WorldWideScience

Sample records for models suggesting unforeseen

  1. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  2. Health service marketing: a suggested model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltman, G; Vertinsky, I

    1971-07-01

    Focus is on social marketing in a health context, and attention is directed to the development of a psychosocial model of health-related behavior with emphasis on developing countries. Each component of the model is identified and defined, with some of the interactions among its components noted. There are both advantages and limitations to using the model in a social marketing context. The model's primary contribution at this stage of its development is in structuring and organizing diverse sources of knowledge and data. New relationships are suggested which were not previously considered in the literature. The relationship between risk-taking and perceived susceptibility is 1 example. The model also provides a basis for simulating health processes, providing a testing ground for health policies before their actual implementation. The model's perspective is uniquely appropriate for the development of social marketing strategies, and it promises to encompass health market behavior in various cultural settings.

  3. 14 CFR 1214.805 - Unforeseen customer delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unforeseen customer delay. 1214.805 Section... for Spacelab Services § 1214.805 Unforeseen customer delay. Should an unforeseen customer payload..., if requested by the customer, make all reasonable efforts to prevent a delay, contingent on the...

  4. Norwegian “Digital Border Defense” and Competence for the Unforeseen: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Ole; Torgersen, Glenn-Egil

    2018-01-01

    Strategic Competence Leadership (SCL) is a tool meant to ensure that the Norwegian Armed Forces Cyber Defence (NAFCD) has the necessary expertise to cope with current and future unforeseen events. This is necessary in order to develop a better digital border defense against digital threats from different state or non-state actors. Unforeseen cyber incidents include for instance “zero-days” attacks and similar severe threats. The goal of the SCL in the NAFCD is the development of a reliable “Cyber Resilience.” In the present study, we examine how the concept of SCL is understood and carried out on the different leadership and managerial levels in the NAFCD. Our research problem was how well prepared the NAFCD is for SCL and competence development for future competence needs, especially in relation to unforeseen events? Semi-structured interviews and document analyses of governance documents were used in the present study. The Strategic Didactic Model for the Unforeseen was used to construct nine research questions that were then given to the participants. The nine questions were sorted under three categories: organizational structures, competence development and needs, and plans, handling and communication. Fourteen leaders at different levels in the NAFCD participated in the study. Our main finding was that high-level (n = 4) and low-level (n = 10) participants differed in their views on SCL. As for unforeseen events, both levels shared the opinion that the NAFCD can cope with a low level of didactical degrees of the unforeseen (the degree to which the management has the competence to facilitate for adequate exercises for the different hierarchical levels in the organization, i.e., sudden unknown cyber-attacks). However, no common understanding of the term SCL was found among the participants. Interaction was interpreted to be very important to the participants, and they used professional networks to a high degree. In addition, unofficial lines of

  5. Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1978-03-01

    Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.

  6. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  7. Halloween Costumes May Suggest Influence of Violent Models on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John W.; Sterling, Bruce S.

    Halloween costumes may be used to examine the influence violent models have on children. On Halloween evening observers recorded the frequency of violent and nonviolent costumes worn by children. When all of the data are inspected they suggest that children confronted with several aggressive models may be more likely to identify with the…

  8. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Managing unforeseen events in production scheduling and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, E.; Falster, Peter; Hvolby, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    The production planning and control process is performed within complex and dynamic organizations made up of customer expectations, equipment, materials, people, information, and technologies. Changes in both internal and external factors can create a variety of unforeseen events, which make...... initial plans unfeasible or obsolete during production execution. How to effectively handle the unscheduled events and take corrective actions still remains a central question to academics and practitioners. In this paper, we explore this issue through a review of the relevant literature and an in......-depth field study. The paper proposes a framework for characterizing and classifying the events and event handling process....

  10. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Publishing Outside the Box: Unforeseen Dividends of Talking to Strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2014-10-01

    This article describes publishing outside behavior analysis, letters to editors, and columns, as well as communicating outside the box with editors, authors, and journalists. Publishing can occur in a wide range of journals (e.g., Consciousness and Cognition), in-house publications of professional associations (e.g., Association for Psychological Science's Observer), general science publications (e.g., American Scientist, The Scientist), publications in service to professions (e.g., The Chronicle of Higher Education), general interest and specialized magazines (e.g., Atlantic Monthly, Skeptical Inquirer), and newspapers (e.g., Los Angeles Times). Communicating with editors, authors, and journalists includes, for instance, formal correspondence with editors and personal correspondence with authors and journalists outside the box about misunderstandings, commonalities, and complementarities of their work with respect to ours. The consequences of publishing and communicating are often unforeseen and fortuitous, many of which can never occur by remaining in the box.

  12. Suggestion of a Management Model: Total Entropy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goksel Alpan,; Ismail Efil

    2011-01-01

    “Entropy” can be defined as the measure of disorder, uncertainty and consumed energy in a system or in the Universe. In the study, entropy concept is used as metaphor and it is aimed to construct the conceptual basis of a new management model which can be utilized to manage all entropy sources effectively. The study is conveyed with a multidisciplinary and holistic approach and by the use of qualitative research techniques. In the study, it is examined the relations of the entropy concept wit...

  13. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tüz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of the money. In this study, monitoring and measuring of the leverage ratio because of the displacement in cash inflows of construction projects which uses high leverage and low cash to do business in the sector is targeted. Cash need because of drifting the cash inflows may be seen due to the model. Work should be done in the early stages of the project with little capital but in the later stages, rapidly growing capital need arises.The values obtained from the model may be used to supply the capital held in the right time by anticipating the risks because of the delay in cashflow of construction projects which uses high leverage ratio.

  14. In vitro model suggests oxidative stress involved in keratoconus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamichos, D.; Hutcheon, A. E. K.; Rich, C. B.; Trinkaus-Randall, V.; Asara, J. M.; Zieske, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Keratoconus (KC) affects 1:2000 people and is a disorder where cornea thins and assumes a conical shape. Advanced KC requires surgery to maintain vision. The role of oxidative stress in KC remains unclear. We aimed to identify oxidative stress levels between human corneal keratocytes (HCKs), fibroblasts (HCFs) and keratoconus cells (HKCs). Cells were cultured in 2D and 3D systems. Vitamin C (VitC) and TGF-β3 (T3) were used for 4 weeks to stimulate self-assembled extracellular matrix (ECM). No T3 used as controls. Samples were analyzed using qRT-PCR and metabolomics. qRT-PCR data showed low levels of collagen I and V, as well as keratocan for HKCs, indicating differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. Collagen type III, a marker for fibrosis, was up regulated in HKCs. We robustly detected more than 150 metabolites of the targeted 250 by LC-MS/MS per condition and among those metabolites several were related to oxidative stress. Lactate levels, lactate/malate and lactate/pyruvate ratios were elevated in HKCs, while arginine and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio were reduced. Similar patterns found in both 2D and 3D. Our data shows that fibroblasts exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared to keratocytes. Furthermore the HKC cells exhibit the greatest level suggesting they may have a myofibroblast phenotype.

  15. SYSTEM DYNAMICS OF MANAGEMENT OF "UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES" OF THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Владимирович ГАЙДАБРУС

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Approaches for project contingency management through risk management and influence of stakeholders. Proposed system dynamic contingency project management model. The model describes the effects of various factors on the phase of project management through contingency.

  16. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Mohsen Ali; Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the 'persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model', the stimuli-response marketing model', the 'agency theory', the theory of planned behaviour,' and 'social power theory,' in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  17. Distributed Services with Foreseen and Unforeseen Tasks: The Mobile Re-allocation Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Larco Martinelli (Jose); R. Dekker (Rommert); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we deal with a common problem found in the operations of security and preventive/corrective maintenance services: that of routing a number of mobile resources to serve foreseen and unforeseen tasks during a shift. We define the (Mobile Re-Allocation Problem) MRAP as the

  18. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murshid M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  19. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research. PMID:28690701

  20. The Unforeseen Consequences of Interacting With Non-Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Ho, Emily; Keysar, Boaz

    2018-02-07

    Sociolinguistic research shows that listeners' expectations of speakers influence their interpretation of the speech, yet this is often ignored in cognitive models of language comprehension. Here, we focus on the case of interactions between native and non-native speakers. Previous literature shows that listeners process the language of non-native speakers in less detail, because they expect them to have lower linguistic competence. We show that processing the language of non-native speakers increases lexical competition and access in general, not only of the non-native speaker's speech, and that this leads to poorer memory of one's own speech during the interaction. We further find that the degree to which people adjust their processing to non-native speakers is related to the degree to which they adjust their speech to them. We discuss implications for cognitive models of language processing and sociolinguistic research on attitudes. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Design Studies Suggested by an Abstract Model for a Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. R.; Kimura, T. D.; Moore, P.; Gillett, W.; Stucki, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    We have developed a formal model of a database system that is unusual in that it has the ability to represent information about its own structure and to insure semantic consistency. The model distinguishes general laws from instances of events and objects, but many of its mechanisms serve both categories of information. The model forms a substrate upon which an information structure appropriate to neonatology is being developed. Some example queries are shown and a design study for an associative memory suggested by the model is described briefly.

  2. Mentoring for junior medical faculty: Existing models and suggestions for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Bhat, Ballambhattu Vishnu

    2016-02-01

    Globally, there is increasing recognition about the positive benefits and impact of mentoring on faculty retention rates, career satisfaction and scholarly output. However, emphasis on research and practice of mentoring is comparatively meagre in low and middle income countries. In this commentary, we critically examine two existing models of mentorship for medical faculty and offer few suggestions for an integrated hybrid model that can be adapted for use in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A trophic model of fringing coral reefs in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan suggests overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Jan, Rong-Quen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chen, Chung-Chi; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2009-09-01

    Several coral reefs of Nanwan Bay, Taiwan have recently undergone shifts to macroalgal or sea anemone dominance. Thus, a mass-balance trophic model was constructed to analyze the structure and functioning of the food web. The fringing reef model was comprised of 18 compartments, with the highest trophic level of 3.45 for piscivorous fish. Comparative analyses with other reef models demonstrated that Nanwan Bay was similar to reefs with high fishery catches. While coral biomass was not lower, fish biomass was lower than those of reefs with high catches. Consequently, the sums of consumption and respiratory flows and total system throughput were also decreased. The Nanwan Bay model potentially suggests an overfished status in which the mean trophic level of the catch, matter cycling, and trophic transfer efficiency are extremely reduced.

  4. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Authority Delegation in Boyerahmad Health Centers through Model to Combine Suggestions System and Delphi Method 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeninezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Authority delegation means to transmit part of organization`s manager and leader`s special authorities and executive duties, regardless its root to subordinates and heads of units and related offices to speed up implementing affairs and organizational purposes quickly and on time. The purpose of this study was to inspect authority delegation in health centers of Boyerahmad district through using model to combine suggestions (to identify process and Delphi method (expert`s opinions . Methods: This cross-sectional study was implemented in two stages at first stage, research community was authorities of Boyerahmad health centers (58 persons, their suggestions about requested processes to delegate were gathered by total count through open questionnaires and in second stage, which was Delphi, suggestions gathered from previous stage judged by 30 experts. Data of both stages analyzed by help of Chi-square, correlation coefficient tests. Results: Findings showed that 73.85% of suggestions were able to be delegated, based on expert`s opinion. 40% of suggestions were in domain of official, 36.92% financial and 23.08% hygienic. 88% less than 6 years management background. 20.69% had no academic studies and only 27% were general physicians. Conclusion: By participation of environmental management levels, several processes may be specified and identify cases which are possible to delegate them executively using Delphi (expert`s opinion and this model can be used as a trust worthy method to delegate authority for decentralization. Key words: Participation Management, Health centers, Authority delegation

  6. Cellular Plasticity Enables Adaptation to Unforeseen Cell-Cycle Rewiring Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Yair; Stolovicki, Elad; Stern, Shay; Braun, Erez

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental dynamics of the cell cycle, underlying cell growth and reproduction, were previously found to be robust under a wide range of environmental and internal perturbations. This property was commonly attributed to its network structure, which enables the coordinated interactions among hundreds of proteins. Despite significant advances in deciphering the components and autonomous interactions of this network, understanding the interfaces of the cell cycle with other major cellular processes is still lacking. To gain insight into these interfaces, we used the process of genome-rewiring in yeast by placing an essential metabolic gene HIS3 from the histidine biosynthesis pathway, under the exclusive regulation of different cell-cycle promoters. In a medium lacking histidine and under partial inhibition of the HIS3p, the rewired cells encountered an unforeseen multitasking challenge; the cell-cycle regulatory genes were required to regulate the essential histidine-pathway gene in concert with the other metabolic demands, while simultaneously driving the cell cycle through its proper temporal phases. We show here that chemostat cell populations with rewired cell-cycle promoters adapted within a short time to accommodate the inhibition of HIS3p and stabilized a new phenotypic state. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the population was able to adapt and grow into mature colonies on plates under such inhibiting conditions. The adapted state was shown to be stably inherited across generations. These adaptation dynamics were accompanied by a non-specific and irreproducible genome-wide transcriptional response. Adaptation of the cell-cycle attests to its multitasking capabilities and flexible interface with cellular metabolic processes and requirements. Similar adaptation features were found in our previous work when rewiring HIS3 to the GAL system and switching cells from galactose to glucose. Thus, at the basis of cellular plasticity is the emergence of a yet

  7. Computational modelling suggests good, bad and ugly roles of glycosaminoglycans in arterial wall mechanics and mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccabianca, S.; Bellini, C.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The medial layer of large arteries contains aggregates of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and the proteoglycan versican. It is increasingly thought that these aggregates play important mechanical and mechanobiological roles despite constituting only a small fraction of the normal arterial wall. In this paper, we offer a new hypothesis that normal aggregates of hyaluronan and versican pressurize the intralamellar spaces, and thereby put into tension the radial elastic fibres that connect the smooth muscle cells to the elastic laminae, which would facilitate mechanosensing. This hypothesis is supported by novel computational simulations using two complementary models, a mechanistically based finite-element mixture model and a phenomenologically motivated continuum hyperelastic model. That is, the simulations suggest that normal aggregates of glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans within the arterial media may play equally important roles in supporting (i.e. a structural role) and sensing (i.e. an instructional role) mechanical loads. Additional simulations suggest further, however, that abnormal increases in these aggregates, either distributed or localized, may over-pressurize the intralamellar units. We submit that these situations could lead to compromised mechanosensing, anoikis and/or reduced structural integrity, each of which represent fundamental aspects of arterial pathologies seen, for example, in hypertension, ageing and thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. PMID:24920112

  8. Atmospheric CO2 observations and models suggest strong carbon uptake by forests in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Kay; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Brailsford, Gordon; Smale, Dan; Moore, Stuart; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Mukai, Hitoshi; Stephens, Britton B.

