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Sample records for models swiss albino

  1. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  2. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

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    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  3. Prenatal desvenlafaxine induced behavioural alterations in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Amrita; Singh, Mandavi; Trigunayat, Anshuman; Mishra, Anand; Shrestha, Shamsher; Shrestha, Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Background Desvenlafaxine is used as an antidepressant and acts by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin and nor-adrenaline. Purpose The safety profile of desvenlafaxine has not yet been established during pregnancy, so we planned this study to see the behavioral changes in pups of mice who received desvenlafaxine during gestational period. Methods Swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The treated group was given desvenlafaxine orally in the dose of 80 mg/kg from 1st to 6th day of ges...

  4. Histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on Swiss albino mice spermatogenesis

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    S Viveka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spermatogenesis is a highly conserved and regulated process and it is sensitive to fluctuations in the physical and chemical environment. Gemcitabine is a novel antimetabolic anticancer drug used frequently in the treatment of many cancers. This study aimed to investigate the histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on spermatogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Gemcitabine in high and low doses (80 and 40 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally to inbred Swiss albino mice. Gross testicular features and seminiferous tubular histomorphometry was studies at the end of 7 th , 14 th day and at 2 months sperm shape abnormalities were studied. Results: Seminiferous tubular morphology was altered significantly, showing a reduction in height, perimeter and area in a dose dependent manner. Sertoli cell number decreased. Basement membrane thickness was reduced and it appeared to be permanent, with statistically insignificant changes even after 2 months. There was a reduction of intertubular spaces. Sperms have shown banana heading, decapitation and loss of normal hook of head. The effects were partially reversible at the end of 2 months. Conclusion: It was concluded that gemcitabine affects the process of spermatogenesis adversely in a dose and time dependent manner and the effects are partially reversible.

  5. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  6. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

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    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  7. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

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    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  8. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  9. EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE ON THE KIDNEY AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    MARIA STUTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of potassium bromate toxicity on histological,haematological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. Mice were orally administered with potassiumbromate at the rate of 150 mg/kg body weight daily in a single dose for 30, 60 and 120 days. The chemicalsignificantly reduced the RBC count (p<0.01 Hb% (p<0.01 and platelet count (p<0.01, while it increasedsignificantly the urea (p<0.01 and creatinine level (p<0.01 and decreased total protein and Albumin (p<0.01Histopathological examination showed degenerative changes of tubular cells, cytoplasma vacuolation, cellularinfiltration, tubular dilation with eosinophilic debris and clear cell cytoplasm were observed. These findingssuggest that KBrO3 affects the physiological and biochemical activities of Swiss albino mice

  10. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS

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    Thoudam Bhaigyabati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

  11. Studies on Antitumor Activity of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Devbhuti D1,*; Gupta JK; Devbhuti P*,1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antitumor effect of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. (Family: Crassulaceae) against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice. The effect of methanol and aqueous extracts of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. on tumor growth was studied by the following parameters: percentage inhibition of ascetic cells and percentage inhibition of tumor weight. Methanol and aqueous extracts were administered at doses of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg body weight...

  12. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  13. Ethambutol induces testicular damage and decreases the sperm functional competence in Swiss albino mice.

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    Rao, Arpitha; Nayak, Guruprasad; Kumari, Sandhya; Prabhu, Amratha D; Khandige, Nalini; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study reports the effect of ethambutol (EMB) on testicular function. Prepubertal and adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with 40, 80, 160mg/kg body weight of EMB, intraperitoneally, every alternate day for 4 weeks. After 2 weeks gap, mice were sacrificed to collect caudal spermatozoa. EMB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the testicular weight, sperm count and motility while the percentage of sperm with head abnormalities, immature chromatin (Pglutathione (Ptesticular function and impairs the sperm functional competence.

  14. EFFECT OF IMIDACLOPRID ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF KIDNEYS IN MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    M. NAGA PRASANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.

  15. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

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    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  16. ANTIFERTILITY STUDIES ON ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS L ON SWISS MALE ALBINO MICE

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    Sayeed Mohammed Abu et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress possibilities on males are still slow and limited. With recent progress towards a better understanding of male reproductive physiology there is needed to develop new contraceptive modalities for male. Abrus precatorius is one of the folk medicinal plants widely used as an antifertility agent in varius places of south Asian countries including Chittagong region of Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifertility activity of abrus precarious seed extract intraperitonially administered in adult swiss male albino mice. The intraperitonial administration of 40, 80 and 80 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius shown a highly antifertility activity which done for two months. The lower concentrations (40 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius gave temporarily antifertility activity. But the higher dose (80 mg/kg body weight gave relatively more permanent antifertility activity on swiss albino mice compare with the control.

  17. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

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    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  18. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

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    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  19. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

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    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  20. Cyathula prostrata:A potent source of anticancer agent against daltons ascites in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya K; Krishnakumari S; Vijayakumar M

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata inEhrlich ascites carcinoma(EAC)-bearing mice with methotrexate as positive control in the advanced stage of tumorigenesis.Methods:EAC was induced in swiss albino mice by injecting 106 cell/mL of tumor cell suspension intraperitoneal.The methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata effect on the tumor cell viability,DNA fragmentation andMTT assay were carried out.Results:Methanolic extract attenuated percentage increased in the cell survival time when compared to control group.However, the effect was less than that of methotrexat.Methotrexat and the extracts reversed the tumor-induced alterations inDNA fragmentation andMTT assay.Conclusions:The present study suggests that the methanol extract ofCyathula prostratahas significant anticancer activity and that is comparableto that of methotrexate.

  1. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

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    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health.

  2. Modulation of radiation-induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia Asiatica.

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    Sisodia, Rashmi; Ahaskar, Muktika; Sharma, K V; Singh, Smita

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluates the possible radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, vitamin C, etc.) pulp extract (GAE) on cerebrum of Swiss albino mice exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation. For this, healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into four groups: (1) Control (vehicle treated) (2) GAE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with GAE (700 m/kg. b.w./day) once daily for fifteen consecutive days, (3) Vehicle treated irradiated mice, and (4) GAE + Irradiated - Mice in this group received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE (700 m/kg. b.w/day) for fifteen days consecutively. Mice were sacrificed at various intervals viz. 1-30 days. Radiation-induced augmentation in the levels of lipid peroxidation of mice cerebrum was significantly ameliorated by GAE pretreatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of glutathione and protein was prevented significantly by GAE administration.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANXIOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT HYPERICUM HOOKERIANUM IN STRESS INDUCED SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    S.Subakanmani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is evaluate to Anxiolytic profile of Hypericum hookerianum in stress induced Swiss albino mice. The study was carried out using Swiss albino mice (25- 30 g. The Anxiolytic effect of aerial parts of ethanolic extract of Hypericum hookerianum was evaluated by using behavioral analysis like Elevated plus maze (EPM test, Open Field Test (OFT, Hole Board Test (HBT, Light dark exploration Test (LDE in restraint stress induced animals. Behavioral test parameters for anxiety were assessed followed by biochemical parameters (lipid per oxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione per oxidase, reduced glutathione, etc. and Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard Anxiolytic drug, administered intraperitonealy. The results were shown that, ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum (Hh 100mg/kg and Hh 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in lipid per oxidation, depletion of super oxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and glutathione per oxidase in stress induced animals as compared to unstressed animal. Six days treatment of Hh (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg comparable with Diazepam, significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral and oxidative damage. The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum may possess Anxiolytic activity in stressed animals and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

  4. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

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    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  5. Acute, 28days sub acute and genotoxic profiling of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice.

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    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Sandur, Rajendra; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Roy, Souvik; Janadri, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin-Magnesium complex is one of the youngest alkaline rare earth metal (Magnesium) complexes with flavonoids (Quercetin) in organo-metalic family. Earlier studies describe the details of the complex formation, characterization and antioxidant study of the complex but toxicity profile is still under darkness. The present study was taken up to investigate the oral acute toxicity, 28days repeated oral sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice. Quercetin-Magnesium complex showed mortality at a dose of 185mg/kg in the Swiss albino mice. In 28days repeated oral toxicity study, Quercetin-Magnesium complex was administered to both sex of Swiss albino mice at dose levels of 150, 130 and 100mg/kg body weight respectively. Where 150mg/kg dose shows increased levels of white blood cells and changes in total protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histopathological study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex shows minor structural alteration in kidney at 150mg/kg dose. No observed toxic level found in 130mg/kg or below doses. No genotoxic effect found in any doses of the complex. Therefore 130mg/kg or below dose level could be better for further study.

  6. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

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    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  7. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

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    Shivi Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.

  8. Vetiver oil (Java) attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Chatterji, Urmi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2015-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of the widely used anticancer drug cisplatin is limited due to its adverse side effects in normal tissues mediated by oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of vetiver acetate oil, Java (VO) against cisplatin-induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. The ameliorating potential was evaluated by orally priming the animals with VO at doses 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg bw for 7 days prior to cisplatin treatment. Acute toxicity in mice was induced by injecting cisplatin (3 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Significant attenuation of renal toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, lowered levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and reduced DNA damage. VO also compensated deficits in the renal antioxidant system. VO intervention significantly inhibited DNA damage, clastogenic effects, and cell cycle arrest in the bone marrow cells of mice. Hematological parameters indicated attenuation of cisplatin-induced myelosuppression. Overall, this study provides for the first time that VO has a protective role in the abatement of cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice which may be attributed to its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

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    Sahdeo Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine, C3H8NO5P, a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs and micronuclei (MN in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(apyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only, whereas, animals of control (vehicle group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P<.05. The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI. The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow.

  10. Potent chemopreventive effect of mangiferin on lung carcinogenesis in experimental Swiss albino mice

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    Peramaiyan Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: In the present study the effects of mangiferin were tested against lung cancer-bearing mice in both the pre-initiation and post-initiation periods. Materials and Methods: Healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old were used throughout the study. The animals were treated with mangiferin (100 mg/kg body weight dissolved in corn oil two weeks before (pre-initiation and the twelfth week after (post-initiation the establishment of B (a P (50 mg/kg body weight-induced lung carcinoma. Results: The body weight decreased and the lung weight and levels of xenobiotic and liver marker enzymes markedly increased in the carcinogen-administered animals; and mangiferin treatment brought the values of these parameters back to the near-normal ones. The activities of lysosomal enzymes in the animals with B (a P-induced experimental lung carcinogenesis were also assessed. In these animals there was an increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes such as acidphosphatase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and β-galactosidase. Conclusion: Supplementation with mangiferin attenuated all these alterations, thus indicating its anticancer effect. Overall, the above data showed that the anticancer effect of mangiferin as a chemopreventive agent was pronounced.

  11. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Kalra, Neetu; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-03-01

    To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight) consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of lupeol and mango pulp extract of carcinogen induced alteration in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Kalra, Neetu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2007-03-01

    Lupeol, a triterpene present in mango and other fruits, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antilithiatic, and antidiabetic effects. In the present study, chemopreventive properties of lupeol and mango pulp extract (MPE) were evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced alteration in liver of Swiss albino mice. Lupeol (25 mg/kg body weight, bw) or 1 mL of 20% w/v aqueous MPE/mouse were daily given once for 1 wk after a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg bw). Lupeol/MPE supplementation effectively influenced the DMBA induced oxidative stress, characterized by restored antioxidant enzyme activities and decrease in lipid peroxidation. A reduction of apoptotic cell population in the hypodiploid region was observed in lupeol and MPE supplemented animals. The inhibition of apoptosis was preceded by decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and restoration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential followed by decreased DNA fragmentation. In DMBA treated animals, downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulation of proapoptotic Bax and Caspase 3 in mouse liver was observed. These alterations were restored by lupeol/MPE, indicating inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, lupeol/MPE was found to be effective in combating oxidative stress induced cellular injury of mouse liver by modulating cell-growth regulators.

  13. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

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    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  14. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahdeo Prasad; Neetu Kalra; Madhulika Singh; Yogeshwer Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Methods: Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight)consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase,glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). Results: In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  15. In vivo anticancer activity of vanillin, benzophenone and acetophenone thiosemicarbazones on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Md. Shahan Shahriar; Shaikh M Mohsin Ali; Mele Jesmin; Md. Khairul Islam; Sarozit Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the anticancer activities of three schiff bases viz. vanillin thiosemicarbazone, benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and acetophenone thiosemicarbazone against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Synthesized compounds have administrated into the intraperitoneal cavity of the EAC inoculated mice at two doses. The anticancer activities have studied by monitoring the parameters such as cell growth inhibition, tumor weight measurement, survival time of EAC bearing mice as well as the changes in depleted hematological parameters due to tumorgenesis. All such data have been compared with those of a known standard drug bleomycin at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.).Results:It has been found that these bases enhanced life span, reduced average tumor weight and inhibited tumor cell growth of EAC cell bearing mice remarkably. The results were similar in potency to those obtained with bleomycin. It was also found that the depleted hematological parameters (red blood count, white blood count and haemoglobin content) were found to be restored gradually towards normal within few weeks after ceasing the treatment.Conclusions:The compounds can be primarily considered more or less as potent anticancer agents.

  16. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  17. Effect of Camel's Milk on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Mohamed M.E. Afifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nephrotoxicity is a major complication and a dose limiting factor for cisplatin therapy. Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity is remarkably documented by reactive oxygen species. Camel's milk has good nutritive value, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of camel's milk against Cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress in mice. Approach: Forty mal Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10. Group I, control group. Group II was received cisplatin (12 mg kg-1 for 5 alternate days. Group III was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days. Group IV was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days before administration of Cisplatin. Results: Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased level of tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, serum creatinine and urea, decreased the concentration of reduced Glutathione (GSH, Vitamin C (Vit. C and Vitamin E (Vit. E and decreased both activities and gene expression of Superoxid Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione Raductase (GR and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Camel's milk reduced these biochemical changes and counteracted the deleterious effects of cisplatin Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the renoprotective potential of camel's milk against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in mice. Hence, camel's milk has a potential to be used as therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

  18. Post treatment effect of Grewia asiatica against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Sharma, K V; Ahaskar, Muktika

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of nuclear radiation for human welfare necessitates the search for new, safe, and cost-effective radioprotectors not only for the personnel charged with the responsibility of testing or working with radiation in laboratories, but also for the general public. With this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE). It is reported to have a high content of antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanin, folate carotenoids, etc. that may play a possible role in radioprotection. In the present investigation, healthy Swiss albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) only GAE treated (700 mg/Kg. body wt./day for 15 consecutive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (iv) irradiated + GAE treated. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals posttreatment, viz., 1-30 days. Blood was collected and liver was removed for various biochemical estimations, viz., glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation. The results indicated that GAE posttreatment protects liver and blood against radiation-induced damage by inhibiting glutathione depletion and ameliorating lipid peroxidation levels that attended normal levels by day 30 posttreatment. Moreover, the magnitude of recovery from oxidative damage in terms of TBARS and GSH content was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the irradiated + GAE-treated group.

  19. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Abu Osman; M Mamunur Rashid; M Abdul Aziz; M Rowshahul Habib; M Rezaul karim

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods: The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity.

  20. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

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    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  2. Further antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of cym-bopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) against plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DV Dapper; IMSiminialayi; OO Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf)is a popular alternative to western medicines for a number of condi-tions,including fevers,muscle soreness and superficial infections in Nigeria.In addition to its already reported suppressive effects against P.berghei infection,this study sought to determine its repository and blood schizon-ticidal activities in established P.berghei infection using Swiss albino mice as models.Mice weighing on aver-age,between 15 and 25g were given 103mg/kg,155mg/kg and 310mg/kg/day of the crude aqueous extract of cymbopogon citratus stapf,in the 4-day test,24-hour Rane test and 72-hour Rane test.The effects of these do-ses of the extract were then compared with chloroquine (5mg/kg/day)and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine (3mg/kg/day).We report an average percentage suppressive repository activity of 65.8% for the extract at a dose of 310mg/kg and a blood schizonticidal activity that increased from 68.33% in the 24-hour Rane test to 92% in the 72-hour Rane test for the same dose of extract.The crude aqueous extract of C.citratus stapf thus has significant repository and blood schizonticidal activities against established P.berghei infection in Swiss al-bino mice compare to that of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine respectively.

  3. ANTIMUTAGENIC EFFECT OF TRIPHALA ON CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

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    Thomas Amrutha Merin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Triphala is a herbal formula used in the ancient Science of Ayurveda. Triphala, a composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis, has been used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of many malaises such as heart ailment and hepatic disease. The present set of investigation is designed to evaluate the antimutagenic potential of aqueous extract of Triphala using in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide(CP, a well known mutagen was given by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 40mg/kg body weight. Triphala was given at the dose of 125,250 and 500mg/kg body weight orally for seven consecutive days prior to Cyclophosphamide treatment. The animals were sacrificed at the sampling time of 24hrs after treatment and their bone marrow tissues were analysed for chromosomal damage and mitotic index. In Cyclophosphamide treated animals, a significant induction of chromosomal aberration was recorded with decrease in mitotic index. However, in Triphala supplemented animals, no significant induction in chromosomal damage or change in mitotic index was recorded. In different Triphala supplemented groups, a dose dependent significant decrease in Cyclophosphsmide induced clastogenicity was recorded. The incidence of aberrant cell was found to be reduced by the doses of Triphala when compared to Cyclophosphamide treated group. The study revealed the antimutagenic potential of Triphala against Cyclophosphamide induced chromosomal mutations. Analysis of the individual constituents of Triphala is shown to be rich in tannins as well as other chemical agents like carbohydrates, saponins, gallic acid, ellagic acids. Presence of these active principles in Triphala is likely to make it an effective antimutagenic agent.

  4. Antitumor activity of Aponogeton undulatus against Ehrilich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Reyazul Islam; Md BadrulAlam; UmmeTamima; Shayla Islam Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antitumor activity of the crude methanolic extract of Aponogeton undulatus (MAU) along with its various organic fractions. Methods:Aponogeton undulatus leaves were successively extracted using methanol (MAU) and then fractionated by chloroform, ethyl acetate (EAU) and water. The total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous reducing power assessment were used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and its organic fractions. The in vivo antitumor activity is evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell bearing in Swiss albino mice. Results:EAU showed the highest antioxidant capacity as (175.80±0.41) mg/g, IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was (38.84±0.02)μg/mL and also exhibited maximum lipid peroxidation inhibition activity with the IC50 value of (42.52±0.32)μg/mL than other fractions. The results demonstrate that reducing power of the extract was concentration dependent. In addition, EAU was administered at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively to EAC cell bearing mice and a significant (P<0.05) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and also increased the life span (17.52%, 42.53%and 62.05%). Hematological profiles were restored to normal levels in MAU treated mice as compared to EAC control mice. Conclusions:The results were found to be significant and confirmed that the Aponogeton undulatus has remarkable antitumor activity with antioxidant potential.

  5. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  6. Potential of Pandanus odoratissimus as a CNS depressant in Swiss albino mice

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    Sama Raju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several neuropharmacological effects of methanolic leaf extract of Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (family; Pandanaceae were studied in albino mice using various experimental models. The effect of PO on the CNS was studied by using different neuropharmacological paradigms including spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance and potentiation of Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation and acute toxicity studies were also carried out where LD50 >2000 mg/kg was considered non-toxic through acute exposure in rats by the oral route. The methanolic leaf extract (50,100 and 200 mg/kg i. p. produced a reduction in spontaneous motor activity, motor coordination and prolonged Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time. Preliminary qualitative chemical studies indicated the presence of steroids, saponins, terpinoids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and phenolics in the extract. These observations suggest that the leaf of Pandanus odoratissimus contains some active principles which possess potential CNS-depressant actionEstudaram-se alguns efeitos neurofarmacológicos do extrato metanólico de Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (família Pandanaceae em camundongos albinos, usando vários modelos experimentais. O efeito do PO no SNC foi estudado por meio de diferentes paradigmas neurofarmacológicos, como atividade motora espontânea, desempenho na haste rotatória e a potenciação do tempo de sono em camundongos albinos pelo pentobarbital sódico. A avaliação fitoquímica preliminar e os estudos de toxicidade aguda foram realizados e a DL50 >2000 mg/kg é considerada não tóxica, por meio da exposição aguda, por via oral, em ratos. O extrato metanólico de folha (50,100 e 200 mg/kg i. p. produziu redução da atividade motora espontânea, da coordenação motora e tempo prolongado de sono pelo pentobarbital sódico. Estudos químicos qualitativos preliminares indicaram a presença de esteróide, saponinas

  7. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  8. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  9. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhadul Islam; Hasina Khatun; Soby Ghosh; MM Ali; JA Khanam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results: EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions: The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches.

  10. Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

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    Pavan Kumar Samudrala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. Conclusion: From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.

  11. Model of experimental infection in healthy and immunosuppressed swiss albino mice (Mus musculus using Candida albicans strains with different patterns of enzymatic activity Modelo de infecção experimental em camundongos albino swiss (Mus musculus sadios e imunossuprimidos utilizando cepas de Candida albicans com diferentes padrões de atividade enzimática

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    Guilherme M. Chaves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate Candida albicans virulence in vivo, two strains selected were based on their phospholipase and proteinase activity, and used in a model of experimental infection. One strain, isolated from vaginal secretion, was stocked at the URM Culture Collection for 43 years and presented high phospholipase (Pz=0.217 and proteinase (1.386 U.mL-1 activity. The other strain was a fresh strain isolated from oropharyngeal secretion of an AIDS patient, and presented low phospholipase (Pz=0.482 and proteinase (0.780 U.mL-1 activity. The strains were inoculated via intraperitoneum in immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed mice (Mus musculus and the infection was evaluated over a period of 21 days. Liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys were aseptically removed and the blood of the animals was collected every 72 h. The number of colony forming units (c.f.u isolated from each organ was counted and a histopathologic examination was performed. The freshly isolated strain was more virulent than the stocked strain, as shown by the number of positive cultures and severity of the lesions observed at the histopathologic examination. A correlation between the in vitro enzymatic activity and the in vivo virulence was not observed.Com o objetivo de avaliar a virulência de Candida albicans in vivo, foram selecionadas duas cepas de acordo com a atividade enzimática de fosfolipase e protease, para utilização em modelo de infecção experimental. Utilizou-se um isolado de secreção vaginal, estocado na Micoteca URM por 43 anos com alta atividade de fosfolipase (Pz=0.217 e de protease (1.386 U.mL-1, e outro recém-isolado de secreção orofaríngea de paciente com AIDS, o qual apresentou baixa atividade de fosfolipase (Pz=0.482 e de protease (0.780 U.mL-1. As amostras foram inoculadas por via intra-peritoneal em camundongos (Mus musculus na presença e ausência de imunossupressão e a infecção foi avaliada durante 21 dias. A cada 72 h foram

  12. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

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    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  14. Chemomodulatory effects ofIchnocarpus frutescens R. Br against 4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer in swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangarajan Starlin; Perumal Sathiyanathan; Chinthamony Arul Raj; Paramasivam Ragavendran; Balasubramanian Vidya; Martin Sunitha

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the protective effect ofIchnocarpus frutescens(I. frutescens)R.Br against 4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer inSwiss albino mice.Method:The ovarian cancer was induced by4-vinylcyclohexane which was given to28-day-old mice in corn oil, intra peritoneally, at2.7 mmol/kg body weight/day for30 d.After that serum and tissue were isolated. Enzymatic antioxidants, non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidationassessed in liver and ovary homogenate.Metabolites, marker enzymes were analyzed in serum.Tissue was examined histopathology examination.Result:The levels of urea, creatinine, marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in ovarian cancer induced mice when compared to control group whereas, levels of uric acid, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were decreased in cancer induced mice when compared with control mice.From these parameters were brought back to near normal in ethanolic extract ofI. frutescens treated animals.The above results were further confirmed by histopathological examination which shows marked edema of lamina propria occurred in cancer induced animals whereas no alterations in ethanolic extract of I. frutescens and cisplatin treated groups. Conclusion:This present study was evaluated that the ethanolic extracts ofI. frutescens have effective anticancer activity against4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer.

  15. Evaluation of Anti-fertility Potential of Aqueous Extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Mishra N.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Population explosion is a major problem it is raising tremendously; this may affect drastically the economic growth. So family planning has been promoted through several methods of contraception. A wide variety of synthetic contraceptive agents are available, but these cannot be used continuously due to their side effects. Thus the present study was to evaluate the effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis on fertility of male and female mice. Swiss Albino mice were orally administered with aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (800 mg/kg of body weight/day, for 30 days, and effect of crude extract on reproductive organs and fertility was investigated. The treatment Caused decrease in weight of testis, sperm count and the histological examination revealed a reduction in the size of seminiferous tubules along with the thickness of germinal epithelial cells, though some of the epithelial cells and interstitial cells of leydig showed hypertrophy. Moreover, the lumen of the tubules was found to be devoid of sperms. On the other hand, in treated females no histological changes could be observed. The only marked change, which could be visualized, was the slight disruption of estrous cycle having prolonged metaestrus phase, which has been increased by 145.28 %. The overall duration of estrous cycle had been extended by more than one day. The hormonal profile was also influenced by the Bougainvillea spectabilis extract. The testosterone and estrogen levels were significantly decreased.

  16. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

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    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  17. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous ethanolic seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

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    Tulika Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree used traditionally since long back for wound healing, immunepotentiator, asthma, sedative, stomachic, styptic, as tonic etc. The present study determines the antiplasmodial effect of aqueous ethanolic seed extract against Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei nk65 infection in Swiss albino mice. Based upon the acute toxicity data three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract was chosen to study the blood schizonticidal activity in early infection and in established infection and was compared with chloroquine. The Prophylactic activity was also assessed and compared with pyrimethamine. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study however, above the dose of 1000 mg/kg animals showed the lethargic behaviour. In early infection, and in established infection the doses (100-400 mg/kg b.wt was found to cause significant (P<0.001 suppression of infection in a dose dependent manner as compared to control. Although, the activity was lower than standard chloroquine. Similarly, the extract at all the doses caused the suppression in repository activity but was lower than pyrimethamine. The mean survival time was also increased in mice by 14 and 17 days at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas the control group sustained only for 7 days. Thus, the seed extract showed the effectiveness against plasmodium infection.

  18. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Joseph, Jini; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo radio-protective effect of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst was evaluated using Swiss albino mice, by pre-treatment with total triterpenes for 14 days, followed by a whole body exposure to γ-radiation. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were analysed in liver and brain homogenates. The extent of lipid and protein peroxidation was also estimated in liver and brain homogenates after irradiation. Protection of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells was assessed using the comet assay. Total triterpenes were highly effective in reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to near normal values in both liver and brain tissues. Total triterpenes, when administered in vivo, were also found to be successful in restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level in liver and brain of irradiated mice. Administration of total triterpenes, prior to radiation exposure, significantly decreased the DNA strand breaks. The results of the present study thus revealed the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma total triterpenes as an adjuvant in radiation therapy.

  19. On the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi y strain in swiss mice Sobre o parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in Swiss mice was carried out. This strain parasitized preferentially smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers, with low transitory spleen and liver parasitism, as previously found by some Authors, although differing from other reports. These results can be related to the host genetical constitution and/or the degree of the strain virulence at the time of this study. Furthermore, we discuss that the high macrophagotropism reported for this strain in some instances could be an artificially induced condition resulting from its serial maintenance in mice, either for a longer time and/or by using young animals. The heavy parasitism and inflammation observed in the bladder, pancreas and spermatic duct of some inoculated mice, as well as the testis parasitization, were also noteworthy findings.Através deste trabalho fizemos uma revisão do parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster. Esta cepa parasitou preferencialmente as fibras musculares lisas, esqueléticas e cardíacas, sendo baixo e transitório seu parasitismo do baço e fígado, conforme já observado por alguns Autores, embora diferindo de outros achados. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados com o padrão genético do hospedeiro e/ou com o grau de virulência da cepa por ocasião deste estudo. Além do mais, discutimos a possibilidade de que o intenso macrofagotropismo descrito para esta cepa em algumas ocasiões possa ser uma condição artificialmente induzida através de sua manutenção seriada em camundongos por tempo prolongado e/ou pelo uso de animais jovens. Também são dignos de nota, o intenso parasitismo e inflamação da bexiga, pâncreas e canal espermático de alguns animais inoculados, assim como, o encontro de ninhos de amastigotas no testículo.

  20. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

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    Ritu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA- induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage. CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P<0.001 along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P<0.001, and catalase, P<0.001, nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P<0.001, and total proteins (P<0.001 when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  1. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE.

  2. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahuya Sengupta; Gauri Dutta Sharma; Biswajit Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Methods: First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. Results: The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  3. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  4. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15 ± 1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4 ± 3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and

  5. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  6. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Pranita P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders. PMID:27379263

  7. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  8. In vivo protection studies of bis-quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)- N-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK oximes) against tabun and soman poisoning in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Swami, D; Nagar, D P; Singh, K P; Acharya, J; Karade, H N; Yadav, R

    2017-01-01

    The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum. Using various doses of tabun and soman (subcutaneously (sc)), in multiples of their IC50, AChE reactivation ability of the oximes was studied. Besides, acute toxicity (0.8× LD50, im, 24 h postexposure) of HNK-102 and 2-PAM was also compared by determining biochemical, hematological variables and making histopathological observations. Protection offered by HNK-102 against tabun poisoning was found to be four times higher compared to 2-PAM. However, nearly equal protection was noted with all the four oximes against soman poisoning. HNK-102 reactivated brain AChE activity by 1.5 times more than 2-PAM at IC50 dose of soman and tabun. Acute toxicity studies of HNK-102 and 2-PAM showed sporadic changes in urea, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, and so on compared to control group, however, not supported by histopathological investigations. The present investigation showed superiority of newly synthesized HNK-102 oxime over standard 2-PAM, as a better antidote, against acute poisoning of tabun (4.00 times) and soman (1.04 times), in Swiss albino mice.

