade-offs e na tomada de decisões sobre redes logísticas. O artigo propõe uma metodologia para tratamento do custo de inventário a partir da cobertura de estoque esperada em cada instalação, incorporada na modelagem matemática da localização de fábricas e/ou centros de distribuição em redes logísticas com vários elos, representando uma nova versão do modelo apresentado em Hamad e Gualda (2008. As principais contribuições desta metodologia em relação a outros métodos encontrados na literatura são a facilidade de aplicação do método, a inclusão de restrições ligadas à capacidade de armazenagem e a consideração do custo total de inventário, e não apenas do custo relacionado aos produtos modelados.Inventory carrying cost has become very important in the analysis of the trade-offs and an important component to be considered when taking decisions about a logistic network. This paper proposes a methodology incorporated in a multi-echelon sourcing decision model, to be considered as a new version of the model presented in Hamad, Gualda (2008. It treats the carrying costs using the inventory Days-on-hand estimate in each echelon of the chain (plants and/or Distribution Centers. The main contributions of this methodology compared to other options found in the literature are the simplicity of its application, the consideration of all inventory costs (not only the ones related to the products being modeled and, also, the inclusion of constraints related to warehousing capacity.

  11. logR-logT Figure and Unknown Solar System Planets%logR-logT图与太阳系未知行星

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彩娟; 王小波; 韦鸿铭

    2011-01-01

    Using logR-logT figure to research the planet-satellite system in Solar system, the moving of satellites are in accordance with the Kepler's Third Law, And there is a relationship between the mass of central celestial body and the straight line distances. The logR-logT figure of the unknown planet-satellite system, Mercury-satellite and Venus-satellite are described, we speculated the mass and the period of the unknown planet, the location and the period of the satellites of Mercury or Venus.%利用log-logT图研究太阳系的行星卫星系统,得出八大行星卫星系统都符合开普勒第三定律,推导出行星卫星系统logR-logT图线截距与中心天体质量的关系;通过描绘未知行星卫星系统、水星卫星系统和金星卫星系统的logR-logT图线,推测未知行星的质量和公转周期,以及水星和金星的未知卫星可能存在的位置与周期.

  12. Glass Transition Temperature- and Specific Volume- Composition Models for Tellurite Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report provides models for predicting composition-properties for tellurite glasses, namely specific gravity and glass transition temperature. Included are the partial specific coefficients for each model, the component validity ranges, and model fit parameters.

  13. Spatial Statistical Network Models for Stream and River Temperature in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional temperature models are needed for characterizing and mapping stream thermal regimes, establishing reference conditions, predicting future impacts and identifying critical thermal refugia. Spatial statistical models have been developed to improve regression modeling techn...

  14. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neill, K.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59 °C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C · decade-1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d · decade-1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (~ 0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (~ 0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  15. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  16. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Letcher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C, identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1 and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1. We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data. Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE, but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  17. Mining workflow processes from distributed workflow enactment event logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanghoon Pio Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Workflow management systems help to execute, monitor and manage work process flow and execution. These systems, as they are executing, keep a record of who does what and when (e.g. log of events. The activity of using computer software to examine these records, and deriving various structural data results is called workflow mining. The workflow mining activity, in general, needs to encompass behavioral (process/control-flow, social, informational (data-flow, and organizational perspectives; as well as other perspectives, because workflow systems are "people systems" that must be designed, deployed, and understood within their social and organizational contexts. This paper particularly focuses on mining the behavioral aspect of workflows from XML-based workflow enactment event logs, which are vertically (semantic-driven distribution or horizontally (syntactic-driven distribution distributed over the networked workflow enactment components. That is, this paper proposes distributed workflow mining approaches that are able to rediscover ICN-based structured workflow process models through incrementally amalgamating a series of vertically or horizontally fragmented temporal workcases. And each of the approaches consists of a temporal fragment discovery algorithm, which is able to discover a set of temporal fragment models from the fragmented workflow enactment event logs, and a workflow process mining algorithm which rediscovers a structured workflow process model from the discovered temporal fragment models. Where, the temporal fragment model represents the concrete model of the XML-based distributed workflow fragment events log.

  18. Rain follows logging in the Amazon? Results from CAM3-CLM3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Rui; Wang, Guiling [University of Connecticut, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The impact of logging on precipitation in the Amazon region is investigated based on numerical experiments using the community atmosphere model version 3 coupled with the community land surface model version 3 (CAM3-CLM3). Three different representations of logging are examined, ranging from selective logging, to partial deforestation, to clear cut. Precipitation increases in response to modest selective logging, and decreases as the severity of logging progresses to partial deforestation and clear cut. Further experiments indicate that the increase of precipitation is mostly due to the decrease of surface albedo following selective logging, resulting from a low contrast between bare soil albedo and vegetation optical properties (i.e., leaf reflectance) in CLM3. This study demonstrates the complexity of representing land cover changes in climate models, and underlines the importance of accuracy in albedo measurement from satellite remote sensing. (orig.)

  19. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......" and face logs show a sub-horizontally layered structure, with alternate extremely weak to extremely strong beds of variable thickness. The rhythmicity is thought to be climatically controlled. Stronger beds represent reduced sedimentation rate related to climatic deterioration while weaker beds result from...

  20. 蒙古族人群吸烟与高血压的对数线性模型分析%Log-Linear Model Analyzing the Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking Risk Factors and Hypertension in Mongolian People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏林; 佟伟军; 林哲; 张永红

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解不同年龄、不同性别的蒙古族人群吸烟对高血压的影响.方法 采用对数线性模型的方法对各因素的主效应和交互效应进行分析.结果 男性青年组血压仅与吸烟年限有关(P<0.05),男性中年组血压与吸烟量有关(P<0.05),男性老年组血压与吸烟各指标均无关联.女性青年组血压与吸烟年限有关(P<0.05),女性中年组和女性老年组血压与吸烟各指标均无关联(P>0.05).结论 蒙古族人群高血压研究中预防吸烟的重点是青年;吸烟研究中尽量使用吸烟量和吸烟年限指标;对数线性模型方法是分析高维列联表交互效应的理想方法.%Objective To explore on risk factors between cigarette smoking and hypertension in Mongolian people. Methods Log-linear model method was used to analyze the main effects of various factors and interaction. Results In the young male group blood pressure associated only with years of smoking( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion In the study of hypertension in Mongolian prevention focuses on smoking in youth; in smoking research indicators of smoking and years of smoking are taken to be used mostly; log-linear model is used as an ideal way to analyze interactive effect in the high-dimensional contingency table.