    2017-01-01

    A regional atmospheric inversion method has been developed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 sinks and sources across New Zealand for 2011-2013. This approach infers net air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes from measurement records, using back-trajectory simulations from the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) Lagrangian dispersion model, driven by meteorology from the New Zealand Limited Area Model (NZLAM) weather prediction model. The inversion uses in situ measurements from two fixed sites, Baring Head on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island (41.408° S, 174.871° E) and Lauder from the central South Island (45.038° S, 169.684° E), and ship board data from monthly cruises between Japan, New Zealand, and Australia. A range of scenarios is used to assess the sensitivity of the inversion method to underlying assumptions and to ensure robustness of the results. The results indicate a strong seasonal cycle in terrestrial land fluxes from the South Island of New Zealand, especially in western regions covered by indigenous forest, suggesting higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity than is evident in the current a priori land process model. On the annual scale, the terrestrial biosphere in New Zealand is estimated to be a net CO2 sink, removing 98 (±37) Tg CO2 yr-1 from the atmosphere on average during 2011-2013. This sink is much larger than the reported 27 Tg CO2 yr-1 from the national inventory for the same time period. The difference can be partially reconciled when factors related to forest and agricultural management and exports, fossil fuel emission estimates, hydrologic fluxes, and soil carbon change are considered, but some differences are likely to remain. Baseline uncertainty, model transport uncertainty, and limited sensitivity to the northern half of the North Island are the main contributors to flux uncertainty.

  9. Modelling psychiatric and cultural possession phenomena with suggestion and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Walsh, Eamonn; Bell, Vaughan; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Involuntary movements occur in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g., delusions of alien control and attributions of spirit possession). However, the underlying brain processes are poorly understood. We combined suggestion and fMRI in 15 highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers to investigate changes in brain activity accompanying different experiences of loss of self-control of movement. Suggestions of external personal control and internal personal control over involuntary movements modelled delusions of control and spirit possession respectively. A suggestion of impersonal control by a malfunctioning machine modelled technical delusions of control, where involuntary movements are attributed to the influence of machines. We found that (i) brain activity and/or connectivity significantly varied with different experiences and attributions of loss of agency; (ii) compared to the impersonal control condition, both external and internal personal alien control were associated with increased connectivity between primary motor cortex (M1) and brain regions involved in attribution of mental states and representing the self in relation to others; (iii) compared to both personal alien control conditions, impersonal control of movement was associated with increased activity in brain regions involved in error detection and object imagery; (iv) there were no significant differences in brain activity, and minor differences in M1 connectivity, between the external and internal personal alien control conditions. Brain networks supporting error detection and object imagery, together with representation of self and others, are differentially recruited to support experiences of impersonal and personal control of involuntary movements. However, similar brain systems underpin attributions and experiences of external and internal alien control of movement. Loss of self-agency for movement can therefore accompany different kinds of

  10. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the opposite effects. Overall, the modeled ozone is predicted to be more sensitive to its precursor emissions (especially traffic NOx and therefore their uncertainties, which seem to be responsible for the model underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios and ozone production.

  11. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-02-01

    the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i) increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii) reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii) doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the opposite effects. Overall, the modeled ozone is predicted to be more sensitive to its precursor emissions (especially traffic NOx) and therefore their uncertainties, which seem to be responsible for the model underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios and ozone production.

  12. Mentoring in Gifted Student’s Education and a Model Suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfu Cakir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the mentoring process in the education of gifted students and to develop a model applicable for the Turkish Educational System. The data of the study were collected through a literature review and focus group interviews. The study was conducted on one public and one private education institution for gifted students in Istanbul, Turkey. Purposeful sampling method was used in this study. A total of nine group interviews were carried out on 43 shareholders, the administrators, teachers, parents and student sub-groups, of the institutions in the sample group. The interviews were recorded and the recordings transcribed and analyzed through content analysis. As a result of the study, the establishment of a mentoring model was suggested under the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Special Education Guidance and Counseling Services, Department of Special Talents Development and issues such as model development, mentor and service area selection, matching, system operation and feedback were examined in detail.

  13. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  14. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  15. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses suggest models for carbon metabolism in the autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Appia-ayme; R. Quatrini; Y. Denis; F. Denizot; S. Silver; F. Roberto; F. Veloso; J. Valdes; J. P. Cardenas; M. Esparza; O. Orellana; E. Jedlicki; V. Bonnefoy; D. Holmes

    2006-09-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that uses iron or sulfur as an energy and electron source. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify putative genes and potential metabolic pathways involved in CO2 fixation, 2P-glycolate detoxification, carboxysome formation and glycogen utilization in At. ferrooxidans. Microarray transcript profiling was carried out to compare the relative expression of the predicted genes of these pathways when the microorganism was grown in the presence of iron versus sulfur. Several gene expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR. Genes for each of the above predicted pathways were found to be organized into discrete clusters. Clusters exhibited differential gene expression depending on the presence of iron or sulfur in the medium. Concordance of gene expression within each cluster, suggested that they are operons Most notably, clusters of genes predicted to be involved in CO2 fixation, carboxysome formation, 2P-glycolate detoxification and glycogen biosynthesis were up-regulated in sulfur medium, whereas genes involved in glycogen utilization were preferentially expressed in iron medium. These results can be explained in terms of models of gene regulation that suggest how A. ferrooxidans can adjust its central carbon management to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  16. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  17. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF, clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation.The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively.Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL, ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42% and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min, 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min. In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation.Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  18. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J) decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min) increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min), 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min) and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min). In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA) decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation. Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  19. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  20. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-02-24

    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  1. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-01-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of t...

  2. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  3. The unforeseen challenge: from genotype-to-phenotype in cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erez

    2015-02-01

    Biological cells present a paradox, in that they show simultaneous stability and flexibility, allowing them to adapt to new environments and to evolve over time. The emergence of stable cell states depends on genotype-to-phenotype associations, which essentially reflect the organization of gene regulatory modes. The view taken here is that cell-state organization is a dynamical process in which the molecular disorder manifests itself in a macroscopic order. The genome does not determine the ordered cell state; rather, it participates in this process by providing a set of constraints on the spectrum of regulatory modes, analogous to boundary conditions in physical dynamical systems. We have developed an experimental framework, in which cell populations are exposed to unforeseen challenges; novel perturbations they had not encountered before along their evolutionary history. This approach allows an unbiased view of cell dynamics, uncovering the potential of cells to evolve and develop adapted stable states. In the last decade, our experiments have revealed a coherent set of observations within this framework, painting a picture of the living cell that in many ways is not aligned with the conventional one. Of particular importance here, is our finding that adaptation of cell-state organization is essentially an efficient exploratory dynamical process rather than one founded on random mutations. Based on our framework, a set of concepts underlying cell-state organization—exploration evolving by global, non-specific, dynamics of gene activity—is presented here. These concepts have significant consequences for our understanding of the emergence and stabilization of a cell phenotype in diverse biological contexts. Their implications are discussed for three major areas of biological inquiry: evolution, cell differentiation and cancer. There is currently no unified theoretical framework encompassing the emergence of order, a stable state, in the living cell. Hopefully

  4. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low

  5. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-08-03

    Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the "Cluster Approach" (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws "Who is Where, When, doing What" mapping tool (with four case studies), the "Sphere Project" (with two case studies), the "5x5" model (with one case study), and the "model of information coordination" (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services.

  6. Mathematical modeling suggests that periodontitis behaves as a non-linear chaotic dynamical process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Takahashi, K.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aims to expand on a previously presented cellular automata model and further explore the non-linear dynamics of periodontitis. Additionally the authors investigated whether their mathematical model could predict the two known types of periodontitis, aggressive (AgP) and

  7. Toward an Integrative Model of Creativity and Personality: Theoretical Suggestions and Preliminary Empirical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fü rst, Guillaume; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lubart, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The present work proposes an integrative model of creativity that includes personality traits and cognitive processes. This model hypothesizes that three high-order personality factors predict two main process factors, which in turn predict intensity and achievement of creative activities. The personality factors are: "Plasticity" (high…

  8. A Multi-Scale Energy Demand Model suggests sharing Market Risks with Intelligent Energy Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  9. The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) Model: A Critical Review and Suggestions for Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica R.; Rosenberg, Joshua M.; Akcaoglu, Mete

    2016-01-01

    The Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition (SAMR) model is a four-level, taxonomy-based approach for selecting, using, and evaluating technology in K-12 settings (Puentedura 2006). Despite its increasing popularity among practitioners, the SAMR model is not currently represented in the extant literature. To focus the ongoing…

  10. Discrete Dynamical Modeling of Influenza Virus Infection Suggests Age-Dependent Differences in Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keef, Ericka; Zhang, Li Ang; Swigon, David; Urbano, Alisa; Ermentrout, G Bard; Matuszewski, Michael; Toapanta, Franklin R; Ross, Ted M; Parker, Robert S; Clermont, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Immunosenescence, an age-related decline in immune function, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Older hosts exhibit a delayed onset of immunity and prolonged inflammation after an infection, leading to excess damage and a greater likelihood of death. Our study applies a rule-based model to infer which components of the immune response are most changed in an aged host. Two groups of BALB/c mice (aged 12 to 16 weeks and 72 to 76 weeks) were infected with 2 inocula: a survivable dose of 50 PFU and a lethal dose of 500 PFU. Data were measured at 10 points over 19 days in the sublethal case and at 6 points over 7 days in the lethal case, after which all mice had died. Data varied primarily in the onset of immunity, particularly the inflammatory response, which led to a 2-day delay in the clearance of the virus from older hosts in the sublethal cohort. We developed a Boolean model to describe the interactions between the virus and 21 immune components, including cells, chemokines, and cytokines, of innate and adaptive immunity. The model identifies distinct sets of rules for each age group by using Boolean operators to describe the complex series of interactions that activate and deactivate immune components. Our model accurately simulates the immune responses of mice of both ages and with both inocula included in the data (95% accurate for younger mice and 94% accurate for older mice) and shows distinct rule choices for the innate immunity arm of the model between younger and aging mice in response to influenza A virus infection. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus infection causes high morbidity and mortality rates every year, especially in the elderly. The elderly tend to have a delayed onset of many immune responses as well as prolonged inflammatory responses, leading to an overall weakened response to infection. Many of the details of immune mechanisms that change with age are currently not well understood. We present a rule-based model of the

  11. A Latent Growth Model Suggests that Empathy of Medical Students Does Not Decline over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrício; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is a relevant attribute in the context of patient care. However, a decline in empathy throughout medical education has been reported in North-American medical schools, particularly, in the transition to clinical training. The present study aims to longitudinally model empathy during medical school at three time points: at the entrance,…

  12. Modelling soil organic carbon in Danish agricultural soils suggests low potential for future carbon sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is in active exchange with the atmosphere. The amount of organic carbon (OC) input into the soil and SOC turnover rate are important for predicting the carbon (C) sequestration potential of soils subject to changes in land-use and climate. The C-TOOL model was developed...

  13. DNA databanks and consent: a suggested policy option involving an authorization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Upshur, Ross E G; Daar, Abdallah

    2003-01-03

    Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.

  14. DNA databanks and consent: A suggested policy option involving an authorization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. Discussion In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. Summary The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.

  15. A suggested model for physical examination and conservative treatment of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Stern, Ben; Reiman, Michael P; Tarara, Dan; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia (AP) is a chronic debilitating syndrome that affects many athletes. As a syndrome, AP is difficult to diagnose both with clinical examination and imaging. AP is also a challenge for conservative intervention with randomized controlled trials showing mixed success rates. In other syndromes where clinical diagnosis and conservative treatment have been less than clear, a paradigm has been suggested as a framework for clinical decision making. To propose a new clinical diagnostic and treatment paradigm for the conservative management of AP. Relevant studies were viewed with regard to diagnosis and intervention and where a gap in evidence existed, clinical expertise was used to fill that gap and duly noted. A new paradigm is proposed to assist with clinical diagnosis and non-surgical intervention in patients suffering with AP. The level of evidence supporting this paradigm, according to the SORT taxonomy, is primarily level 2B. Further testing is warranted but following the suggested paradigm should lead to a clearer diagnosis of AP and allow more meaningful research into homogeneous patient populations within the AP diagnostic cluster. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): 2B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Nature of Scatter at the DARHT Facility and Suggestions for Improved Modeling of DARHT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morneau, Rachel Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program [1] is designed to sustain and evaluate the nuclear weapons stockpile while foregoing underground nuclear tests. The maintenance of a smaller, aging U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing requires complex computer calculations [14]. These calculations in turn need to be verified and benchmarked [14]. A wide range of research facilities have been used to test and evaluate nuclear weapons while respecting the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) [2]. Some of these facilities include the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, and the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research will focus largely on DARHT (although some information from Cygnus and the Los Alamos Microtron may be used in this research) by modeling it and comparing to experimental data. DARHT is an electron accelerator that employs high-energy flash x-ray sources for imaging hydro-tests. This research proposes to address some of the issues crucial to understanding DARHT Axis II and the analysis of the radiographic images produced. Primarily, the nature of scatter at DARHT will be modeled and verified with experimental data. It will then be shown that certain design decisions can be made to optimize the scatter field for hydrotest experiments. Spectral effects will be briefly explored to determine if there is any considerable effect on the density reconstruction caused by changes in the energy spectrum caused by target changes. Finally, a generalized scatter model will be made using results from MCNP that can be convolved with the direct transmission of an object to simulate the scatter of that object at the detector plane. The region in which with this scatter model is appropriate will be explored.

  17. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

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    Mhairi A Gibson

    Full Text Available Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households. Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities, are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and

  18. Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streichan, Sebastian J.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behaviour remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyse the active tension network (ATN) model, which assumes that the mechanical balance of cells within a tissue is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension-dependent active remodelling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties. Specifically, an ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times supports external tension like a solid. Furthermore, an ATN has an extensively degenerate equilibrium mechanical state associated with a discrete conformal--`isogonal'--deformation of cells. The ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometries, which we demonstrate to approximately hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in the fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical areas of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, the study of which helps to understand biological phenomena.