  9. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  10. Stimulatory effects of Cuminum cyminum and flavonoid glycoside on Cyclosporine-A and restraint stress induced immune-suppression in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Satti, Naresh Kumar; Suri, Krishan Avtar; Amina, Musarat; Bani, Sarang

    2010-04-15

    Many herbs and spices are known to modulate the immune system and have been shown to restore the immunity in immuno-compromised individuals. Spices generally used to increase the taste and flavor of food also has the history of usage as an ayurvedic medicine. Therefore to explore the health modulating effects of Cuminum cyminum and to identify the active compound, immunomodulatory properties were evaluated using flowcytometry and ELISA in normal and immune-suppressed animals. C. cyminum and compound 1 stimulated the T cells and Th1 cytokines expression in normal animals. Swiss albino mice subjected to Cyclosporine-A induced immune-suppression were dosed orally with C. cyminum (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on consecutive days. The results showed that administration significantly increased T cells (CD4 and CD8) count and Th1 predominant immune response in a dose dependent manner thereby suggesting immunomodulatory activity through modulation of T lymphocytes expression. In restraint stress induced immune-suppressed animals, compound 1 countered the depleted T lymphocytes, decreased the elevated corticosterone levels and size of adrenal glands and increased the weight of thymus and spleen. Based on the data we may conclude that C. cyminum is a potent immunomodulator and may develop as a lead to recover the immunity of immuno-compromised individuals.

  11. Mitigating role of baicalein on lysosomal enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme status during lung carcinogenesis of Swiss albino mice induced by benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Chandrashekar; Raghunandakumar, Subramanian; Asokkumar, Selvamani; Binuclara, John; Rajan, Balan; Premkumar, Thandavamoorthy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2014-06-01

    The lungs mainly serve as a primary site for xenobiotic metabolism and constitute an important defense mechanism against inhalation of carcinogens. Our current study aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) in Swiss albino mice exposed to tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] for its ability to mitigate pulmonary carcinogenesis. Here, we report that altered activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsin-D, cathepsin-B, acid phosphatase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucuronidase, and β-D-N-acetyl glucosaminidase), phase I biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase), and phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase, and DT-diaphorase) were observed in the B(a)P-induced mice. Treatment with BE significantly restored back the activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. Moreover, assessment of lysosomal abnormalities by transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that BE treatment effectively counteract B(a)P-induced oxidative damages. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analysis of CYP1A1 revealed that BE treatment effectively negate B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of CYP1A1. Further analysis of scanning electron microscopic studies in lung was carried out to substantiate the anticarcinogenic effect of BE. The overall data suggest that BE treatment significantly inhibits lysosomal and microsomal dysfunction, thus revealing its potent anticarcinogenic effect.

  12. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ofusori David A; Adejuwon Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three gcroonutrposl oafn md irceec (eBi,v eCd a annd eDq) uwievraele tnret avtoeldu mwiet ho f4 dmisgt/ikllge dof wCa. tpeor.r tGorriocuepn sBis reexctreaivcet.d G Cro. uppo rAto wriacse nthsies leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group wDe rreec seaivceridfi cCe.d p aonrtdo rtihceen sstiosm leaacfh eaxntrda cpta nfocrr e2a8s dwaeyrse. eAxtc disieffde raenndt sfitxaegde si nin the study, the mice histological analysis. Results: 10% formol saline for The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups Bth ea nmdu Cco assa caonmd pdairsecdo nwtiinthu atthioen c oofn terpoilt.h Heloiwale vlienri,n agn oimf tahles sinto mgraocuhp wDh silheo twheed i sdliestosr goaf nization of in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the conLtraonl gmeriacnes. Conclusions: The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas.

  13. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  14. Antineoplastic activity of N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)2'-hydroxyphenylimine aqua nickel(II) complex [NI(H₂O)HHP] on ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Khanam, Jahan Ara; Jesmin, Mele; Ali, Mohammud Mohshin

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the antineoplastic activity of N[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)2'-hydroxyphenylimine] aqua nickel(II) complex abbreviated as [Ni(H2O)HHP] complex against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice. The effectiveness of the drug at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight was assessed for five consecutive days in previously inoculated tumor (137×10(4) EAC) cells containing mice. After administration of the last dose followed by 16 h fasting, the effect of the [Ni(H2O)HHP] complex on tumor was assessed by EAC cell growth inhibition, solid tumor mass, survival time, peritoneal cell count, hematological profiles like red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb)% and differential counts (i.e., lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes) and biochemical parameters like serum glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, serum urea and liver enzymes, respectively. The results have been compared with the data obtained by using a standard and highly effective clinically used anticancer drug bleomycin. [Ni(H2O)HHP] complex at dose 2.0 mg/kg i.p. (intra peritoneal) showed a significant (P=0.001) decrease in tumor volume of each mice and increased the life span as well as mean survival time of EAC bearing mice. Hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing mice get back normal values after 15 days of the initial treatment. From the above outcomes indicate the possible potential use of the compound as antitumor agent in advanced researches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  16. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination.

  17. Statins enhance cognitive performance in object location test in albino Swiss mice: involvement of beta-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; França, Lucas Moreira; Alcantara-Junior, José; Nogueira, Lucas Caixeta; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Lopes, Lousã; Junior, Fernando Mesquita; Vanzeler, Maria Luzinete; Bertoldo, Daniela Bohn; Dias, Paula Gomes; Colla, André R S; Hoeller, Alexandre; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; de Lima, Thereza C M; Tasca, Carla Inês; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-05-01

    Statins are inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby inhibiting cell synthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids. Moreover, several studies have been evaluating pleiotropic effects of statins, mainly because they present neuroprotective effects in various pathological conditions. However, knowledge about behavioral effects of statins per se is relatively scarce. Considering these facts, we aimed to analyze behavioral responses of atorvastatin or simvastatin-treated mice in the open field test, elevated plus maze and object location test. Atorvastatin treatment for 7 consecutive days at 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (v.o.) or simvastatin 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg enhanced cognitive performance in object location test when compared to control group (saline-treated mice). Simvastatin effects on mice performance in the object location test was abolished by post-training infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Atorvastatin and simvastatin did not change the behavioral response in open field and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in any of the used doses. These data demonstrate the positive effects of both statins in cognitive processes in mice, without any alteration in locomotor parameters in the open field test or anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that atorvastatin and simvastatin per se improve the cognitive performance in a rodent model of spatial memory and this effect is related to beta-adrenergic receptors modulation.

  18. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  19. The SWISS-MODEL Repository—new features and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Tauriello, Gerardo; Studer, Gabriel; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (SMR) is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the automated SWISS-MODEL homology modeling pipeline. It currently holds >400 000 high quality models covering almost 20% of Swiss-Prot/UniProtKB entries. In this manuscript, we provide an update of features and functionalities which have been implemented recently. We address improvements in target coverage, model quality estimates, functional annotations and improved in-page visualization. We also introduce a new update concept which includes regular updates of an expanded set of core organism models and UniProtKB-based targets, complemented by user-driven on-demand update of individual models. With the new release of the modeling pipeline, SMR has implemented a REST-API and adopted an open licencing model for accessing model coordinates, thus enabling bulk download for groups of targets fostering re-use of models in other contexts. SMR can be accessed at https://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository. PMID:27899672

  20. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  1. Modelling longevity bonds: Analysing the Swiss Re Kortis bond

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A key contribution to the development of the traded market for longevity risk was the issuance of the Kortis bond, the world's first longevity trend bond, by Swiss Re in 2010. We analyse the design of the Kortis bond, develop suitable mortality models to analyse its payoff and discuss the key risk factors for the bond. We also investigate how the design of the Kortis bond can be adapted and extended to further develop the market for longevity risk.

  2. SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Marco; Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; Arnold, Konstantin; Studer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Tobias; Kiefer, Florian; Gallo Cassarino, Tiziano; Bertoni, Martino; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. Fully automated servers such as SWISS-MODEL with user-friendly web interfaces generate reliable models without the need for complex software packages or downloading large databases. Here, we describe the latest version of the SWISS-MODEL expert system for protein structure modelling. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure. The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models. The accuracy of the models generated by SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated by the CAMEO system. The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building. In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. SWISS-MODEL is available at http://swissmodel.expasy.org/.

  3. Topical application of Gallic acid suppresses the 7,12-DMBA/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis by modulating anti-oxidants and MMP-2/MMP-9 in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Venkatesan, Balaji; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA - 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a dietary anti-oxidant has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in in vitro. Herein, we investigated the in vivo chemo preventive activity of GA on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the 16 weeks of experimental period. In addition, LDH-isozyme shift, skin collagen content, activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9) enzymes and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant were studied in the skin and serum of experimental mice. Tumor incidence was significantly increased in the DMBA/Croton oil induced mice (100%; pCroton oil induced skin while decreased levels of enzymatic (GST, SOD, CAT & GPx) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant (GSH) were noticed. On the other hand, GA co-treatment exhibited a significant protection by reverting back the altered levels of LDH-isoenzymes, antioxidants, collagen and MMP-2/MMP-9 activities. The results of this study indicate that topical application of GA inhibits DMBA/Croton oil induced two-stage skin carcinogenic process by modulating the antioxidants and MMPs (-2 & -9) in the mouse skin.

  4. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It aims to study the CMB temperature fluctuations by the means of the exact inhomogeneous Szekeres model. So far the impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations has been almost exclusively studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast of cosmic structures is larger than 1 this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without approximations such as small amplitude of the density contrast. This will allow us to examine the impact of light propagation effects on the CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities introduce - via light propagation effect...

  5. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-mediated memory dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by attenuating insulin resistance and elevating hippocampal GLUT4 levels independent of insulin receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Sharma, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neuronal functioning, altered insulin signaling, and behavioral dysfunction. Quercetin has shown neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects, besides modulating cognition and insulin signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we explored whether or not quercetin ameliorates stress-mediated cognitive dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanism. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to an array of unpredicted stressors for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. The effect of chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) and quercetin treatment on cognition were evaluated using novel object recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Hippocampal neuronal integrity was observed by histopathological examination. Blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels were measured by commercial kits and insulin resistance was evaluated in terms of HOMA-IR index. Hippocampal insulin signaling was determined by immunofluorescence staining. CUS induced significant cognitive dysfunction (NOR and MWM) and severely damaged hippocampal neurons, especially in the CA3 region. Quercetin treatment alleviated memory dysfunction and rescued neurons from CUS-mediated damage. Fasting blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and serum insulin were significantly elevated in stressed animals, besides, having significantly higher HOMA-IR index, suggesting the development of insulin resistance. Quercetin treatment alleviated insulin resistance and attenuated altered biochemical parameters. CUS markedly down-regulated insulin signaling in CA3 region and quercetin treatment improved neuronal GLUT4 expression, which seemed to be independent of insulin and insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that intact insulin functioning in the hippocampus is essential for cognitive functions and quercetin improves CUS-mediated cognitive dysfunction by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  7. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  8. Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Parama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

  9. Spectral Action Models of Gravity on Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its asymptotic expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of 3-dimensional spheres inside a 4-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we show that the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing, which accounts for the contribution of the points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is also an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant. It detects the fractality of t...

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits DMBA/croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF-κB, MMPs, and infiltrating mast cells in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) are implicated as a vital regulator of cancer cell growth and tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism by which ANP opposes the cancer growth in in-vivo remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of ANP on 7, 12-dimethyl benzanthracence (DMBA)/Croton oil- induced two-step skin carcinogenic mouse model. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the experimental period of 16 weeks. ANP (1 μg/kg body weight/alternate days for 4 weeks) was injected subcutaneously from the 13th week of DMBA/Croton oil induction. ANP treatment markedly inhibited the skin tumor growth (P<0.001). A significant reduction in the level of NF-κB activation (P<0.001), infiltrating mast cell count (P<0.01) and MMP-2/-9 (P<0.001, respectively) were noticed in the ANP treated mice skin tissue. Further, ANP treatment revert back the altered levels of serum LDH-4, C-reactive protein (CRP), and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD and CAT activities) to near normal level. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ANP opposes the skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the inflammatory response and MMPs.

  11. Carbon Nanotube and Asbestos Exposures Induce Overlapping but Distinct Profiles of Lung Pathology in Non-Swiss Albino CF-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Evan A; Carreira, Vinicius S; Birch, M Eileen; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as important occupational and environmental toxicants owing to their increasing prevalence and potential to be inhaled as airborne particles. CNTs are a concern because of their similarities to asbestos, which include fibrous morphology, high aspect ratio, and biopersistence. Limitations in research models have made it difficult to experimentally ascertain the risk of CNT exposures to humans and whether these may lead to lung diseases classically associated with asbestos, such as mesothelioma and fibrosis. In this study, we sought to comprehensively compare profiles of lung pathology in mice following repeated exposures to multiwall CNTs or crocidolite asbestos (CA). We show that both exposures resulted in granulomatous inflammation and increased interstitial collagen; CA exposures caused predominantly bronchoalveolar hyperplasia, whereas CNT exposures caused alveolar hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes (T2Ps). T2Ps isolated from CNT-exposed lungs were found to have upregulated proinflammatory genes, including interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), in contrast to those from CA exposed. Immunostaining in tissue showed that while both toxicants increased IL-1ß protein expression in lung cells, T2P-specific IL-1ß increases were greater following CNT exposure. These results suggest related but distinct mechanisms of action by CNTs versus asbestos which may lead to different outcomes in the 2 exposure types.

  12. 育亨宾对雄性瑞士白化小鼠的生殖、细胞和生化毒性%Reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Yohimbe in male swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.Al-Majed; A.A.Al-Yahya; A.M.Al-Bekairi; O.A.Al-Shabanah; S.Qureshi

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究育亨宾(Yohimbe)对瑞士白化小鼠生殖细胞的影响.方法:用不同剂量(188,375和750mg/[kg.day])的育亨宾水性悬浮液灌胃处理成年雄性小鼠,持续90天.检测下面的参数:(1)生殖器官重量,(2)精子的活动力和数量,(3)怀孕率和平均受精卵附着数,(4)精子形态,(5)睾丸染色体的细胞学,(6)蛋白质,RNA,DNA,丙二醛,非蛋白质的硫氢化合物(NP-SH)和激素的生化评估.结果:育亨宾处理使精囊重量、精子的活动性和精子数量、受精卵附着前和受精卵附着后的重量的显著增加,雄性生殖能力降低.精子畸形和染色体变异方面的数据进一步证实了这一结果.生化评估数据也显示睾丸细胞中的丙二醛,NP-SH的消耗,蛋白质,RNA和DNA增加了.结论:本研究结果表明,自由基可能是通过yohimbine(Yohimbe的主要成分)对神经传递素,包括去甲肾上腺素的影响产生细胞毒性和生殖毒性.这些数据提示要谨慎使用Yohimbe.%Aim: To study the effect of Corynanthe Yohimbe (Yohimbe) on germ cells in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Adult male mice were orally (gavage) treated with different doses (188, 375 and 750 mg/[kg.day]) of aqueous suspension of Yohimbe for 90 days. The following parameters were evaluated: (I) reproductive organ weight, (ii) motility and count of sperm, (iii) study on rate of pregnancy and mean implants, (iv) spermatozoa morphology, (v) cytology of the testes chromosomes, and (vi) biochemical study on estimation of proteins, RNA, DNA, malondialdehyde, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and hormones. Results: The treatment caused significant increase in the weight of seminal vesicles, motility and count of spermatozoa, pre- and post-implants. Male fertility was decreased. These results are confirmed by our data on spermatozoa abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations. The data on biochemical parameters showed increase of malondialdehyde and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in the

  13. Model for Formation of Martian Residual Cap Depressions (Swiss Cheese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    In an effort for explain the formation of the `Swiss-cheese' terrain visible on the southern residual cap of Mars (Thomas et al., Nature, 404,2000); we have developed a radiative model to follow the growth/decay of an initial depression due to sublimation/condensation of carbon dioxide. The pits making up this terrain have many distinctive features; they are shallow (~10m deep), with steep walls and flat floors and contain an interior moat that runs along the bottom of the walls. Their diameters range from a few 10's of meters to a kilometer. The model accounts for incident sunlight, emitted thermal radiation, and scattered short and long wave radiation. We have included the effects of a layer of water ice placed under the carbon dioxide at adjustable depth. The water ice layer is free to store heat during the summer (when the carbon dioxide has been removed) through subsurface diffusion of heat. Release of this heat at the end of the summer can inhibit frost formation. We have investigated many cases involving pure dry ice with constant albedo, albedo as a function of insolation, and differing albedo for fresh and residual frost (the latter has lower albedo). In most cases the initial depressions heal themselves and disappear into the surrounding terrain. Cases involving the layer of water ice provide a much closer approximation to the shape of the observed features (especially the flat bottoms). A problem arises of how much exposed water ice we can have during the summer season and still have temperatures averaged over the footprint of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer be close to the carbon dioxide sublimation temperatures. The depth to the water ice layer is a strong controlling factor of the evolution of depression shape and depth in our model. Matching this shape with observations yields important information regarding the depth to any putative water ice layer within the residual cap itself. It is known from laboratory measurements that carbon dioxide is too

  14. Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, R.; Turton, H.

    2011-10-15

    This comprehensive report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). This is a flexible model which explicitly depicts plausible pathways for the development of the Swiss electricity sector, while dealing with inter-temporal variations in demand and supply. TIMES is quoted as having the capability to portray the entire energy system from resource supply, through fuel processing, representation of infrastructures, conversion to secondary energy carriers, end-use technologies and energy service demands at end-use sectors. The background of the model's development and a reference energy system are described. Also, electricity end-use sectors and generating systems are examined, including hydropower, nuclear power, thermal generation and renewables. Environmental factors and the calibration of the model are discussed, as is the application of the model. The document is completed with an outlook, references and six appendices

  15. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  16. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  17. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEorganic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage: conventional (CT), reduced (RT) and no-till (NT); (c) cover cropping: no cover cropping (NCC), winter cover cropping (CC) and winter green manuring (GM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be

  18. Assessing wood-based synthetic natural gas technologies using the SWISS-MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Barreto, Leonardo; Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Energy Economics Group; Stucki, Samuel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). General Energy

    2007-10-15

    In future, new biomass technologies can gain significant importance in the Swiss energy sector. Therefore, this paper assesses the economic conditions under which new biomass technologies become competitive. The focus of this assessment is on the production of synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) from wood in a methanation plant. The assessment is conducted with the cost-optimization model SWISS-MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation). SWISS-MARKAL projects future technology investments and provides an integrated analysis of primary, secondary, final and end-use energy in Switzerland. In addition to a reference scenario, the effects of increasing oil and gas prices, the effects of allocating subsidies to the methanation plant and the effects of competition between the methanation plant and a biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis are evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed by varying investment costs of the methanation plant. The results are in favour of bio-SNG in the transportation sector where the synergetic use of bio-SNG and natural gas reduces the dependence on oil imports and the level of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  19. Estimation of Swiss methane emissions by near surface observations and inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Stephan; Brian, Oney; Leuenberger, Markus; Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Steinbacher, Martin; Meinhardt, Frank; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. It is released from both natural and anthropogenic processes and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since preindustrial times. Current CH4 emission estimates are associated with comparatively large uncertainties both globally and regionally. For example, the Swiss national greenhouse gas inventory assigns an uncertainty of 18% to the country total anthropogenic CH4 emissions as compared to only 3% for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In Switzerland, CH4 is thought to be mainly released by agricultural activities (ruminants and manure management >80%), while natural emissions from wetlands and wild animals represent a minor source (~3 %). The country total and especially the spatial distribution of CH4 emission within Switzerland strongly differs between the national and different European scale inventories. To validate the 'bottom-up' Swiss CH4 emission estimate and to reduce its uncertainty both in total and spatially, 'top-down' methods combining atmospheric CH4 observations and regional scale transport simulations can be used. Here, we analyse continuous, near surface observations of CH4 concentrations as collected within the newly established CarboCountCH measurement network (http://www.carbocount.ch). The network consists of 4 sites situated on the Swiss Plateau, comprising a tall tower site (217 m), two elevated (mountaintop) sites and a small tower site (32 m) in flat terrain. In addition, continuous CH4 observations from the nearby high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (Alps) and the mountaintop site Schauinsland (Germany) were used. Two inversion frameworks were applied to the CH4 observations in combination with source sensitivities (footprints) calculated with the regional scale version of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. One inversion system was based on a Bayesian framework, while the other utilized an extended Kalman filter approach. The transport

  20. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  1. Business model innovation for Local Energy Management: a perspective from Swiss utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Facchinetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential Local Energy Management stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the Local Energy Management business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing Local Energy Management concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the Local Energy Management business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights to policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management.

  2. Therapeutic effect of Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed/linseed) fixed oil on acute and chronic arthritic models in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2010-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the activity/anti-inflammatory potential of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, turpentine oil-induced joint oedema, formaldehyde and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in Wistar albino rats. The oil intraperitoneally, significantly inhibited the castor oil-induced diarrhoea and turpentine oil-induced exudative joint oedema in a dose-dependent manner. Significant inhibitory effect of L. usitatissimum fixed oil was observed in formaldehyde-induced proliferative global oedematous arthritis when given intraperitoneally, with significant checking of the serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase. Further, L. usitatissimum fixed oil showed a significant dose-dependent protective effect against CFA-induced arthritis as well. Secondary lesions produced by CFA due to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction were also reduced in a significant manner. Anti-inflammatory activity of L. usitatissimum fixed oil can be attributed to the presence of alpha linolenic acid (57.38%, an omega-3 fatty acid, 18:3, n-3) having dual inhibitory effect on arachidonate metabolism resulting in suppressed production of proinflammatory n-6 eicosanoids (PGE(2), LTB(4)) and diminished vascular permeability. These observations suggest possible therapeutic potential of L. usitatissimum fixed oil in inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus; Eugster, Werner; Bamberger, Ines; Meinhardt, Frank; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional-scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4) from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. In our reference inversion, prior emissions were taken from the "bottom-up" Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI) as published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in 2014 for the year 2012. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr-1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty). This result is in close agreement with the recently revised SGHGI estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr-1 as reported in 2015 for the year 2012. Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, uncertainty covariance settings, large-scale background mole fractions, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter), and two different transport models confirm the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest SGHGI estimate the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %), waste handling (15 %) and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %). The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent SGHGI, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results, suggesting that leakages from natural gas distribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr-1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr-1 implied by the EDGARv4.2 inventory for

  4. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  5. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Schärrer

    Full Text Available Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD. The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef, age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years. The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm. The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants.

  6. Freezing of lakes on the Swiss Plateau 1865-2100: combining long-term observations with modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Keller, Felix; Funk, Martin; Hoelzle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The frequency of lake freeze-up on the Swiss plateau is a sensitive indicator of changes in central European winter climate. Whereas smaller and more shallow lakes are reported to completely freeze in more than 50% of the winters, large and deep lakes like Bodensee and Zurichsee only froze one to very few times during the 20th century. The ice cover lasted between some days and up to three months. The periodic freezing of lakes on the Swiss plateau exerts considerable public attraction and is, in some cases, even an economic factor. In this study, we rely on an exceptional data set presented by Hendricks-Franssen and Scherrer (2008) providing complete series of freeze-up events for a dozen lakes on the Swiss plateau since 1901 based on direct observations. A new physically-based 1-D model for the energy balance and the thermodynamics of lake ice is presented and validated against the long-term observations. The model is driven with measured meteorological data as well as with results of 10 regional climate models. We apply the model to compute continuous series of freeze-up events between 1865 and 2100 for 14 Swiss lakes. In addition, the model calculates the time evolution of the ice thickness and the corresponding bearing capacity. We discuss the potential of the model for simulating lake freeze-up events over the last century in connection with the direct observations and simplified approaches for estimating lake ice formation. Changes in freezing frequency are analysed over a period of more than 200 years extending from the beginning of the instrumental record into the future. Until 2050, freezing is still possible even for medium-sized lakes in extreme winters. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, lakes on the Swiss plateau are unlikely to freeze during winter with the exception of rare events on small lakes. For an additional study site located at higher elevation in the Alps the model predicts annual freezing until 2100 but with strongly reduced

  7. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  8. Hypertrophic Scar Formation on Application of Terpenoid Fraction of Tuberous Root of Mirabilis jalapa L. on Excision Wound Model in Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Chattopadhayay, Pronobesh; Kumar Rai, Ashok; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydromethanolic extract of tuberous root of M. jalapa and its terpenoid and flavonoid fractions on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar Albino rats. The hydromethanolic extract was subfractionated by sequential extraction in solvents (moderately nonpolar to polar). The extract and its (terpenoid and flavonoid) fractions were used for cutaneous wound healing studies by using excision wound model on rat. Their effects on wound contraction rate, biochemical and histological changes, and expression of growth factors such as collagen 3A, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. The results indicated that flavonoid treated group showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in antioxidant enzyme level as compared to control in wound healing process, whereas terpenoid fraction showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in expression of growth factor levels but regeneration and remodeling stages were delayed due to formation of thicker ulcus layer and also there were no hair follicle-like blood capillaries formation which ultimately may lead to formation of hypertrophic scar of wound. Therefore, from this study, it can be concluded that terpenoid fraction prolongs proliferation phase and hence may have tendency to convert the wound into hypertrophic wound. PMID:27379322

  9. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Myristica fragrans houtt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mini; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-03-01

    Nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans, MF (Family: Myristicaceae) possesses antifungal, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Its radioprotective effect against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30 )as 6.83 Gy and 8.89 Gy for irradiated only and (MF + radiation) groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.3. Administration of MF significantly enhanced hepatic glutathione (GSH) and decreased testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) level whereas acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity did not show any significant alteration. Irradiation resulted in significant elevation in LPO level and ACP activity, and decreased the GSH content and ALP activity. MF pretreatment effectively protected against radiation induced biochemical alteration as reflected by a decrease in LPO level and ACP activity, and an increase in GSH and ALP activity. The present study has implications for the potential use of MF as a radioprotector.

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  11. Avaliação dos efeitos depressores centrais do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum Pax. e de suas frações em camundongos albinos Evaluation of the central depressor effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum Pax. and its fractions in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea é uma planta nativa da África tropical conhecida como "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", dentre outros. A planta é utilizada pela população brasileira como detentora de propriedades antiinflamatória, analgésica, dentre outras. Foram avaliados os efeitos depressores sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum (EES e de suas frações - hexânica (FH, clorofórmica (FC e metanol/água (FM. Vários testes foram utilizados em camundongos machos albinos (Mus musculus, dentre eles, o sono induzido por barbitúrico, campo aberto e o teste do rota-rod. O EES foi testado nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, enquanto que a FH foi testada na dose de 10 mg/kg, a FC na dose de 20 mg/kg e a FM na dose de 25 mg/kg. O EES e as frações FH e FC, mas não a FM, apresentaram um possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC, visto que foram capazes de aumentar o tempo parado e diminuir o número de bolos fecais no campo aberto, além de potencializarem o sono induzido por barbitúrico. No teste do rota-rod, observou-se que o EES e as frações não foram capazes de causar incoordenação motora ou relaxamento muscular. Assim, conclui-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações FH e FC do Syandenium umbellatum Pax. possuem possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC.Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea is a native plant from tropical Africa known as "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", among others. The plant is used by Brazilian folks for having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, among others. It was evaluated the depressor effects over the central nervous system (CNS of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum (EES and its fractions - hexane (HF, chloroformic (CF and methanol/water fractions(MF. Several tests were used in Swiss mice (Mus musculus, among them, barbiturate-induced sleep, open field and rota-rod test. The

  12. 二烯丙基硫醚对睾丸激素引发的瑞士白鼠氧化应激反应的调节作用%Modulatory effects of diallyl sulfide against testosterone-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Prasad; N. Kalra; Y. Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a constituent of garlic, against testosterone-induced oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. Methods: The animals were given low (250 mg/animal) and high dose (500 mg/animal) of DAS in corn oil for 7 days along with testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). At the end of the study period, the prostate and the liver were dissected to determine various antioxidant enzyme levels (catalase,superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase) and lipid peroxidation. Results: In testosterone treated mice, depleted antioxidant enzyme level was accompanied with enhancement in lipid peroxidation in prostate and liver. DAS significantly restored the testosterone-induced antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the both organs. These changes appear to be mediated by the antioxidant-enhancing effects of DAS. Conclusion:The results of the present study suggest that DAS is effective in exerting antioxidant effects by inhibiting testosteroneinduced oxidative stress and might be helpful in preventing prostate cancer. (Asian JAndrol 2006 Nov; 8: 719-723)%目的:研究大蒜的成分之一二烯丙基硫醚(diallyl sulfide,DAS)对睾丸激素引发的雄性瑞士白鼠氧化应激反应的保护作用.方法:给瑞士白鼠连续7天注射不同剂量的DAS,低剂量组为250 mg/只,高剂量组为500 mg/只,玉米油作为佐剂.同时根据小鼠的体重注射一定剂量的睾丸激素(5 mg/kg).注射结束后将前列腺和肝脏进行切片,观察不同的抗氧化酶(过氧化氢酶、超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽还原酶、谷胱甘肽-S-转硫酶)水平和脂质过氧化情况.结果:在注射了睾丸激素的小鼠的前列腺和肝脏中,抗氧化酶失活的同时脂质的过氧化反应增强.DAS在这两种脏器中能恢复由睾丸激素引起的上述反应,这个作用是由DAS的抗氧化增强作用介导.结论:本研究结果显示

  13. Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A R; Walker, S L; Kinley, J S; Plastow, S R; Averbeck, D; Morlière, P; Dubertret, L

    1990-11-01

    The skin of the female hairless albino mouse (Skh 1) was used to study the enhancement of solar simulated radiation (SSR) tumorigenesis by 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in model perfumes that contain bergamot oil. This work was done in association with yeast mutagenicity studies and human skin phototoxicity studies. Analyses of time-to-onset of tumour observation with 5-MOP at 0, 5, 15 and 50 ppm show a highly significant 5-MOP dose effect and the data indicate that 5-MOP has phototumorigenic potential even at 5 ppm. The addition of 0.5% UVB and 0.5% UVA sunscreens significantly reduces the tumorigenicity associated with the vehicle (i.e. 5-MOP at 0 ppm) and 5-MOP at all concentrations. Pairwise comparisons of 5-MOP (at 5 or 15 ppm) plus sunscreens with vehicle plus sunscreens show that the sunscreens afford total protection at the lower 5-MOP concentrations. Additional studies show that a 5-6 h delay between 5-MOP application and SSR exposure defers the time-to-onset of tumours as does intermittent 5-MOP and SSR treatment. A comparison of 5-MOP at 50 ppm in bergamot oil with 5-MOP at 50 ppm prepared from pure 5-MOP crystals shows identical results, indicating that the active phototumorigenic agent in bergamot oil is 5-MOP and not other related compounds, which may be present at greater concentrations. Analyses of tumour histology at death show, in general, similar patterns of malignancy for all groups. Thus although it is possible to delay tumorigenesis by various strategies, the tumours that eventually develop are just as likely to be malignant, if not more so, when compared with non-delayed groups.