  19. Hypothalamus transcriptome profile suggests an anorexia-cachexia syndrome in the anx/anx mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep Maria; Lozano, Juan José; Sumoy, Lauro; Dierssen, Mara; Visa, Joana; Gratacòs, Mònica; Estivill, Xavier

    2008-11-12

    The anx/anx mouse displays poor appetite and lean appearance and is considered a good model for the study of anorexia nervosa. To identify new genes involved in feeding behavior and body weight regulation we performed an expression profiling in the hypothalamus of the anx/anx mice. Using commercial microarrays we detected 156 differentially expressed genes and validated 92 of those using TaqMan low-density arrays. The expression of a set of 87 candidate genes selected based on literature evidences was also quantified by TaqMan low-density arrays. Our results showed enrichment in deregulated genes involved in cell death, cell morphology, and cancer, as well as an alteration of several signaling circuits involved in energy balance including neuropeptide Y and melanocortin signaling. The expression profile along with the phenotype led us to conclude that anx/anx mice resemble the anorexia-cachexia syndrome typically observed in cancer, infection with human immunodeficiency virus or chronic diseases, rather than starvation, and that anx/anx mice could be considered a good model for the treatment and investigation of this condition.

  20. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  1. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies

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    Yasameen K. Al-Majedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0, followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00. Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree–Fock–based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds.

  2. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

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    Chhanda Bose

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5, sham surgery control (n = 5, chronic kidney disease control (n = 4, chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8, and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9. Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected. Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (p<0.05 and significantly decreased dermal fibrosis compared to the Omniscan-only group. In addition, iron chelation prevented tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator

  3. Development of a sensorimotor algorithm able to deal with unforeseen pushes and its implementation based on VHDL

    OpenAIRE

    Lezcano Giménez, Pablo Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Development of a Sensorimotor Algorithm Able to Deal with Unforeseen Pushes and Its Implementation Based on VHDL is the title of my thesis which concludes my Bachelor Degree in the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Sistemas de Telecomunicación of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. It encloses the overall work I did in the Neurorobotics Research Laboratory from the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin during my ERASMUS year in 2015. This thesis is focused on the field of robotics, sp...

  4. Unforeseen clonal evolution of tumor cell population in recurrent and metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

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    Ensel Oh

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a very rare soft tissue sarcoma, generally of low-grade malignancy. DFSP is locally aggressive with a high recurrence rate, but metastasis occurs rarely. To investigate the mechanism of metastasis in DFSP, we analyzed the whole exome sequencing data of serial tumor samples obtained from a patient who had a 10-year history of recurrent and metastatic DFSP. Tracking various genomic alterations, namely somatic mutations, copy number variations, and chromosomal rearrangements, we observed a dramatic change in tumor cell population during the occurrence of metastasis in this DFSP case. The new subclone that emerged in metastatic DFSP harbored a completely different set of somatic mutations and new focal amplifications, which had not been observed in the primary clone before metastasis. The COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, characteristic of DFSP, was found in all of the serial samples. Moreover, the break position on the fusion gene was identical in all samples. Based on these observations, we suggest a clonal evolution model to explain the mechanism underlying metastasis in DFSP and identified several candidate target genes responsible for metastatic DFSP by utilizing The Cancer Genome Atlas database. This is the first study to observe clonal evolution in metastatic DFSP and provide insight for a possible therapeutic strategy for imatinib-resistant or metastatic DFSP.

  5. ‘Cape capture’: Geologic data and modeling results suggest the Holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes—Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain—off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fluvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was flooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of ‘cape capture.’ The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history.

  6. Models for leprosy. An appraisal of graphic representations of the "spectrum" concept as models and a suggestion for a catastrophe theory model for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, H

    1984-09-01

    Graphic representations of the spectrum concept of leprosy are examined in some detail as models for this disease. This reveals that this concept is somewhat inadequate and that the spectrum metaphor may itself be inappropriate because, by its very linearity of logic, it may not be able to depict the nonlinear behavior of leprosy properly. The assumptions underlying this concept and their logical consequences, brought out by the graphic representations, include an invariable relation between CMI and BI, identity of one type of leprosy with one specific level of CMI, a fixed sequence of types, and the consequent impossibility of skipping the sequence. However, our experience with leprosy does not bear out these assumptions. Further, development and progress of leprosy from a normal (nonleprous) state cannot be represented in these models. A search for alternative conceptual models therefore appears reasonable and even necessary. The catastrophe theory (a branch of topology in mathematics) describes a number of models for explaining how continuous causes could produce sudden or discontinuous changes. Of the various catastrophe theory models available, the relatively simple "cusp" model appears capable of application to leprosy. This model, as applied here, requires two control factors (identified tentatively as the amount of dead bacilli and the amount of living bacilli or their indicators) and one pattern of behavior, identified as progress towards limited or extensive disease. This model suggests under what conditions leprosy will change from one type to another and whether that will happen gradually or suddenly. It also suggests that for certain values of control factors the disease may manifest in one of two forms of borderline leprosy, and that lesions very similar to start with can progress to quite different states under similar conditions of change. The behavior of leprosy agrees more or less with that suggested by this model. The cusp model thus seems to: a

  7. A multi-scale distribution model for non-equilibrium populations suggests resource limitation in an endangered rodent.

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    William T Bean

    Full Text Available Species distributions are known to be limited by biotic and abiotic factors at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Species distribution models, however, frequently assume a population at equilibrium in both time and space. Studies of habitat selection have repeatedly shown the difficulty of estimating resource selection if the scale or extent of analysis is incorrect. Here, we present a multi-step approach to estimate the realized and potential distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat. First, we estimate the potential distribution by modeling suitability at a range-wide scale using static bioclimatic variables. We then examine annual changes in extent at a population-level. We define "available" habitat based on the total suitable potential distribution at the range-wide scale. Then, within the available habitat, model changes in population extent driven by multiple measures of resource availability. By modeling distributions for a population with robust estimates of population extent through time, and ecologically relevant predictor variables, we improved the predictive ability of SDMs, as well as revealed an unanticipated relationship between population extent and precipitation at multiple scales. At a range-wide scale, the best model indicated the giant kangaroo rat was limited to areas that received little to no precipitation in the summer months. In contrast, the best model for shorter time scales showed a positive relation with resource abundance, driven by precipitation, in the current and previous year. These results suggest that the distribution of the giant kangaroo rat was limited to the wettest parts of the drier areas within the study region. This multi-step approach reinforces the differing relationship species may have with environmental variables at different scales, provides a novel method for defining "available" habitat in habitat selection studies, and suggests a way to create distribution models at spatial and

  8. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  9. A Grammar-based Approach for Modeling User Interactions and Generating Suggestions During the Data Exploration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabek, Filip; Caban, Jesus J

    2017-01-01

    Despite the recent popularity of visual analytics focusing on big data, little is known about how to support users that use visualization techniques to explore multi-dimensional datasets and accomplish specific tasks. Our lack of models that can assist end-users during the data exploration process has made it challenging to learn from the user's interactive and analytical process. The ability to model how a user interacts with a specific visualization technique and what difficulties they face are paramount in supporting individuals with discovering new patterns within their complex datasets. This paper introduces the notion of visualization systems understanding and modeling user interactions with the intent of guiding a user through a task thereby enhancing visual data exploration. The challenges faced and the necessary future steps to take are discussed; and to provide a working example, a grammar-based model is presented that can learn from user interactions, determine the common patterns among a number of subjects using a K-Reversible algorithm, build a set of rules, and apply those rules in the form of suggestions to new users with the goal of guiding them along their visual analytic process. A formal evaluation study with 300 subjects was performed showing that our grammar-based model is effective at capturing the interactive process followed by users and that further research in this area has the potential to positively impact how users interact with a visualization system.

  10. An integrated disease/pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model suggests improved interleukin-21 regimens validated prospectively for mouse solid cancers.

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    Moran Elishmereni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-21 is an attractive antitumor agent with potent immunomodulatory functions. Yet thus far, the cytokine has yielded only partial responses in solid cancer patients, and conditions for beneficial IL-21 immunotherapy remain elusive. The current work aims to identify clinically-relevant IL-21 regimens with enhanced efficacy, based on mathematical modeling of long-term antitumor responses. For this purpose, pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD data were acquired from a preclinical study applying systemic IL-21 therapy in murine solid cancers. We developed an integrated disease/PK/PD model for the IL-21 anticancer response, and calibrated it using selected "training" data. The accuracy of the model was verified retrospectively under diverse IL-21 treatment settings, by comparing its predictions to independent "validation" data in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma-challenged mice (R(2>0.90. Simulations of the verified model surfaced important therapeutic insights: (1 Fractionating the standard daily regimen (50 µg/dose into a twice daily schedule (25 µg/dose is advantageous, yielding a significantly lower tumor mass (45% decrease; (2 A low-dose (12 µg/day regimen exerts a response similar to that obtained under the 50 µg/day treatment, suggestive of an equally efficacious dose with potentially reduced toxicity. Subsequent experiments in melanoma-bearing mice corroborated both of these predictions with high precision (R(2>0.89, thus validating the model also prospectively in vivo. Thus, the confirmed PK/PD model rationalizes IL-21 therapy, and pinpoints improved clinically-feasible treatment schedules. Our analysis demonstrates the value of employing mathematical modeling and in silico-guided design of solid tumor immunotherapy in the clinic.

  11. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan’s coral reefs.

  12. Modelling Virus and Antibody Dynamics during Dengue Virus Infection Suggests a Role for Antibody in Virus Clearance.

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    Hannah E Clapham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infection of increasing global importance, yet uncertainty remains regarding critical aspects of its virology, immunology and epidemiology. One unanswered question is how infection is controlled and cleared during a dengue infection. Antibody is thought to play a role, but little past work has examined the kinetics of both virus and antibody during natural infections. We present data on multiple virus and antibody titres measurements recorded sequentially during infection from 53 Vietnamese dengue patients. We fit mechanistic mathematical models of the dynamics of viral replication and the host immune response to these data. These models fit the data well. The model with antibody removing virus fits the data best, but with a role suggested for ADCC or other infected cell clearance mechanisms. Our analysis therefore shows that the observed viral and antibody kinetics are consistent with antibody playing a key role in controlling viral replication. This work gives quantitative insight into the relationship between antibody levels and the efficiency of viral clearance. It will inform the future development of mechanistic models of how vaccines and antivirals might modify the course of natural dengue infection.

  13. High-resolution mutational profiling suggests the genetic validity of glioblastoma patient-derived pre-clinical models.

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    Shawn E Yost

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the ability to efficiently characterize tumor genomes is enabling targeted drug development, which requires rigorous biomarker-based patient selection to increase effectiveness. Consequently, representative DNA biomarkers become equally important in pre-clinical studies. However, it is still unclear how well these markers are maintained between the primary tumor and the patient-derived tumor models. Here, we report the comprehensive identification of somatic coding mutations and copy number aberrations in four glioblastoma (GBM primary tumors and their matched pre-clinical models: serum-free neurospheres, adherent cell cultures, and mouse xenografts. We developed innovative methods to improve the data quality and allow a strict comparison of matched tumor samples. Our analysis identifies known GBM mutations altering PTEN and TP53 genes, and new actionable mutations such as the loss of PIK3R1, and reveals clear patient-to-patient differences. In contrast, for each patient, we do not observe any significant remodeling of the mutational profile between primary to model tumors and the few discrepancies can be attributed to stochastic errors or differences in sample purity. Similarly, we observe ∼96% primary-to-model concordance in copy number calls in the high-cellularity samples. In contrast to previous reports based on gene expression profiles, we do not observe significant differences at the DNA level between in vitro compared to in vivo models. This study suggests, at a remarkable resolution, the genome-wide conservation of a patient's tumor genetics in various pre-clinical models, and therefore supports their use for the development and testing of personalized targeted therapies.

  14. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  15. The mathematical model for total pubertal growth in idiopathic growth hormone (GH) deficiency suggests a moderate role of GH dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Martin, David D; Bakker, Bert; Wilton, Patrick; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Cowell, Chris T; Price, David A; Reiter, Edward O

    2003-10-01

    The role of GH treatment during total pubertal growth (TPG) is still unclear. We developed a prediction model for TPG (centimeters) through a multiple regression analysis of various prepubertal parameters in 303 adolescents with idiopathic GH deficiency from the KIGS database. Prepubertal catch-up growth and near-adult height were achieved, and GH dose was kept constant at approximately 30 micro g/kg.d. The model was validated on a cohort of 36 patients from one center. Four TPG predictors explained 70% of the variability with an error SD of 4.2 cm: gender (TPG in males was >11.3 cm vs. that in females), age at onset of puberty (negative), height SD score minus midparental height SD score at puberty onset (negative), and mean GH dose during puberty (positive). Our analysis suggests that TPG in idiopathic GH deficiency is only moderately dependent on GH dose. The use of a higher GH dosage at the onset of puberty should thus depend on the individual's height development. The TPG model aids in the planning of individually optimized and cost-effective GH treatment.

  16. Models of text mining to measure improvements to doctoral courses suggested by “STELLA” phd survey respondents

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    Pasquale Pavone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present Text Mining models to thematically categorise and measure the suggestions of  PhD holders on improving PhD programmes in the STELLA survey (Statistiche in TEma di Laureati e LAvoro. The coded responses questionnaire, designed to evaluate the employment opportunities of students and assess their learning experience, included open-ended questions on how to improve PhD programmes. The Corpus analysed was taken from the data of Italian PhD holders between 2005 and 2009 in eight universities (Bergamo, Brescia, Milano Statale, Milano Bicocca, Pisa, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Palermo and Pavia. The usual methodological approach to text analysis allowed us to categorize open-ended proposals of PhD courses improvements in 8 Italian Universities.

  17. Visual modelling suggests a weak relationship between the evolution of ultraviolet vision and plumage coloration in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, O; Delhey, K

    2015-03-01

    Birds have sophisticated colour vision mediated by four cone types that cover a wide visual spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Many birds have modest UV sensitivity provided by violet-sensitive (VS) cones with sensitivity maxima between 400 and 425 nm. However, some birds have evolved higher UV sensitivity and a larger visual spectrum given by UV-sensitive (UVS) cones maximally sensitive at 360-370 nm. The reasons for VS-UVS transitions and their relationship to visual ecology remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of UVS-cone vision is linked to plumage colours so that visual sensitivity and feather coloration are 'matched'. This leads to the specific prediction that UVS-cone vision enhances the discrimination of plumage colours of UVS birds while such an advantage is absent or less pronounced for VS-bird coloration. We test this hypothesis using knowledge of the complex distribution of UVS cones among birds combined with mathematical modelling of colour discrimination during different viewing conditions. We find no support for the hypothesis, which, combined with previous studies, suggests only a weak relationship between UVS-cone vision and plumage colour evolution. Instead, we suggest that UVS-cone vision generally favours colour discrimination, which creates a nonspecific selection pressure for the evolution of UVS cones. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Jazzar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1 promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor (HDTR transgene (Tg have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT littermate mice. Mechanistic evidence for DT action, via prominent regulation of phosphorylation status of elongation factor-2 (EF-2, was also found in many non-skeletal tissues in Tg mice; indicative of direct “off-target” DT action. Finally, very rapid deterioration in health and welfare status in response to DT treatment was observed in these Tg when compared to WT control mice. Together, these data lead us to conclude that alternative models for osteocyte ablation should be sought and caution be exercised when drawing conclusions from experiments using these Tg mice alone.

  20. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxiao; Hu, Lizhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin. Following topical applications of individual vehicle or skin care product to C57BL/6J mice twice daily for 4 days, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) rates, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH were measured on treated versus untreated mouse skin with an MPA5 device and pH 900 pH meter. Our results show that all tested products induced abnormalities in epidermal functions of varying severity, including elevations in TEWL and skin surface pH, and reduced SC hydration. Our results suggest that mice can serve as a predictive model that could be used to evaluate the potential safety of skin care products in humans with sensitive skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  2. Nonhomologous recombination between defective poliovirus and coxsackievirus genomes suggests a new model of genetic plasticity for picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2014-08-05

    Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. Importance: The multiplication of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in poorly immunized human populations can render these viruses pathogenic, causing poliomyelitis outbreaks. Most cVDPVs are intertypic recombinants between a poliovirus (PV) strain and another human enterovirus, such as type 17 coxsackie A viruses (CA17). For further studies of the genetic exchanges

  3. Force Majeure and Unforeseen Change of Circumstances. The Case of Embargoes and Currency Fluctuations (Russian, German and French Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Kokorin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and political instability has become a characteristic of many societies around the globe. Recent examples revealing the volatility of the current state of affairs include the trade restrictions imposed by the Russian Federation in August 2014, and currency fluctuations experienced by many countries, including Russia and potentially Greece. In this situation, one may wonder whether contract law has a solution to offer to the parties affected. Traditionally dominated by the pacta sunt servanda principle, jurisdictions made their own choices. This paper analyses approaches adopted by Russian, German and French law in response to situations of force majeure (trade embargoesand unforeseen change of circumstances (currency fluctuations. In search for an explanation of each given approach, we reviewed historical arguments, as history played a crucial role in the formation of German and French responses, though in a completely different way. Whereas Germany, heavily affected by the cataclysms of the World Wars, was eager to adopt a lenient view on the possibility of the judicial revision of contracts, France never gave up its suspicion of court interventions. As legal preferences are often connected with cultural factors, we looked at distinct cultural traits of the societies at issue, by using the Hofstede index. We realized that there could be compelling cultural reasons why France and Germany are situated at opposite poles, while Russia is somewhere in the middle. Lastly, we took into account considerations derived from law and economics, arguing that narrowly construed court intervention might be economically justified in cases of impossibility and impracticability, as ultimately decreasing transaction and risk-appraisal costs.

  4. Nonhomologous Recombination between Defective Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus Genomes Suggests a New Model of Genetic Plasticity for Picornaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3′ end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. PMID:25096874

  5. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    E. Oikonomakis; S. Aksoyoglu; G. Ciarelli; U. Baltensperger; A. S. H. Prévôt

    2018-01-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of t...

  6. Low apparent quantum yield in Arctic plants suggests that terrestrial biosphere models will over estimate carbon assimilation at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) by terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) rely on accurate model representation of photosynthesis. In the Arctic, TBM uncertainty over GPP is the dominant driver of an uncertain Arctic carbon cycle. Previously we have shown that TBMs underestimate light saturated photosynthesis due to poor model representation of maximum carboxylation capacity and maximum electron transport. Here we extend this work to investigate model representation of the response of photosynthesis to irradiance. TBMs use an empirical relationship, typically a non-rectangular hyperbola, to estimate potential electron transport rate from incident irradiance. The key model inputs used to parameterize this formulation are; absorptance, quantum yield, and a curvature factor. TBMs show a high divergence in the response of photosynthesis to irradiance driven in part by variation in these parameters. In addition, most existing measurements used to parameterize TBMs have been made within a narrow temperature range (20-30°C) and the scarcity of data collected at low temperature has been highlighted as an important driver of model uncertainty at high latitudes. To address this issue we measured photosynthetic light response curves at 5 and 15°C and the leaf optical properties of six species growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska. We determined leaf absorbtance, the convexity term, and apparent quantum yield. Our key finding was that measured apparent quantum yield was lower than model estimates, particularly at 5°C. Our results show that TBMs that rely on relatively high theoretical estimates of apparent quantum yield will likely overestimate carbon assimilation at low temperature and low irradiance.

  7. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-03-22

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics.

  8. Didactical suggestion for a Dynamic Hybrid Intelligent e-Learning Environment (DHILE) applying the PENTHA ID Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2011-08-01

    The teleology of our research is to propose a solution to the request of "innovative, creative teaching", proposing a methodology to educate creative Students in a society characterized by multiple reference points and hyper dynamic knowledge, continuously subject to reviews and discussions. We apply a multi-prospective Instructional Design Model (PENTHA ID Model), defined and developed by our research group, which adopts a hybrid pedagogical approach, consisting of elements of didactical connectivism intertwined with aspects of social constructivism and enactivism. The contribution proposes an e-course structure and approach, applying the theoretical design principles of the above mentioned ID Model, describing methods, techniques, technologies and assessment criteria for the definition of lesson modes in an e-course.

  9. Bifurcation Analysis of an Existing Mathematical Model Reveals Novel Treatment Strategies and Suggests Potential Cure for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Hagde Mandrup; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a disease with serious personal and socioeconomic consequences that has attracted the attention of modellers recently. But as models of this disease tend to be complicated, there has been only limited mathematical analysis to date. Here we address this problem by providing...... a bifurcation analysis of a previously published mathematical model for the early stages of type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone NOD mice, which is based on the data available in the literature. We also show positivity and the existence of a family of attracting trapping regions in the positive 5D cone, converging...... towards a smaller trapping region, which is the intersection over the family. All these trapping regions are compact sets, and thus, practical weak persistence is guaranteed. We conclude our analysis by proposing 4 novel treatment strategies: increasing the phagocytic ability of resting macrophages...

  10. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity.

  11. Synthetic biology between challenges and risks: suggestions for a model of governance and a regulatory framework, based on fundamental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Ilaria Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the emerging synthetic biology, its challenges and risks, and tries to design a model for the governance and regulation of the field. The model is called of "prudent vigilance" (inspired by the report about synthetic biology, drafted by the U.S. Presidential Commission on Bioethics, 2010), and it entails (a) an ongoing and periodically revised process of assessment and management of all the risks and concerns, and (b) the adoption of policies - taken through "hard law" and "soft law" sources - that are based on the principle of proportionality (among benefits and risks), on a reasonable balancing between different interests and rights at stake, and are oriented by a constitutional frame, which is represented by the protection of fundamental human rights emerging in the field of synthetic biology (right to life, right to health, dignity, freedom of scientific research, right to environment). After the theoretical explanation of the model, its operability is "checked", by considering its application with reference to only one specific risk brought up by synthetic biology - biosecurity risk, i.e. the risk of bioterrorism.

  12. Analysis and modeling of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli suggests a novel space with insights into receptor preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Raja, M; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Vino, S; Sajitha Lulu, S

    2015-01-01

    Features of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli which make them fit to use as novel receptors for antidiarrheals are not completely explored. Data-set of 14 different serovars of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxins were taken from NCBI Genbank database and used in the study. Sequence analysis showed mutations in different subunits and also at their interface residues. As these toxins lack crystallography structures, homology modeling using Modeller 9.11 led to the structural approximation for the E. coli producing heat-labile toxins. Interaction of modeled toxin subunits with proanthocyanidin, an antidiarrheal showed several strong hydrogen bonding interactions at the cost of minimized energy. The hits were subsequently characterized by molecular dynamics simulation studies to monitor their binding stabilities. This study looks into novel space where the ligand can choose the receptor preference not as a whole but as an individual subunit. Mutation at interface residues and interaction among subunits along with the binding of ligand to individual subunits would help to design a non-toxic labile toxin and also to improve the therapeutics.

  13. Bioinformatic analysis and molecular modelling of human ameloblastin suggest a two-domain intrinsically unstructured calcium-binding protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymětal, Jiří; Slabý, I.; Spahr, A.; Vondrášek, Jiří; Lyngstadaas, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2008), s. 124-134 ISSN 0909-8836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0009; GA ČR GA203/06/1727; GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ameloblastin * bioinformatic modelling * calcium * intrinsically unstructured protein Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2008

  14. Global models of ant diversity suggest regions where new discoveries are most likely are under disproportionate deforestation threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R

    2012-05-08

    Most of the described and probably undescribed species on Earth are insects. Global models of species diversity rarely focus on insects and none attempt to address unknown, undescribed diversity. We assembled a database representing about 13,000 records for ant generic distribution from over 350 regions that cover much of the globe. Based on two models of diversity and endemicity, we identified regions where our knowledge of ant diversity is most limited, regions we have called "hotspots of discovery." A priori, such regions might be expected to be remote and untouched. Instead, we found that the hotspots of discovery are also the regions in which biodiversity is the most threatened by habitat destruction. Our results not only highlight the immediate need for conservation of the remaining natural habitats in these regions, but also the extent to which, by focusing on well-known groups such as vertebrates, we may fail to conserve the far greater diversity of the smaller species yet to be found.

  15. Paired octamer rings of retinoschisin suggest a junctional model for cell–cell adhesion in the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolun, Gökhan; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Huang, Rick; Zeng, Yong; Li, Yan; Steven, Alasdair C.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Retinoschisin (RS1) is involved in cell–cell junctions in the retina, but is unique among known cell-adhesion proteins in that it is a soluble secreted protein. Loss-of-function mutations in RS1 lead to early vision impairment in young males, called X-linked retinoschisis. The disease is characterized by separation of inner retinal layers and disruption of synaptic signaling. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we report the structure at 4.1 Å, revealing double octamer rings not observed before. Each subunit is composed of a discoidin domain and a small N-terminal (RS1) domain. The RS1 domains occupy the centers of the rings, but are not required for ring formation and are less clearly defined, suggesting mobility. We determined the structure of the discoidin rings, consistent with known intramolecular and intermolecular disulfides. The interfaces internal to and between rings feature residues implicated in X-linked retinoschisis, indicating the importance of correct assembly. Based on this structure, we propose that RS1 couples neighboring membranes together through octamer–octamer contacts, perhaps modulated by interactions with other membrane components. PMID:27114531

  16. Comparative analysis of epidermal differentiation genes of crocodilians suggests new models for the evolutionary origin of avian feather proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthaus, Karin Brigit; Strasser, Bettina; Lachner, Julia; Sukseree, Supawadee; Sipos, Wolfgang; Weissenbacher, Anton; Tschachler, Erwin; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Eckhart, Leopold

    2018-02-12

    The epidermis of amniotes forms a protective barrier against the environment and the differentiation program of keratinocytes, the main cell type in the epidermis, has undergone specific alterations in the course of adaptation of amniotes to a broad variety of environments and lifestyles. The epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) is a cluster of genes expressed at late stages of keratinocyte differentiation in both sauropsids and mammals. In the present study we identified and analyzed the crocodilian equivalent of the EDC. The gene complement of the EDC of both the American alligator and the saltwater crocodile were determined by comparative genomics, de novo gene prediction and identification of EDC transcripts in published transcriptome data. We found that crocodilians have an organization of the EDC similar to that of their closest living relatives, the birds, with which they form the clade Archosauria. Notable differences include the specific expansion of a subfamily of EDC genes in crocodilians and the loss of distinct ancestral EDC genes in birds. Identification and comparative analysis of crocodilian orthologs of avian feather proteins suggest that the latter evolved by cooption and sequence modification of ancestral EDC genes, and that the amplification of an internal highly cysteine-enriched amino acid sequence motif gave rise to the feather component Epidermal Differentiation Cysteine Rich Protein (EDCRP) in the avian lineage. Thus, sequence diversification of EDC genes contributed to the evolutionary divergence of the crocodilian and avian integuments. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wesley C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate alpha (α- and beta (β-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil β-globin gene (ω in the marsupial α-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the α-β cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous α- and β-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. Results The platypus α-globin cluster (chromosome 21 contains embryonic and adult α- globin genes, a β-like ω-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-ζ-ζ'-αD-α3-α2-α1-ω-GBY-3'. The platypus β-globin cluster (chromosome 2 contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-ε-β-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate α-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal β-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian α- and β-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird α- and β-globin clusters respectively. Conclusion We propose that α- and β-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-α-β-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original β (represented by ω in marsupials and monotremes was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago, then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of β-globin genes with different expression profiles in different lineages.

  18. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidushi S; Cooper, Steven J B; Deakin, Janine E; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Jennifer A M

    2008-07-25

    Vertebrate alpha (alpha)- and beta (beta)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the alpha- and beta-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil beta-globin gene (omega) in the marsupial alpha-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the alpha-beta cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous alpha- and beta-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. The platypus alpha-globin cluster (chromosome 21) contains embryonic and adult alpha- globin genes, a beta-like omega-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-zeta-zeta'-alphaD-alpha3-alpha2-alpha1-omega-GBY-3'. The platypus beta-globin cluster (chromosome 2) contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-epsilon-beta-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate alpha-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal beta-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian alpha- and beta-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird alpha- and beta-globin clusters respectively. We propose that alpha- and beta-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-alpha-beta-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original beta (represented by omega in marsupials and monotremes) was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago), then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of beta-globin genes with different expression

  19. Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire S Leblond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls. We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4% patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5% controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70. In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013. Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model" for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.