  14. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan R; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-15

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachates were collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution were measured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Measured metal concentrations were compared with modelled concentrations using CHUM-AM. Additionally we ran the model with three different deposition scenarios (current deposition; maximum acceptable deposition according to the Swiss ordinance on Air Pollution Control; critical loads according to CLRTAP) to predict metal concentrations in the soils for the next 1000 years. Assuming current loads concentrations of Cd and Pb showed varying trends (increasing/decreasing) between the soils. Soils rich in organic carbon or with a high pH value showed increasing trends in Cd and Pb concentrations whereas the concentrations in the other soils decreased. In contrast Hg concentrations are predicted to further increase in all soils. Critical limits for Pb and Hg will partly be exceeded by current loads or by the critical loads proposed by the CLRTAP but the critical limits for Cd will rarely be reached within the next 1000 years. In contrast, maximal acceptable deposition will partly lead to concentrations above the critical limits for Pb in soils within the next 400 years, whereas the acceptable deposition of Cd will not lead to concentrations above the proposed critical limits. In conclusion the CHUM-AM model is able to accurately simulate heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Hg) concentrations in Swiss forest soils of various soil properties.

  15. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmatanzeem Bepari

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The N. sativa seeds showed anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model of epilepsy. This study showed that volatile oil of N. sativa seeds potentiated the effect of sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1300-1307

  16. Towards a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils for the Swiss greenhouse gas reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, K.; Leifeld, J.; Bretscher, D.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss inventory submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports on changes in soil organic carbon stocks under different land-uses and land-use changes. The approach currently employed for cropland and grassland soils combines Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods and is considered overly simplistic. As the UNFCC encourages countries to develop Tier 3 methods for national greenhouse gas reporting, we aim to build up a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. We conducted a literature research on currently employed higher-tier methods using process-based models in four countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the USA. The applied models stem from two major groups differing in complexity - those belonging to the group of general ecosystem models that include a plant-growth submodel, e.g. Century, and those that simulate soil organic matter turnover but not plant-growth, e.g. ICBM. For the latter group, carbon inputs to the soil from plant residues and roots have to be determined separately. We will present some aspects of the development of a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. Criteria for model evaluation are, among others, modeled land-use classes and land-use changes, spatial and temporal resolution, and coverage of relevant processes. For model parameterization and model evaluation at the field scale, data from several long-term agricultural experiments and monitoring sites in Switzerland is available. A subsequent regional application of a model requires the preparation of regional input data for the whole country - among others spatio-temporal meteorological data, agricultural and soil data. Following the evaluation of possible models and of available data, preference for application in the Swiss inventory will be given to simpler model structures, i.e. models without a plant-growth module. Thus, we compared different allometric relations

  17. Lymph node histopathological studies in a combined adjuvant–collagen induced arthritis model in albino rat Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Ibraheem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 types of collagen. Antibodies, to collagens, in particular to types I and II have been reported in a number of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we used rat and bovine collagens to study the effects of anti-collagen antibodies on the lymphoid organs of rats Histological examination of the lymph node sections showed that immunization with different collagen types combined with the adjuvant used in this study induced arthritis and immune reaction in lymph nodes. The degrees of the disease symptoms and immune reaction depended on the foreignness of the stimulating collagen and on whether it was accompanied with adjuvant. Anti-collagen antibodies led to a decrease in the thickness of the lymph node cortex and atrophy, with medullary hyperplasia, small granulomas appeared in the section. Immunizing with either bovine collagen or BSA has shown a remarkable distortion in architecture appeared, follicular hyperplasia and reactive inflammatory hyperplasia of the LN. Passive transfer of rat anti-rat collagen antibodies either accompanied with Freund’s adjuvant or not with a lesser degree of severity, resulted in epithelioid cells forming granuloma surrounded by collar of lymphocytes, scattered apoptotic bodies, lymphatic sinus ectasia accompanied with lymphoid follicles atrophy. The results of our study present a reliable model for collagen induced arthritis which is suitable for the investigation of the mechanism of disease induction and treatment approaches.

  18. In vivo suppression of solid Ehrlich cancer via chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT: an albino mouse tumour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Iman; Saraya, Hend; Zekri, Maha; Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    In this study, copper chlorophyllin was used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in Ehrlich tumour mouse model. Six groups of animals comprising 5 animals per group were subcutaneously transplanted with 1x106 Ehrlich tumour cells. A single dose of 200 μg/gm body weight chlorophylin derivative was administered by intravenous (IV) or intratumoral (IT) routes. Mice were exposed to monochromatic red laser of 630 nm for 1 h, and tumour regression was followed up for three consecutive months post treatment. Several Biochemical, histological and molecular tests were performed in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the applied treatment. An interest has been also directed towards investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT. PDT-treated animals via either the IV or IT routes showed significant decrease in tumour size 72 h post-treatment. Tumours at the IV-PDT group disappeared totally within a week with no recurrence over three months follow up. In the IT-PDT, the decrease in tumour size at the first week was interrupted by a slight increase; however never reached the original size. Histological examination of tumour tissues of the IV-PDT group at 24 h post treatment demonstrated restoring the normal muscle tissue architecture, and the biochemical assays indicated normal liver functions. The immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3, and the quantitative PCR results of caspases-8 and 9 proved the presence of extrinsic apoptotic pathway after cholorphyllin derivative-mediated PDT. In conclusion IV-PDT strategy proved better cure rate than the IT-PDT, with no recurrence over three months of follow up.

  19. Modelling the results of health promotion activities in Switzerland: development of the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda; Broesskamp-Stone, Ursel; Ruckstuhl, Brigitte; Ackermann, Günter; Spoerri, Adrian; Cloetta, Bernhard

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention adopted by Health Promotion Switzerland (SMOC, Swiss Model for Outcome Classification) and the process of its development. The context and method of model development, and the aim and objectives of the model are outlined. Preliminary experience with application of the model in evaluation planning and situation analysis is reported. On the basis of an extensive literature search, the model is situated within the wider international context of similar efforts to meet the challenge of developing tools to assess systematically the activities of health promotion and prevention.

  20. Human dimension in scientific models in high-mountain climate change and risk projects: Peruvian-Swiss experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Minan, Fiorella; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Models in a range of scientific disciplines are increasingly seen as indispensable for successful adaptation. Governments as well as international organizations and cooperations put their efforts in basing their adaptation projects on scientific results. Thereby, it is critical that scientific models are first put into the particular context in which they will be applied. This paper addresses the experience of the project 'Glaciers 513- Climate change adaptation and disaster risk management for glacier retreat in the Andes' conducted in the districts of Carhuaz (Ancash region) and Santa Teresa (Cusco region) in Peru. The Peruvian and the Swiss governments put their joint efforts in an adaptation project in the context of climate change and the retreat of the glaciers. The project is led by a consortium of Care Peru and the University of Zurich with additional Swiss partners and its principal aim is to improve the capacity for integral adaptation and reduce the risk of disasters from glaciers and high-mountain areas, and effects of climate change, particularly in the regions of Cusco and Ancash. The paper shows how the so called "human dimension" on the one hand, and models from a range of disciplines, including climatology, glaciology, and hydrology on the other hand, were conceptualized and perceived by the different actors involved in the project. Important aspects have been, among others, the role of local knowledge including ancestral knowledge, demographic information, socio-economic indicators as well as the social, political and cultural framework and the historical background. Here we analyze the role and context of local knowledge and the historical background. The analysis of the implications of the differences and similarities of the perceptions of a range of actors contributes to the discussion about how, and to what extent scientific models can be contextualized, what kind of information can be helpful for the contextualization and how it can be

  1. Climate change and hydropower production in the Swiss Alps: quantification of potential impacts and related modelling uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two major challenges in climate change impact analysis on water resources systems: (i incorporation of a large range of potential climate change scenarios and (ii quantification of related modelling uncertainties. The methodology of climate change impact modelling is developed and illustrated through application to a hydropower plant in the Swiss Alps that uses the discharge of a highly glacierised catchment. The potential climate change impacts are analysed in terms of system performance for the control period (1961–1990 and for the future period (2070–2099 under a range of climate change scenarios. The system performance is simulated through a set of four model types, including the production of regional climate change scenarios based on global-mean warming scenarios, the corresponding discharge model, the model of glacier surface evolution and the hydropower management model. The modelling uncertainties inherent in each model type are characterised and quantified separately. The overall modelling uncertainty is simulated through Monte Carlo simulations of the system behaviour for the control and the future period. The results obtained for both periods lead to the conclusion that potential climate change has a statistically significant negative impact on the system performance.

  2. A Sublimation Model for the Martian Polar Swiss-Cheese Features. Observational and Modeling Studies of the South Polar Residual Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Shane; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    In their pioneering work Leighton and Murray argued that the Mars atmosphere, which is 95 percent CO2 today, is controlled by vapor equilibrium with a much larger polar reservoir of solid CO2. Here we argue that the polar reservoir is small and cannot function as a long-term buffer to the more massive atmosphere. Our work is based on modeling the circular depressions (Swiss-cheese features) in the south polar cap. We argue that a solid CO2 layer approximately 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath. Preliminary results from the THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) instrument seem to confirm our model.

  3. Environmental sensitivity of milk production in extensive environments: a comparison of Simmental, Brown Swiss, and Tyrol Grey using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytyqi, H; Ødegård, J; Mehmeti, H; Vegara, M; Klemetsdal, G

    2007-08-01

    A total of 25,160 milk test-day records from 2,516 cows in first lactation of 3 dairy cattle breeds [Simmental (n = 1,900), Brown Swiss (n = 444), and Tyrol Grey (n = 172)] in Kosovo were analyzed using nested repeatability and random regression test-day models with varying (co)variance structures. The different models were compared based on likelihood-based criteria. The best model was a second-order random regression model, with heterogeneous cow variance per breed and heterogeneous residual variance per lactation month and breed, which was used for further analysis. The highest milk production was found in Brown Swiss, followed by Simmental and Tyrol Grey. Substantial breed differences were found for the trajectories of cow and residual variances by month of lactation, with the highest variances found for Brown Swiss, followed by Simmental and Tyrol Grey. High cow and residual variances indicated a high degree of environmental sensitivity on the macro- and microenvironmental levels, respectively. Thus, these results indicate increased environmental sensitivity for breeds with higher genetic potential for milk production. These results support the conclusion that dairy cattle production under the current environmental conditions of Kosovo should be based on a breed with moderate production that is robust to the diet offered (e.g., Tyrol Grey).

  4. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R. [Zoology Department, Women College, Ain Shams University, 11566 Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, Atef S., E-mail: atef_mouharam@sci.asu.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Kamal, Sara M. [Zoology Department, Women College, Ain Shams University, 11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer, N{sub 2}-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. - Highlights: • Ceria affords existence of negatively charged rod-like architecture hydroxyapatite. • Carboxymethyl chitosan-coated apatite adopts neutral tetragonal-shaped species. • Ceria-containing apatite-based galantamine composite is potent anti-Alzheimer drug. • Typical neurons act via Alzheimer curing by ceria-loading apatite-based galantamine.

  5. Detachment folds versus thrust-folds: numerical modelling and applications to the Swiss Jura Mountains and the Canadian Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Florian; Bauville, Arthur; Epard, Jean-Luc; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Jura Mountains and the Foothills of the Canadian Rockies fold-and-thrust belts are classical examples of thin-skinned belts where folds develop over weak detachment horizons. They offer the possibility to observe and measure strain in folds. In these two belts, a large spectrum of fold geometries is expressed, from symmetric box-fold or pop-up structures to asymmetric thrust-related folds. In this study, we focus on the quantification and prediction of the brittle strain distribution in folds as a function of the fold geometry. Fold geometry is considered as a continuum between two end-member structural styles: symmetric detachment folds and asymmetric foreland-vergent thrust-folds. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of visco-plastic detachment folding. The models are used (1) to systematically examine the influence of different initial parameters on the resulting geometry and style of folding and (2) to quantify the local strain pattern through time. The different parameters tested are the following: presence and size of initial geometrical perturbation at the detachment-sediment interface, rheology of the detachment (frictional vs. viscous), additional detachment layer within the series and overbunden thickness. Results of single detachment layer models show that the asymmetry of folds is primarily controlled by the height of the initial geometrical perturbation, regardless to the rheology of the detachment (frictional vs. viscous). Additional detachment interlayer within the series decreases the brittle strain within the stiff layers and favours more rounded anticlines geometry. The models were then adapted to the Swiss Jura and the Canadian Foothills settings. Compared to field observations and cross-sections of existing fault-related anticlines, the proposed simulations agree with the first order geometry and the development of associated localized zones of brittle deformation.

  6. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  7. The importance of erosion for debris flow runout modelling from applications to the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    F. Frank; B. W. McArdell; Huggel, C; A. Vieli

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed erosion of sediment by debris flows. An erosion model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the erosion model, the relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additionally,...

  8. Genome-wide association of coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, protein percentage, and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-05-01

    Cheese production is increasing in many countries, and a desire toward genetic selection for milk coagulation properties in dairy cattle breeding exists. However, measurements of individual cheesemaking properties are hampered by high costs and labor, whereas traditional single-point milk coagulation properties (MCP) are sometimes criticized. Nevertheless, new modeling of the entire curd firmness and syneresis process (CFt equation) offers new insight into the cheesemaking process. Moreover, identification of genomic regions regulating milk cheesemaking properties might enhance direct selection of individuals in breeding programs based on cheese ability rather than related milk components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies to identify genomic regions linked to traditional MCP and new CFt parameters, milk acidity (pH), and milk protein percentage. Milk and DNA samples from 1,043 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Milk pH and 3 MCP traits were grouped together to represent the MCP set. Four CFt equation parameters, 2 derived traits, and protein percentage were considered as the second group of traits (CFt set). Animals were genotyped with the Illumina SNP50 BeadChip v.2 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Multitrait animal models were used to estimate variance components. For genome-wide association studies, the genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control approach was used. In total, 106 significant marker traits associations and 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified on 12 chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, and 28). Sharp peaks were detected at 84 to 88 Mbp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, with a peak at 87.4 Mbp in the region harboring the casein genes. Evidence of quantitative trait loci at 82.6 and 88.4 Mbp on the same chromosome was found. All chromosomes but BTA6, BTA11, and BTA28 were associated with only one trait. Only BTA6 was in common between MCP

  9. Regional-scale controls on the spatial activity of rockfalls (Turtmann Valley, Swiss Alps) - A multivariate modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Meyer, Hanna; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2017-06-01

    In mountain geosystems, rockfalls are among the most effective sediment transfer processes, reflected in the regional-scale distribution of talus slopes. However, the understanding of the key controlling factors seems to decrease with increasing spatial scale, due to emergent and complex system behavior and not least to recent methodological shortcomings in rockfall modeling research. In this study, we aim (i) to develop a new approach to identify major regional-scale rockfall controls and (ii) to quantify the relative importance of these controls. Using a talus slope inventory in the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), we applied for the first time the decision-tree based random forest algorithm (RF) in combination with a principal component logistic regression (PCLR) to evaluate the spatial distribution of rockfall activity. This study presents new insights into the discussion on whether periglacial rockfall events are controlled more by topo-climatic, cryospheric, paraglacial or/and rock mechanical properties. Both models explain the spatial rockfall pattern very well, given the high areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of > 0.83. Highest accuracy was obtained by the RF, correctly predicting 88% of the rockfall source areas. The RF appears to have a great potential in geomorphic research involving multicollinear data. The regional permafrost distribution, coupled to the bedrock curvature and valley topography, was detected to be the primary rockfall control. Rockfall source areas cluster within a low-radiation elevation belt (2900-3300 m a.s.l,) consistent with a permafrost probability of > 90%. The second most important factor is the time since deglaciation, reflected by the high abundance of rockfalls along recently deglaciated (< 100 years), north-facing slopes. However, our findings also indicate a strong rock mechanical control on the paraglacial rockfall activity, declining either exponentially or linearly since deglaciation. The study

  10. Regional modelling of nitrate leaching from Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Francesca; Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Zaccone, Claudio; Spiess, Ernst; Herrera, Juan; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Organic cropping systems have been promoted as a sustainable alternative to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. Relatively little is known about the potential to reduce NO3-N leaching through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Moreover, the potential to mitigate NO3-N leaching and thus the N pollution under future climate change through organic farming remain unknown and highly uncertain. Here, we compared regional NO3-N leaching from organic and conventional cropping systems in Switzerland using a terrestrial biogeochemical process-based model DayCent. The objectives of this study are 1) to calibrate and evaluate the model for NO3-N leaching measured under various management practices from three experiments at two sites in Switzerland; 2) to estimate regional NO3-N leaching patterns and their spatial uncertainty in conventional and organic cropping systems (with and without cover crops) for future climate change scenario A1B; 3) to explore the sensitivity of NO3-N leaching to changes in soil and climate variables; and 4) to assess the nitrogen use efficiency for conventional and organic cropping systems with and without cover crops under climate change. The data for model calibration/evaluation were derived from field experiments conducted in Liebefeld (canton Bern) and Eschikon (canton Zürich). These experiments evaluated effects of various cover crops and N fertilizer inputs on NO3-N leaching. The preliminary results suggest that the model was able to explain 50 to 83% of the inter-annual variability in the measured soil drainage (RMSE from 12.32 to 16.89 cm y-1). The annual NO3-N leaching was also simulated satisfactory (RMSE = 3.94 to 6.38 g N m-2 y-1), although the model had difficulty to reproduce the inter-annual variability in the NO3-N leaching losses correctly (R2 = 0.11 to 0.35). Future climate datasets (2010-2099) from the 10 regional climate models (RCM) were used in the simulations. Regional NO3-N leaching

  11. Calculation and visualisation of future glacier extent in the Swiss Alps by means of hypsographic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, F.; Maisch, M.; Rothenbühler, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Haeberli, W.

    2007-02-01

    The observed rapid glacier wastage in the European Alps during the past 20 years already has strong impacts on the natural environment (rock fall, lake formation) as well as on human activities (tourism, hydro-power production, etc.) and poses several new challenges also for glacier monitoring. With a further increase of global mean temperature in the future, it is likely that Alpine glaciers and the high-mountain environment as an entire system will further develop into a state of imbalance. Hence, the assessment of future glacier geometries is a valuable prerequisite for various impact studies. In order to calculate and visualize in a consistent manner future glacier extent for a large number of individual glaciers (> 100) according to a given climate change scenario, we have developed an automated and simple but robust approach that is based on an empirical relationship between glacier size and the steady-state accumulation area ratio (AAR 0) in the Alps. The model requires digital glacier outlines and a digital elevation model (DEM) only and calculates new glacier geometries from a given shift of the steady-state equilibrium line altitude (ELA 0) by means of hypsographic modelling. We have calculated changes in number, area and volume for 3062 individual glacier units in Switzerland and applied six step changes in ELA 0 (from + 100 to + 600 m) combined with four different values of the AAR 0 (0.5, 0.6, 0.67, 0.75). For an AAR 0 of 0.6 and an ELA 0 rise of 200 m (400 m) we calculate a total area loss of - 54% (- 80%) and a corresponding volume loss of - 50% (- 78%) compared to the 1973 glacier extent. In combination with a geocoded satellite image, the future glacier outlines are also used for automated rendering of perspective visualisations. This is a very attractive tool for communicating research results to the general public. Our study is illustrated for a test site in the Upper Engadine (Switzerland), where landscape changes above timberline play an

  12. Effects of post-Kyoto policy on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a single-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen der Schweizer Post-Kyoto-Politik - Analyse mit einem dynamischen Gleichgewichtsmodell fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emission legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The paper presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, which effects on the economy in general (BIP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. In particular, a dynamic, single-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  13. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  14. Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sunder Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR, demethoxycurcumin (DMC, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60 mg/kg, body weight, per oral for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10 μg/2 μL into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA, DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D2 receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D2 receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. The Best Model of the Swiss Banknote Data -Validation by the 95% CI of coefficients and t-test of discriminant scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The discriminant analysis is not the inferential statistics since there are no equations for standard error (SE of error rate and discriminant coefficient based on the normal distribution. In this paper, we proposed the “k-fold cross validation for small sample” and can obtain the 95% confidence interval (CI of error rates and discriminant coefficients. This method is the computer-intensive approach by statistical and mathematical programming (MP software such as JMP and LINGO. By the proposed approach, we can choose the best model with the minimum mean of error rate in the validation samples (Minimum M2 Standard. In this research, we examine the sixteen linear separable models of Swiss banknote data by eight linear discriminant functions (LDFs. M2 of the best model of Revised IP-OLDF is the smallest value of all models. We find all coefficients of six Revised IP-OLDF among sixteen models rejected by the 95% CI of discriminant coefficients (Discriminant coefficient standard. We compare t-values of the discriminant scores. The t-value of the best model has the maximum values among sixteen models (Maximum t-value Standard. Moreover, we can conclude that all standards support the best model of Revised IP-OLDF.

  16. CNS activity of the methanol extracts of Careya arborea in experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sambath Kumar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate central nervous system (CNS activity of the methanol extract of barks of Careya arborea (Myrtaceae in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats. General behavior, exploratory behavior, muscle relaxant activity and phenobarbitone sodium–induced sleeping time were studied. The results revealed that the methanol extract of barks of Careya arborea at 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the spontaneous activity (general behavioral profile, remarkable decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern (Y–maze and head dip test, a reduction in muscle relaxant activity (rotarod and traction tests, and also significantly potentiated phenobarbitone sodium–induced sleeping time. The results suggest that methanol extract of Careya arborea exhibit CNS depressant activity in tested animal models.

  17. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  18. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  19. Effects of nimesulide on testicular functions in prepubertal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Agbasi Patrick; Ebere, Orisakwe Orish; Okwuoma, Abanobi

    2011-11-23

    Daily consumption of painkillers has almost become a routine in many parts of Africa and Asia due to manual labor, especially in young adults. In view of the wide-scale use of painkillers in many parts of Africa and Asia, it is feared that the use of nimesulide may constitute an appreciable public health risk. The present work is aimed at assessing the long-term testicular toxicity of nimesulide in growing male albino rats. Male albino rats aged 4-5 weeks and weighing between 36 and 42 g were obtained from the Toxicology Unit of the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The animals were housed singly in a cross-ventilated room at a temperature 22°C±3°C and a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. They were fed with standard rat pellets (Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Ikeja, Nigeria) and were given water ad libitum. The rats were divided into three groups of five rats each: the first and second groups orally received 5 and 7.5 mg/kg/day of nimesulide, respectively, whereas the third group did not receive any drug and acted as controls for 56 days. Weekly body weight of each rat was taken. Blood samples were collected on the 56th day by cardiac puncture, and serum samples were frozen until analysis. Rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia. Epididymal semen number was counted using a Neubauer counting chamber. Sperm motility was assayed microscopically within 5 min at 37°C. Estradiol and testosterone were analyzed with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay using Elecsys autoanalyzer, model 1010 (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). The testes were excised, weighed, and fixed in Bouin fluid and processed for histopathology. Treatment with nimesulide did not significantly affect body weight, absolute and relative testis weights, or epididymal sperm number, but there were significant differences in testosterone and estradiol levels. At the doses studied, there were no significant changes in testicular architecture except for mild degenerative

  20. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  1. Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy. Results from the computable induced technical change and energy (CITE) model - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-09-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the Computable Induced Technical Change and Energy (CITE) model. The authors note that, in the past two centuries, the Swiss economy experienced an unprecedented increase in living standards. At the same time, the stock of various natural resources declined and the environmental conditions changed substantially. The evaluation of the sustainability of a low energy and low carbon society as well as an optimum transition to this state is discussed. An economic analysis is made and the CITE and GCE (Computable General Equilibrium) numerical simulation models are discussed. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  2. Myrica nagi attenuates cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A; Iqbal, M; Saleem, M; Ahmed, S; Sultana, S

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to identify new chemopreventive agents which could be useful for man. Myrica nagi, a subtropical shrub, has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity and other pharmacological and physiological disorders. We have shown a chemopreventive effect of Myrica nagi on cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in mice. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment at a dose level of 30 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone enhances susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for iron-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and induction of xanthine oxidase activity which are accompanied by decrease in the activities of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and depletion in the level of cutaneous glutathione. Parallel to these changes a sharp decrease in the activities of phase II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase has been observed. Application of Myrica nagi at doses of 2.0 mg and 4.0 mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of cumene hydroperoxide (30 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone) treatment resulted in significant inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for lipid peroxidation induced by iron ascorbate and xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced (Pcumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity.

  3. Antitumor activity and antioxident role of Bauhinia racemosa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malaya GUPTA; Upal Kanti MAZUMDER; Ramanathan Sambath KUMAR; Thangavel Siva KUMAR

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect and antioxidant role of Bauhinia racemosa. METHODS: Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of methanol extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice. Acute and short-term toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR). After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the extract was administered daily for 14 d. After administration of the last dose followed by 18 h fasting, mice were then sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. The effect of MEBR on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC bearing hosts and simultaneous alterations in the hematological profile and liver biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes) were estimated. RESULTS: The MEBR showed decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, and increased the nonviable cell count and mean survival time thereby increasing life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile reverted to more or less normal levels in extract treated mice. Treatment with MEBR decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. CONCLUSION: The methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark exhibited antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system in EAC bearing mice.

  4. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia.

  5. Protective effect of Genistein against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahad Ali; Rahul; Falaq Naz; Smita Jyoti; Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of Genistein against the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). NDEA is present in almost all kinds of food stuff and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. The male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) dissolved in drinking water separately and along with 25, 50, 100 mg/mL of Genistein for 21 days. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, micronucleus frequency and DNA damage (Comet assay) were performed on rat hepatocytes. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA along with Genistein showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the levels of blood serum enzymes i.e., SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (Po0.05). The HE staining of histological sections of the liver also revealed a protective effect of Genistein. A significant dose-dependent reduction in the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) along with Genistein (Po0.05). The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length (Po0.05). Thus the present study supports the hepatoprotective role of Genistein.

  6. Hepatoprotective mechanism of lycorine against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in swiss albino mice - A proteomic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soundarrajan Ilavenil; Dhanaraj Karthik; Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar; Srisesharam Srigopalram; Selvaraj Arokiyaraj; Sivanesan Ravikumar; Ki Choon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential of protein expression in CCl4 induced mice treated with lycorine. Methods: The present study was carried out to identify the differentially expressed protein in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress mice treated with lycorine (5 mg/kg. bw) using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF. Results: We observed many kinds of differentially expressed protein in experimental liver. Among these, three are much differently expressed protein which is identified as ATP synthase, regucalcin and HSP60; these proteins are involved in the ATP synthesis, calcium regulation and rescue the integrity cellular proteins respectively. Conclusion: This investigation provided a molecular mechanism of the lycorine during CCl4 induced oxidative stress in mice liver.

  7. Synergistic interaction of levetiracetam with gabapentin in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model – a type II isobolographic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wlaz Aleksandra; Kondrat-Wrobel Maria W.; Zaluska Katarzyna; Kochman Ewelina; Rekas Anna R.; Luszczki Jarogniew J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolog...

  8. Rescue of the albino phenotype by introducing a functional tyrosinase minigene into Kunming albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiao; Kang Xu; Xi-Gu Chen; Ying Yue; Xin-Yan Deng; Bing Huang; Zhong-Min Guo; Yun Ma; Yi-Li Lin; Xun Hong; Huan Tang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To use the tyrosinase minigene as a visual marker to perform microinjection training and improve the techniques related with transgene to greatly elevate the efficiency of gene transfer.METHODS: A mouse tyrosinase minigene, i.e., TyBS,in which the 2.25-kb authentic genomic 5' non-coding flanking sequence of mouse tyrosinase was fused to a mouse tyrosinase cDNA, was introduced into the fertilized eggs of outbred Kunming albino mice.RESULTS: Of the 11 animals that developed from the injected eggs, two mice (P1 and #8) exhibited pigmented hair (P1) and eyes (P1 and #8), as confirmed by PCR analysis for the tyrosinase minigene integrated into the genome. When founder P1 was bred to Kunming male mouse, six progeny out of 11 offspring inherited the transgene and the pigmented-eye phenotype.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that this minigene encodes the active tyrosinase protein and that its 5' flanking region contains the sequences regulating the expression of mouse tyrosinase gene as expected. We have rescued the albino phenotype by introduction and expression of a functional tyrosinase minigene in the Kunming albino mouse and the transgene can be passed to subsequent generation.These findings also indicate that TyBS can be a useful visual marker gene in the co-transgenic experiments.