  20. Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Card, Daren C; Andrew, Audra L; Shaney, Kyle J; Adams, Richard H; Schield, Drew R; Casewell, Nicholas R; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom gene evolution has been studied intensively over the past several decades, yet most previous studies have lacked the context of complete snake genomes and the full context of gene expression across diverse snake tissues. We took a novel approach to studying snake venom evolution by leveraging the complete genome of the Burmese python, including information from tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. We identified the orthologs of snake venom genes in the python genome, and conducted detailed analysis of gene expression of these venom homologs to identify patterns that differ between snake venom gene families and all other genes. We found that venom gene homologs in the python are expressed in many different tissues outside of oral glands, which illustrates the pitfalls of using transcriptomic data alone to define "venom toxins." We hypothesize that the python may represent an ancestral state prior to major venom development, which is supported by our finding that the expansion of venom gene families is largely restricted to highly venomous caenophidian snakes. Therefore, the python provides insight into biases in which genes were recruited for snake venom systems. Python venom homologs are generally expressed at lower levels, have higher variance among tissues, and are expressed in fewer organs compared with all other python genes. We propose a model for the evolution of snake venoms in which venom genes are recruited preferentially from genes with particular expression profile characteristics, which facilitate a nearly neutral transition toward specialized venom system expression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Computational Model for Tumor Oxygenation Applied to Clinical Data on Breast Tumor Hemoglobin Concentrations Suggests Vascular Dilatation and Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Welter

    Full Text Available We present a computational model for trans-vascular oxygen transport in synthetic tumor and host tissue blood vessel networks, aiming at qualitatively explaining published data of optical mammography, which were obtained from 87 breast cancer patients. The data generally show average hemoglobin concentration to be higher in tumors versus host tissue whereas average oxy-to total hemoglobin concentration (vascular segment RBC-volume-weighted blood oxygenation can be above or below normal. Starting from a synthetic arterio-venous initial network the tumor vasculature was generated by processes involving cooption, angiogenesis, and vessel regression. Calculations of spatially resolved blood flow, hematocrit, oxy- and total hemoglobin concentrations, blood and tissue oxygenation were carried out for ninety tumor and associated normal vessel networks starting from various assumed geometries of feeding arteries and draining veins. Spatial heterogeneity in the extra-vascular partial oxygen pressure distribution can be related to various tumor compartments characterized by varying capillary densities and blood flow characteristics. The reported higher average hemoglobin concentration of tumors is explained by growth and dilatation of tumor blood vessels. Even assuming sixfold metabolic rate of oxygen consumption in tumorous versus host tissue, the predicted oxygen hemoglobin concentrations are above normal. Such tumors are likely associated with high tumor blood flow caused by high-caliber blood vessels crossing the tumor volume and hence oxygen supply exceeding oxygen demand. Tumor oxy- to total hemoglobin concentration below normal could only be achieved by reducing tumor vessel radii during growth by a randomly selected factor, simulating compression caused by intra-tumoral solid stress due to proliferation of cells and extracellular matrix. Since compression of blood vessels will impede chemotherapy we conclude that tumors with oxy- to total

  2. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock

    2017-06-01

    studies which included descriptive statistics and many also included inferential statistics intended to show significance. Differences between groups were assessed with parametric measures in 9 studies and non-parametric measures in 15 studies. Good to high statistical significance on at least 1 measurement was achieved in 23 studies. Given the absence of effect sizes, the level of differences between study groups could not be determined. Conclusion – Numerous pedagogical methods are used in librarian-led instruction in evidence based practice. However, there is a paucity of high level evidence and the literature suggests that no instructional method is demonstrated to be more effective than another.

  3. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  4. Habitat suitability index model for brook trout in streams of the Southern Blue Ridge Province: surrogate variables, model evaluation, and suggested improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoper J. Schmitt; A. Dennis Lemly; Parley V. Winger

    1993-01-01

    Data from several sources were collated and analyzed by correlation, regression, and principal components analysis to define surrrogate variables for use in the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitat suitability index (HSI) model, and to evaluate the applicability of the model for assessing habitat in high elevation streams of the southern Blue Ridge Province (...

  5. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  6. Dynamic Rupture Models Suggest High Fluid Pressures and Low Differential Stresses for the M 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth; van Zelst, Iris; Ulrich, Thomas; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge in understanding the physics of megathrust earthquakes is constraining the initial stress field. The close relationship between initial stress and friction and any variations in fault geometry make unique determination of these parameters difficult. In addition, evidence for low effective stresses (e.g. Hardebeck, 2015; Husen and Kissling, 2001) seem incompatible with the occurrence of large megathrust events. Here, we present a series of 3D dynamic ruptures along the plate interface that hosted the 2004 M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, which solves for dynamic fault rupture and seismic wave propagation. Use of an unstructured tetrahedral mesh allows for a realistic representation of both the non-planar slab interface and the bathymetry. First, we compare earthquake models under conditions of high versus low fluid pressure. The model with a low fluid pressure (hydrostatic) produces rupture velocities and slip magnitudes that are much too high. The model with a high fluid pressure (near lithostatic) produces the observed average 2.5 km/s rupture speed and slip magnitudes that match the observed GPS surface displacements. This suggests that earthquakes along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone operate under the conditions of low effective principal and differential stresses that result from high fluid pressures. For a third model, we use conditions from a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation at the latitude of the 2004 earthquake's hypocenter. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. We use the stress and material properties at the time of nucleation for a single earthquake as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture model. In order to produce a reasonable earthquake, fluid pressure must exceed lithostatic near the hypocenter. Because the effective principal

  7. Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, γ-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds and Aspartic acid (Walker B formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2 interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with γ-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.

  8. On the meaning of the special-cause variation concept used in the quality discourse – And its link to unforeseen and surprising events in risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    In quality management, ‘common-cause variation’ and ‘special-cause variation’ are key concepts used to control and improve different types of processes. In this paper we study the meaning of these concepts, having a special focus on the latter concept: how is the special-cause concept linked to ideas and concepts used in risk and uncertainty management, to reflect unforeseen and surprising events? In the quality discourse it is common to refer to two possible mistakes when confronting the variation: (i) to react to an outcome as if it were from a special cause, when actually it came from common causes of variation; and (ii) to treat an outcome as if it were from common causes of variation, when actually it came from a special cause. However, at the point of decision making it is difficult or impossible to know what the “true” state is. It is also appropriate to ask whether such a true state does in fact exist. In the paper we discuss these issues, the main aim of the paper being to improve our understanding of some of the fundamental concepts used in risk and quality management

  9. Gluten sensitivity: new epidemic or new myth? Every major change in our diet carries with it the possibility of unforeseen risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Slutzky, Amy R

    2014-11-15

    Fueled in part by recent best-selling books that warn of the evils of gluten in our diets, a significant proportion of our population is now either avoiding foods that contain gluten or eliminating gluten entirely from their diets, and these numbers continue to grow. The gluten-free trend-and the accompanying multibillion dollar industry it has created-stems from the spreading belief that eating foods containing wheat or other gluten-laden grains may not only result in weight gain and obesity but can also lead to a laundry list of ailments ranging from depression and anxiety to arthritis and autism. One popular book contends that current recommendations for a high-grain, low-fat diet underlie much of today's chronic health problems and that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat/cholesterol diet is ideal. Every major change in our diet carries with it the possibility of unforeseen risks. Concern about the impact of such popularized dietary recommendations on overall well-being-and on cardiovascular health in particular-warrants discussion in the medical community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modeling of vessel collisions on the U.S. West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cotton Rockwood

    Full Text Available Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales. Our most conservative model estimated mortality to be 7.8x, 2.0x and 2.7x the U.S. recommended limit for blue, humpback and fin whales, respectively, suggesting that death from vessel collisions may be a significant impediment to population growth and recovery. Comparing across the study area, the majority of strike mortality occurs in waters off California, from Bodega Bay south and tends to be concentrated in a band approximately 24 Nm (44.5 km offshore and in designated shipping lanes leading to and from major ports. While some mortality risk exists across nearly all West Coast waters, 74%, 82% and 65% of blue, humpback and fin whale mortality, respectively, occurs in just 10% of the study area, suggesting conservation efforts can be very effective if focused in these waters. Risk is highest in the shipping lanes off San Francisco and Long Beach, but only a fraction of total estimated mortality occurs in these proportionally small areas, making any conservation efforts exclusively within these areas insufficient to address overall strike mortality. We recommend combining shipping lane modifications and re-locations, ship speed reductions and creation of 'Areas to be Avoided' by vessels in ecologically important locations to address this significant source of whale mortality.

  11. High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modeling of vessel collisions on the U.S. West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, R Cotton; Calambokidis, John; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales. Our most conservative model estimated mortality to be 7.8x, 2.0x and 2.7x the U.S. recommended limit for blue, humpback and fin whales, respectively, suggesting that death from vessel collisions may be a significant impediment to population growth and recovery. Comparing across the study area, the majority of strike mortality occurs in waters off California, from Bodega Bay south and tends to be concentrated in a band approximately 24 Nm (44.5 km) offshore and in designated shipping lanes leading to and from major ports. While some mortality risk exists across nearly all West Coast waters, 74%, 82% and 65% of blue, humpback and fin whale mortality, respectively, occurs in just 10% of the study area, suggesting conservation efforts can be very effective if focused in these waters. Risk is highest in the shipping lanes off San Francisco and Long Beach, but only a fraction of total estimated mortality occurs in these proportionally small areas, making any conservation efforts exclusively within these areas insufficient to address overall strike mortality. We recommend combining shipping lane modifications and re-locations, ship speed reductions and creation of 'Areas to be Avoided' by vessels in ecologically important locations to address this significant source of whale mortality.

  12. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  13. Disentangling unisensory from fusion effects in the attentional modulation of McGurk effects: a Bayesian modeling study suggests that fusion is attention-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Tiiippana, Kaisa; Andersen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens th...... Selection criterion. Our findings suggest that distraction of visual attention affects fusion by decreasing the weight of the visual input.......The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens...... the McGurk effect, to fit either the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the fusion mechanism is fixed, or a variant of it in which the fusion mechanism could be varied depending on attention. The latter model was associated with a larger likelihood when assessed with a Bayesian Model...

  14. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Igusa, Takeru; Jones-Smith, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The modeled structure of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase of GBV-C Virus suggests a role for motif E in Flaviviridae RNA polymerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutartre Hélène

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Flaviviridae virus family includes major human and animal pathogens. The RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp plays a central role in the replication process, and thus is a validated target for antiviral drugs. Despite the increasing structural and enzymatic characterization of viral RdRps, detailed molecular replication mechanisms remain unclear. The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major human pathogen difficult to study in cultured cells. The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is often used as a surrogate model to screen antiviral drugs against HCV. The structure of BVDV RdRp has been recently published. It presents several differences relative to HCV RdRp. These differences raise questions about the relevance of BVDV as a surrogate model, and cast novel interest on the "GB" virus C (GBV-C. Indeed, GBV-C is genetically closer to HCV than BVDV, and can lead to productive infection of cultured cells. There is no structural data for the GBV-C RdRp yet. Results We show in this study that the GBV-C RdRp is closest to the HCV RdRp. We report a 3D model of the GBV-C RdRp, developed using sequence-to-structure threading and comparative modeling based on the atomic coordinates of the HCV RdRp structure. Analysis of the predicted structural features in the phylogenetic context of the RNA polymerase family allows rationalizing most of the experimental data available. Both available structures and our model are explored to examine the catalytic cleft, allosteric and substrate binding sites. Conclusion Computational methods were used to infer evolutionary relationships and to predict the structure of a viral RNA polymerase. Docking a GTP molecule into the structure allows defining a GTP binding pocket in the GBV-C RdRp, such as that of BVDV. The resulting model suggests a new proposition for the mechanism of RNA synthesis, and may prove useful to design new experiments to implement our knowledge on the initiation mechanism of RNA

  16. A Physical Model Suggests That Hip-Localized Balance Sense in Birds Improves State Estimation in Perching: Implications for Bipedal Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Urbina-Meléndez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a vestibular system, birds uniquely have a balance-sensing organ within the pelvis, called the lumbosacral organ (LSO. The LSO is well developed in terrestrial birds, possibly to facilitate balance control in perching and terrestrial locomotion. No previous studies have quantified the functional benefits of the LSO for balance. We suggest two main benefits of hip-localized balance sense: reduced sensorimotor delay and improved estimation of foot-ground acceleration. We used system identification to test the hypothesis that hip-localized balance sense improves estimates of foot acceleration compared to a head-localized sense, due to closer proximity to the feet. We built a physical model of a standing guinea fowl perched on a platform, and used 3D accelerometers at the hip and head to replicate balance sense by the LSO and vestibular systems. The horizontal platform was attached to the end effector of a 6 DOF robotic arm, allowing us to apply perturbations to the platform analogous to motions of a compliant branch. We also compared state estimation between models with low and high neck stiffness. Cross-correlations revealed that foot-to-hip sensing delays were shorter than foot-to-head, as expected. We used multi-variable output error state-space (MOESP system identification to estimate foot-ground acceleration as a function of hip- and head-localized sensing, individually and combined. Hip-localized sensors alone provided the best state estimates, which were not improved when fused with head-localized sensors. However, estimates from head-localized sensors improved with higher neck stiffness. Our findings support the hypothesis that hip-localized balance sense improves the speed and accuracy of foot state estimation compared to head-localized sense. The findings also suggest a role of neck muscles for active sensing for balance control: increased neck stiffness through muscle co-contraction can improve the utility of vestibular

  17. Mixed modeling of meta-analysis P-values (MixMAP suggests multiple novel gene loci for low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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    Andrea S Foulkes

    Full Text Available Informing missing heritability for complex disease will likely require leveraging information across multiple SNPs within a gene region simultaneously to characterize gene and locus-level contributions to disease phenotypes. To this aim, we introduce a novel strategy, termed Mixed modeling of Meta-Analysis P-values (MixMAP, that draws on a principled statistical modeling framework and the vast array of summary data now available from genetic association studies, to test formally for locus level association. The primary inputs to this approach are: (a single SNP level p-values for tests of association; and (b the mapping of SNPs to genomic regions. The output of MixMAP is comprised of locus level estimates and tests of association. In application of MixMAP to summary data from the Global Lipids Gene Consortium, we suggest twelve new loci (PKN, FN1, UGT1A1, PPARG, DMDGH, PPARD, CDK6, VPS13B, GAD2, GAB2, APOH and NPC1 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease and we also demonstrate the potential utility of MixMAP in small data settings. Overall, MixMAP offers novel and complementary information as compared to SNP-based analysis approaches and is straightforward to implement with existing open-source statistical software tools.

  18. Transport and metabolic degradation of hydrogen peroxide in Chara corallina: model calculations and measurements with the pressure probe suggest transport of H(2)O(2) across water channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzler, T; Steudle, E

    2000-12-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes permeation of hydrogen peroxide across a cell membrane and the implications of solute decomposition by catalase inside the cell. The model was checked and analysed by means of a numerical calculation that raised predictions for measured osmotic pressure relaxation curves. Predictions were tested with isolated internodal cells of CHARA: corallina, a model system for investigating interactions between water and solute transport in plant cells. Series of biphasic osmotic pressure relaxation curves with different concentrations of H(2)O(2) of up to 350 mol m(-3) are presented. A detailed description of determination of permeability (P(s)) and reflection coefficients (sigma(s)) for H(2)O(2) is given in the presence of the chemical reaction in the cell. Mean values were P(s)=(3.6+/-1.0) 10(-6) m s(-1) and sigma(s)=(0.33+/-0.12) (+/-SD, N=6 cells). Besides transport properties, coefficients for the catalase reaction following a Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics were determined. Mean values of the Michaelis constant (k(M)) and the maximum rate of decompositon (v(max)) were k(M)=(85+/-55) mol m(-3) and v(max)=(49+/-40) nmol (s cell)(-1), respectively. The absolute values of P:(s) and sigma(s) of H(2)O(2) indicated that hydrogen peroxide, a molecule with chemical properties close to that of water, uses water channels (aquaporins) to cross the cell membrane rapidly. When water channels were inhibited with the blocker mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)), the permeabilities of both water and H(2)O(2) were substantially reduced. In fact, for the latter, it was not measurable. It is suggested that some of the water channels in CHARA: (and, perhaps, in other species) serve as 'peroxoporins' rather than as 'aquaporins'.