  9. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  10. Determination and climatology of the planetary boundary layer height by in-situ and remote sensing methods as well as the COSMO model above the Swiss plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Collaud Coen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL height is a key parameter in air quality control and pollutant dispersion. The PBL height can however not be directly measured and its estimation relies on the analysis of the vertical profiles of the temperature, the turbulences or the atmospheric composition. An operational PBL height detection including several remote sensing instruments (windprofiler, Raman lidar, microwave radiometer and several algorithms (Parcel and bulk Richardson number methods, surface-based temperature inversion, aerosol or humidity gradient analysis were developed and the first year of application allowed validating these various detection methods against radio sounding measurements. The microwave radiometer provides convective boundary layer heights in good agreement with the radio sounding (median bias R2 > 0.70 and allows to fully analyzing the PBL height diurnal cycle due to its smaller time granularity. The Raman lidar also leads to good results whereas the windprofiler yields some more dispersed results. Comparisons with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 were also established and point out a general overestimation by the model. Finally the seasonal cycles of the daytime and nighttime PBL heights are discussed for each instrument and each detection algorithm for two stations on the Swiss plateau.

  11. A model-data comparison of Holocene timberline changes in the Swiss Alps reveals past and future drivers of mountain forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwörer, Christoph; Henne, Paul D; Tinner, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Mountain vegetation is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift upwards with climate change. Dynamic vegetation models are often used to assess the impact of climate on vegetation and model output can be compared with paleobotanical data as a reality check. Recent paleoecological studies have revealed regional variation in the upward shift of timberlines in the Northern and Central European Alps in response to rapid warming at the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition ca. 11 700 years ago, probably caused by a climatic gradient across the Alps. This contrasts with previous studies that successfully simulated the early Holocene afforestation in the (warmer) Central Alps with a chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction from the (colder) Northern Alps. We use LandClim, a dynamic landscape vegetation model to simulate mountain forests under different temperature, soil and precipitation scenarios around Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) a lake in the Northwestern Swiss Alps, and compare the model output with the paleobotanical records. The model clearly overestimates the upward shift of timberline in a climate scenario that applies chironomid-inferred July-temperature anomalies to all months. However, forest establishment at 9800 cal. BP at Iffigsee is successfully simulated with lower moisture availability and monthly temperatures corrected for stronger seasonality during the early Holocene. The model-data comparison reveals a contraction in the realized niche of Abies alba due to the prominent role of anthropogenic disturbance after ca. 5000 cal. BP, which has important implications for species distribution models (SDMs) that rely on equilibrium with climate and niche stability. Under future climate projections, LandClim indicates a rapid upward shift of mountain vegetation belts by ca. 500 m and treeline positions of ca. 2500 m a.s.l. by the end of this century. Resulting biodiversity losses in the alpine vegetation belt might be mitigated with low

  12. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Regional-scale GIS-models for assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: evaluation and application in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huggel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows triggered by glacier lake outbursts have repeatedly caused disasters in various high-mountain regions of the world. Accelerated change of glacial and periglacial environments due to atmospheric warming and increased anthropogenic development in most of these areas raise the need for an adequate hazard assessment and corresponding modelling. The purpose of this paper is to pro-vide a modelling approach which takes into account the current evolution of the glacial environment and satisfies a robust first-order assessment of hazards from glacier-lake outbursts. Two topography-based GIS-models simulating debris flows related to outbursts from glacier lakes are presented and applied for two lake outburst events in the southern Swiss Alps. The models are based on information about glacier lakes derived from remote sensing data, and on digital elevation models (DEM. Hydrological flow routing is used to simulate the debris flow resulting from the lake outburst. Thereby, a multiple- and a single-flow-direction approach are applied. Debris-flow propagation is given in probability-related values indicating the hazard potential of a certain location. The debris flow runout distance is calculated on the basis of empirical data on average slope trajectory. The results show that the multiple-flow-direction approach generally yields a more detailed propagation. The single-flow-direction approach, however, is more robust against DEM artifacts and, hence, more suited for process automation. The model is tested with three differently generated DEMs (including aero-photogrammetry- and satellite image-derived. Potential application of the respective DEMs is discussed with a special focus on satellite-derived DEMs for use in remote high-mountain areas.

  14. Development of land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide, ultrafine particles, lung deposited surface area, and four other markers of particulate matter pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Phuleria, Harish; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Keidel, Dirk; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2016-04-18

    Land Use Regression (LUR) is a popular method to explain and predict spatial contrasts in air pollution concentrations, but LUR models for ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration (PNC) are especially scarce. Moreover, no models have been previously presented for the lung deposited surface area (LDSA) of ultrafine particles. The additional value of ultrafine particle metrics has not been well investigated due to lack of exposure measurements and models. Air pollution measurements were performed in 2011 and 2012 in the eight areas of the Swiss SAPALDIA study at up to 40 sites per area for NO2 and at 20 sites in four areas for markers of particulate air pollution. We developed multi-area LUR models for biannual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, PMcoarse, PNC and LDSA, as well as alpine, non-alpine and study area specific models for NO2, using predictor variables which were available at a national level. Models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation, as well as independent external validation with routine monitoring data. Model explained variance (R(2)) was moderate for the various PM mass fractions PM2.5 (0.57), PM10 (0.63) and PMcoarse (0.45), and was high for PM2.5 absorbance (0.81), PNC (0.87) and LDSA (0.91). Study-area specific LUR models for NO2 (R(2) range 0.52-0.89) outperformed combined-area alpine (R (2)  = 0.53) and non-alpine (R (2)  = 0.65) models in terms of both cross-validation and independent external validation, and were better able to account for between-area variability. Predictor variables related to traffic and national dispersion model estimates were important predictors. LUR models for all pollutants captured spatial variability of long-term average concentrations, performed adequately in validation, and could be successfully applied to the SAPALDIA cohort. Dispersion model predictions or area indicators served well to capture the between area variance. For NO2, applying study

  15. Statelessness determination: the Swiss experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hamann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While a detailed law on statelessness determination is recommended by UNHCR and others, Swiss practice in statelessness determination has evolved without one. Despite this, Swiss practice has been shown to be rather progressive, at least in some areas of statelessness recognition and includes better treatment of the stateless in comparison with refugees.

  16. No Swiss-cheese on the brane

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A

    2004-01-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  17. Sediment connectivity in the high-alpine valley of Val Müschauns, Swiss National Park - linking geomorphic field mapping with geomorphometric modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of sediment routing through mountain sediment cascades is controlled by the connectivity of hillslopes to the main river system. A lack of connectivity may cause long-term sediment storage and exclude large fractions of a basin from the sediment routing for several thousand years. Here, we studied sediment dynamics in a small, formerly glaciated valley in the Swiss Alps. To characterise the sediment connectivity to the stream, we calculated a morphometric index using a GIS algorithm. The modelling results were tested against a field based geomorphic mapping of sediment storages, which were evaluated with respect to their state of (de)coupling. In accordance to the field diagnostics, the modelling results indicate very well that the present-day sediment flux is conditioned by the glacial valley morphometry inherited through Pleistocene glaciation. Especially in the upper hanging valleys, the connectivity index is reduced noticeably due to the glacial cirque morphology. Based on the field mapping, 30% of the hillslope sediment cascades are interrupted and 20% of the storage boundaries are currently affected by a lack of material transfer. As a consequence, ~ 29% of the basin surface is currently disconnected from the main river. Nevertheless, the GIS algorithm overestimates the connectivity within the basin, because it fails to calculate decoupling between neighbouring pixels in digital terrain models (DTMs). Around 35% of the basin surface, which has been mapped in the field as being decoupled, is related to relative high connectivity. Our study highlights the potential of morphometric GIS modelling for studying sediment connectivity, but additionally emphasises the indispensability of geomorphic field mapping for a holistic understanding of mountain cascading systems.

  18. Effect of Mimosa pudica root extract on vaginal estrous and serum hormones for screening of antifertility activity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Mausumi; Devi, Nirada; Mahanta, Rita; Borthakur, Mridul K

    2007-12-01

    Several plants are traditionally used as birth control agents by the rural people in India. Mimosa pudica is one of the folk medicinal plants commonly used as antifertility agent in some places in India. The present work was carried out to evaluate the claimed antifertility effect of the plant by carrying out pharmacological studies with the root extract of the plant. Air-dried roots of M. pudica were extracted using methanol. Dried methanol extract of the root was administered orally to Swiss albino mice for 21 consecutive days. Estrous cycle, reproductive hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone) and number of litters produced were studied in both control and extract-administered groups by using standard methods. Phytochemical studies of the methanolic root extract were carried out using qualitative and thin-layer chromatography methods. M. pudica root extract, when administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day, prolonged the length of the estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of the diestrous phase and reduced the number of litters in albino mice. The number of litters was increased in the posttreatment period. The analysis of the principal hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone) involved in the regulation of the estrous cycle showed that the root extract altered gonadotropin release and estradiol secretion. The root extract of M. pudica has antifertility effect as it prolongs the estrous cycle and disturbs the secretion of gonadotropin hormones in albino mice. The decrease in FSH level in the proestrus and estrus stages in the extract-administered group compared with those of control animals indicates the disturbance of estrous cycle and ovulation through suppression of FSH.

  19. Gastric cytoprotection and honey intake in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Egwurugwu, J N; Osim, E E

    2011-11-23

    Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa .Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores. The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+/-0.70 for the control group and 1.6+/-0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group. It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric

  20. Concentrations of the UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate in the aquatic compartment: a comparison of modelled concentrations for Swiss surface waters with empirical monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2002-05-10

    UV filters in sunscreens and cosmetics protect the skin from damage through UV radiation. Many tonnes per year of UV filters are being used in Europe and will be present, at least seasonally, in detectable concentrations in surface waters similar to common pharmaceutically active substances. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC; CAS 5466-77-3) were extrapolated for Switzerland, taking into consideration substance-specific environmental fate data and marketing estimates, by crude worst-case reckoning and by applying two environmental models (Mackay Level III; USES 3.0), both configured for Swiss hydrological and area data. By worst-case reckoning the summer PEC is 70.8-81.3 ng/l while for the remaining 8 months of the year the PEC is 13.1-15.1 ng/l. The Level III model results in concentrations of 2.4 ng/l during the summer and 0.44 ng/l during the rest of the year, while the USES 3.0 model gives an average PEC for the whole year of 7.6 ng/l. Pooling summer monitoring data (90 single analyses) from the River Rhine below Basel in the year 1997 (Water Protection Board of Basel) and from Lakes Zurich and Hüttner in 1998 (Poiger et al., in preparation) allowed a derivation of a probabilistic median concentration of 4.6 ng/l, a 95th-percentile concentration of 18.6 ng/l and a 99th-percentile concentration of 33.5 ng/l. The 6-fold range from the median value to the maximum calls for caution in interpreting published monitoring concentrations. Comparison of modelled PECs with realistic median concentrations shows that crude reckoning overestimates actual concentrations by a factor of about 10, probably through insufficient consideration of (further) degradation of EHMC in sewage works, surface waters, sediments or river banks. Both computer models, in contrast, are within the same order of magnitude as the actual summer concentrations. Based on the available data, both these environmental fate and distribution models give

  1. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  2. Antiarthritic activity of Vernonia amygdalina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of water extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina(V.A.)on arthritis induced model of rats.Methods:Arthritis was induced in male albino Wister rats by injection of cro-ton oil (0.1 mL)into the left foot pad of the animals.Treatment with V.A.at 200 and 400 mg/kg and stand-ard Indomethacin (0.3 mg/kg)was started on the same day and continued up to the 12th day.The paw vol-ume was measured on the 1st,5th,12th and 21st day,respectively for both the paws and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated.Results:The extract of V.A.produced reduction in the inflammation of the paw due to croton oil.The antiarthritic action started on the 5th day and continued till the 12th day and the activity was compara-ble to that of the standard on both days.V.A.significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis and had signifi-cant ant-inflammatory effect (P <0.05).Conclusion:This report therefore clearly showed that V.A.signifi-cantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats as it significantly reduced the paw volume on the 12th day and may explain the effectiveness of this plant when used in the tropics for the treatment of arthritis.

  3. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna K. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

  4. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  5. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  6. Tree biomass in the Swiss landscape: nationwide modelling for improved accounting for forest and non-forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B; Gomez, A; Mathys, L; Gardi, O; Schellenberger, A; Ginzler, C; Thürig, E

    2017-03-01

    Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground). Validation of the tree biomass model against TOF data within settlement areas shows relatively low model performance (R (2) of 0.44) but still a considerable improvement on current biomass estimates used for greenhouse gas inventory and carbon accounting. We demonstrate an efficient and easily implementable approach to modelling tree biomass across a large heterogeneous nationwide area. The model offers significant opportunity for improved estimates on land use combination categories (CC) where tree biomass has either not been included or only roughly estimated until now. The ALS biomass model also offers the advantage of providing greater spatial resolution and greater within CC spatial variability compared to the current nationwide estimates.

  7. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  8. Evaluation of Anticancer activity of Aerva Sanguinolenta (L.) (Amaranthaceae) on Ehrlich?s Ascites cell induced Swiss Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Lalee; Pinaki Pal; Bolay Bhattacharaya; Amalesh Samanta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Aerva sanguinolenta (Family: Amaranthaceae) by intraperitoneal route to Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing mice. After determination of acute toxicity [LD50 = 2250mg/kg body weight which was given through i.p. route] of the plant extract on Swiss albino mice. The protocol started with tumor inoculation of 2x106 cells i.p. After 24 hrs of tumor inoculation, ethanolic, aqueous extracts and vinblastine (stan...

  9. [Medicamentous kidney protection in type 2 diabetic patients--is cheaper also more economical? A model calculation for Swiss health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J; Hess, B

    2002-05-01

    Impaired renal function occurs in about 50% of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy has become the leading cause of endstage renal disease. Reduction of blood pressure to levels around 120/80 mmHg is one of the most effective way to slow progression of diabetic nephropathy. Recent meta-analyses, however, have emphasized on the fact that ACE inhibitors (ACEI) and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (NDHP-CCB) exert nephro-protective effects which go beyond the effect of blood pressure reduction. This has lately been confirmed by a prospective trial in comparison to the betablocker atenolol. Based on these data, demographics of the Swiss population, literature data on mortality rates of type 2 diabetics with impaired renal function and studies on true costs of antihypertensives, we calculated the costs of a longterm intervention (20 years) with antihypertensives in 3536 middle-aged Swiss patients with type 2 diabetes and macro-albuminuria whose antihypertensive regimen was based either on the ACEI lisinopril, or the ND-HP-CCB verapamil, or the betablocker atenolol. Under atenolol, acquisition costs were lowest, whereas faster loss of renal function over time increased mortality rate and thus reduced the number of patients to be treated. Nevertheless, due to the fact that patients reached uremia and had to be dialyzed, 20 years of atenolol-based regimen with costs of 316 millions of Swiss francs turned out to be much more expensive than the lisinopril- or the verapamil-based regimen with 121 and 38 millions of Swiss francs, respectively. Thus, low acquisition cost is not necessarily the only important determinant of overall costs of drug therapy.

  10. Use of haloperidol and risperidone in highly aggressive Swiss Webster mice by applying the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; de Araújo-Jorge, Tânia Cremonini; de Azevedo, Marcos José; Campos, Jerônimo Diego de Souza; Cortez, Célia Martins; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo

    2016-03-15

    Aggression is defined as the act in which an individual intentionally harms or injures another of their own species. Antipsychotics are a form of treatment used in psychiatric routine. They have been used for decades in treatment of patients with aggressive behavior. Haloperidol and risperidone promote the control of psychiatric symptoms, through their respective mechanisms of action. Experimental models are obtained by behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations, and use a reduced number of animals. In this context, we applied the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA), originating the presence of highly aggressive mice (AgR) when reassembled in adulthood. We administered haloperidol and risperidone in escalating doses, for ten consecutive days. Using positive and negative control groups, we evaluated the effectiveness of these drugs and the reversal of the aggressive behavior, performing the tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) on 10th day of treatment and 10 days after its discontinuation. The results showed that both antipsychotic drugs were effective in AgR and reversed the aggressive phenotype, reducing the number of attacks by AgR and the extent of lesions in the subordinate mice (AgD) exposed to the pattern of aggressive behavior (PAB) of the aggressors. This conclusion is based on the reduction in the animals' motor and exploratory activity, and on the reversal of patterns of aggressive behavior. The association between the MSA and experiments with other therapeutic protocols and different antipsychotics can be an important methodology in the study of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients.

  11. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    met solely from the breast milk (Walker, 1990). ... showed that the nutrient composition of the diets ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical .... Values are mean ± SD, n=8; Values bearing different superscripts(a,b,c) differ significantly (P<0.05); MLA=Millet Alone ... due to decrease in the synthetic function of the.

  12. Narratives of Tanzanian Albinos in Kenya and South-Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation NOAH; 2008). In most ... the spate of killings, by contract killers and witchdoctors in some certain quarters in ... research; reported the death of 74 albinos, 58 survivors (all deeply traumatized and ... express their views without exaggerations and share examples, from their life ...

  13. 瑞士中小型企业创新发展模式%Innovation and Development Model of Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建忠

    2014-01-01

    瑞士联邦政府为促进中小型企业创新活动,专门设立了一个国家级创新基金资助独立法人机构——国家技术创新委员会(KTI)。该机构用自建的“科学技术转移支撑系统”,为中小型企业提供包括“丰富创新方案、提升创新目标、帮助寻找合作伙伴直至合作项目形成并提供资助”的全程服务。瑞士中小型企业创新发展模式是:自主创新体现在企业创新想法的形成和自身经费的投入上,创新活动的开展依托在科研机构的参与上,创新成功建立在政府支持形成的有效的产学研结合上。%The Committee of Technology and Innovation ( CTI ) was set up by Swiss federal government specially to promote innovation activities of its small and medium-sized enterprises ( SMEs ). Based on the WTT-Support platform, the committee seeks to provide a series of solutions for SMEs, from making various innovation schemes, promoting innovation target, and helping seek partners, to funding SEMs to carry out business projects. Based on the in-depth study of Swiss enterprises, this paper summarizes innovation and development of Swiss SMEs, especially emphasizes the approaches to innovation activities of Swiss SMEs and strong support by the Swiss Committee of Technology and Innovation ( CTI ), which supports the collaboration among industries, universities and research sectors with all its strength.

  14. Spatial and temporal modelling of fluvial aggradation in the Hasli Valley (Swiss Alps) during the last 1300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Jaime; Schulte, Lothar; Carvalho, Filipe

    2016-04-01

    The Haslital delta (upper Aare River catchment, Bernese Alps) progradated into the Lake Brienz after the retreat of the Aare Glacier (post-LGM). Present delta plain geomorphology and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies result from historical fluvial dynamics and aggradation. Over centuries, local communities have struggled to control the Aare floods and to mitigate their effects on the floodplain (by means of raising artificial levees, channelizing the course, creating an underground drainage network, constructing dams at the basin headwaters). This study focuses on the spatial and temporal evolution of sediment dynamics of the floodplain by analyzing fluvial sedimentary records . The internal variability of lithostratigraphic sequences is a key issue to understand hydrological processes in the basin under the effect of environmental and anthropogenic changes of the past. The floodplain lithostratigraphy was reconstructed by coring alongside four cross-sections; each one is composed of more than 25 shallow boreholes (2 m deep) and two long drillings (variable depth, up to 9 m). The chronostratigraphical models were obtained by AMS 14C dating, and information of paleofloods and channel migration were reconstructed from historical sources (Schulte et al., 2015). The identification of different sedimentary facies, associated with the fluvial architecture structures, provides information on variations of vertical and lateral accretion processes (Houben, 2007). The location and geometry of buried channel-levee facies (gravel and coarse sand layers) indicate a significant mobility of the riverbed of the Hasli-Aare river, following an oscillatory pattern during the last millennia. Furthermore, fine sedimentary deposits and peat layers represent the existence of stable areas where floods have a low incidence. Once the different types of deposits were identified, aggradation rates were estimated in order to determine the spatial variability of the accumulation

  15. Effect of CO{sub 2} and emissions-trading on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a multi-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen von CO{sub 2}-Abgaben und Emissionshandel fuer das Jahr 2020 - Analyse der volkswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen mit Hilfe eines allgemeinen Mehrlaender-Gleichgewichtsmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    This report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emissions legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The report presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, the amount of finance needed to do this, which effects on the economy in general (GDP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects of an active climate policy are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. A multi-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  16. Absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rat mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Barna, János; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-02-15

    Absence epileptic activity was analyzed during pregnancy, the postpartum period and after weaning to establish alterations of seizures throughout the reproductive cycle. Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were used in the study as a model of absence epilepsy and because their seizures do not interfere with rearing offspring. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was gradually elevated from the 19th pregnancy day to delivery. Meanwhile, the characteristics of individual SWDs did not change suggesting that SWD generation remained the same. In the postpartum and postweaning periods, the number of SWDs was not increased in the absence of pups. However, returning the pups to mothers resulted in a markedly elevated number of SWDs for 1h. If pups were taken away after 30min, the number of SWDs dropped immediately suggesting that the presence of pups increased the SWD number. The time mothers spent with the litter and in kyphosis suckling posture were in correlation with their SWD number further suggesting the importance of interaction with pups in SWD induction. Suckling elevates prolactin levels but surprisingly, its intracerebroventricular injection markedly reduced SWD number in suckled WAG/Rij mothers suggesting that the SWD-inducing effect of suckling is not mediated by prolactin. Rather, the elevated prolactin level may provide some protection against pro-epileptic effects of suckling. In conclusion, we first identified periods within the reproductive cycle with increased absence epileptic activity, implying that more attention should be devoted to epileptic activity changes in mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gap junction proteins in the light-damaged albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cindy X; Tran, Henry; Green, Colin R; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Acosta, Monica L

    2014-01-01

    Changes in connexin expression are associated with many pathological conditions seen in animal models and in humans. We hypothesized that gap junctions are important mediators in tissue dysfunction and injury processes in the retina, and therefore, we investigated the pattern of connexin protein expression in the light-damaged albino rat eye. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense light for 24 h. The animals were euthanized, and ocular tissue was harvested at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days after light damage. The tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blotting to analyze the expression of the gap junction proteins in the light-damaged condition compared to the non-light-damaged condition. Cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. Intense light exposure caused increased TUNEL labeling of photoreceptor cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that connexin 36 (Cx36) was significantly increased in the inner plexiform layer and Cx45 was significantly decreased in the light-damaged retina. The pattern of Cx36 and Cx45 labeling returned to normal 7 days after light damage. Cx43 significantly increased in the RPE and the choroid in the light-damaged tissue, and decreased but not significantly in the retina. This elevated Cx43 expression in the choroid colocalized with markers of nitration-related oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine) and inflammation (CD45 and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1) in the choroid. The results suggest that connexins are regulated differently in the retina than in the choroid in response to photoreceptor damage. Changes in connexins, including Cx36, Cx43, and Cx45, may contribute to the damage process. Specifically, Cx43 was associated with inflammatory damage. Therefore, connexins may be candidate targets for treatment for ameliorating disease progression.

  18. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  19. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics. Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  20. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  1. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  2. COMPARATIVE ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFICACY OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI EXTRACTS IN ALBINO RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. IQBAL, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, B. ASLAM AND L. ALI1

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi (L Sprague (Ajowain extracts in chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water was investigated in albino rabbits. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with butter fed ad libitum and oral intubation of cholesterol 400 mg/kg body weight. Simvastatin was used as a synthetic cholesterol lowering drug. The results suggested that chloroform and water extracts of T. ammi seed had no hypolipidaemic activity. However, methanol and petroleum ether extracts equivalent to its 2 g/kg body weight powder and Simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg body weight were equally effective in treating hyperlipidaemia in albino rabbits. Moreover, petroleum ether extract appeared to be more potent than methanol extract on the basis of increasing the level of HDL-cholesterol and lowering the LDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract reduced atherogenic index (total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract.

  3. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  4. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Al-Naemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  5. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  6. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  7. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  8. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  9. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  10. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  11. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  12. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  13. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  14. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  15. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  16. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  18. The pigmentary system of developing axolotls. III. An analysis of the albino phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J

    1986-03-01

    The albino mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Pigment cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope in order to determine any unusual structural characteristics and to determine what happens to each of the cell types as development proceeds. Chemical analyses of pteridine pigments were also carried out, and the pattern of pteridines in albino animals was found to be more complex than, and quantitatively enhanced (at all developmental stages examined) over, the pattern observed in comparable wild-type axolotls. The golden colour of albino axolotls is due primarily to sepiapterin (a yellow pteridine) and secondarily to riboflavin (and other flavins). Coincident with enhanced levels of yellow pigments, xanthophore pigment organelles (pterinosomes) in albino skin reach a mature state earlier than they do in wild-type axolotl skin. This morphology is conserved throughout development in albino animals whereas it is gradually lost in the wild type. Unpigmented melanophores from albino axolotls are illustrated for the first time, and in larval albino axolotls the morphology of these cells is shown to be very similar to xanthophore morphology. In older animals xanthophores are easily distinguished from unpigmented melanophores. Iridophores seem to appear in albino skin at an earlier stage than they have been observed in wild-type skin. Morphologically, wild-type and albino iridophores are identical.

  19. Expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This chapter draws on data and findings from several video studies to describe the quality of mathematics teaching in Switzerland. The focus is on features of instructional practice and quality as core components of classroom behavior that reflect the teacher’s expertise in creating optimal learning opportunities. The didactic triangle is used as the basis for describing the profile of expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction in terms of three interdependent dimensions of ins...

  20. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  1. The study of Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Anti-oxidant Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Ecbolium linnaenum in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecbolium linnaenum(leaves is used as a folk medicine in Bangladesh for pain, diarrhea and infectious diseases. Phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of Ecboliumlinnaenumleaves demonstratesthese pharmacologic effect for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, gums,flavonoids and absence of carbohydrates, steroids, saponins. In this present study an attempt was made to determine the analgesic, antidiarrhoel, antioxidantand antimicrobial effectin Swiss Albino mice. Ethanolic extracts of250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition of writhing reflex 36.20% (P< 0.01 and 54.48% (P< 0.001, respectively while the standard drug diclofenac-Na was 75.52% (P< 0.001 at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight.In the castor oil-induced diarrhoealmice, the ethanolic extracts of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg, raised the latent period and reduced the number of stools comparing with standard drug Loperamide. 0.02% DPPH solution of ethanol on TLC plate showed the presence of anti-oxidant components in the Ecboliumlinnaenum.From the % inhibition of ascorbic acid and Ecboliumlinnaenum we observe that it has anti-oxidation effect. The IC50 (inhibitory conc. 50% for ascorbic acid is approximately 1 µg/ml and for the sample it is more than 500 µg/ml. The ethanolic extract of Ecboliumlinnaenum was tested for antimicrobial activity against a number of both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria but it does not show any anti-microbial effect.

  2. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies I: Mass Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include non-zero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  3. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  4. Evaluation of anti-tumor activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice

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    Jayanthi M. K.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The antitumor activity studies measuring the viability of cancer cells when exposed to the ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a potent cell-killing effect, indicating the presence of anti-cancer principles in the preparation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2153-2158

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

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    Arti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (Meaning pungent belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.

  6. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impair Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various endpoints studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29 but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 6 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

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    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  8. In vivo toxicity of the culturable marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 extract on male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanayagam, Veerabadhran; Nagarajan, Manivel; Sundararaman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 organic extract in a murine host. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1 g extract kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) did not exhibit mortality, whereas 3 g extract kg⁻¹ BW (approximate lethal dose) resulted in mortality within 5 days. To perform subchronic exposure toxicity analyses (i.e., daily exposure for a total of 14 days), a maximum concentration of ≤1 g extract kg⁻¹ BW was used. Subchronic toxicity studies in the treated mice, showed fluctuations of feed intake, loss of body weight, increase in specific activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and decrease in whole serum protein concentration. LDH isoenzyme expression was found, and levels of the various isoforms were decreased as a result of the treatment. Histopathology studies in liver, kidney, and spleen isolated from the treated mice showed the presence of necrotic debris, hemorrhage, and micronuclei revealing the toxicity of the extract. The dose-dependent alterations in biochemical parameters in conjunction with the histological lesions noted in the animals treated with the prepared extract illustrate the likely potential toxicity to mammals from any encounters with the studied cyanobacterium.

  9. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous extract on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in Swiss albino mice.

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    R A Lawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub found growing in tropical Africa. It is reputed to have more than a hundred medicinal uses and is a major component of anticancer decoctions in Nigeria. An attempt was made in this study to determine the in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity and possible pro-apoptotic effect of Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous root bark extract on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined using the Trypan blue assay by incubating Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells with various concentrations of Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous extract. In vivo study was carried out by intraperitoneal administration of varied doses of Securidaca longepedunculata to tumour-bearing mice. Isolated DNA from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in treated and untreated animals was used for DNA fragmentation assay on agarose gel. Securidaca longepedunculata Aqueous extract, Securidaca longepedunculata was cytotoxic to Ehrlich ascites both in vivo and in vitro. The IC50 of Securidaca longepedunculata was 67 µg/ml. Securidaca longepedunculata caused a decrease in angiogenesis as observed in the reduction in weight of treated animals and a reduction in volume of ascitic fluid in treated mice.  DNA fragmentation assay of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells from treated animals depicted a possible pro-apoptotic effect of the Securidaca longepedunculata extract due to the ladder forming pattern which was comparable to that of the standard drug (fluorouracil. Securidaca longepedunculata aqueous extract had a cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Industrial relevance: The use of Securidaca longepedunculata in traditional medicine in the treatment and management of cancer has been brought to the fore. Development of herbal drugs from the crude extracts could be achieved due to findings suggesting the plant could increase life span in patients with advanced stages of cancer. Herbal supplements could be produce from the plants with low concentration of the extract. Chemotherapeutic applications of the plant also include its potential inclusion in drug development based on the pro-apoptotic potential of the plant. Keywords : Securidaca longepedunculata; cytotoxic;  Ehrlich; antiproliferative; fluorouracil; mice.