  19. A spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley Fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaëlle; Chevalier, Véronique; Tantely, Luciano Michaël; Fontenille, Didier; Durand, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV) reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i) RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii) a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii) combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields, seasonality of

  20. A spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley Fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields

  1. When unforeseen event become strategic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2017-01-01

    ?’ The theoretical background for this article is inspired by research done within the strategy-as-practice and strategy-in-practice communities and uses concepts such as strategic intent, wayfinding/wayfaring and temporal work to explore how the managers from the small Danish Software Company cooperated with actors...

  2. Unforeseen risk and planning perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In traditional methodologies of engineering and risk analysis, it is the widely accepted presumption to delineate the scope of consideration by excluding uncertain events with extremely low probabilities, and to seek the rational means to maneuver the presumed risks in rational ways. But we learned these conventional wisdoms are no longer valid from the last earthquake in the Eastern Japan to cope with the unexpected huge disaster. In this article, I still wish to accept a paradigm at the first place that any kinds of analytical investigation for planning cannot stand without presumed comprehension of the world, but to acknowledge its insufficiency. I am motivated to seek the plausible philosophical foundations for risk management which could partly mitigate the methodological limitation driven by cognitive capacities of human beings. The article tries to contemplate the basic issues which may exist in risk communications between professionals and nonprofessional. The paper is concluded by illustrating some basic problems related to practices and researches in infrastructure planning and perspectives for human betterment. (author)

  3. Metabolic profiling of synovial fluid in a unilateral ovine model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee suggests biomarkers for early osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Beata; Heard, Bryan J; Chau, Johnny K; Chung, May; Hart, David A; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Vogel, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Joint injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) are the leading causes of chronic joint disease. In this work, we explore the possibility of applying magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomics to detect host responses to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction injury in synovial fluid in an ovine model. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we were able to distinguish post-injury joint samples (ACL and sham surgery) from the uninjured control samples, and as well the ACL surgical samples from sham surgery. In all samples there were 65 metabolites quantified, of which six could be suggested as biomarkers for early post-injury degenerative changes in the knee joints: isobutyrate, glucose, hydroxyproline, asparagine, serine, and uridine. Our results raise a cautionary note indicating that surgical interventions into the knee can result in metabolic alterations that need to be distinguished from those caused by the early onset of OA. Our findings illustrate the potential application of metabolomics as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for detection of injuries to the knee joint. The ability to detect a unique pattern of metabolic changes in the synovial fluid of sheep offers the possibility of extending the approach to precision medicine protocols in patient populations in the future. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stand-alone Inverter: Reviews, Models and Tests the exist system in Term of the Power Quality, and Suggestions to Design it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Algaddafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Developments in power electronics have enabled the widespread application of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverters, notably for obtaining electricity from renewable systems. This paper critical review the previous studies in designing stand-alone inverter and modelling the inverter with two control loops to improve and provide a high-quality power of a stand-alone inverter. Multi-loop control techniques for a stand-alone inverter are utilised as the first loop is a capacitor current control to provide active damping and improve transient and steady state inverter performance. The capacitor current control is cheaper than inductor current control, where a small current sensing resistor is used. The second loop is the output voltage control that is used to improve the system performance and also control the output voltage. The power quality of the off-grid system is measured experimentally and compared with the grid power, showing power quality of off-grid system to be better than that of the grid. The suggestions and key findings to design the stand-alone inverter are given based in the reviewing of previous publications and from the literature’s point of view.

  5. A Review of Methodology for Evaluating the Performance of Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Models and Suggested Protocol for Providing More Informative Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Herring

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many models exist for predicting the atmospheric transport and dispersion of material following its release into the atmosphere. The purpose of these models may be to support air quality assessments and/or to predict the hazard resulting from releases of harmful materials to inform emergency response actions. In either case it is essential that the user understands the level of predictive accuracy that might be expected. However, contrary to expectation, this is not easily determined from published comparisons of model predictions against data from dispersion experiments. The paper presents and reviews the methods adopted and issues involved in comparing the predictive performance of atmospheric transport and dispersion models to experimental data, by reference to a number of experimental data sets and comparison results. It then presents an approach which is designed to make the performance of atmospheric dispersion models more transparent, through clearly defining the basis on which the comparison is made, and comparing the performance of the chosen model to that of a reference model. Such an approach establishes a clear baseline against which the accuracy of models can be evaluated and the performance benefits of more sophisticated approaches quantified. The use of a simple analytic reference model applicable to continuous ground level releases in open terrain and urban areas is shown as a proof-of-principle.

  6. Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy: An Exploratory Study of Challenges, Solutions, Resources, Reflections, and Suggestions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawsky, Melissa Maccarelli

    2011-01-01

    While many music educators learn how to teach through teacher training programs, the standard mode of transmission in which piano teachers learn to teach applied piano is through proficiency of the instrument under the guidance of a master teacher. This tacit development of pedagogical knowledge occurs through the master-apprentice model of…

  7. Statistical Modeling Suggests that Antiandrogens in Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works Contribute to Widespread Sexual Disruption in Fish Living in English Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Susan; Burn, Robert. W.; Thorpe, Karen; Williams, Richard; Tyler, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some wastewater treatment works has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. This concern stems from the view that the effects observed have a parallel in humans, and that both phenomena are caused by exposure to mixtures of contaminants that interfere with reproductive development. The evidence for a “wildlife–human connection” is, however, weak: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, seen in human males, is most easily reproduced in rodent models by exposure to mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals. In contrast, the accepted explanation for feminization of wild male fish is that it results mainly from exposure to steroidal estrogens originating primarily from human excretion. Objectives We sought to further explore the hypothesis that endocrine disruption in fish is multicausal, resulting from exposure to mixtures of chemicals with both estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. Methods We used hierarchical generalized linear and generalized additive statistical modeling to explore the associations between modeled concentrations and activities of estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals in 30 U.K. rivers and feminized responses seen in wild fish living in these rivers. Results In addition to the estrogenic substances, antiandrogenic activity was prevalent in almost all treated sewage effluents tested. Further, the results of the modeling demonstrated that feminizing effects in wild fish could be best modeled as a function of their predicted exposure to both antiandrogens and estrogens or to antiandrogens alone. Conclusion The results provide a strong argument for a multicausal etiology of widespread feminization of wild fish in U.K. rivers involving contributions from both steroidal estrogens and xenoestrogens and from other (as yet unknown) contaminants with antiandrogenic properties. These results may add further credence to the hypothesis that endocrine

  8. Endometriosis education in schools: A New Zealand model examining the impact of an education program in schools on early recognition of symptoms suggesting endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Deborah; Brick, Emily; East, Michael C; Johnson, Neil

    2017-08-01

    Menstrual morbidity plays a significant role in adolescent females' lives. There are no studies to date reporting such data from menstrual health education programs in schools. The aim of our study was to report results from an audit of a menstrual health and endometriosis education program in secondary schools and observe age patterns of young women presenting for menstrual morbidity care. Audit data from education in secondary schools and audit data of patients from an Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Coaching clinic operating in a private endometriosis specialised centre are reported. In a region of consistent delivery of the education program, student awareness of endometriosis was 32% in 2015. Overall in 2015, 13% of students experienced distressing menstrual symptoms and 27% of students sometimes or always missed school due to menstrual symptoms. Further, in one region of consistent delivery of the menstrual health education program, data show an increase in younger patients attending for specialised endometriosis care. There is strong suggestive evidence that consistent delivery of a menstrual health education program in schools increases adolescent student awareness of endometriosis. In addition, there is suggestive evidence that in a geographical area of consistent delivery of the program, a shift in earlier presentation of young women to a specialised health service is observed. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. When the rule becomes the exception. no evidence of gene flow between two Zerynthia cryptic butterflies suggests the emergence of a new model group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinetti, Francesca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Vovlas, Alessio; Chelazzi, Guido; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Ciofi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that most parapatric cryptic/sister taxa are reproductively compatible across their areas of contact. Consequently, the biological species concept, which assumes absence of interbreeding, is becoming a not so effective criterion in evolutionary ecology. Nevertheless, the few parapatric sister taxa showing complete reproductive barriers represent interesting models to study speciation processes and the evolution of reproductive isolation. In this study, we examined contact populations in northwestern Italy of two butterfly species, Zerynthia polyxena and Z. cassandra, characterized by different genitalic morphotypes. We studied levels of divergence among 21 populations distributed from Sicily to France using three genetic markers (the mitochondrial COI and ND1 genes and the nuclear wingless gene) and genitalic geometric morphometrics. Moreover, we performed species distribution modelling to estimate different climatic requirements of Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra. We projected climatic data into glacial maximum scenarios in order to verify if and to which extent glacial cycles could have contributed to speciation processes. Genetic and morphometric analyses identified two main groups. All specimens showed a concordant pattern of diversification, including those individuals sampled in the contact area. Haplotype distribution and climatic models showed that during glacial maxima both species experienced a strong range contraction and presumably remained separated into different microrefugia in southern France, in the Italian Peninsula and on the islands of Elba and Sicily. Long term separation was probably favoured by reduced dispersal ability and high phylopatry, while genitalic diversification probably favoured interbreeding avoidance. Conversely, the aposematic wing pattern remained almost identical. We compared our results with those obtained in other species and concluded that Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra represent a valuable model in

  10. A suggested syllabus model for a course in developing reading skills with special reference to the ELT Department at Gazi University

    OpenAIRE

    Tikence, Mevlüt

    1991-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1991. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1991. Includes bibliographical references leaves 63-64. The focus of this study is the development of a model syllabus for an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) reading course taught to first year students of the Gazi University ELT Department. First, the general background of ESP, problems of the reading course at Gazi and the limitations of the st...

  11. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  12. Mnemonic Discrimination Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis and a Ketamine Model Suggests Dentate Gyrus Pathology Linked to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; Carle, Matthew; Frölich, Michael A; Tran, Steve; Yassa, Michael A; White, David Matthew; Reddy, Abhishek; Lahti, Adrienne Carol

    2018-03-01

    Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis, and if N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality. We applied a mnemonic discrimination task selectively taxing pattern separation in two experiments: 1) a group of 23 first-episode psychosis patients and 23 matched healthy volunteers and 2) a group of 19 healthy volunteers before and during a ketamine challenge (0.27 mg/kg over 10 minutes, then 0.25 mg/kg/hour for 50 minutes, 0.01 mL/s). We calculated response bias-corrected pattern separation and recognition scores. We also examined the relationships between task performance and symptom severity as well as ketamine levels. We report a deficit in pattern separation but not recognition performance in first-episode psychosis patients compared with healthy volunteers (p = .04) and in volunteers during the ketamine challenge compared with baseline (p = .003). Exploratory analyses revealed no correlation between task performance and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status total scores or positive symptoms in first-episode psychosis patients, or with ketamine serum levels. We observed a mnemonic discrimination deficit but intact recognition in both datasets. Our findings suggest a tentative mechanistic link between dentate gyrus dysfunction in first-episode psychosis and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryo-EM structure of Mcm2-7 double hexamer on DNA suggests a lagging-strand DNA extrusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yasunori; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Schneider, Sarah; Zhao, Gongpu; Li, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    During replication initiation, the core component of the helicase—the Mcm2-7 hexamer—is loaded on origin DNA as a double hexamer (DH). The two ring-shaped hexamers are staggered, leading to a kinked axial channel. How the origin DNA interacts with the axial channel is not understood, but the interaction could provide key insights into Mcm2-7 function and regulation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of the Mcm2-7 DH on dsDNA and show that the DNA is zigzagged inside the central channel. Several of the Mcm subunit DNA-binding loops, such as the oligosaccharide–oligonucleotide loops, helix 2 insertion loops, and presensor 1 (PS1) loops, are well defined, and many of them interact extensively with the DNA. The PS1 loops of Mcm 3, 4, 6, and 7, but not 2 and 5, engage the lagging strand with an approximate step size of one base per subunit. Staggered coupling of the two opposing hexamers positions the DNA right in front of the two Mcm2–Mcm5 gates, with each strand being pressed against one gate. The architecture suggests that lagging-strand extrusion initiates in the middle of the DH that is composed of the zinc finger domains of both hexamers. To convert the Mcm2-7 DH structure into the Mcm2-7 hexamer structure found in the active helicase, the N-tier ring of the Mcm2-7 hexamer in the DH-dsDNA needs to tilt and shift laterally. We suggest that these N-tier ring movements cause the DNA strand separation and lagging-strand extrusion. PMID:29078375

  14. Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 suggests a model for peptidase activation by AAA+ partner binding and substrate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Karl R; Carney, Daniel W; Sello, Jason K; Sauer, Robert T

    2014-10-28

    Caseinolytic peptidase P (ClpP), a double-ring peptidase with 14 subunits, collaborates with ATPases associated with diverse activities (AAA+) partners to execute ATP-dependent protein degradation. Although many ClpP enzymes self-assemble into catalytically active homo-tetradecamers able to cleave small peptides, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme consists of discrete ClpP1 and ClpP2 heptamers that require a AAA+ partner and protein-substrate delivery or a peptide agonist to stabilize assembly of the active tetradecamer. Here, we show that cyclic acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) and agonist peptides synergistically activate ClpP1P2 by mimicking AAA+ partners and substrates, respectively, and determine the structure of the activated complex. Our studies establish the basis of heteromeric ClpP1P2 assembly and function, reveal tight coupling between the conformations of each ring, show that ADEPs bind only to one ring but appear to open the axial pores of both rings, provide a foundation for rational drug development, and suggest strategies for studying the roles of individual ClpP1 and ClpP2 rings in Clp-family proteolysis.