  10. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury; Malaya Gupta; Upal Kanti Majumder

    2010-01-01

    Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81)] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC ) tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the v...

  11. GABA mediated response of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Dicranopteris linearis leaf in Swiss Albino mice

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    Billah Mohammad Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to assess the potential of the leaf of Dicranopteris linearis in altering the CNS functions with three different extracts; aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate.Methods: To evaluate and compare the activities Morris maze, elevated plus maze (EPM,open field, hole cross and head dip tests were performed and many behavioral parameters wereobserved. The forced swim in Morris water maze analyzed the depression of rodents in termsof inability to self-rescue. Alongside, hole cross and open field tests assessed the inhibition oflocomotor activities. Moreover, EPM test screened the anxiolytic potential while the head dippinghole board test supported the previous experiments by evaluating both sedative, depressive andanxiolytic potentials of the extracts.Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract significantly suppressed CNS activity byreducing number of locomotor activities and increasing the stability phase (in EPM and Morrismaze supporting mild sedation, depression and anxiolysis. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extractalso possessed moderate to high potential in reducing locomotor activities depending on gradientdoses. Results were compared with control group and found statistically significant.Conclusion: As this plant mimic the activity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA agonist, itcan be concluded that the plant may have GABA mediated involvement in central nervous system.However, the responsible compounds for these activities are yet to be investigated and this maypotentiate a new source of drug development.

  12. Biochemical changes after subchronic and chronic interaction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Swiss albino mice with two specific compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Laila S; Medhat, Amina M; Abdel-Menem, Hanan A

    2003-04-01

    In Egypt, infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S.m.) and residues of pesticides have been considered as major environmental pollutants that adversely affect health. Effects of diazinon (DZN) and/or praziquantel (PZQ) on the levels of plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), activities of brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in addition to blood reduced glutathione (GSH) in healthy and S.m. infected mice were investigated after 9 and 17 weeks of either infection or intoxication with DZN. Triiodothyronine showed significant differences among the different treatments. The group of mice treated with PZQ showed the highest levels of T3 at both time intervals. Thyroxine level showed significant differences between the two time intervals. The lowest levels of T4 were observed in the infected-PZQ group at week 17. The maximum inhibition of brain AchE activity was noticed in DZN-PZQ treated group after 9 and 17 weeks. The different treatments significantly reduced the activities of liver ALT. The highest decrease was recorded in the infected-DZN-PZQ group at week 9. All treatments significantly lowered the levels of blood GSH after 9 weeks.

  13. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  14. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.

    2005-04-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  15. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by § 133.195...

  16. Effects of aspartame on the evaluation of electrophysiological responses in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener that is used predominantly in various ‘diet’ and ‘low-calorie’ products, such as beverages, instant breakfasts, desserts, breath mints, sugar-free chewing gum, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals, consumed by millions of people who are attempting weight loss, young adults and diabetic persons. On a weight basis, the metabolism of aspartame generates approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid and 10% methanol. The detailed mechanisms of the effects of aspartame on the electrophysiological response are still unclear; therefore, this study was designed to clarify whether longer-term aspartame consumption has any effect on the electrophysiological response in Wistar albino rats. The oral administration of aspartame in a safe dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day (as recommended by EFSA, 2012 was tested in Wistar albino rats for a longer period (90 days. Electrophysiological responses, including heart rate variability (HRV and electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, were assessed in a folate-deficient animal model along with control animals using BIOPAC and EEG equipment (model RMS EEG–24 brain new-plus: RMS – Recorder and Medicare systems. In this study, the folate-deficient animal model was used to mimic human methanol metabolism in rats. After 90 days of aspartame treatment, a significant alteration was observable in the time domain [Mean RR (ms SDNN (ms RMSSD (ms PNN50 (%] and the frequency domain [LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio] with significantly impaired frequency and amplitude of the fronto-parietal and occipital EEG waves at p ≤ 0.05. The results of this study clearly indicate that the oral consumption of aspartame reduced HRV, with sympathetic dominance and loss of vagal tone, and altered sympathovagal activity along with impairment of learning and memory, showing an additional effect on health within this study duration. The aspartame metabolites methanol and formaldehyde may be the causative factors

  17. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

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    Julia Maria Brändle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific behavior anchored in the current generation of farmers at the expense of representing longer scale environmental processes or they emphasize the simulation of long-term economic and forest developments where representation of human behavior is simplified in time and space. In this context, we compare the representation of individual and aggregated decision-making in the same model structure and by doing so address some implications of choosing short or long term time horizons in land-use modeling. Based on survey data, we integrate dynamic agents into a comparative static economic sector supply model in a Swiss mountain region. The results from an extensive sensitivity analysis show that this agent-based land-use change model can reproduce observed data correctly and that both model versions are sensitive to the same model parameters. In particular, in both models the specification of opportunity costs determines the extent of production activities and land-use changes by restricting the output space. Our results point out that the agent-based model can capture short and medium term developments in land abandonment better than the aggregated version without losing its sensitivity to important socio-economic drivers. For comparative static approaches, extensive sensitivity analysis with respect to opportunity costs, i.e., the measure of benefits forgone due to alternative uses of labor is essential for the assessment of the impact of climate change on land

  19. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

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    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  20. Determination of robust ocular pharmacokinetic parameters in serum and vitreous humor of albino rabbits following systemic administration of ciprofloxacin from sparse data sets by using IT2S, a population pharmacokinetic modeling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusano, G L; Liu, W; Perkins, R; Madu, A; Madu, C; Mayers, M; Miller, M H

    1995-08-01

    Robust determination of the concentration-time profile of anti-infective agents in certain specialized compartments is often limited by the inability to obtain more than a single sample from such a site in any one subject. Vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid are obvious examples for which the determination of concentrations of anti-infective agents is limited. Advances in pharmacodynamics have pointed out the importance of understanding the profiles of drugs in the plasma and in specialized compartments in order to dose the drugs to obtain the best patient outcomes. Advances in population pharmacokinetic modeling hold the promise of allowing proper estimation of drug penetration into the vitreous (or other specialized compartment) with only a single vitreous sample, in conjunction with plasma sampling. We have developed a rabbit model which allows multiple samples of vitreous to be obtained without breaking down the blood-vitreous barrier. We have employed this model to test the hypothesis that robust estimates of vitreous penetration by the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin can be obtained from a traditional intensive plasma sampling set plus a single vitreous sample. We studied 33 rabbits which were receiving 40 mg of ciprofloxacin per kg of body weight intravenously as short infusions and from which multiple plasma and vitreous samples were obtained and assayed for ciprofloxacin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by the iterative two-stage population modeling technique (IT2S), employing the iterative two-stage program of Forrest et al. (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1065-1072, 1993). Two data sets were analyzed: all plasma and vitreous samples versus all plasma samples and the initially obtained single vitreous sample. The pharmacokinetic parameter values identified were used to calculate the percent vitreous penetration as the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve for the vitreous to that for the plasma. The

  1. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

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    Srivastava Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods : The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results : Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01 reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion : Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine.

  2. Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats

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    V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

  3. Comparison of histopathology and PCR based assay for detection of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vikrant Sudan; A K Tewari; R Singh; Harkirat Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare histopathology and PCR based detection in diagnosis of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis of RH human strain of the parasite in murine models. Methods:A comparison of histopathology and PCR based detection was done to diagnose experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in ten inbred swiss albino mice after intraperitoneal inoculation of 100 tachyzoites of laboratory mantained human RH strain of the parasite. Tissue samples from lung, liver, spleen, brain, heart and kidney were taken and processed for histopathological examination while all the samples also were subjected to PCR, using primers directed to the multicopy of SAG 3 gene, in dublicates. Results: Histopathology revealed presence of tachyzoites only in liver while along with lung, liver, spleen and brain tissue yielded desired positive PCR amplicons. Conclusions:The SAG 3 based PCR is able to diagnose toxoplasmosis in those tissues which are declared negative by histopathological assay.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Spontaneous tyrosinase mutations identified in albinos of three wild frog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ikuo; Tagami, Masataka; Fujitani, Takeshi; Ogata, Mitsuaki

    2017-06-30

    The present study reports spontaneous tyrosinase gene mutations identified in oculocutaneous albinos of three Japanese wild frog species, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa and Fejervarya kawamurai. This represents the first molecular analyses of albinic phenotypes in frogs. Albinos of P. nigromaculatus collected from two different populations were found to suffer from frameshift mutations. These mutations were caused by the insertion of a thymine residue within each of exons 1 and 4, while albinos in a third population lacked three nucleotides encoding lysine in exon 1. Albinos from the former two P. nigromaculatus populations were also associated with splicing variants of mRNA that lacked either exons 2-4 or exon 4. In the other two frog species examined, missense mutations that resulted in amino acid substitutions from glycine to arginine and glycine to aspartic acid were identified in exons 1 and 3, respectively. The two glycines in F. kawamurai and G. rugosa, and the lysine deleted in one P. nigromaculatus albino, were highly conserved in vertebrates, which suggested that they were critically important to tyrosinase function. In fact, the glycine of G. rugosa is located within a predicted copper-binding domain. The five mutations identified in the present study are candidates for causing the albinic phenotypes, and, if directly confirmed, they are all unique to the vertebrates, which suggests that molecular analysis of albino frogs could contribute to research on albinos in humans and vertebrates by providing new information about tyrosinase structure and transcript processing.

  6. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Heling; YANG Hongsheng; ZHAO Huan; LIU Shilin; WANG Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity.The offspring of albino A.japonicus also suffer from albinism.The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF).To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism,we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A.japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A.japonicus.In addition,we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A.japonicus.The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes,which also contained less melanin.In albino juvenile offspring,MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer,and less developed,epidermal melanocytes.Thus,we conclude that albino A.japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin,likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  7. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  8. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  9. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  10. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  11. Comparison of antioxidation systems of retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented and albino animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Ostrovskiy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of the lipid peroxidation inhibition process by tissue homogenates of retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rabbits is higher than that of albino rabbits. The superoxide dismutase and glutathione perioxidase activity is nearly the same in both tissues of the pigment epithelium, the ..cap alpha..-tocopherol content is higher in retinal pigment epithelium tissue of albino animals, and the oxidizability of the lipid fraction of pigment epithelium tissue is higher in pigmented animals than in albinos. It is concluded that the higher resistance of the pigment epithelium of pigmented animals to the effects of prooxidant systems is due to the presence of melanoprotein granules in the pigment epithelium.

  12. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  13. Study on discrimination of white tea and albino tea based on near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Deng, Jing; Wang, Yuanxing; Liu, Boping; Ding, Jian; Mao, Xuejin; Zhang, Juan; Hu, Haitao; Li, Jing

    2014-03-30

    White tea and albino tea have their own nutritional characteristics, but from the appearance they are quite similar to each other. It is not easy to distinguish them with existing analytical tools or by visual inspection. The current study proposed a rapid method to discriminate them based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy associated with supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, discriminant partial least-squares (DPLS) and discriminant analysis (DA) were employed to build classification models on the basis of a reduced subset of wavenumbers and different pretreatment methods. A completely independent validation set was also used to test the model performance. The results of the DA model showed that with the SNV Karl Norris derivative spectral pre-treatment samples from the two different origins could be 100% correctly discriminated. Similarly, for the DPLS model, the best classification results were obtained with the multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) + first derivative spectral pre-treatments; the accuracy of identification was 98.48% for the calibration set and 100% for the validation set. The overall results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy with pattern recognition could be successfully applied to discriminate white tea and albino tea quickly and non-destructively without the need for various analytical determinations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Swiss EMBnet node web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquet, Laurent; Bordoli, Lorenza; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Pagni, Marco; Jongeneel, C Victor

    2003-07-01

    EMBnet is a consortium of collaborating bioinformatics groups located mainly within Europe (http://www.embnet.org). Each member country is represented by a 'node', a group responsible for the maintenance of local services for their users (e.g. education, training, software, database distribution, technical support, helpdesk). Among these services a web portal with links and access to locally developed and maintained software is essential and different for each node. Our web portal targets biomedical scientists in Switzerland and elsewhere, offering them access to a collection of important sequence analysis tools mirrored from other sites or developed locally. We describe here the Swiss EMBnet node web site (http://www.ch.embnet.org), which presents a number of original services not available anywhere else.

  15. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  16. C57BL/6J及NIH Swiss小鼠在抑郁模型中的行为学表现%Behavioral manifestations in animal models with depression between C57BL/6J and NIH Swiss mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮萍; 王倩; 潘彦伶; 张怡慧; 魏佳优; 陈翌华; 高天明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate behavioral differences in models with depression between C57BL/6J and NIH Swiss mice with different genetic backgrounds,to provide references for selection of examination animals in anti- depression drug researches,and to provide the useful animal models for invcstigating the effects of genetic factors on occurrence of depression.Methods Behavioral manifestations of depression in C57BI/6J and NIH Swiss mice (n=14 each) were detected under stress conditions using forced swimming test and tail suspension test.Open field test was used to detect the spontaneous motility of two kinds of mice.Results The immobility time of C57BL/6J mice was significantly longer than that of NIH Swiss mice [ (133.198 ± 5.749) s vs (80.265± 10.939) s,P=0.000] in forced swimming test,which was contrast to that in tail suspension test [ (151.315±12.161)s vs (95.107±14.649)s,P=0.007].Howevcr in open field test,no diffcrcncc was found in total distance,standing number,movement time,total distance in fringe area,movement time in fringe area,total distance in central area and movement time in central area between the two kinds of mice.Conclusion C57BL/6J mice are easier to show the depressive-like behavior under stress conditions,while NIH Swiss mice show a certain of depression resistance.These different behavioral manifestations in two different kinds of mice may be caused by genetic factors.%目的 探讨两种不同遗传背景的小鼠C57BL/6J及NIH Swiss在抑郁模型中的行为学差异,为抗抑郁药物研究的实验动物选择提供参考,为研究遗传学因素在抑郁症发病过程中的作用提供有用的动物模型.方法 C57BL/6J、NIH Swiss小鼠各14只,利用强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验检测两种小鼠在应激条件下的抑郁样行为表现;利用旷场实验检测两种小鼠的自主运动能力.结果 强迫游泳实验中,C57BL/6J小鼠的不动时间明显长于NIH Swiss小鼠[(133.198±5.749)s比(80.265±10.939)s,P=0

  17. Pressure-time cell death threshold for albino rat skeletal muscles as related to pressure sore biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder-Ganz, Eran; Engelberg, Santiego; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Gefen, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Deep pressure sores (DPS) are associated with inadequate soft tissue perfusion and excessive tissue deformation over critical time durations, as well as with ischemia-reperfusion cycles and deficiency of the lymphatic system. Muscle tissue shows the lowest tolerance to pressure injuries, compared with more superficial tissues. In this communication, we present new histopathology data for muscle tissue of albino (Sprague-Dawley) rats exposed to pressures for 15 or 30 min. These data are superimposed with an extensive literature review of all previous histopathology reported for albino rat skeletal muscles subjected to pressure. The pooled data enabled a new mathematical characterization of the pressure-time threshold for cell death in striated muscle of rats, in the form of a sigmoid pressure-time relation, which extends the previous pressure-time relation to the shorter exposure periods. We found that for pressure exposures shorter than 1 h, the magnitude of pressure is the important factor for causing cell death and the exposure time has little or no effect: even relatively short exposures (15 min - 1 h) to pressures greater than 32 kPa (240 mmHg) cause cell death in rat muscle tissue. For exposures of 2 h or over, again the magnitude of pressure is the important factor for causing cell death: pressures greater than 9 kPa (67 mmHg) applied for over 2 h consistently cause muscle cell death. For the intermediate exposures (between 1 and 2 h), the magnitude of cell-death-causing pressure strongly depends on the time of exposure, i.e., critical pressure levels drop from 32 to 9 kPa. The present sigmoidal pressure-time cell death threshold is useful for design of studies in albino rat models of DPS, and may also be helpful in numerical simulations of DPS development, where there is often a need to extrapolate from tissue pressures to biological damage.

  18. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  19. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  20. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  1. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  2. Effects of photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative-HPD) and light dose on vascular targets in the albino mouse ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.K.; Davis, K.; Straight, R.C.; Waner, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic damage to normal tissues, including skin, appears to occur by photooxidative damage to the normal microvasculature as the primary target sensitized by HPD bound to the vascular wall or endothelial cell. Initial damage to the microvasculature was measured by the increase in vascular permeability (VP) as measured by Evans Blue dye (EB) extravasation as a function of HPD and laser light (632 nm) dose. Albino, Swiss-Webster mice (female 122-25 g, 5 mice per group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with incremental doses of HPD (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg). After 48 hours the left ear of each mouse was masked as a control and the right ear was irradiated at 632 nm using the Aurora-Lexel Argon-dye laser with an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 and light doses of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 J/cm2 directed to a 3-mm spot on the mouse ear. No EB leakage occurred in the absence of HPD at any light dose or in the absence of light at any HPC dose. Vascular permeability increased as a function of HPD dose up to 30 mg/kg. AT 50 mg/kg HPD, there was a decrease in VP. At each HPD dose above 10 mg/kg, the VP increased as a function of light dose up to 75 J/cm2. Further increase in light dose was without effect. The amount of HPD porphyrin recovered from irradiated ears decreased as a function of light dose. There appeared to be an irreversible photo destruction of the porphyrin exposed to light.

  3. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  4. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and M...

  5. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  6. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  7. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L. Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Nagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L. leaves (EECN using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated considered as control, group II (ointment base treated considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP, which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P<0.001, decrease in the period for epithelialization (P<0.01, high skin breaking strength (P<0.001, and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  8. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  9. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya

    2007-07-01

    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  10. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  11. Gender-specific effects of CGP 55845, GABAB receptor antagonist, on neuromuscular coordination, learning and memory formation in albino mouse following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Quratul Ane; Akbar, Atif; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-06-01

    GABAB receptor antagonists are experimentally proved as spatial memory enhancers in mouse models but their role has not been described following hypoxic-ischemic insult. 10-day-old albino mice were subjected to Murine model of hypoxia and ischemia. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 weeks old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 received intraperitoneally CGP 55845 (1 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight) for 12 days. Behavioural observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test along with brain infarct measurement in both CGP 55845 treated and untreated groups. It was observed that application of GABAB receptor antagonist improved the over all motor function in male and female albino mice but effects were more pronounced in males. In open field, CGP 55845-treated female mice showed poor performance. CGP 55845 had no significant effect on learning and memory formation during Morris water maze test and also on brain infract size in both genders following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy. Effects of CGP 55845 can be further explored in a dose and duration dependent manner to improve the learning and memory in albino mice following neonatal brain damage.

  12. Reproductive toxicity of Roundup herbicide exposure in male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owagboriaye, Folarin O; Dedeke, Gabriel A; Ademolu, Kehinde O; Olujimi, Olarenwaju O; Ashidi, Joseph S; Adeyinka, Aladesida A

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of infertility in human is on the increase and the use of Roundup herbicide and presence of its residues in foodstuff is a major concern. This study therefore aim to assess the effect of Roundup on the reproductive capacity of 32 adult male albino rats randomized into 4 groups of 8 rats per group orally exposed to Roundup at 3.6mg/kg body weight(bw), 50.4mg/kgbw and 248.4mg/kgbw of glyphosate concentrations for 12 weeks while the control group was given distilled water. Serum level of reproductive hormone (testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin), oxidative stress indices in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm morphology assessment and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction. Significant (p<0.05) alterations in the level of all the reproductive hormones and oxidative stress markers assayed were observed in rats exposed to Roundup. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in sperm count, percentage motility and significant (p<0.05) increased in abnormal sperm cells were observed in the exposed rats. Histopathologically, severe degenerative testicular architectural lesions were seen in the Roundup exposed rats. Roundup may interfere with spermatogenesis and impair fertility in male gonad. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient intake of Swiss toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; Casetti, Luca; Haueter, Petra; Müller, Pascal; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes

    2017-08-10

    During the first years of life, food preferences are shaped that might last throughout a person's entire life affecting his/her health in the long term. However, knowledge on early feeding habits is still limited for toddlers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to: (1) assess toddlers' nutrient intake; (2) compare the findings to past studies as well as to national feeding recommendations and (3) identify major food sources for energy and macronutrients. A food survey using a 4-day diary was conducted. The dietary software nut.s(®) was used to analyse the data. A cohort of 188 healthy toddlers (aged 1-3 years) was analysed. The energy intake of most toddlers was below the recommended daily intake (RDI) but in accordance with earlier studies. Protein intake was three- to fourfold higher than the RDI and reached the proposed upper limit of 15% of total energy intake. Fat intake was in accordance with the RDI, but the balance of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids should be improved. Carbohydrate intake met the RDI. For the micronutrients, iron and vitamin D intakes showed critical values. As in other European countries, the diet of Swiss toddlers in general seems adequate but does not meet all nutritional requirements. In particular, the quality of the fats and vitamin D supplementation should be improved. For proteins and iron, additional research is needed to gain more confidence in the recommendations.

  14. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  15. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  16. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...... by more than 40% with most of the response occurring in two quarters immediately before and after the source tax was introduced. The estimates imply an elasticity of Swiss deposits with respect to the net-of-source-tax-rate in the range 2.5-3....

  17. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS, albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stryjek

    Full Text Available The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS, two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans, and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar. Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  18. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae, commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001 inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

  19. Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it’s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

  20. Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bätzing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Die schweizerischen Berggebiete in der Politik [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Translated from French (see below. Zurich, Switzerland: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2014. 136 pp. CHF 24.00, € 21.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-7281-3604-6. Reviewed: La montagne Suisse en politique [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Lausanne, Switzerland: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013. 128 pp. CHF 17.50. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-2-88915-043-4.

  1. Milk quality, coagulation properties, and curd firmness modeling of purebred Holsteins and first- and second-generation crossbred cows from Swedish Red, Montbéliarde, and Brown Swiss bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi, F; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how the crossbreeding of Holstein (HO) cows with bulls from Nordic and Alpine European breeds affect milk quality traits, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), and curd firmness modeling obtained from individual milk samples. A total of 506 individual milk samples were collected from evening milking at 3 commercial farms located in Northern Italy. Over the past decade, the 3 farms have followed crossbreeding programs in part of their herds, whereas the remainder of the animals consisted of purebred HO. The basic scheme was a 3-breed rotation based on the use of Swedish Red (SR) semen on HO cows (SR × HO), the use of Montbéliarde (MO) semen on first-cross cows [MO × (SR × HO)], and the use of HO semen in the third cross. In all herds, a smaller proportion of purebred HO were mated to M and Brown Swiss (BS) bulls, and these first crosses were mated to SR and MO bulls, respectively. Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and MCP, and parameters for curd firmness were modeled. Compared with purebred HO, crossbred cows produced less milk with lower lactose content, higher fat and protein content, and a tendency for higher casein content. Crossbred cows generally produced milk with a more favorable curd-firming rate (k₂₀) and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition, among traditional MCP, and better trends of curd firmness measures as shown by model parameters: estimated rennet coagulation time, asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and curd-firming instant rate constant. Among crossbred cows, SR × HO presented longer rennet coagulation time compared with MO × HO and BS × HO cows, and MO × HO showed shorter k₂₀ compared with BS × HO cows. Among second-generation cows, those sired by SR bulls showed a lower incidence of noncoagulated samples, higher curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition and asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and faster curd-firming instant

  2. Stress induced neuron degeneration and protective effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampus of albino rats: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S D; Jain, S; Sharma, K; Bhatnagar, M

    2000-10-01

    Effects of herbal formulations were studied on hippocampal neuron cell bodies. Study was carried out in adult Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats (E) were divided into three groups. Group E1 rats were given immobilization stress for 14 hr/day for 30 days. Rats in E2 and E3 group were given daily single dose (40 mg/kg/body wt.) of alcoholic extract of S. anacardium and W. somnifera. After 1 hr giving the plant extract, the rats were subjected to stress. Treatment continued for 14 hr for 30 days. Control rats were kept in complete nonstress condition. Ultrastructural characteristics of neuron cell bodies in hippocampal sublayer (CA1-CA4 and Dg) was studied in rats of E1, E2 and E3 groups and compared with control. Results of the present study demonstrated, that both CA2 and Dg, 85% of neuron cell bodies exhibited degenerating characteristics, (which includes karyorrhexis, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, chromatin fragmentation and intracellular spacing). Interestingly, after the treatment with S. ancardium cells demonstrating degenerating characteristics was significantly reduced (80%) as compared to treatment with W. somnifera. Study suggests that probably both the herbal drugs have cytoprotective properties.

  3. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  4. A model study on changes of European and Swiss particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen deposition between 1990 and 2020 due to the revised Gothenburg protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Ciarelli, G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-12-01

    We report a study of changes in air quality due to emission reductions using the chemical transport model CAMx. The model domain includes all of Europe with a nested domain over Switzerland. The model simulations were performed with emissions for 1990 (the reference year for the Gothenburg Protocol), 2005 (the reference year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol), 2006 (for model validation) and 2020 (the target year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol) using three emission scenarios prepared by IIASA/GAINS. Changes in ozone, particulate matter and nitrogen deposition are the central theme of the study. The modelled relative changes in the annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 1990 and 2005 look reasonable based on various PM10 and PM2.5 observations in the past. The results obtained in this study suggest that annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 decreased by about 20-50% in Europe. Simulations using the baseline scenario (BL 2020) suggest that PM2.5 concentrations in 2020 will be about 30% lower than those in 2005. The largest predicted decrease in PM2.5, based on the MTFR (maximum technically feasible reduction) scenario, was about 60% and was located mainly in the eastern part of Europe. In the case of ozone, both model results and measurements show an increase in the mean ozone mixing ratios between 1990 and 2005. The observations, however, suggest a larger increase, indicating the importance of background ozone levels. Although emission reductions caused a decrease in peak ozone values, average ozone levels in polluted regions increased due to reduced titration with nitric oxide (NO). This caused a change in the frequency distribution of ozone. Model simulations using emission scenarios for 2020 suggest that annual average ozone mixing ratios will continue to increase. Changes in the levels of the damage indicators AOT40 for forests and SOMO35 are reported as well. The model results suggest that nitrogen deposition has decreased by 10-30% in the eastern

  5. A model study on changes of European and Swiss particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen deposition between 1990 and 2020 due to the revised Gothenburg protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksoyoglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of changes in air quality due to emission reductions using the chemical transport model CAMx. The model domain includes all of Europe with a nested domain over Switzerland. The model simulations were performed for 1990 (the reference year for the Gothenburg Protocol, 2005 (the reference year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol, 2006 (for model validation and 2020 (the target year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol using three emission scenarios prepared by IIASA/GAINS. Changes in ozone, particulate matter and nitrogen deposition are the central theme of the study. The relative changes in the annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 1990 and 2005 were reproduced very well. Both model results and observations show that annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 decreased by about 20–50% in Europe. Simulations using the baseline scenario (BL 2020 suggest that PM2.5 concentrations in 2020 will be about 30% lower than those in 2005. The largest predicted decrease in PM2.5, based on the MTFR (Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction scenario, was about 60% and was located mainly in the eastern part of Europe. In the case of ozone, both model results and measurements show an increase in the mean ozone mixing ratios between 1990 and 2005. The observations, however, suggest a larger increase, indicating the importance of background ozone levels. Although emission reductions caused a decrease in peak ozone values, ozone levels in polluted regions increased due to reduced titration with nitric oxide (NO. This caused a change in the frequency distribution of ozone. Model simulations using emission scenarios for 2020 suggest that annual average ozone mixing ratios will continue to increase. Changes in the levels of the damage indicators AOT40 for forests and SOMO35 are reported as well. The model results suggest that nitrogen deposition decreased by 10–30% in the eastern part of Europe since 1990, while it increased by about 20% in the

  6. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  8. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  9. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  10. Cern reaches for new frontiers (SWISS MADE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Beaumont, Adam

    2006-01-01

    "For more than 50 ears scientists at CERN, the world's largest particle physics lboratory, have been unravelling the secrets of the universe, But what is life like inside the European Organization for Nuclear Research of the Swiss-French border? Two young scientists share their experiences with swissinfo."

  11. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  12. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  13.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A series of murders of albinos in Tanzania’s north-west mining frontier has been shrouded in a discourse of primitivism by the international and national press, sidestepping the significance of the contextual circumstances of an artisanal mining boom firmly embedded in a global commodity chain...... and local profit maximisation. The murders are connected to gold and diamond miners’ efforts to secure lucky charms for finding minerals and protection against danger while mining. Through the concept of fetish creation, this article interrogates the agency of those involved in the murders : the miners who...... purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  14. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  15. Reproductive System Toxicity in Male Swiss Mice under Supplementation of Camcolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef M. Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was under taken to determine the effect of cumulated Camcolit doses (lithium carbonate in healthy Swiss albino mice concerning the function of testis, epididymis and vas deferens as well as hormonal function. In this study 40 adult male mice taken (23.25 mg mouse-1 - a cumulated dose for a period of 35 days, this dose is equivalent to the low human therapeutic dose and was injected intraperitoneally. Camcolit has no significant effect on mortality but there is significant decrease in both testes and body weight. Its administration induced histopathological changes included: disappearance of spermatogonia and decreased number of spermatocytes which lead to hypo spermatogenesis, hypertrophied nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm were recorded in Sertoli cells, Intracellular and intercellular vacuoles were formed between germinal cells and Leydig cells have atrophied nuclei with vacuolated cytoplasm. Widening of the ductus epididymis and their cells became cubical with pyknotic nuclei and destruction or total loss of stereo cilia. Sperms disappeared from the vas deferens which suffered from disruption of muscular layers. Also low sperms number with formation of deformed ones with no head, coiled or bent tail. By using radioimmunoassay, it was found that Camcolit reduced serum testosterone level in lithium carbonate exposed male mice.

  16. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  17. CORRELATION OF WEIGHT LOSS WITH INFERTILITY FOLLOWING SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Body weight is the total mass or weight of a person or animal obtained without any external factor than the component of the body. Overweight or underweight may influence the fertility status of either animal or human as the case may be. The aim of this study is to determine whether weight loss has any correlation with male or female infertility. Twenty four Wister albino rats were sleep deprived and used in this study. The albino rats were certified healthy before sleep deprivation. Body wei...

  18. Changes of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in seedling leaves of a temperature-induced greenable albino mutant line W25 of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; SHUQingyao; XIAYingwu

    1998-01-01

    W25 is a low-temperature sensitive albino mutant line, Temperature not only controls the albino phenotype expression of W2o, but also determines whether it could survive, When the temperature is lower than 25℃. the leaves of W25 shows complete albino, but they exhibits normal green when temperature is higher than 30℃

  19. How did the swiss cheese plant get its holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Adult leaf fenestration in "Swiss cheese" plants (Monstera Adans.) is an unusual leaf shape trait lacking a convincing evolutionary explanation. Monstera are secondary hemiepiphytes that inhabit the understory of tropical rainforests, where photosynthesis from sunflecks often makes up a large proportion of daily carbon assimilation. Here I present a simple model of leaf-level photosynthesis and whole-plant canopy dynamics in a stochastic light environment. The model demonstrates that leaf fenestration can reduce the variance in plant growth and thereby increase geometric mean fitness. This growth-variance hypothesis also suggests explanations for conspicuous ontogenetic changes in leaf morphology (heteroblasty) in Monstera, as well as the absence of leaf fenestration in co-occurring juvenile tree species. The model provides a testable hypothesis of the adaptive significance of a unique leaf shape and illustrates how variance in growth rate could be an important factor shaping plant morphology and physiology.

  20. What Can US Single-Payer Supporters Learn From the Swiss Rejection of Single Payer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    On September 27, 2014, Swiss voters rejected a proposal to replace their system of about 60 health insurance companies offering mandatory basic health coverage with a single public insurer, the state, which would offer taxpayer-funded coverage of all medically necessary care. The Swiss and the U.S. media, academia, and business sectors, from conservative and liberal camps, interpreted the results to mean a rejection of single payer and a preference for a privately run system, with important implications for health reform in the United States. While on the surface mainstream interpretations appear reasonable, I argue that they have little basis on fact because they rely on assumptions that, while untrue, are repeated as mantras that conveniently justify the continuation of a model of health insurance that is unraveling, less conspicuously in Switzerland, dramatically in the United States. To make my case, I describe the dominant narrative about Swiss health care and mainstream interpretations of the latest referendum on health reform, unpack the problem within these interpretations, and conclude by identifying what lessons the Swiss referendum contains for single payer advocates in the United States in particular and for those who struggle for social and economic rights more generally.

  1. Application of The Real_time Swiss Permanent GPS Network 'agnes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, E.; Grünig, S.; Hug, R.; Schneider, D.; Wiget, A.; Wild, U.

    The Swiss Federal Office of Topography (S+T) has been building up and operating an automated GPS network for Switzer-land (AGNES) since 1998. The final ex- pansion of 29 permanently operating GPS tracking stations was reached at the end of 2001. AGNES is a multipurpose network serving scien-tific applications (geody- namics and atmospheric research) as well as surveying applications (ref-erence frame maintenance, densification of the reference frame). In addition, a positioning service is offered on a commercial basis under the pro-duct name swipos-GIS/GEO (Swiss Positioning Service for GIS and Geodetic Applications). The paper focuses on the different applications and the results achieved so far. In the field of geody- namics, results of a kinematic model of the tectonic movements in the Swiss Alps derived from GPS time series will be shown. Since end of 2001 the S+T contributes hourly zenith path delay estimates with a time delay of 1:15 hours to the European COST-716 project and to MeteoSwiss as additional information for numerical weather prediction. Furthermore results of the high-precision real-time positioning service swipos-GIS/GEO (accuracy 0.01-0.1m) using the GSM technique for broadcasting differ-ential corrections are presented with the focus on improving the performance (ambiguity initialization, coordinate repeatability) by using the virtual reference sta- tion concept.

  2. Swiss multinational enterprises and transnational corruption: management matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno,N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...

  3. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  4. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis, to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  5. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Dixit, V P

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), 200 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) and 300 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. The sperm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats.

  6. Aphrodisiac and phytochemical studies ofCocculus hirsutus extracts in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharanabasappaA Patil; SujayaM; SaraswatiB Patil

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate thein vivo aphrodisiac activity of various extracts obtained from aerial partsCocculus hirsutus(C. hirsutus).Methods:We evaluated whether oral administration ofC. hirsutushas spermatogenic activity in male rats.Petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extract of aerial parts(stem and leaf) ofC. hirsutus were administered at the dose level of25 mg/100 g body weight to adult male albino rats for30 days.Results:The above said extracts have stimulated the spermatogenic activity and accessory reproductive organs performance in albino rats.Out of the three extracts administered, alcohol extract showed highly stimulant spermatogenic effects in mature male albino rats.Alcohol extract showed potent androgenic activity when treated in immatureAlbino rats.Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals.The increased spermatogenesis in extract treated groups was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatids and caudal spermatozoa.After subjecting to preliminary phytochemical screening, the alcohol extract showed positive tests for steroids, saponins, oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins.Conclusion:C. hirsutus exhibited remarkable increase in spermatogenic activity.These findings support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  7. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  8. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21st day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  9. Skin cancers in albinos in a teaching Hospital in eastern Nigeria - presentation and challenges of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Kingsley O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albinism is a genetic disorder characterized by lack of skin pigmentation. It has a worldwide distribution but is commoner in areas close to the equator like Nigeria. Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. Challenges faced in the care of these patients need to be highlighted in order to develop a holistic management approach with a significant public health impact. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen in Albinos, and to highlight problems encountered in their management. Method Case records of albinos managed in Imo state University teaching Hospital from June 2007 to May 2009 were reviewed. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results and discussion In the period under review, albinos accounted for 67% of patients managed for primary skin cancers. There were twenty patients with thirty eight (38 lesions. Sixty one percent of the patients were below 40 years. Average duration of symptoms at presentation was 26 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was the lack of funds. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histologic variant. Most patients were unable to complete treatment due to lack of funds. Conclusion Albinism appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of skin cancers in our environment. Late presentation and poor rate of completion of treatment due to poverty are major challenges.

  10. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  11. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  13. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  14. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  15. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A; K\\'{e}p\\'{\\i}r\\'{o}, Ibolya

    2006-01-01

    We consider Swiss-cheese brane universes embedded asymmetrically into the bulk. Neither the junction conditions between the Schwarzschild spheres and the sorrounding Friedmann brane regions with cosmological constant $\\Lambda $, nor the evolution of the scale factor are changed with respect to the symmetric case. The universe expands and decelerates forever. The asymmetry however has a drastic influence on the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Instead of the two branches of the symmetric case, in the asymmetric case four branches emerge. Moreover, the future pressure singularity arising in the symmetric case only for huge values of $\\Lambda $ becomes quite generic in the asymmetric case. Such pressure singularities emerge also when $\\Lambda=0$ is set. Then they are due entirely to the asymmetric embedding. For generic values of $\\Lambda $ we introduce a critical value of a suitably defined asymmetry parameter, which separates Swiss-cheese cosmologies with and without pressure singularities.

  16. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. STATUS GIZI DAN FUNGSI HATI MENCIT ( GALUR CBS-SWISS DAN TIKUS PUTIH (GALUR WISTAR DI LABORATORIUM HEWAN PERCOBAAN PUSLITBANG BIOMEDIS DAN FARMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marice Sihombing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice (CBS-Swiss strain and albino rats (Wistar strain are experimental animals bred and kept in Centre for Biomedical and Pharmaceuticals Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD Jakarta. The objective of this study is to elucidate the health  profile of these animals and to assess their suitability as experimental animals. Parameters being measured include body weight gain, histopathology of the liver, blood test (SGPT, SCOT, billirubin scale and internal organ weights (liver, kidney, lungs and lymph nodes. In this study, particularly forthe body weight, used 180 mice and 180 rats, divided into 3 age groups 1, 2 and 3 months old. Each age groups consisted of 60 animals (30 male and 30 female. For the measurement of blood test, weight of internal organs and histopathologic of the liver examination used 60 mice and 60 rats from these animals. Which are divided into 3 groups 1, 2 and 3 months old, each groups were composed of 20 (10 male and 10 female animals. Mice and rats are taken at random sampling. Data analysis were conducted by ANOVA one-way test, except for organ weight (liver and lungs for mice and liver foralbino rats where data were analysed using a non-parametric test. Linear regression test was conducted for measurement of body weight gain in each age group. The result of the study suggested that the weight gain in mice and albino rats correlate with increasing of age. Histopathological assessment of liver did not show any cell damage or degeneration of parenchyma cells in both species.The blood test also showed normal values, and in general the organ weights (liver, kidney, lungs and lymph nodes showed an increase that correlated with age. The study conclude that in general the conditions of these animals and their physiological state are good, and they are fit to be used as experimental animals. Keywords: mice, albino rats, body weight, blood test parameters, liver

  19. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  20. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes from albino and control sea cucumbers,Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Deyou; YANG Hongsheng; SUN Lina; XU Dongxue

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumberApostichopus japonicus is an important economic species in China. Its dorsal body wall color is commonly tawny, whereas its ventral surface is fawn. Albino sea cucumbers are rarely observed. In order to profile gene expression and screen albinism-related genes, we compared the transcriptome of albino samples with a control by 454 cDNA sequencing. We found that 6 539 identified genes on the basis of sequence similarity to known genes were expressed in the albino A. japonicus. The gene ontology analysis indicated that the transcription of genes associated with the terms of biological regulation and pigmenta-tion was non-abundant in the albino library compared to the control. Based on an analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) database, we identified 14 important genes that were in-volved in major intercellular signaling pathways related to melanin synthesis, such as tyrosine metabolism, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and melanogenesis. The expressions of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), and Ras genes were sig-nificantly down-regulated in the albino transcriptome compared with the control, while the expressions of homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase gene (HGO), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), transcrip-tion factor AP-1(c-jun), and calmodulin (CaM) were significantly up-regulated (Fisher's exact test,p < 0.05). These differentially expressed genes could be candidate genes for revealing the mechanism of albinism and investigating regulation of melanin synthesis inA. japonicus.

  1. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of mulberry (Morus nigra) leaves extract against methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tag, Hend M

    2015-07-25

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory agencies. The possible hepatoprotective effect of the administration of mulberry ethanolic extract (MUL) leaves against hepatotoxic effect of the anti-rheumatic drug, methotrexate (MTX) was evaluated in this study both vivo (using animal models) and in vitro (human hepatoma HepG2 cells). In the in-vivo study, 20 male albino rats were equally assigned into four groups; control group received distilled water orally; MUL treated-group received 500 mg/kg/day of MUL extract; MTX treated-group was injected with a single dose of 20 mg/kg MTX intraperitoneally on the 4th day; MUL-MTX treated-group received the previously mentioned doses of MUL and MTX (both control and MUL treated groups were administered a single dose of a physiological saline i.p.). At the end of the experimental period (14 days) activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) levels were evaluated to assess liver function. A marked reduction in the viability of HepG2 cells was observed after 48 h with IC50 equal to 14.5 μg/mL of MUL administration. Treating the animals with MUL in combination with MTX mitigated liver injury, causing a significant reduction in activities of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH as compared to the MTX-group. The liver architecture revealed more or less normal appearance with the combined treatment when compared with MTX treatment alone. This study recommends that the co-administration of MUL with MTX that may have therapeutic benefits against MTX-hepato-cytotoxicity.

  3. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  4. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  5. Factors contributing to the quality of the transition out of elite sports in Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor; Schmid, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study was (a) to compare athletic retirement of former Swiss, Danish, and Polish athletes; and (b) to explore the influence of factors on the quality of the transition. Based on existing transitional models, we developed a working model to investigate the predictive powe...

  6. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  7. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  8. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies II: Spherical Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Swiss - cheese model, consisting of a Lema\\^itre - Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois - Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  9. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  10. Antecedents and Covariates of Alcohol Consumption among Swiss Male Conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vetter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption frequency in a sample of Swiss conscripts (n=25,611 in order to identify factors that predispose for frequent consumption. A self-report of drinking frequencies, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables, was collected at psychiatric baseline screening. Based on univariate analyses, relevant variables were included in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Six percent were abstainers, 15% reported rarely drinking, 53% occasional drinking, 24% regular drinking and 2% daily drinking. Except for substance use, most associations followed a “J”-shaped curve across the categories of alcohol frequency. Abstinence and frequent drinking can be perceived as deviations from the social norm. Both behaviors are associated with more psychosocial stressors and might be therefore special targets for further studies and new prevention programs.

  11. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  12. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  13. Evaluation of anti-parkinson’s activity of gentisic acid in different animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kabra MP; Bhandari SS; Sharma A; Gupta RB

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the neuroprotective activity ofGentisic acid inPD.The study was conducted on swiss albinFo mice(20-25 g) & wistar rats(200-250 g).Methods:Three behavioural models namely,Haloperidol induced catalepsy,Reserpine antagonism andHaloperidol induce orofacial dyskinesia were employed in this study,SwissAlbino mice(20-25 g) were used in first two models whileWistar rats(200-250 g) used in last one model.There are five group(n=6) in each animal model.Various behavior activity/parameter(cataleptic behavior, horizontal movements, rearing & grooming frequencies andDyskinesia activity like vacuous chewing & tongue protrusion) in different animal models were used to evaluate the anti-Parkinson’s activity ofGentisic acid.Results:Gentisic acid showed a significant(P<0.01) reduction in the duration of cataleptic behavior dose dependently when compared to haloperidol control group.Gentisic acid shows dose dependant increase in the frequency of horizontal movement and rearing behavior when compared to theReserpine control group.But, the effect ofGentisic acid on the frequency of grooming behavior was found to be insignificant.Gentisic acid(80 mg/kg) showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the frequency of vacuous chewing & tongue protrusion but the other dose tested were found to be insignificant in this respect.Conclusions:Results shows that the Gentisic acid produced dose dependent neuroprotective activity in different animal models ofPD.

  14. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  15. SIA model for buildings: energy-efficiency path for commercial and residential buildings. Preliminary study on the Swiss model for buildings - Basics for the revision of the 'SIA energy-efficiency path' - Final report; Gebaeudeparkmodell 'SIA Effizienzpfad Energie', Dienstleistungs- und Wohngebaeude. Vorstudie zum Gebaeudeparkmodell Schweiz - Grundlagen zur Ueberarbeitung des SIA Effizienzpfades Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeren, N.; Gabathuler, M.; Wallbaum, H. [Institut fuer Bauplanung und Baubetrieb, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETHZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Martius, M.; Gross, N. [TEP Energy GmbH, Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project was to provide a basis for the revision of the so-called 'Efficiency Path' of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA) in the context of the goals of the 2000-Watt-Society. Particularly, the objective is to find the conditions in which the specific goals of the 2000-Watt-Society for residential, school and office buildings could be reached. Considered indicators are the per capita primary energy use in terms of average power and the greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate final and primary energy demand of the mentioned building types, broken down by different types of energy utilisation. Assumptions were made regarding the most important physical drivers as well as for regarding energy efficiency parameters of new buildings, building retrofits, building technologies and other energy applications in the residential, school and office buildings. Two basic scenarios were developed: an ambitious efficiency scenario was compared to a reference scenario which included current and foreseeable energy policy elements. Regarding electricity supply three scenario-variants of the so-called Swiss Energy Perspectives of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) were used: variant I b 'business-as-usual - nuclear and central fossil plants', IV a: Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - nuclear' and, IV e 'Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - renewable energies'. With this respect it was found that in the case of the efficiency scenario the influence of the electricity generation mix is relatively small. This finding is explained by the fact that hydro power (which is held more or less at the current level) has a large share in the power supply mix in the case of the efficiency scenario with moderate electricity demand and that hydro power is efficient in terms of primary energy and has considerably low greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study show that with the underlying

  16. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Sigve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  17. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Sigve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  18. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  19. Bioavailability study of calcium sandoz-250 by atomic absorption spectroscopy in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Bimalkumar N.; Krishnaveni, N.; Jivani, Nurrrudin P.; Khodakiya, Akruti S.; Khodakiya, Moorti S.; Parida, Saswat K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium sandoz-250 is an Ayurvedic calcium supplement, containing Khatika Churna. Bioavailability study of the formulation is essential for estimation of peak plasma concentration (C max), time to C max and rate of absorption. Aim: To evaluate the absorption parameters of calcium sandoz-250 in albino rats by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out as a single dose, open-label, randomized study. Estimation of calcium was carried ou...

  20. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  1. Effect of Feeding Chapaties Preserved with Sorbic Acid on Growth and Reproduction of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Satyanarayana Rao

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorbic acid, used in concentration of o.3% in chapaties and found satisfactory as a preservative, has been investigated for its safety of use by long term feeding studies with albino rats. The data obtained with regard to growth rate, food consumption, organ to body weight ratio and performance in reproduction show that the preserved foodstuffs containing sorbic acid in the concentration of o.3% are safe for consumption.

  2. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained.

  3. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arunkumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

  4. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  5. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON PRION PROTEIN IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Wister albino rats were used in this research work. Twenty four of the albino rats were successfully sleep deprived and used as test group while eleven were not sleep deprived and used as control group. These rats were respectively sleep deprived for fourteen days using single platform sleep deprivation technique. The rats, both the sleep deprived and non sleep deprived were sacrificed by euthanization technique after the sleep deprivation period. Brain tissue of every rat was extracted by surgical dissection. Part of the brain tissues were homogenized and assayed for prion protein while a part of each brain tissue was histologically treated for the brain tissue morphological studies. The results presented evidence of the presence of prion protein (PrP in the albino rats when compared with the commercial PrP positive control used. The results also showed a significant increase (P and lt;0.05 in the PrP concentration after sleep deprivation when compared with the non sleep deprived control group but when compared with the commercial positive PrP control group, there was a significant decrease (P and lt;0.05. The brain tissue micrograph showed neither abnormal cell morphology nor evidence of amyloid protein plaques. These results suggest that although there was a significant increase in prion protein concentration due to 14 days sleep deprivation, there was no abnormal protein conformation or protein misfolding due to sleep deprivation stress.

  6. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  7. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zou

    Full Text Available Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish.

  8. CORRELATION OF WEIGHT LOSS WITH INFERTILITY FOLLOWING SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Body weight is the total mass or weight of a person or animal obtained without any external factor than the component of the body. Overweight or underweight may influence the fertility status of either animal or human as the case may be. The aim of this study is to determine whether weight loss has any correlation with male or female infertility. Twenty four Wister albino rats were sleep deprived and used in this study. The albino rats were certified healthy before sleep deprivation. Body weight of the rats were measured before and after sleep deprivation. The pre sleep deprivation body weight values of the albino rats served as control for weight loss. Serum specimen was also collected from the rats before and after sleep deprivation for the assay of some fertility hormones. The pre sleep deprivation assay results of the fertility hormones equally served as control for post sleep deprivation status of the fertility hormones. The fertility hormones assayed include follicle stimulation hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, Prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, Testosterone and estradiol. The results showed a significant decrease (P

  9. Bioprotection of Spruce Logs Against Sapstain Using an Albino Strain of Ceratocystis resinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Chantal; Tanguay, Philippe; Breuil, Colette; Yang, Dian-Qing; Bernier, Louis

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT We recovered a spontaneous albino strain from ascospores of Ceratocystis resinifera, a sapstain fungus that grows deeply and rapidly in freshly felled conifer trees. This albino strain, named Kasper, was tested for its ability to prevent discoloration of spruce sapwood caused by wild-type sapstain fungi and compared with Cartapip 97, a commercially available biological control agent of sapstain in lodgepole pine and red pine logs. In a laboratory trial, Kasper reduced sapstain of white spruce logs as much as 94.4% and was more efficient than Cartapip 97. In field trials conducted in an area north of Québec City, Kasper reduced sapstain of black spruce as much as 80%. In three of four field trials, Kasper was significantly more efficient than Cartapip 97 in reducing sapstain development. The exception was encountered in a 2003 trial conducted in a sawmill yard where Kasper did not reduce sapstain. In a field trial conducted in western Canada, at Aleza Lake forest near Prince George, Kasper almost totally prevented the development of sapstain, even after 24 weeks. These results suggest albino strains derived from C. resinifera might be an additional source of potential biocontrol agents against sapstain.

  10. Infecção experimental de camundongos albinos com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, previamente submetidas a ação de termofosfato magnesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada infecção experimental de camundongos albinos ("Swiss inbred" com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, submetidas à ação do adubo termofosfato magnesiano (Tfm, usualmente utilizado em latossolos tropicais e capaz, quando ingerido, de provocar o bloqueio da ovogênese de moluscos planorbídeos. Nas condições do experimento, observou-se a infecção dos roedores. Porém, o número de ovos eliminados pelo grupo controle, representado por cinco camundongos, foi sensivelmente maior que o do grupo Tfm, ainda que a recuperação de vermes, por perfusão, tenha sido bem menor. Do grupo Tfm, foram recuperados 163 (98,2% vermes adultos machos e apenas 3 (1,8% fêmeas, isoladas. Do grupo controle, a perfusão proporcionou 53 vermes adultos, sendo 13 machos, 18 fêmeas e 11 casais. Cada camundongo foi exposto a 150 cercárias.Experimental infection of white mice (Swiss inbred with LE strain Scistosoma mansoni cercariae submitted to the action of magnesium thermophosphate (Tfm, usually used in tropical latosoils, was performed. This product is able to block ovogenesis of planorbid molluscs. In these experimental conditions, rodents were infected. But, the number of eggs released by the control group (five mice was markedly greater than that of the Tfm group, although a short number of worms were recovered by perfusion. From the Tfm group, 163 adult worms (98,2% were recovered and only 3 females (1,8%. Of the control group, perfusion recovered 62 adult worms (22 male worms, 18 female and 11 couples. Each mice was exposed to 150 cercariae.

  11. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  12. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  13. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  14. Anticonvulsant profile of nardostachys jatamansi roots in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushotham K.

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of nardostachys jatamansi roots was less when compared to Sodium Valproate in Maximal Electro Shock model. Whereas, in Pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model, anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of nardostachys jatamansi roots was comparable to sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 758-762

  15. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    hormones of reproduction in both the male and female test animals. The results ... additive of gasoline) in humans are thought to be lower than levels ... In developing countries such as Nigeria .... functions. We had used animal models as part.

  16. Lycopene treatment prevents hematological, reproductive and histopathological damage induced by acute zearalenone administration in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del'Fabbro, Lucian; Roman, Silvane Souza; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Jessé, Cristiano Ricardo; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2014-07-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found as a contaminant in cereals. ZEA toxicity targets mainly the reproductive system, and oxidative stress plays an etiological role in its toxic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene, a potent carotenoid antioxidant, on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes, and on reproductive, hematological and histopathological parameters after ZEA administration. Adult Swiss albino male mice received lycopene (20mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days before a single oral administration of ZEA (40mg/kg, p.o.), and 48h thereafter tissues (liver, kidney, testes and blood) were collected for biochemical, hematological and histological analyses. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in hematological parameters (increased number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils and monocytes and decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), number of lymphocytes and platelets). Moreover, lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and the testicular tissue damage induced by ZEA. In addition, lycopene prevented the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity in kidney and testes and increased glutathione-S-transferase activity per se in the liver, kidneys and testes as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. In summary, lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced acute toxic effects in male mice, suggesting that this antioxidant carotenoid may represent a promising prophylactic strategy against ZEA toxicity.

  17. Assessment of median lethal dose and anti-mutagenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against chemically induced micronucleus formation in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, it may be concluded that Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract possess anti-mutagenic behavior and this hydro-methanolic crude extract may be safe as per the LD50 was observed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 292-297

  18. Evaluation of Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicities of Aqueous Ethanol Root Extract of Raphia hookeri Palmaceae on Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Mbaka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of treatment with aqueous ethanol root extract of Raphia hookri (Palmaceae on rats. In acute toxicity study, the root extract in a graded doses of 125-2000 mg/kg bwt administered Intra-Peritoneal (IP produced dose dependent mortality with median acute toxicity (LD50 of approximately 562.3 mg/kg bwt. The animals fed with the extract by gavages tolerated up to 4000 mg/kg body weight (bwt with no sign of physical/behavioural changes hence 1/20th of the dose (200 mg/kg was used as the highest therapeutic dose. In sub-chronic toxicity study, significant increase (p0.05 decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC count and haemoglobin (Hb level while White Blood Cell (WBC showed increase. In tissue analysis, the extract caused marked deleterious effect on the testes leading to drastic reduction in sperm cells whereas tissues of liver, kidney and heart however showed normal appearance.

  19. [Morphogenesis of the lung bud from albino Swiss mice embryos, in organ culture in the presence of anti-lung serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo Sampaolo, C; Sampaolo, G; Gagliardi, P E

    1983-06-30

    The study of morphological figures and morphometrical data observed in lung buds from ETAS, cultured in Agar and OPEP medium, with or without SCAPEP, at different concentrations, in order to detect its influence on the morphogenesis, has shown that: OPEP (5:0) supports gradual morphogenesis for a limited time; OPEP + SCAPEP (5:2) supports gradual morphogenesis for a prolonged time; OPEP+SCAPEP (5:5) supports fast and deep morphogenesis for a short time; OPEP+SCAPEP (5:7,5) causes early inhibition of morphogenesis and survival; SCAPEP (5:0) stops instantly morphogenesis and survival.

  20. In vivo sedative and hypnotic activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Swiss Albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaria, Md; Clinton, Chayan Dhar; Islam, Mukimul; Talukder, Mohammad Belal; Shariful Islam, Md; Tareq, Syed Mohammed; Uddin, Shaikh Bokhtear

    2017-03-01

    The superior genus Jacquemontia belongs to Convolvulaceae, with around 120 species, and is also considered taxonomically difficult. The aim of this experiment was to assess the sedative and hypnotic activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. The sedative and hypnotic activities were evaluated by hole-cross, open field, hole-board, elevated plus maze (EPM), and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. In this investigation, we found that methanol extract of Jacquemontia paniculata (MEJP) produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of spontaneous activity of mice both in hole-cross and open field tests. In addition, it also decreased the number of head dips in hole-board test. In the case of EPM test, this crude extract induced an anxiogenic-like effect rather than anxiolytic effect in mice. Moreover, MEJP significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. To conclude, these results suggest that the MEJP leaves possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for sleep disorders like insomnia.

  1. Enumerating Nephroprotective Potency of Ethanolic root extract of Operculina turpethum against N-Nitrosodimethylamine incited renal Carcinogenesis in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Veena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA is an important carcinogen frequently present in human environment and food chain. Nitrosamines such as NDMA produce oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species and alter the antioxidant defense system in the tissues. Chronic kidney disease due to a number of factors is a common and serious problem that adversely affects human health, limits longevity and increases costs to health-care systems worldwide. Oxidative stress is prevalent in kidney diseases and is considered to be an important causative mechanism. It develops from an imbalance between free radical production often increased through dysfunctional mitochondria formed with increasing age, inflammation, and reduced anti-oxidant defenses. The present study investigates the influence of ethanolic extract of Operculina turpethum roots on the kidney of NDMA intoxicated mice. The nephrotoxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant was assessed by the analysis of kidney marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and kidney histopathological studies. NDMA exposure produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the kidney indicated by a significant decline in the levels of protein and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione and increased cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. Operculina turpethum manifested chemopreventive effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the nephrotoxicity in mice. Histological examination of kidney revealed patho-physiological changes in NDMA treated mice and improved plant treated renal histopathology.

  2. Cytological and biochemical effects of St. John's Wort supplement (a complex mixture of St. John's Wort, Rosemary and Spirulina) on somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, A M

    2008-12-01

    Commercially available St. John's wort supplement (SJWS) composed of an herbal mixture of St. John's Wort (SJW), Rosemary (RM) and Spirulina (SP) is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP) are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin) and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin). However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed) use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1) determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2) investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day) of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv) quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn from extremities of light and temperature; the observed effect might not be related to the main constituents of SJW. However, these changes might be ascribed to the combined effect of terpenes, tannins, quercetin and flavonoids present in SJW.

  3. Physiologically based toxicokinetic modeling of secondary acute myelolytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas Kumar; Nath, Debjani

    2014-01-01

    Benzene, designated as environmental and occupational carcinogen and hematotoxin, has been associated with secondary leukemia. To develop a toxicokinetic model of AML, benzene can be used as leukemogenic agent. The aim of the present study was to optimize the dose, period and time of cumulative benzene exposure of Swiss Albino mice and to analyze survival rate; alteration in cell cycle regulation and other clinical manifestations in mice exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 h/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks, i.e., 9000(a)ppm cumulative dose. Analyzing physiological parameters like plasma enzyme profile, complete hematology (Hb %, RBC indices and WBC differentials), hematopoietic cells morphology, expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, tissue histology and analysis of DNA fragmentation, optimum conditions were established. Down regulation of p53 and p21 and up regulation of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and E in this exposed group were marked as the optimum conditions of cellular deregulation for the development of secondary AML. Elevated level of Plasma AST/ALT with corresponding changes in liver histology showing extended sinusoids within the hepatocytic cell cords in optimally exposed animals also confirmed the toxicokinetic relation of benzene with leukemia. It can be concluded from the above observations that the 9000(a)ppm exposed animals can serve as the induced laboratory model of secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

  4. Swiss Experiment: Design, implemention and use of a cross-disciplinary infrastructure for data intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, N.; Salehi, A.; Clifton, A.; Bavay, M.; Aberer, K.; Parlange, M. B.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    It has long been known that environmental processes are cross-disciplinary, but data has continued to be acquired and held for a single purpose. Swiss Experiment is a rapidly evolving cross-disciplinary, distributed sensor data infrastructure, where tools for the environmental science community stem directly from computer science research. The platform uses the bleeding edge of computer science to acquire, store and distribute data and metadata from all environmental science disciplines at a variety of temporal and spatial resolutions. SwissEx is simultaneously developing new technologies to allow low cost, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements such that small areas can be intensely monitored. This data is then combined with existing widespread, low density measurements in the cross-disciplinary platform to provide well documented datasets, which are of use to multiple research disciplines. We present a flexible, generic infrastructure at an advanced stage of development. The infrastructure makes the most of Web 2.0 technologies for a collaborative working environment and as a user interface for a metadata database. This environment is already closely integrated with GSN, an open-source database middleware developed under Swiss Experiment for acquisition and storage of generic time-series data (2D and 3D). GSN can be queried directly by common data processing packages and makes data available in real-time to models and 3rd party software interfaces via its web service interface. It also provides real-time push or pull data exchange between instances, a user management system which leaves data owners in charge of their data, advanced real-time processing and much more. The SwissEx interface is increasingly gaining users and supporting environmental science in Switzerland. It is also an integral part of environmental education projects ClimAtscope and O3E, where the technologies can provide rapid feedback of results for children of all ages and where the

  5. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy.