  15. Electrical conductivity of old oceanic mantle in the northwestern Pacific I: 1-D profiles suggesting differences in thermal structure not predictable from a plate cooling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kiyoshi; Tada, Noriko; Matsuno, Tetsuo; Liang, Pengfei; Li, Ruibai; Zhang, Luolei; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Abe, Natsue; Hirano, Naoto; Ichiki, Masahiro; Utada, Hisashi

    2017-08-01

    Seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) experiments were recently conducted in two areas of the northwestern Pacific to investigate the nature of the old oceanic upper mantle. The areas are far from any tectonic activity, and "normal" mantle structure is therefore expected. The data were carefully analyzed to reduce the effects of coastlines and seafloor topographic changes, which are significant boundaries in electrical conductivity and thus distort seafloor MT data. An isotropic, one-dimensional electrical conductivity profile was estimated for each area. The profiles were compared with those obtained from two previous study areas in the northwestern Pacific. Between the four profiles, significant differences were observed in the thickness of the resistive layer beyond expectations based on cooling of homogeneous oceanic lithosphere over time. This surprising feature is now further clarified from what was suggested in a previous study. To explain the observed spatial variation, dynamic processes must be introduced, such as influence of the plume associated with the formation of the Shatsky Rise, or spatially non-uniform, small-scale convection in the asthenosphere. There is significant room of further investigation to determine a reasonable and comprehensive interpretation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the northwestern Pacific. The present results demonstrate that electrical conductivity provides key information for such investigation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Complete mtDNA sequences of two millipedes suggest a new model for mitochondrial gene rearrangements: Duplication and non-random loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Brown, Wesley M.

    2001-11-08

    We determined the complete mtDNA sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified in both genomes all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from that inferred to be ancestral for arthropods by the location of four genes/gene clusters. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA, in that genes with opposite transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome and the two clusters are separated by two non-coding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.

  17. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stephanie; Ingham, Neil; Pearson, Selina; Gribble, Susan M; Clayton, Stephen; Steel, Karen P; Marcotti, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs) were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+) currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK) Ca(2+) activated K(+) current (I(K,f)), which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  18. Primordial germ cell development in the marmoset monkey as revealed by pluripotency factor expression: suggestion of a novel model of embryonic germ cell translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeckerle, N; Drummer, C; Debowski, K; Viebahn, C; Behr, R

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic progenitors of sperm and egg cells. Mammalian PGCs are thought to actively migrate from the yolk sac endoderm over long distances across the embryo to reach the somatic genital ridges. The general principles of mammalian PGC development were discovered in mice. In contrast, little is known about PGC development in primates due to extremely limited access to primate embryos. Here, we analyzed 12 well preserved marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) embryos covering the phase from PGC emergence in the endoderm to the formation of the sexually differentiated gonad (embryonic day (E) 50 to E95). We show using immunohistochemistry that the pluripotency factors OCT4A and NANOG specifically mark PGCs throughout the period studied. In contrast, SALL4 and LIN28 were first expressed ubiquitously and only later down-regulated in somatic tissues. We further show, for the first time, that PGCs are located in the endoderm in E50 embryos in close spatial proximity to the prospective genital ridge, making a long-range migration of PGCs dispensable. At E65, PGCs are already present in the primitive gonad, while significantly later embryonic stages still exhibit PGCs at their original endodermal site, revealing a wide spatio-temporal window of PGC distribution. Our findings challenge the 'dogma' of active long-range PGC migration from the endoderm to the gonads. We therefore favor an alternative model based primarily on passive translocation of PGCs from the mesenchyme that surrounds the gut to the prospective gonad through the intercalar expansion of mesenchymal tissue which contains the PGCs. In summary, we (i) show differential pluripotency factor expression during primate embryo development and (ii) provide a schematic model for embryonic PGC translocation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  19. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kuhn

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+ currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK Ca(2+ activated K(+ current (I(K,f, which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  20. Modeling of arylamide helix mimetics in the p53 peptide binding site of hDM2 suggests parallel and anti-parallel conformations are both stable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Fuller

    Full Text Available The design of novel α-helix mimetic inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is of interest to pharmaceuticals and chemical genetics researchers as these inhibitors provide a chemical scaffold presenting side chains in the same geometry as an α-helix. This conformational arrangement allows the design of high affinity inhibitors mimicking known peptide sequences binding specific protein substrates. We show that GAFF and AutoDock potentials do not properly capture the conformational preferences of α-helix mimetics based on arylamide oligomers and identify alternate parameters matching solution NMR data and suitable for molecular dynamics simulation of arylamide compounds. Results from both docking and molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with the arylamides binding in the p53 peptide binding pocket. Simulations of arylamides in the p53 binding pocket of hDM2 are consistent with binding, exhibiting similar structural dynamics in the pocket as simulations of known hDM2 binders Nutlin-2 and a benzodiazepinedione compound. Arylamide conformations converge towards the same region of the binding pocket on the 20 ns time scale, and most, though not all dihedrals in the binding pocket are well sampled on this timescale. We show that there are two putative classes of binding modes for arylamide compounds supported equally by the modeling evidence. In the first, the arylamide compound lies parallel to the observed p53 helix. In the second class, not previously identified or proposed, the arylamide compound lies anti-parallel to the p53 helix.

  1. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew [School of Computational & Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Krishna Kant, E-mail: kekulsharma@gmail.com [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K{sub m} values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  2. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender; Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew; Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-01

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K m values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  3. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  4. Integrative modeling of eQTLs and cis-regulatory elements suggests mechanisms underlying cell type specificity of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Brown

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human

  5. A Novel In Vitro CypD-Mediated p53 Aggregation Assay Suggests a Model for Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by Chaperone Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Ivan; Nemajerova, Alice; Foda, Zachariah H; Kornaj, Maja; Tong, Michael; Moll, Ute M; Seeliger, Markus A

    2016-10-09

    Tissue necrosis as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative damage is a leading cause of permanent disability and death worldwide. The complete mechanism by which cells undergo necrosis upon oxidative stress is not understood. In response to an oxidative insult, wild-type p53 has been implicated as a central regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), triggering necrosis. This process is associated with cellular stabilization and translocation of p53 into the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we probe the mechanism by which p53 activates the key mPT regulator cyclophilin D (CypD). We explore the involvement of Trap1, an Hsp90-related mitochondrial matrix protein and a member of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and its ability to suppress mPT in a p53-dependent manner. Our study finds that catalytically active CypD causes strong aggregation of wild-type p53 protein (both full-length and isolated DNA-binding domain) into amyloid-type fibrils in vitro. The responsible CypD residues for this activity were mapped by NMR to the active site amino acids R55, F60, F113, and W121. The data also present a new proline isomerization assay for CypD by monitoring the aggregation of p53 as an indicator of CypD activity. Moreover, we find that the inhibition of Trap1 by the mitochondria-specific HSP90 ATPase antagonist Gamitrinib strongly sensitizes primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts to mPT and permeability transition pore opening in a p53- and CypD-dependent manner. We propose a mechanism by which the influx of unfolded p53 into the mitochondrial matrix in response to oxidative stress indirectly activates the normally inhibited CypD by displacing it from Trap1 complexes. This activates CypD's isomerase activity. Liberated CypD then isomerizes multiple proteins including p53 (causing p53 aggregation) and the structural components of the mPTP pore, inducing pore opening. This working model can now be tested in the future

  6. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  7. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  8. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  9. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...

  10. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  11. Perspectives on risk and the unforeseen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Stein; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2015-01-01

    Black swans have been discussed lately. Some recent contributions to the understanding of black swans have been provided by Aven [1] and Aven and Krohn [3]. It is important to be aware of events which may come as complete surprise, which creates uncertainty in the risk assessment. This is consistent with the proposed revision of the definition of risk by Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) [Norway]. But we should at the same time also try to look beyond this and see how we can use this concept to avoid serious accidents or at least reduce the consequences should accidents occur. In this paper we proposed to restrict the black swan concept to unknown unknowns. Cases illustrate how the wider definition may lead to misleading and unfortunate effects that will not lead to good risk management practices. The wider definitions proposed by Aven & Krohn are proposed to be counterproductive if seen in a risk management context. - Highlights: • Black swans in a risk management context should be reserved for “unknown unknowns”. • Definitions by Aven and Krohn to include risks beyond “unknown unknowns” is unfortunate. • Cases illustrate how definition by Aven and Krohn may give misleading & unfortunate effects • Oil companies have for a long time neglected the uncertainty aspect of the risk element. • Proposed revision of the regulations by PSA is appropriate

  12. Global food insecurity. treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Morgan, Patrick B

    2005-11-29

    Predictions of yield for the globe's major grain and legume arable crops suggest that, with a moderate temperature increase, production may increase in the temperate zone, but decline in the tropics. In total, global food supply may show little change. This security comes from inclusion of the direct effect of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, [CO2], which significantly stimulates yield by decreasing photorespiration in C3 crops and transpiration in all crops. Evidence for a large response to [CO2] is largely based on studies made within chambers at small scales, which would be considered unacceptable for standard agronomic trials of new cultivars or agrochemicals. Yet, predictions of the globe's future food security are based on such inadequate information. Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology now allows investigation of the effects of rising [CO2] and ozone on field crops under fully open-air conditions at an agronomic scale. Experiments with rice, wheat, maize and soybean show smaller increases in yield than anticipated from studies in chambers. Experiments with increased ozone show large yield losses (20%), which are not accounted for in projections of global food security. These findings suggest that current projections of global food security are overoptimistic. The fertilization effect of CO2 is less than that used in many models, while rising ozone will cause large yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere. Unfortunately, FACE studies have been limited in geographical extent and interactive effects of CO2, ozone and temperature have yet to be studied. Without more extensive study of the effects of these changes at an agronomic scale in the open air, our ever-more sophisticated models will continue to have feet of clay.

  13. Three-dimensional models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins Rv1555, Rv1554 and their docking analyses with sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil drugs, suggest interference with quinol binding likely to affect protein's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Pallabini; Bala Divya, M; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2018-04-18

    Earlier based on bioinformatics analyses, we had predicted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554, among the potential new tuberculosis drug targets. According to the 'TB-drugome' the Rv1555 protein is 'druggable' with sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) drugs. In the present work, we intended to understand via computer modeling studies, how the above drugs are likely to inhibit the M.tb protein's function. The three-dimensional computer models for M.tb proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554 constructed on the template of equivalent membrane anchor subunits of the homologous E.coli quinol fumarate reductase respiratory protein complex, followed by drug docking analyses, suggested that the binding of above drugs interferes with quinol binding sites. Also, we experimentally observed the in-vitro growth inhibition of E.coli bacteria containing the homologous M.tb protein sequences with sildenafil and tadalafil drugs. The predicted binding sites of the drugs is likely to affect the above M.tb proteins function as quinol binding is known to be essential for electron transfer function during anaerobic respiration in the homologous E.coli protein complex. Therefore, sildenafil and related drugs currently used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction targeting the human phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme may be evaluated for their plausible role as repurposed drugs to treat human tuberculosis.

  14. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  16. Limits of quantitation — Yet another suggestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward, E-mail: voigtman@chem.umass.edu

    2014-06-01

    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined. - Highlights: • True Currie detection limits are estimated. • Experimental results validate previous 2008 theory. • Linearly heteroscedastic system is correctly modeled.

  17. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  18. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D San Antonio

    Full Text Available Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  19. A Comparison of Moment Rates for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Competitive Kinematic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Ozeren, M. S.; Shen-Tu, B.; Galgana, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Relatively continuous, complex, and long-lived episodes of tectonic deformation gradually shaped the lithosphere of the eastern Mediterranean region into its present state. This large geodynamically interconnected and seismically active region absorbs, accumulates and transmits strains arising from stresses associated with: (1) steady northward convergence of the Arabian and African plates; (2) differences in lithospheric gravitational potential energy; and (3) basal tractions exerted by subduction along the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Over the last twenty years, numerous kinematic models have been built using a variety of assumptions to take advantage of the extensive and dense GPS observations made across the entire region resulting in a far better characterization of the neotectonic deformation field than ever previously achieved. In this study, three separate horizontal strain rate field solutions obtained from three, region-wide, GPS only based kinematic models (i.e., a regional block model, a regional continuum model, and global continuum model) are utilized to estimate the distribution and uncertainty of geodetic moment rates within the eastern Mediterranean region. The geodetic moment rates from each model are also compared with seismic moment release rates gleaned from historic earthquake data. Moreover, kinematic styles of deformation derived from each of the modeled horizontal strain rate fields are examined for their degree of correlation with earthquake rupture styles defined by proximal centroid moment tensor solutions. This study suggests that significant differences in geodetically obtained moment rates from competitive kinematic models may introduce unforeseen bias into regularly updated, geodetically constrained, regional seismic hazard assessments.

  20. The Genetics Panel of the NAS BEAR I Committee (1956): epistolary evidence suggests self-interest may have prompted an exaggeration of radiation risks that led to the adoption of the LNT cancer risk assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends a series of historical papers which demonstrated that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model for cancer risk assessment was founded on ideological-based scientific deceptions by key radiation genetics leaders. Based on an assessment of recently uncovered personal correspondence, it is shown that some members of the United States (US) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I (BEAR I) Genetics Panel were motivated by self-interest to exaggerate risks to promote their science and personal/professional agenda. Such activities have profound implications for public policy and may have had a significant impact on the adoption of the LNT model for cancer risk assessment.

  1. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  2. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  3. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2017-09-07

    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Hypnotic suggestion: opportunities for cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-08-01

    Hypnosis uses the powerful effects of attention and suggestion to produce, modify and enhance a broad range of subjectively compelling experiences and behaviours. For more than a century, hypnotic suggestion has been used successfully as an adjunctive procedure to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. More recently, hypnosis has attracted a growing interest from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Recent studies using hypnotic suggestion show how manipulating subjective awareness in the laboratory can provide insights into brain mechanisms involved in attention, motor control, pain perception, beliefs and volition. Moreover, they indicate that hypnotic suggestion can create informative analogues of clinical conditions that may be useful for understanding these conditions and their treatments.

  5. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  6. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  7. Understanding the Experiences of Women in Jazz: A Suggested Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has long been recognized as a male-dominated field, with females traditionally having only limited acceptance, often in the roles of singer and pianist. Researchers have explored sources of the gender imbalance in the field of jazz and jazz education, but there is no theory or framework to organize such findings. This directed content…

  8. Modeled forest inventory data suggest climate benefits from fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Theresa B. Jain; Jonathan. Sandquist

    2013-01-01

    As part of a recent synthesis addressing fuel management in dry, mixed-conifer forests we analyzed more than 5,000 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots, a probability sample that represents 33 million acres of these forests throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and extreme northern California. We relied on the BioSum analysis framework that...