  6. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarmideen Haja N

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years. Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively. The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25. Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

  7. The Swiss Society of Experimental Pharmacology in Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz-Schmidt, Gabriele; Rüegg, Urs

    2016-12-21

    Experimental pharmacology is undergoing fundamental changes. This article describes the challenges and opportunities associated with these changes from the perspective of the Swiss Society of Pharmacology (SSEP), the society which aims to advance experimental pharmacology in Switzerland and abroad.

  8. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  9. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  10. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  11. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of annually resolved environmental variations during the Allerød interstadial is presented using 81 fossil Scots pine tree-ring series from Gaenziloo and Landikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. The absolute age of the trees ranges between 11,920 and 10,610 14C BP, which was determined...... by wiggle-matching radiocarbon ages to the Cariaco 14C data set. From the two sites we created a composite floating Allerød chronology on the basis of their 632 years of overlap (r = 0.57), after individual spline detrending. Merging both data sets resulted in a Lateglacial tree-ring chronology covering...... 1050 years. Regional curve standardization (RCS) was applied to preserve low-frequency information. Growth behavior of the fossil trees was compared with a recent composite pine data set from the central Swiss Alps and reveals distinct differences. The new Allerød RCS chronology reveals major...

  12. Swiss Armed Forces Reform: Doctrinal and Organizational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    second distinguishable trait of the Swiss political system. Swiss citizens can challenge any law with a referendum and amend the constitution with...can impose change to any political course of action. All the domains of the state have been subject to either a referendum or an initiative. The...grew from 11 percent in 1987, doubled to 22.5 percent in 1999, and in 2015 was at 29.4 percent.29 Additional initiatives and referendums halted the

  13. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir; Mohammed Munawar Hossain; Md. Mominur Rahman; Shabbir Ahmad; Abul Hasanat; Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury; Md. Akramul Hoque; Nishan Chakrabarty; Md. Shakhawat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofSteudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia) leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia,respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models) of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg) and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution) (P Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract ofS. colocasiifolia leaves.

  14. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  15. Electrostimulation and morphologic study of the nerves to the bone marrow of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, D M; Webber, R H

    1975-01-01

    The innervation of the bone marrow of the albino rat was investigated by electrostimulation and morphological methods. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic trunks resulted in the release of reticulocytes and neutrophils into the circulating blood. The effects of stimulation on other cell types in the bone marrow could not be definitely established. It was concluded that the nerve fibers to the bone marrow were distributed to the arteries. It is postulated that the transmitter substance released at the autonomic nerve endings may have an effect upon the permeability of the venous sinusiods and the mobility of the blood cells in the marrow parenchyma resulting in their release into the circulating blood.

  16. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PurohitAshok; BhagatMeenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To study the contraceptive effect of the crude extracts of Curcuma longa in male albino rats.Methods:Rats were fed orally with Curcuma longa aqueous and 70% alcoholic extract for 60 days (500 mg·kg-1·day-1).Results:A reduction in sperm motility and density was observed in both the treated groups.Conclusion:Curcuma longa may have affected the androgen synthesis either by inhibiting the Leydig cell function or the hypothalamus pituitary axis and as a result,spermatogenesis is arrested.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:71-74)

  17. Cosmological observables in a Swiss-cheese universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a Swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter-distance relation, in the luminosity-distance-redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark matter models may lead to interesting effects on photon trajectories.

  18. Teratogenic effect of retinoic acid in swiss mice Efeito teratogênico do ácido retinóico em camundongo swiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the types of malformations resulting from the administration of retinoic acid (RA to Swiss mice on different days of pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The experimental groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of RA (70 mg/kg on gestational days 7, 8 and 9 (D7, D8 and D9, while control animals (C received only saline solution. RESULTS: Were obtained: exencephaly (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0, myelomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%, D8:30.9%, D9:0, spina bifida occulta (C:0, D7:29%, D8:41.8%, D90, gastroschisis (C:0, D7:6.4% D8:5.4%, D9:0, omphalocele (C:0, D7:6.4%, D8:14.5%, D9:0, lower limb alterations (C:0, D7:74.1%, D8:80%, D9:0, imperforated anus (C:0, D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%, and tail agenesis/alteration (C: D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%. CONCLUSION: The experimental model using Swiss mice proved to be efficient in the induction of the different types of defects, with the eighth gestational day being the one that most favored the induction of neural tube defect, omphalocele, gastroschisis, lower limb defects, imperforated anus and tail agenesis/alteration. On this basis, this is a useful model for future investigation of neural development and of the formation of the appendicular skeleton.OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de malformação resultantes da administração do ácido retinóico (AR a camundongos Swiss em diferentes dias gestacionais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos fêmeas, linhagem Swiss, prenhes, divididos em 4 grupos com 6 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam uma única injeção intraperitoneal de AR (70mg/Kg nos dias gestacionais 7, 8 e 9 (D7, D8 e D9, enquanto que os animais do grupo controle (C receberam apenas solução salina. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados: exencefalia (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0; mielomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%; D8:30.9%; D9:0; Espina Bífida Oculta (C:0; D7:29%; D8:41.8%; D90; gastrosquise (C:0

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf in female albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Gajendra Pratap Choudhary; Dinesh Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf in female albino mice. Methods: Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract, when administered orally, altered the estrous cycle pattern in female mice, prolong the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage and reduced significantly the number of litters in albino mice. Treatment of mice with extract of 250 and 450 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days caused a prolonged estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus phase and elongation of estrus stage in treatment with higher dose (450 mg/kg body weight/day). Results: The analysis of the principal hormones involved in estrous cycle regulation showed that the plant extracts altered gonadrotrophin release (LH, FSH and prolactinn) and estradiol secretion. Conclusions:The results indicated the anti-fertility effect of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract in female albino mice.

  20. A central repository for gridded data in the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, E.

    2010-09-01

    The significance of gridded data in meteorology and climatology has increased remarkably over the last years. New products of observing systems such as radars, improved interpolation techniques, spatial analyses or modeling procedures have already led to a proliferated amount of available grid data within the meteorological and climatological community. Since these products are generated by different systems the format in which they are delivered can vary quite much. To facilitate the combined use of different gridded data sets (f. ex. rain accumulation based on radar data and interpolated rainfall based on observations) MeteoSwiss decided to incorporate them in one central data repository. It's been the strategy of MeteoSwiss over the last ten years to store and manage all of its data in a single central data platform - the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse - which is completely metadata driven. After the integration of all kind of historical and current surface data the system was extended in 2009 to store different types of upper air data. The last release of this Data Warehouse project focuses on grid data to complete MeteoSwiss' data integration strategy. This release comprises both the storage of different types of gridded datasets being delivered in various data formats into one single grid database and its data management. Here from datasets, which have originally been created in different data formats (f. ex. gif and netCDF), can be exported in whatever format is supported by the system. This procedure facilitates to a great extent the combined analyses of grid data originating in different data sources. Additionally interfaces to other software packages such as R allow direct access to the grid database. Web applications are implemented to allow users to carry out predefined spatial analyses such as spatial aggregation for a user specified extent of the dataset. After evaluating different solutions MeteoSwiss decided to implement its system using existing GIS

  1. Mapping organic carbon stocks of Swiss forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, M.; Papritz, A.; Baltensweiler, A.; Walthert, L.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration into forest sinks offsets greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto protocol. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for reporting greenhouse gas emissions. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the above ground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because of its high spatial variability. To date the greenhouse gas inventory relies only on sparse data and regionally differentiated predictions of SOC stocks in forest soils are currently not possible. Recently, more soil data and new explanatory variables for statistical modeling like high resolution elevation data and satellite images became available. Based on data from 1'033 sites, we modeled SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m including the organic layer for the Swiss forested area. We used a novel robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit a linear regression model with spatially correlated errors to the C stock data. For the regression analysis we used a broad range of covariates derived from climate data (precipitation, temperature, radiation), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) and spectral variables representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main cartographic categories of an overview soil map were used to broadly represent the parent material. The numerous covariates, that partly correlated strongly, were reduced to a first subset using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). This subset of covariates was then further reduced based on cross validation of the robustly fitted spatial model. The levels of categorical covariates were partly aggregated during this process and interactions between covariates were explored to account for nonlinear dependence of C stocks on the covariates. Using the final model, robust kriging prediction and error maps were computed with a resolution of one hectare.

  2. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  3. The effect of lead on the process of spermatogenesis in sex glands of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Shubina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager.M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™. Results: It is shown that when exposed to lead acetate a decrease in the production of all populations of spermatogenic cells, decreased spermatogenesis index and an index of relaxation (tension spermatogenesis, the increase in the index of ripening, index meiotic activity and germinative index, which indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the testes. On preparations, it is possible to see that after the influence of acetate of lead the head of spermatozoa becomes more roundish, breaks of tails observed. Conclusion: Lead acetate reduces the productivity of the seminal glands, which leads to the decrease of the concentration of spermatozoa, and their viability. The results of the studies suggest a negative impact of lead acetate in the course of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male white rats.

  4. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  5. Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Ahmed Omar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

  6. Effect of GABAB Receptor Antagonist (CGP35348 on Learning and Memory in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulane Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P=0.528 and female (P=0.125 albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P=0.04, time immobile (P=0.04, rotations (P=0.04, and anticlockwise rotations (P=0.038. The results for Morris water maze (MWM retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P=0.04 than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.

  7. Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (Pimidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (Pimidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats.

  8. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  9. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

  10. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  11. Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

  12. Effects of L-cysteine on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Sayed, S S

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that adversely affects nervous tissues; it often occurs as an environmental pollutant. We investigated histological changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of adult albino mice following exposure to lead acetate. We also studied the possible ameliorative effect of the chelating agent, L-cysteine, on lead-induced neurotoxicity. We divided albino mice into six groups: 1) vehicle-only control, 2) L-cysteine control, 3 and 4) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, and 5 and 6) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, followed by 50 mg/kg L-cysteine for 7 days. Lead acetate administration caused disorganization of cell layers, neuronal loss and degeneration, and neuropil vacuolization. Brain sections from lead-intoxicated mice treated with L-cysteine showed fewer pathological changes; the neuropil showed less vacuolization and the neurons appeared less damaged. L-cysteine at the dose we used only marginally alleviated lead-induced toxicity.

  13. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  14. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  15. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  16. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  17. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

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    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  18. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hl, Kalabharathi; Sl, Shruthi; Ps, Vaibhavi; Vh, Pushpa; Am, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet's apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet's test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions.

  19. Interactions of pregabalin with gabapentin, levetiracetam, tiagabine and vigabatrin in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model: a type II isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Filip, Damian; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin in combination with four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, levetiracetam, tiagabine, and vigabatrin) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type II isobolographic analysis. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. The combination of pregabalin with gabapentin at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was supra-additive (synergistic) in terms of seizure suppression while the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Similarly, the combination of pregabalin with tiagabine at the fixed-ratio of 25:1 was supra-additive, whereas the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 100:1 and 50:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Pregabalin with levetiracetam and vigabatrin at the fixed-ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in this seizure model. The combinations of pregabalin with gabapentin (1:1) and pregabalin with tiagabine (25:1) appear to be favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interaction in suppressing MES-induced seizures. Pregabalin in combination with levetiracetam and vigabatrin appears to be neutral producing only additivity in the mouse MES model.

  20. Patients with substance use and personality disorders: a comparison of patient characteristics, treatment process, and outcomes in Swiss and U.S. substance use disorder programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggi, Franz; Giovanoli, Anna; Buri, Caroline; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons may increase our understanding of different models of substance use treatment and help identify consistent associations between patients' characteristics, treatment conditions, and outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare matched samples of substance use disorder (SUD) patients with personality disorders (PD) in Swiss and the United States (U.S.) residential SUD treatment programs and examine the relationship of program characteristics to 1-year outcomes. A prospective, naturalistic design was used to compare 132 demographically matched Swiss and U.S. male patients drawn from a sample of 10 Swiss and 15 U.S. public treatment programs. Patients completed comparable inventories at admission, discharge, and 1-year follow-up. Compared to Swiss SUD-PD patients, U.S. SUD-PD patients had more severe substance use and psychosocial problems at admission and follow-up. More intensive treatment and a stronger emphasis on patients' involvement were related to better outcomes for both Swiss and U.S. SUD-PD patients. There may be some cross-cultural consistency in the associations between treatment characteristics and SUD-PD patients' outcomes. Treatment evaluation findings from representative programs in one country may apply elsewhere and contribute to our overall knowledge about how to improve SUD-PD patients' outcomes.

  1. On cosmological observables in a swiss-cheese universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Valerio; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter--distance relation, in the luminosity-distance--redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark ma...

  2. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of anticonvulsant activity of telmisartan and olmesartan in experimentally induced animal models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V H, Pushpa; Shetty K, Padmaja; R N, Suresha; M K, Jayanthi; V, Ashwini; P S, Vaibhavi

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is one common neurological disorder requiring newer targets and newer drugs for its efficient management. In the recent days brain renin angiotensin system has gained immense importance because of its involvement in seizure regulation. To evaluate and compare antiepileptic activity of different doses olmesartan and telmisartan on MES and PTZ induced seizure models. Swiss albino mice weighing around 25-30g of either sex were divided into 6 groups: Control ( Distilled Water- 10ml/kg), Standard - Sodium valproate (40mg/kg), O1 - Olmesartan (2.5mg/kg), O2 - Olmesartan (5mg/kg), T1 - Telmisartan (5mg/kg), T2 - Telmisartan (10mg/kg). After 1hour of administration of control , test and standard drugs (orally), convulsions were induced by administering PTZ (70mg/kg - i.p.) in PTZ model. Seizure latency was the parameter recorded. In MES model, suppression of tonic hind limb extension was taken as measure of efficacy. The results were analysed by one-way-ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. In MES test, dose dependently olmesartan and telmisartan significantly reduced the duration of tonic hindlimb extension in comparison to control (polmesartan and telmisartan produced significant increase in seizure latency (polmesartan in a dose dependent manner showed increase in antiepileptic activity. Temisartan at higher dose produced significant antiepileptic activity in comparison to olmesartan.

  4. Synergistic interaction of levetiracetam with gabapentin in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model – a type II isobolographic analysis

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    Wlaz Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolographic analysis revealed that the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.05 in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. We conclude that, as the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 exerted supra-additive (synergistic interaction in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model, this may be considered as particularly favorable combinations in further clinical practice.

  5. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  6. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

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    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  7. The Swiss NEHAP: why it ended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Julien

    2015-09-01

    While European countries tend to increase the importance given to their national environmental health action plan (NEHAP), Switzerland stopped implementing its NEHAP in 2007. This study investigates the reasons for this surprising decision. The results provide an explanation of a relatively unique case and should inform any person interested in understanding common obstacles in the making and implementation of coordinated environmental health policies and programs. Data used in this study have been obtained from interviews conducted among experts of the Swiss environmental health policies and from survey results provided by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Findings show that financial constraints were only partly responsible for the abandonment of the NEHAP and that many of the shortcomings observed arose from the creation and the functioning of the Environmental and Health Section at the Federal Office of Public Health, which was devoted to the NEHAP. Lack of scientific knowledge and capacity to build intersectoral collaboration, compounded by a limited conception of environmental health, resulted in a lack of political awareness of environmental health issues. In consequence, the study highlights the necessity of a true interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach for environmental health policies. Policy makers should also be concerned with the creation of relevant systems of indicators, since they appear to be fundamental to the success of environmental health policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  9. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations In The Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, H.

    The reconstruction of preindustrial glacier fluctuations in the Swiss Alps reveals the natural range of Holocene climate variability against which the present-day climatic situation can be judged. The results of very recent research on the Great Aletsch and Gorner Glaciers (Valaisian Alps), the Lower Grindelwald Glacier (Bernese Alps) shed light on the glacier fluctuations during the last 3200 years. These glaciers have, at max- imum extensions, penetrated below the timberline and have even reached inhabited areas resulting in sometimes massive destruction. Losses of buildings, woods and pas- tures are the conditions governing the methods used for the reconstruction of glacier length fluctuation through time. The main methods are: historical - the interpretation of pictorial and written historical records, glazio-archaeology - the search for anthro- pogenic traces that are directly related to changes in glacier size/length and scientific - the radiocarbon dating of fossil soils (palaeosols) and wood found in glacier fore- fields. Numerous samples of palaeosols and fossil wood (tree trunks, roots and macro- remains) found in the glacier forefield were radiocarbon dated. Owing to the good condition of several fossil tree trunks, dendrochronological analyses were also con- ducted. The dendrochronological analysis of fossil trees has supplied much reliable evidence of glacier fluctuations through its proven exactness (a single year resolution) which is impossible to obtain with the radiocarbon method alone.

  10. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

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    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  11. 1H NMR-based serum metabolomics reveals erythromycin-induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats

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    Atul Rawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythromycin (ERY is known to induce hepatic toxicity which mimics other liver diseases. Thus, ERY is often used to produce experimental models of drug-induced liver-toxicity. The serum metabolic profiles can be used to evaluate the liver-toxicity and to further improve the understanding of underlying mechanism. Objective: To establish the serum metabolic patterns of Erythromycin induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats using 1H NMR based serum metabolomics. Experimental: Fourteen male rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group: control and ERY treated. After 28 days of intervention, the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from ERY and control groups were analyzed using high-resolution 1D 1H CPMG and diffusion-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. The histopathological and SEM examinations were employed to evaluate the liver toxicity in ERY treated group. Results: The serum metabolic profiles of control and ERY treated rats were compared using multivariate statistical analysis and the metabolic patterns specific to ERY-induced liver toxicity were established. The toxic response of ERY was characterized with: (a increased serum levels of Glucose, glutamine, dimethylamine, malonate, choline, phosphocholine and phospholipids and (b decreased levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, citrate, glycerol, lactate, threonine, circulating lipoproteins, N-acetyl glycoproteins, and poly-unsaturated lipids. These metabolic alterations were found to be associated with (a decreased TCA cycle activity and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, (b dysfunction of lipid and amino acid metabolism and (c oxidative stress. Conclusion and Recommendations: Erythromycin is often used to produce experimental models of liver toxicity; therefore, the established NMR-based metabolic patterns will form the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate the efficacy of anti-hepatotoxic agents or the hepatotoxicity of new

  12. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

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    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  13. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  14. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  15. Effect of Oyster mushroom in Paracetamol Induced Toxicity of Liver in Wistar albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroza Khanam Sumy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Liver is an important metabolic organ. It has wide range of functions including detoxification, storage of glycogen, vitamins A, D and B12, production of several coagulation factors, growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, angiotensinogen, and biochemicals necessary for digestion (bile. Its damage occurs due to its multidimensional functions, various xenobiotics and oxidative stress leading to distortion of all of its functions. Oyster mushroom which is excellently edible and nutritious has got free radical scavenging activity, and so may be considered as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: To observe the hepatoprotective effect of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida against paracetamol induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka from 1st July 2009 to 30th June 2010. Thirty four Wistar albino rats, aged 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 210 grams were used for the study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into two groups –– control group (Group A and experimental group (Group B, mushroom-pretreated and paracetamol-treated group. Control group was again subdivided into Group A1 (baseline control group and Group A2 (paracetamol-treated control group. Animals of all groups received basal diet for 30 consecutive days. In addition, Group A1 rats received propylene glycol (2 mL/kg body weight orally only on 30th day, Group A2 rats received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day and Group B rats received mushroom extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 30 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day. All the animals were sacrificed on 31st day. Then liver specimens were collected. Histology of liver was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Statistical

  16. COMPARISON OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF LOSARTAN WITH IMIPRAMINE IN ALBINO MICE

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    Choppadandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Comparison of antidepressant activity of Losartan with Imipramine in albino mice. BACKGROUND Of all the afflictions that trouble the soul, depression is the commonest characterised by a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Similarly, hypertension is another condition which has emerged as a major public health problem in India and many other developing countries. There is compulsion that 35% of the population has to use the antihypertensives and antidepressants simultaneously for a long period of time to maintain their health. The present work is aimed at comparing antidepressant activity of losartan with imipramine which acts by raising brain BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels so that a single agent can be used for both the conditions avoiding multiple medications. METHOD 18 Albino mice were taken, divided into 6 mice in each group and subjected to Forced swim test. All the drugs were administered orally. Drugs were administered and time of onset of immobility is measured 60 min. after the drug administration along with total duration of immobility. Animals are exposed to pretest of 15 min., 24 hrs. prior to the 6 min. swim test. Each animal is considered immobile when it ceased to struggle and swim and remained floating in the water, only moving to keep its head above water. Control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg. Standard group received Imipramine (5 mg/kg and test group was treated with Losartan (3 mg/kg. The Forced swim test for each mouse was video captured which was later analysed to count the time of onset of immobility and total duration of immobility. RESULTS Data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Losartan showed significant antidepressant activity indicated by significant delay (P<0.05 in the time of onset of immobility and significant reduction (P<0.05 in the total duration of immobility compared to

  17. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  18. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  19. CGP 35348, GABAB Receptor Antagonist, Has a Potential to Improve Neuromuscular Coordination and Spatial Learning in Albino Mouse following Neonatal Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of CGP 35348 on learning and memory in albino mice following hypoxia ischemia insult, 10 days old albino mice were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 intrapertoneally CGP 35348 (1 mg/mL solvent/Kg body weight for 12 days. A battery of tests used to assess long term neurofunction (Morris water maze, Rota rod and open field along with brain infarct measurement. Overall CGP 35348 has improved the motor function in male and female albino mice but effects were more pronounced in female albino mice. In open field, CGP 35348 treated female albino mice had demonstrated poor exploratory behavior. During Morris water maze test, gender specific effects were observed as CGP 35348 had improved spatial learning and memory and swimming speed in male albino mice but had no effect in female albino mice following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE. We concluded that GABAB receptor antagonists CGP 35348 can be used to improve gender based spatial memory.

  20. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  1. Olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker inhibits the progression of cataract formation in cadmium chloride induced hypertensive albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rajesh; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2016-12-15

    Previously we found that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure substantially elevates hypertension and potentiates cataract formation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker against cataractogenesis in the CdCl2-induced hypertensive animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats (150-180g) were randomly selected and assigned to four groups (n=6). Among the four groups, one group (normal) received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (10ml/kg/day, p.o.), another group (CdCl2 control) received CdCl2 (0.5mg/kg/day, i.p.), and remaining two groups received olmesartan at two doses level (2 and 4mg/kg/day, p.o.) concurrently with CdCl2 for six consecutive weeks. Blood pressure and cataract formation were examined biweekly, and pathophysiological parameters in serum and eye lenses were evaluated after six weeks of the experimental protocol. The olmesartan treatment significantly restored the blood pressure, lenticular opacity, serum and lens antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reduced), and malondialdehyde level. Additionally, it significantly restored the proteins, ions (Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)), and ATPase pumps activity (Na(+)K(+) ATPase and Ca(2+) ATPase) in the lens as compared to CdCl2 control group. The findings demonstrate that olmesartan potentially inhibits the risk of cataract formation in the hypertensive state via restoration of lenticular oxidative stress, ATPase function, and ionic contents in the eye lenses. The results suggest that angiotensin II receptor blockers play an important role to prevent cataract formation in several pathogenic conditions like hypertension, diabetes, and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats

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    O. O. Udemezue

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

  3. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

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    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  4. Bisphenol A (BPA Increases Blood Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoproteins in Albino Wistar Rats

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    Oguazu CE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 and micro;g BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means and plusmn; SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.

  5. Hepatoprotective Activity of Oxalis stricta linn. on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Sohankumar Anilbhai Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of Ethanolic Extract of Oxalis stricta Linn.(EEOS towards Paracetamol intoxicated hepatic damage in Albino rats. The various extracts were prepared dose form 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg against liver toxicity induced by Paracetamolat a dose of 2 gm/kg p.o once daily. Serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin content which was elevated due to Paracetamol intoxication was significantly reduced by the extract. Standard drug Silymarin was used as reference. In Paracetamol alone treated animals shows lipid peroxidation was increased with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH levels which represents the hepatic antioxidant status. It was further confirmed by histopathological observations. Futher Histopathological observations indicated. From the results it may be concluded that the 70% ethanolic extract of Oxalis stricta Linn. Possess hepatoprotective activity.

  6. Sub-chronic toxicity and heavy metal toxicity study on Kappaphycus alvarezii in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbiramiRG; KowsalyaS

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Kappaphycus alvarezii methanolic extracts in albino rats. Methods: Sub-chronic toxicity was tested with a single dose of intraperitonal administration of the extract as per the OECD guidelines in the experimental group rats and the control group rats was fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behaviour changes, clinical signs and symptoms, food intake, body weight and any abnormalities of the visceral organs were observed. Results: The results revealed that the algal extract resulted in neither mortality nor any abnormalities. The Most of the serum biochemical parameters and hematological values were similar in control and experimental groups, histopathological examination of the vital organs like liver, kidney, spleen, brain and heart revealed no obvious abnormality in the control group and Kappaphycus alvarezii treated group. Conclusion: It may be concluded that Kappaphycus alvarezii rich in nutrient and nutraceutial potentials and also safety food for human consumption.

  7. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  8. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive.

  9. Effect of Escherichia coli infection on the histopathology of albino mice visceral organs

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    Abin Biswas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is very essential in assessing the nature and state of the tissues. It is used widely to examine the visceral organs in various diseases, infections and disorders. It provides the required insight and details about the possible malfunctioning of the disease or infection. Albino mice were taken and test group was infected withEscherichia coli. The control group was not infected with any linical pathogen. The histopathological examination was carried out to determine the effect of infection in the test group. Liver, spleen and kidney were the visceral organs which were used for the study. The size, shape and other morphological characteristics had markeddifference in case of infected mice when compared with control group mice. Histopathological analysis can be further extended in the case of other clinical pathogenic infections which could lead to nteresting results.

  10. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

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    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  11. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devipriya, D; Gowri, S; Nideesh, T R

    2007-07-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Pterocarpus marsupium is one of the plants used in treatment of diabetes mellitus and the present study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effect of the plant against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was normal control group; Group II, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl(4) (2ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally); Groups III received CC1(4) + Plant extract (100 mg/kg b.w orally); Group IV received only the plant extract. Liver markers were assayed in serum and liver tissue. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine transminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin were increased significantly in Group II. These enzymes were significantly decreased in Group III treated with plant extracts. The present investigation suggest that the plant had a good protective effect on CCl(4) induced hepatic injury.

  13. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  14. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

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    Babita Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham group and six ovariectomised (OVX subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX; OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day; OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day. Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum acid phosphatase (ACP, serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss.

  15. Promising anticancer activities of Justicia simplex D. Don. in cellular and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Litty; Aranjani, Jesil Mathew; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath; Srinivasan, K K

    2017-03-06

    Justicia simplex D. Don. belonging to the family of Acanthaceae has been traditionally used for treatment of rheumatism, inflammation and bronchitis. The plant is traditionally considered as an anticancer medicine and is used by healers of Karnataka to treat various types of cancers. The present study aims at the elucidation of anticancer activity of various extracts of J. simplex, isolation of its active constituents and assessment of the role in growth inhibition and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Extracts of J. simplex was evaluated for the in vitro cytotoxic effect by Brine Shrimp Lethality assay, Trypan Blue dye exclusion assay and antiproliferative assay. In vivo cytotoxicity of the extracts were determined by liquid tumor model in Swiss albino mice. Tumor prognosis, metastasis and angiogenesis were assessed by VEGF expression of the solid tumor. Phytochemical analysis afforded the isolation of a compound, the chemical structure of which was established using IR, NMR and TOF-MS spectral method. The compound was also evaluated for the growth inhibitory and angiogenic effects. The petroleum ether extract revealed potent anticancer activity in in vitro and in vivo studies. The anti-angiogenic effect is due to the down regulation of VEGF expression. The growth inhibitory assay revealed that the isolated compound namely triacontanoic ester of 5''-hydroxyjustisolin is responsible for the anticancer activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Babita; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek; Indap, Madhavi Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME) on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham) group and six ovariectomised (OVX) subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day); OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day). Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphatase (ACP), serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. PMID:24995144

  17. Effect of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl-p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide on the anticonvulsant action of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model

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    Luszczki Jarogniew J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl- p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide (BAM-IPPS - a new succinimide derivative on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine [CBZ], phenobarbital [PB], phenytoin [PHT] and valproate [VPA] in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES-induced tonic seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration delivered via ear-clip electrodes. BAM-IPPS administered (i.p. at a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.05. Lower doses of BAM-IPPS (50 and 100 mg/kg had no significant impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. Moreover, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg did not significantly affect the anticonvulsant potency of CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA in the mouse MES model. BAM-IPPS elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice in a dosedependent manner. However, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant action of various classical AEDs in the mouse MES model, making the combinations of BAM-IPPS with CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA neutral, from a preclinical point of view.

  18. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

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    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  19. Protective effects of Eruca sativa (rocket) on abamectin insecticide toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meligi, Noha M; Hassan, Hanaa Fawzy

    2017-03-01

    The extensive use of insecticides has hazardous effects since they can damage human health as well as the environment. Abamectin has been widely used in veterinary medicine and as a pesticide in agriculture. It is considered as one of the most commonly used insecticides in Egypt. The focus of the present study is to examine the toxic effects of sublethal dose (1 mg/kg b.wt.) of abamectin (Crater 3.37% EC) in male albino rats and to evaluate the efficiency of Eruca sativa suspension to ameliorate the abamectin toxicity. The present study was achieved using 18 male albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, abamectin-treated group, and abamectin + E. sativa-treated group. Rats of the third group were orally administrated a mixture of sublethal dose of abamectin (1 mg/kg b.wt.) and E. sativa suspension (5 g/kg b.wt.) three times a week for 28 days. At the end of the study period, blood samples were collected from all groups to measure the various hematological and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that rats, after abamectin exposure, exhibited general signs of toxicity and disturbance in the hematological and biochemical parameters. In addition, administration of E. sativa suspension ameliorated the hematological and biochemical parameters. These findings suggested that the exposure to abamectin might be responsible for hypertension, liver and kidney dysfunction, lipid profile disturbance, and oxidative stress, reflected in hematological and biochemical parameters. It was also found that the administration of E. sativa suspension reduced the detrimental impact of abamectin on some hematological and biochemical parameters.

  20. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino zebrafish line to characterize in vivo expression of neurod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Ochocinska, Margaret J; Hitchcock, Peter F; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults.

  1. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

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    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received gum acacia (2% orally for 12days, and normal saline (i.p., dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p. from day 7- day12 respectively. Two test groups (Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract 2 and 4gm/kg/p.o./12days and standard control received metformin (2gm/kg/p.o./12 days. The two test groups, standard control group received dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p from day 7- day 12 respectively. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity was estimated by measuring serum glucose, insulin, lipid levels and histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Results were analyzed by using one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe’s multiple comparison test. Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre (2 and 4gm/kg/p.o significantly (p<0.01 altered the elevated glucose, lipid, insulin levels and also improved the histopathology of liver in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance rats. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre improved the altered glucose, insulin and lipid profile in insulin resistance rats.

  2. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp/albino zebrafish line to characterize in vivo expression of neurod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Thomas

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults.

  3. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON KIDNEY OF ALBINO RABBIT-AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluoride is present in environment in various forms and ingested by man from solid foods, drinks, drinking water and inhaled from the air. Out of these, fluoride is present in large quantities in dissolved state in many sources of drinking water producing toxicity in man. Fluoride, being excreted mainly through the kidneys, seems to damage it causing renal dysfunction. Kidneys are among the most sensitive body organs in their histopathological and functional responses to excessive amounts of fluoride. Trace elements are essential and beneficial to human being in minute concentrations. However, intake in large quantities produces adverse and toxic effects on our body. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes of sodium fluoride on the kidney in albino rabbit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 40 albino rabbits were used for this study, among them 8 rabbits were taken in the control group (Group A and16 rabbits each were taken in both group B and group C who were administered low and high dose of fluoride respectively. After 2 weeks interval, up to 16 weeks the histology of the kidney of each group of the rabbit was studied for histological analysis. RESULT: Histological changes in the kidneys of both Group B and Group C rabbits, following continuous daily exposure to sodium fluoride solutions in two different doses (0.5% solution for Group B and 3% solution for Group C for different durations of time were studied in detail and compared with those of the controls (Group A. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Sodium Fluoride solution in high doses for prolonged period has a definite adverse effect on the renal parenchyma.

  4. Protective effects of erdosteine against nephrotoxicity caused by gamma radiation in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, A A; Ibrahim, I M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of erdosteine against gamma radiation-induced renal lesions in male albino rats. Twenty-eight albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy), treated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week), and treated irradiated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week, then exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy). The results revealed that the administration of erdosteine to rats before irradiation significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in kidney function (creatinine and urea) compared with irradiated group. Also the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6 activities were markedly improved compared with the corresponding values of irradiated group. Kidney catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione concentration showed approximately normal level when compared with the irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of renal lesions in irradiated group, while in treated irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture. Erdosteine acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorate the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological changes and might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damage.

  5. Short-term impacts of air pollutants in Switzerland: Preliminary scenario calculations for selected Swiss energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the frame of the comprehensive assessment of Swiss energy systems, air quality simulations were performed by using a 3-dimensional photo-chemical dispersion model. The objective is to investigate the impacts of pollutants in Switzerland for future options of Swiss energy systems. Four scenarios were investigated: Base Case: simulations with the projected emissions for the year 2030, Scenario 1) all nuclear power plants were replaced by oil-driven combined cycle plants (CCP), Scenarios 2 to 4) traffic emissions were reduced in whole Switzerland as well as in the cities and on the highways separately. Changes in the pollutant concentrations and depositions, and the possible short-term impacts are discussed on the basis of exceedences of critical levels for plants and limits given to protect the public health. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  6. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  7. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  8. Interdisciplinarity in Swiss Schools: A Difficult Step into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisla, Gianni; Bausch, Luca; Bonoli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Multi- and interdisciplinary education is a major postulate in the Swiss school system and has considerable weight in educational programs and learning objectives, both in compulsory school and at the upper secondary school level. However, materializing this postulate still poses problems at the political and institutional level, where the…

  9. Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as…

  10. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  11. Sino-Swiss center for cassava technology launched in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Under the joint sponsorship of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), the Shanghai Center for Cassava Biotechnology (SCCB) has been established at the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology(SIPE), SIBS.

  12. Development of animal model for Chandipura virus in laboratory mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raut; CG; Jadi; RS; Chinchwale; AS; Daware; MM

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there was a outbreak of Chandipura virus(CHPV)in Sothern part of India causing encephalitis and acutedeathin children of age group of2.5months to15years withthe mortality rate of55.6%.As this disease is of acutedeath nature in humans no data available on pathogenesis.To understandthe pathogenesis of the disease caused by CHPV,experimental infection in laboratory swiss albino micewas conducted.Animals of age upto one weekfound highlysusceptible to all the routes of inoculation.For further stu...

  13. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  14. Integration of upper air data in the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, M.; Haeberli, Ch.; Ruffieux, D.

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 10 years MeteoSwiss established a Data Warehouse in order to get one single, integrated data platform for all kinds of meteorological and climatological data. In the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse data and metadata are hold in a metadata driven relational database. To reach this goal, we started with the integration of the actual and historical data from our surface stations in a first step, including routines for aggregation and calculation and the implementation of enhanced Quality Control tools. In 2008 we started with the integration of actual and historical upper air data like soundings (PTU, Wind and Ozone), any kind of profilers like wind profiler or radiometer, profiles calculated from numerical weather models and AMDAR data in the Data Warehouse. The dataset includes also high resolution sounding data from the station Payerne and TEMP data from 20 European stations since 1942. A critical point was to work out a concept for the general architecture which could deal with all different types of data. While integrating the data itself all metadata of the aerological station Payerne was transferred and imported in the central metadata repository of the Data Warehouse. The implementation of the real time and daily QC tools as well as the routines for aggregation and calculation were realized in an analog way as for the surface data. The Quality Control tools include plausibility tests like limit tests, consistency tests in the same level and vertical consistency tests. From the beginning it was the aim to support the MeteoSwiss integration strategy which deals with all aspects of integration like various observing technologies and platforms, observing systems outside MeteoSwiss and the data and metadata itself. This kind of integration comprises all aspects of "Enterprise Data Integration". After the integration, the historical as well as the actual upper air data are now available for the climatologists and meteorologists with standardized access for

  15. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  16. Pralidoxime in carbaryl poisoning: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Hack, Jason B; Salvador, Annabella; Hoffman, Robert S

    2007-02-01

    Poisoning from organophosphates and carbamates is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Concerns have been expressed over the safety and efficacy of the use of oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) in patients with carbamate poisoning in general, and more so with carbaryl poisoning specifically. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of 2-PAM in a mouse model of lethal carbaryl poisoning. Female ICR Swiss Albino mice weighing 25-30 g were acclimated to the laboratory and housed in standard conditions. One hundred and ten mice received an LD50 dose of carbaryl subcutaneously. Ten minutes later, they were randomized by block randomization to one of eight treatment groups: normal saline control, atropine alone, 100 mg/kg 2-PAM with and without atropine, 50 mg/kg 2-PAM with and without atropine, and 25 mg/kg 2-PAM with and without atropine. All medications were given intraperitoneally and the atropine dose was constant at 4 mg/kg. The single objective endpoint was defined as survival to 24 hours. Fatalities were compared using a Chi squared or Fisher's exact test. Following an LD50 of carbaryl, 60% of the animals died. Atropine alone statistically improved survival (15% lethality). High dose 2-PAM with and without atropine was numerically worse, but not statistically different from control. While the middle dose of 2-PAM was no different than control, the addition of atropine improved survival (10% fatality). Low-dose 2-PAM statistically improved survival (25% lethality). Atropine further reduced lethality to 10%. When appropriately dosed, 2-PAM alone protects against carbaryl poisoning in mice. Failure to demonstrate this benefit in other models may be the result of oxime overdose.

  17. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic analysis of…

  18. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic…

  19. 双向电泳分析鸢尾绿白嵌合叶片的蛋白质%Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Proteins from Albino-Green Chimeric Leaves of Iris japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金勇; 曾英; 桑玉英

    2002-01-01

    Proteins extracted from albino-green chimeric leave s of Iris japonica were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ele ctrophoresis and relative molecular weights and isoelectric points were determin ed.Approximately 400 protein spots were identified in each 2-D PAGE gel.Altered expression was apparent for at least 13 proteins.The results showed that protein expression patterns changed obviously in the green and white leaf strips.In com parison with the 2-D PAGE map from Arabidopsis thaliana in SWISS-2DPAGE data base, it revealed that the expression pattern of large subunit of RuBisCO and the proteins labeled W and T was closely related to the mechanism involved in chimeric variations of Iris japonic.%利用双向聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳对鸢尾(Iris japonica )绿白嵌合叶片的蛋白质进行分离,并初步鉴定了蛋白质的相对分子量和等电点.每个电泳图谱共检测到400余个蛋白点,其中至少13个蛋白的表达变化明显;结果表明,嵌合叶片的绿色与白色叶组织具有明显不同的蛋白质双向电泳图谱.与数据库中拟南芥双向电泳图谱相比较,发现Rubisco大亚基、标记为W和T蛋白的表达变化与产生绿白嵌合叶片的表型密切相关.

  20. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  1. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through

  2. SwissDock, a protein-small molecule docking web service based on EADock DSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdidier, Aurélien; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Most life science processes involve, at the atomic scale, recognition between two molecules. The prediction of such interactions at the molecular level, by so-called docking software, is a non-trivial task. Docking programs have a wide range of applications ranging from protein engineering to drug design. This article presents SwissDock, a web server dedicated to the docking of small molecules on target proteins. It is based on the EADock DSS engine, combined with setup scripts for curating common problems and for preparing both the target protein and the ligand input files. An efficient Ajax/HTML interface was designed and implemented so that scientists can easily submit dockings and retrieve the predicted complexes. For automated docking tasks, a programmatic SOAP interface has been set up and template programs can be downloaded in Perl, Python and PHP. The web site also provides an access to a database of manually curated complexes, based on the Ligand Protein Database. A wiki and a forum are available to the community to promote interactions between users. The SwissDock web site is available online at http://www.swissdock.ch. We believe it constitutes a step toward generalizing the use of docking tools beyond the traditional molecular modeling community.

  3. A longitudinal study on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in Swiss communal dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, Bart H P; Graber, Hans U; Voelk, Verena; Sartori, Carlotta; Steiner, Adrian; Haerdi-Landerer, M Christina; Bodmer, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S. aureus GTB in communal dairy operations. Cows (n=551) belonging to 7 communal operations were sampled at the beginning and end of the communal period. Transmission parameter β was estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. The basic reproduction ratio R0 was subsequently derived using previously published information about the duration of infection. Mean transmission parameter β was estimated to be 0.0232 (95% CI: 0.0197-0.0274). R0 was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2-3.0), indicating that S. aureus GTB is capable of causing major outbreaks in Swiss communal dairy operations. This study emphasized the contagious behaviour of S. aureus GTB. Mastitis management in communal dairy operations should be optimized to reduce S. aureus GTB transmission between cows and back to their herds of origin.

  4. Long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based Swiss cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Fischer, Evelyn; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Imboden, Medea; Tsai, Ming; Carballo, David; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is an important risk factor for global burden of disease. There has been recent interest in its possible role in the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence is suggestive, but epidemiological evidence is limited and mixed. We therefore explored the association between air pollution and prevalent diabetes, in a population-based Swiss cohort. We did cross-sectional analyses of 6392 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults [SAPALDIA], aged between 29 and 73 years. We used estimates of average individual home outdoor PM10 [particulate matter pollutant model. There was some indication that beta blockers mitigated the effect of PM10. The associations remained stable across different sensitivity analyses. Our study adds to the evidence that long term air pollution exposure is associated with diabetes mellitus. PM10 appears to be a useful marker of aspects of air pollution relevant for diabetes. This association can be observed at concentrations below air quality guidelines.

  5. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  6. Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Ghali

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non

  7. Protective effects of fennel oil extract against sodium valproate-induced hepatorenal damage in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Al-Amoudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae is commonly known as fennel. This herb is well-known worldwide and traditionally used as curative herbal therapy for the treatment of epileptic disease, seizurescarminative, digestive, lactogogue, diuretic, treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of present study is to investigate the possible effect of fennel oil against the toxicity of Sodium-Valproic (SVP in albino rats. In order to assess the protection of fennel oil on SVP induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rats were treated with 1 ml/kg b.w fennel oil 3 days/week for 6 weeks. The biochemical analyses of hepatic enzymes were evaluated by estimating blood biomarkers of liver and renal damage along with histological examination. The results obtained from this work showed that treating animals with SVP lead to many histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney tissues. The effect appeared in the liver tissue include leukocyte infiltrations, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, fatty degeneration and congestion of blood vessels. This commonly used chemical (SVP caused some unwanted effects on the kidney cortex which histologically observed as degeneration in renal tubules, atrophy of the glomeruli and edema. Biochemical results also revealed an abnormal increase in the enzyme level of AST, SAT, ALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea-nitrogen, with a noticed decrease in total protein content. However, the results of treated rats with SVP plus fennel oil showed some positive histopathological changes in both the liver and kidney tissues. These results have confirmed that fennel oil has positive effects on the histological structure of the liver and kidney and the biochemical levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, total proteins, creatinine and urea. It is concluded that fennel oil has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory. These valuable effects might be due to

  8. Proteomic analysis of young leaves at three developmental stages in an albino tea cultivar

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    Li Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White leaf No.1 is a typical albino tea cultivar grown in China and it has received increased attention in recent years due to the fact that white leaves containing a high level of amino acids, which are very important components affecting the quality of tea drink. According to the color of its leaves, the development of this tea cultivar is divided into three stages: the pre-albinistic stage, the albinistic stage and the regreening stage. To understand the intricate mechanism of periodic albinism, a comparative proteomic approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry was adopted first time to identify proteins that changed in abundance during the three developmental periods. Results The 2-DE results showed that the expression level of 61 protein spots varied markedly during the three developmental stages. To analyze the functions of the significantly differentially expressed protein spots, 30 spots were excised from gels and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Of these, 26 spots were successfully identified. All identified protein spots were involved in metabolism of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, photosynthesis, protein processing, stress defense and RNA processing, indicating these physiological processes may play crucial roles in the periodic albinism. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcriptional level of differentially expressed proteins. In addition, the ultrastructural studies revealed that the etioplast-chloroplast transition in the leaf cell of White leaf No. 1 was inhibited and the grana in the chloroplast was destroyed at the albinistic stage. Conclusions In this work, the proteomic analysis revealed that some proteins may have important roles in the molecular events involved in periodic albinism of White leaf No. 1 and identificated many attractive candidates for further investigation. In

  9. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  10. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  11. Potentials and limitations of seasonal runoff predictions for Swiss mesoscale basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Simon; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Prediction of long-term runoff (i.e. month, season, year) is a valuable information for decision-makers in hydropower industries, water resources management and inland water transports. Common approaches for seasonal runoff forecasts can mainly be categorized by the integration or disintegration of numerical climate predictions. While the former is a quite new development in this research field, the latter has been introduced already in the 1950s for Swiss basins using a linear regression model and several case studies can be found. Nevertheless scientific literature lacks an overview concerning spatial as well temporal differences of seasonal runoff predictability in Swiss basins. In this study we applied a simple partial least squares regression model to predict seasonal runoff and evaluated how this approach performs across different discharge regimes and over the year. Here, we defined season as a time window of 91 consecutive days with arbitrary position within the calendar year. Furthermore, the quartiles of these 91 daily runoff values were choosen as the target values and temperature, precipitation and runoff prior to the forecast date as predictors. Hence, the model itself does not make any assumptions about future weather and climate - the forecasts are based on the disposition of the specific basin at the date of forecast and assume a memory effect caused by interactions of water storages such as soil, groundwater, lakes and snow. Seasonal runoff forecasts for 24 Swiss mesoscale basins (100-2000 km2) were then analyzed to estimate temporal and spatial differences in goodness of prediction. We show that model skill varies strongly through the calendar year. In spring and autumn we observe best model performance, whereas for summer the prediction benefit is smaller relative to the discharge regime as reference. On the other hand spatial differences in goodness of prediction were much smaller - alpine catchments show best predictability by trend, because of

  12. Exogenous ketone supplements reduce anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats

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    Csilla Ari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM. The groups included standard diet (SD or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE (1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE, high dose ketone ester (HKE (~25 g/kg/day, HKE, beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S (~25 g/kg/day, KS, and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT (~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day. At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats, more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats, more distance travelled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats, and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats, when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy

  13. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

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    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  14. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  15. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  16. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  17. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of the Heat and Electricity Demand of the Swiss Building Stock

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    Stefan Schneider

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, space heating and domestic hot water production accounted for around 40% of the Swiss final energy consumption. Reaching the goals of the 2050 energy strategy will require significantly reducing this share despite the growing building stock. Renewables are numerous but subject to spatial–temporal constraints. Territorial planning of energy distribution systems enabling the integration of renewables requires having a spatial–temporal characterization of the energy demand. This paper presents two bottom-up statistical extrapolation models for the estimation of the geo-dependent heat and electricity demand of the Swiss building stock. The heat demand is estimated by means of a statistical bottom-up model applied at the building level. At the municipality level, the electricity load curve is estimated by combining socio-economic indicators with average consumption per activity and/or electric device. This approach also allows to break down the estimated electricity demand according to activity type (e.g., households, various industry, and service activities and appliance type (e.g., lighting, motor force, fridges. The total estimated aggregated demand is 94 TWh for heat and 58 TWh for electricity, which represent a deviation of 2.9 and 0.5%, respectively compared to the national energy consumption statistics. In addition, comparisons between estimated and measured electric load curves are done to validate the proposed approach. Finally, these models are used to build a geo-referred database of heat and electricity demand for the entire Swiss territory. As an application of the heat demand model, a realistic saving potential is estimated for the existing building stock; this potential could be achieved through by a deep retrofit program. One advantage of the statistical bottom-up model approach is that it allows to simulate a building stock that replicates the diversity of building demand. This point is important in order to

  18. Additive interactions of pregabalin with lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine and topiramate in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model: a type I isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Filip, Damian; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin (PGB-a third-generation antiepileptic drug) in combination with three second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., lamotrigine [LTG], oxcarbazepine [OXC] and topiramate [TPM]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type I isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25mA, 500V, 50Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured. In the mouse MES model, PGB administered singly had its DRRC non-parallel to that for LTG, OXC and TPM. With type I isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs, the combinations of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted additive interaction. In all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength were affected. In conclusion, the additive interactions between PGB and LTG, OXC and TPM are worthy of consideration while extrapolating the results from this study to clinical settings.

  19. Antidepressant-like activity of (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-2-yl) methanone (4a), a novel 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist: an investigation in behaviour-based rodent models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Baldev; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Pandey, Dilip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-3-yl) methanone (4a), a novel 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, with an optimal log P (2.84) and pA(2) value (7.3) greater than ondansetron (6.9) using rodent behavioural models of depression. Swiss albino mice were used in actophotometer test, forced swim test (FST) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitch response. Reserpine induced hypothermia (RIH) and olfactory bulbectomy were performed in male Wistar rats. Statistical analysis was carried out by using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Acute treatment of 4a (1-4 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice produced antidepressant-like effects in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in actophotometer test. Further, 4a (2-4 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-HTP induced head twitches response in mice and also antagonized RIH in rats. Furthermore, sub-chronic (14 days) treatment with 4a (2-4 mg/ kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the behavioural anomalies induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy in rats in modified open field exploration. These preliminary investigations confirm that 4a exhibits antidepressant-like activity in behaviour based rodent models of depression.

  20. An Insight into the Behavior, Course and Kinetics of Acute Infection of Toxoplasma gondii Human RH Strain in Experimentally Infected Murine Model.

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    Vikrant Sudan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite, is capable of infecting a broad range of intermediate warm-blooded hosts including humans. The parasite seems to be capable of altering the natural behavior of the host to favor its transmission in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course, alterations in behavior along with normal kinetics of the abnormally induced experimental acute toxoplasmosis in murine models.Ten Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with 100 virulent RH strain tachyzoites and finally, the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals.The behavior and the other symptoms of the acute toxoplasmosis were recorded. Such mice showed typical symptoms like normal coat, severe ascites with pendulous abdomen and tachypnoea exhibited by resting fore legs either on walls of the cage, or nozzle of water bottle or other resting mice and yielded a creamy colored cloudy natured peritoneal fluid on aspiration.Finally the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals. The study has generated some important data related to possible causes of behavioral alterations and generation of suitable strategies for control of these alterations in behavior vis-à-vis better understanding of the effect of acute infection of parasite on normal behavior of infected intermediate host.

  1. Antifertility effect of ethanolic extract of Amalakyadi churna in male albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Sharanabasappa; B.Umareddy; SaraswatiB.Patil; Y.N.Seetharam; H.Sujeeth; G.Jyothishwaran; ArvindBarad

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the ethanolic extract of Amalakyadi churna by oral administra-tion in male albino mice. Methods: The ethanol extract of Amalakyadi churna at the dose of 250 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 30 days to adult male mice. On day 31, the mice were sacrificed and the testis and accessory reproductive organs were removed and weighed. The organs were processed for biochemical estimation and histological work. Results: Treatment with Amalakyadi chuma resulted in decrease in the weights of testis and accessory reproductive organs. The diameters of testis, seminiferous tubules and Leydig cell nucleus were decreased. The spermatogenic elements, like spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids in the testis were re-duced significantly as well as the sperm count in cauda epididymis. There was a significant reduction in the protein,glycogen, DNA and RNA contents and the activity of acid phosphatase in the testis of extract treated mice compared with the control. The cholesterol content and the alkaline phophatase activity were increased significantly in treated mice. Conclusion: Amalakyadi churna extract arrests spermatogenesis in male mice without noticeable side effects.(Asian J Andro12003 Sep; 5: 247-250)

  2. Effects of continuous environmental illumination on the albino rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M L; Smith, J E; Sokhansanj, A; Rusch, P; Landis, C; Hatton, G I

    1995-01-01

    Continuous environmental illumination or constant light (LL) exposure causes a suppression of daily water intake, and long-term exposure of greater than 19 days produces a hypertrophy of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) in the hypothalamus. These findings led Glantz to hypothesize that LL increases the secretion of vasopressin (VP). We wanted to determine whether LL could trigger morphological changes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) seen with other manipulations that result in enhanced hormone release. The posterior pituitary of male albino rats that were exposed to LL for 24 or 48 h were examined ultrastructurally for evidence of enhanced hormone release. In addition, water intake, plasma VP levels, and MNC size within the supraoptic nucleus (SON) were measured. After LL exposure, the posterior pituitary morphology was different, suggesting enhanced hormone release. LL exposure did not affect plasma VP or the size of SON MNCs, but did suppress drinking behavior. These data show that posterior pituitary morphology is affected rapidly by LL exposure. The HNS response to LL exposure may consist of changes within the first 24 h of LL found within the posterior pituitary followed later by hypertrophy of the SON MNCs.

  3. Effect of methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcifium pulp on some biochemical parameters in albino rats

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    Nkwocha Chinelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group, 100 mg/kg (Group 2, 200 mg/kg (Group 3 and 500 mg/kg (Group 4 body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05 in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05 in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

  4. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

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    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  5. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  6. Biochemical Effects Of Aluminum On Some Selected Serum Enzymes Of Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Ogueche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water contaminated air food and soil. Aluminum AL belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum 0.38 3.8 and 38mgkg body weight administration respectively. The results showed significant increase p0.05 in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kgkg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly p 0.05 in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mgkg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However lower dose 0.38mgkg showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant p0.05 at 7 and 14 as compared to control animals.

  7. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan I El-Sayyad; Saber A Sakr; Gamal M Badawy; Hanaa S Afify

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods: Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

  8. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

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    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  9. Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n=6, treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3 mL/kg, i.p. and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100% (1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, i.p., or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, i.p., were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA (18 : 3, n−3 on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic, and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

  10. Restoring lens capsule integrity enhances lens regeneration in New Zealand albino rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, A; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1993-11-01

    In studies conducted by numerous investigators for 150 years, lenses regenerated following endocapsular lens extraction in New Zealand albino rabbits have been irregular in shape, appearing primarily doughnut-shaped as a result of lack of lens growth at the site of the anterior capsulotomy and its adhesion to the posterior capsule. In the present study, we restored the lens capsule integrity by inserting a collagen patch at the time of surgery to seal the anterior capsulotomy and to improve the shape and structure of the regenerated lenses. We then filled the capsule bag with air to prevent adhesions between the anterior and posterior capsule and maintain capsule tautness and shape. Lens regeneration was first noted as early as one to two weeks. Regenerated lens filled approximately 50% of the capsule bag at two weeks and 100% by five weeks. Subsequent growth was in the anterior-posterior direction and measured by A-scan biometry. Lens thickness increased by 0.3 mm per month. The regenerated lenses were spherical with normal cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. In conclusion, restoration of lens capsular integrity with a collagen patch following endocapsular lens extraction enhanced the shape, structure, and growth rate of the regenerated lenses. In addition, lens regeneration was shown to occur in two cats.

  11. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  12. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  13. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one.

  14. ARTERIAL WALL OF THE ALBINO RAT: MORPHOMETRIC STRUCTURE AND GENERAL MORPHOPHYSIOLOGY

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    Antonio Marcos Orsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological structure and some morphometric parameters referring the aortic architecture of the adult albino rat were focused from the three segmental parts of the aorta comprising the thoracic ascendant and thoracic descendant parts, and the abdominal part of aorta immediately caudal to the renal arteries emergency. Slides containing transversal samples of aortic segments stained by Masson’s trichromes were studied and morphometrically analyzed through a Zeiss KS 300® system. The abdominal aortic segment showed a mixed pattern from the mural building formed by similar amounts of smooth muscle cells and connective matrix elements, being represented by collagen and elastic lamellae and fibers. However a classic elastic mural pattern was verified in the thoracic segments of the rat aorta, an intermingled pattern mainly occurred between the smooth muscle cells and matrix elements in all the segments of the rat aorta. The thickness of the aortic wall showed a numeric progressive lower from the ascendant part to the abdominal part of aorta. Similar pattern was verified for the number of elastic lamellae, which the major lamellar number observed could be related with the luminal vortex flow observed inside the ascendant aortic part. Also the aortic diameters verified decreased progressively from the ascendant to the abdominal part of aorta.

  15. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  16. EVALUATION OF HYPOCHOLESTERIMIC ACTIVITY OF SPHAG- A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the greatest risk factors contributing to atherosclerosis and occurrence of coronary heart diseases. Hence hypolipidemic drugs are extensively used as prophylactic agents for preventing such atherosclerosis induced disorders. As synthetic drugs have lot of side effects, the focus on herbal drugs is increasing present day. SPHAG is a poly herbal formulation developed by the combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre. The experiment was carried out in Wistar albino rats comprised of five groups such as Healthy Control, Disease Control, Drug Control, SPHAG Low Dose and SPHAG High Dose. The study was conducted for a period of 25 days by daily single dose of test extract through oral administration. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, Biochemical profiles were evaluated. The study demonstrated the Hypolipidemic activity of SPHAG and the efficacy was dose dependent. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

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    D Anantha Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results : Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion : The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

  18. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

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    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  20. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  1. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  2. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  3. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  4. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

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    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  5. Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats

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    U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body’s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

  6. Evaluation of antitrypanosomal activity of Adansonia digitata (methanol seed extract in Albino mice

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    Hassan Maina Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata, a shrub used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer was investigated for the treatment of experimental trypanosomiasis. Methanol seed extracts of the seed of Adansonia digitata was investigated for in-vivo anti-trypanosomal activity in albino mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and treated intraperitoneally with the extracts 24 hours post infection, at doses ranging from 50-500mg/kg for 14 days. The parasitaemia in each mouse was monitored including the control group which were treated with the standard drug; berenil. Seed extracts at dose of 400mg/kg showed significant antitrypanosomal activity (P50 value of the crude seed extract was estimated to be more than 2900mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of the seed indicated the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids and triterpene, flavonoids and alkaloids. The result of this study shows that Adansonia digitata has great potential as anti trypanosomal agent, which could be developed into an alternative drug to complement treatment options for African trypanosomiasis.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

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    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  8. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  9. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a