  9. Modelling Psychological Needs for User-dependent Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    gallery, bakery, bar, book store, bowling alley, cafe, casino, church, city hall, department store, food, library , mosque, movie theater, museum...district, place of worship, library as another group, and park, zoo, aquarium, natural reserve as yet another group. We have manually dis- tributed...Sacramento, Anchorage, Honolulu and Lawton. And for Erie, Lancaster , Kalamazoo, Homosassa Springs, Toledo, Albuquerque and Kansas City, our system per

  10. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Tüz; Şafak Ebesek

    2013-01-01

    Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of th...

  11. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  12. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  13. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  14. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  15. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  16. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  17. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here

  18. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  19. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...... and points the way for further research....

  20. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  2. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  3. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  4. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  5. Ontology Learning - Suggesting Associations from Text

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarv, Gøran Sveia

    2007-01-01

    In many applications, large-scale ontologies have to be constructed and maintained. A manual construction of an ontology is a time consuming and resource demanding process, often involving some domain experts. It would therefore be beneficial to support this process with tools that automates the construction of an ontology. This master thesis has examined the use of association rules for suggesting associations between words in text. In ontology learning, concepts are often extracted from d...

  6. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  7. EUROCODE — Wind Action. Suggestions for modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bawiec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Standard EN 1991-1-4 2005 Part 1-4 Wind Actions should be modernized. It should be the computer program not the book. The maps of the anticipated wind speed should be replaced by the probable maximal speed of the wind blast calculated by meteorology institutes. The results of flow calculation should be converted into the spline approximated function or generalized Fourier series. The Standard should disclose physical relations wind-structure-pressure. The safety coefficients should not be included in a model of wind action at a being built object. We expect discussion.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, wind pressure, load modelling in engineering

  8. Preventing motor training through nocebo suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Antonella; Carlino, Elisa; Vase, Lene; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2012-11-01

    Although placebos have repeatedly been shown to increase physical performance and endurance, much less is known about the effect of their negative counterpart, nocebos. Here, we employ negative suggestions and a sham electrical stimulation as a nocebo conditioning procedure in healthy subjects performing a leg extension exercise to total exhaustion. Using two different protocols, we analyze the contribution of expectation alone or the combination of conditioning and expectation to the nocebo effect evaluated as the change of work performed and rate of perceived exertion. We find that it is possible to negatively modulate the physical performance in both cases, and we argue that this effect can effectively offset the outcome of training programs.

  9. The use of suggestion in sports practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to provide a comprehensive, integrated modified technique of personal psycho-physiological regulation based on a system of Raja Yoga. The study involved candidates and masters of sports of freestyle skiing in the amount of 21 people aged 17 to 23 years. Found that athletes co 2 and stage 3 of the hypnotic state successfully acquired by dhyana and can apply it in preparation for a competition. The proposed method includes a high quality optimal fighting condition, modeling and programming training and competitive processes using deferred units, the correction of motor skills. Athletes in their imagination run program of the second day of competition. Then, the third day of competition modeled, programmed overall health. Are told that in the day of the event will have a good mood, great feeling, a surge of strength, vigor, vitality, desire to show all of their sporting qualities.

  10. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  11. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  12. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  14. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  15. PEER SUGGESTIVE FEEDBACK IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Widyaningrum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  16. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  17. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  18. Overview of the TREC 2013 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    once if in the area! I really enjoyed it. URL http://www.elfrethsalley.org • ID 65 Title Red Mango Description Red Mango is committed to providing the...venue categorization, for example “landmark” or “amusement park”, then the system creates a language model for each category. The category-specific... language models are used to perform the retrieval for each individual category mentioned in a user’s profile. Suggestions are personalized by making

  19. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  20. Computational Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Martensitic Transformations in Nicoal for Self-Sensing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. A.; Yamakov, V. I.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Leser, W. P.; Warner, J. E.; Newman, J. A.; Purja Pun, G. P.; Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes to aero-vehicle management require the utilization of automated health monitoring of vehicle structural components. A novel method is the use of self-sensing materials, which contain embedded sensory particles (SP). SPs are micron-sized pieces of shape-memory alloy that undergo transformation when the local strain reaches a prescribed threshold. The transformation is a result of a spontaneous rearrangement of the atoms in the crystal lattice under intensified stress near damaged locations, generating acoustic waves of a specific spectrum that can be detected by a suitably placed sensor. The sensitivity of the method depends on the strength of the emitted signal and its propagation through the material. To study the transition behavior of the sensory particle inside a metal matrix under load, a simulation approach based on a coupled atomistic-continuum model is used. The simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the particle's pseudoelastic response on its crystallographic orientation with respect to the loading direction and suggest possible ways of optimizing particle sensitivity. The technology of embedded sensory particles will serve as the key element in an autonomous structural health monitoring system that will constantly monitor for damage initiation in service, which will enable quick detection of unforeseen damage initiation in real-time and during onground inspections.

  1. The Regional Advisory Councils' current capacities and unforeseen benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The 2002 Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform introduced the Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) to enhance stakeholder involvement and correct one of the policy's primary deficiencies, its lack of legitimacy, arising in part from low stakeholder involvement. While some criticize the 2002 reform as...

  2. Morphology suggests noseleaf and pinnae cooperate to enhance bat echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc, Roman

    2010-11-01

    A protruding noseleaf and concave pinna structures suggest that some bats may use these to enhance their echolocation capabilities. This paper considers two possible mechanisms that each exploit the combination of direct and delayed acoustic paths to achieve more complex emission or sensitivity echolocation patterns. The first is an emission mechanism, in which the protruding noseleaf vibrates to emit sound in both the forward and backward directions, and pinna structures reflect the backward emission to enhance the forward beam. The second is a reception mechanism, which has a direct echo path to the ear canal and a delayed path involving pinna structures reflecting onto the noseleaf and then into the ear canal. A model using Davis' Round-eared Bat illustrates that such direct and delayed acoustic paths provide target elevation cues. The model demonstrates the delayed pinna component can increase the on-axis emission strength, narrow the beam width, and sculpt frequency-dependent beam patterns useful for echolocation.

  3. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  4. Women's Suggestions for Improving Midwifery Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Carien I; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-12-01

    The experience of the care a woman receives during pregnancy and childbirth has an immediate and long-lasting effect on her well being. The involvement of patients and clients in health care has increased over the last decades. The Dutch maternity care system offers an excellent opportunity to explore and involve women's suggestions for the improvement of midwifery care in the current maternity care model. This qualitative study is part of the "DELIVER" study. Clients were recruited from 20 midwifery practices. Purposive sampling was used to select the practices. The clients received up to three questionnaires, in which they could respond to the question; "Do you have any suggestions on how your midwife could improve his/her provision of care?" The answers were analyzed with a qualitative thematic content analysis, using the software program MAXQDA. Altogether, 3,499 answers were provided. One overarching concept emerged: clients' desire for individualized care. Within this concept, suggestions could be clustered around 1) provider characteristics: interpersonal skills, communication, and competence, and 2) service characteristics: content and quantity of care, guidance and support, continuity of care provider, continuity of care, information, and coordination of care. Informed by the suggestions of women, care to women and their families could be improved by the following: 1) more continuity of the care provider during the prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods, 2) more information and information specifically tailored for the person, 3) client-centered communication, and 4) a personal approach with 5) enough time spent per client. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  6. Predicting Low Back Pain Outcomes: Suggestions for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Mundt, Jennifer; Robinson, Michael; George, Steven Z

    2017-09-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly musculoskeletal pain condition, and effective treatment of LBP represents a significant goal of physical therapists. Establishing a targeted track of treatment for patients with LBP at high risk for chronicity that is focused on modifiable prognostic factors could have significant personal and societal benefit. Such an approach would require that clinicians accurately predict the patients who are at an elevated risk of developing chronic LBP in the early stages of the condition. In this Viewpoint, we consider the strengths and limitations of existing literature and propose suggestions that may lead to the development of parsimonious, cost-effective, and accurate predictive models of LBP chronicity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):588-592. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0607.

  7. School satisfaction and social relations: Swedish schoolchildren's improvement suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore schoolchildren's views on how to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Improvement suggestions were collected from school children aged 10-12 years with the help of a feedback model developed for the purpose. Qualitative content analysis was used. Two categories emerged from the analysis: 'psychosocial climate', which included the subcategories 'adults' roles and responsibilities' and 'classmates' norms and values'; 'influence', which included the subcategories 'changes in the physical environment' and 'flexible learning'. The categories are seen as important to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Examining children's opinions is requested and promoted by the UN convention on the Rights of the Child. The findings contribute to the field by showing how school satisfaction and social relations might be improved, if the child perspective is considered in the planning of health promotion activities in school.

  8. Dependency plots suggest the kinetic structure of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magleby, K L; Song, L

    1992-08-22

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate ionic flux through cell membranes by opening and closing (gating) their pores. The gating can be monitored by observing step changes in the current flowing through single channels, and analysis of the observed open and closed interval durations has provided a window to develop kinetic models for the gating process. One difficulty in developing such models has been to determine the connections (transition pathways) among the various kinetic states involved in the gating. To help overcome this difficulty we present a transform (dependency plot) of the single-channel data that can give immediate insight into the connections. A dependency plot is derived by calculating a contingency table from a two-dimensional (joint density) dwell-time distribution of adjacent open and closed intervals by assuming that the two classified criteria are the open and closed durations of each pair of adjacent intervals. A three-dimensional surface plot of the fractional difference between the numbers of observed interval pairs and the numbers expected if the durations of adjacent intervals are independent then gives the dependency plot. An excess of interval pairs in the dependency plot suggests that the open and closed states (or compound states) that give rise to the interval pairs in excess are directly connected. A deficit of interval pairs suggests that the open and closed states (or compound states) that give rise to the interval pairs in deficit are either not directly connected or that there are additional open-closed transition pathways arising from the directly connected states.

  9. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O; Hyrenbach, K David; Hagemann, Molly E; Van Houtan, Kyle S

    2018-02-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level-based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher-trophic level to lower-trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems.

  10. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  11. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  12. Evaluating sustainable adaptation strategies for vulnerable mega-deltas using system dynamics modelling: Rice agriculture in the Mekong Delta's An Giang Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Alexander; Darby, Stephen

    2016-07-15

    Challenging dynamics are unfolding in social-ecological systems around the globe as society attempts to mitigate and adapt to climate change while sustaining rapid local development. The IPCC's 5th assessment suggests these changing systems are susceptible to unforeseen and dangerous 'emergent risks'. An archetypal example is the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) where the river dyke network has been heightened and extended over the last decade with the dual objectives of (1) adapting the delta's 18 million inhabitants and their livelihoods to increasingly intense river-flooding, and (2) developing rice production through a shift from double to triple-cropping. Negative impacts have been associated with this shift, particularly in relation to its exclusion of fluvial sediment deposition from the floodplain. A deficit in our understanding of the dynamics of the rice-sediment system, which involve unintuitive delays, feedbacks, and tipping points, is addressed here, using a system dynamics (SD) approach to inform sustainable adaptation strategies. Specifically, we develop and test a new SD model which simulates the dynamics between the farmers' economic system and their rice agriculture operations, and uniquely, integrates the role of fluvial sediment deposition within their dyke compartment. We use the model to explore a range of alternative rice cultivation strategies. Our results suggest that the current dominant strategy (triple-cropping) is only optimal for wealthier groups within society and over the short-term (ca. 10years post-implementation). The model suggests that the policy of opening sluice gates and leaving paddies fallow during high-flood years, in order to encourage natural sediment deposition and the nutrient replenishment it supplies, is both a more equitable and a more sustainable policy. But, even with this approach, diminished supplies of sediment-bound nutrients and the consequent need to compensate with artificial fertilisers will mean that smaller

  13. Diatom centromeres suggest a mechanism for nuclear DNA acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Rachel E; Noddings, Chari M; Lian, Nathan C; Kang, Anthony K; McQuaid, Jeffrey B; Jablanovic, Jelena; Espinoza, Josh L; Nguyen, Ngocquynh A; Anzelmatti, Miguel A; Jansson, Jakob; Bielinski, Vincent A; Karas, Bogumil J; Dupont, Christopher L; Allen, Andrew E; Weyman, Philip D

    2017-07-18

    Centromeres are essential for cell division and growth in all eukaryotes, and knowledge of their sequence and structure guides the development of artificial chromosomes for functional cellular biology studies. Centromeric proteins are conserved among eukaryotes; however, centromeric DNA sequences are highly variable. We combined forward and reverse genetic approaches with chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify centromeres of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum We observed 25 unique centromere sequences typically occurring once per chromosome, a finding that helps to resolve nuclear genome organization and indicates monocentric regional centromeres. Diatom centromere sequences contain low-GC content regions but lack repeats or other conserved sequence features. Native and foreign sequences with similar GC content to P. tricornutum centromeres can maintain episomes and recruit the diatom centromeric histone protein CENH3, suggesting nonnative sequences can also function as diatom centromeres. Thus, simple sequence requirements may enable DNA from foreign sources to persist in the nucleus as extrachromosomal episomes, revealing a potential mechanism for organellar and foreign DNA acquisition.

  14. Failures and suggestions in Earthquake forecasting and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Seismologists have had poor success in earthquake prediction. However, wide ranging observations from earlier great earthquakes show that precursory data can exist. In particular, two aspects seem promising. In agreement with simple physical modeling, b-values decrease in highly loaded fault zones for years before failure. Potentially more usefully, in high stress regions, breakdown of dilatant patches leading to failure can yield expelled water-related observations. The volume increase (dilatancy) caused by high shear stresses decreases the pore pressure. Eventually, water flows back in restoring the pore pressure, promoting failure and expelling the extra water. Of course, in a generally stressed region there may be many small patches that fail, such as observed before the 1975 Haicheng earthquake. Only a few days before the major event will most of the dilatancy breakdown occur in the fault zone itself such as for the Tangshan, 1976 destructive event. Observations of 'water release' effects have been observed before the 1923 great Kanto earthquake, the 1984 Yamasaki event, the 1975 Haicheng and the 1976 Tangshan earthquakes and also the 1995 Kobe earthquake. While there are obvious difficulties in water release observations, not least because there is currently no observational network anywhere, historical data does suggest some promise if we broaden our approach to this difficult subject.

  15. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H A; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  17. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  18. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Privacy Act. Many requesters will receive pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the...

  19. Modeling veterans healthcare administration disclosure processes :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.

    2013-09-01

    As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.

  20. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  1. ALMA suggests outflows in z ˜ 5.5 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallerani, S.; Pallottini, A.; Feruglio, C.; Ferrara, A.; Maiolino, R.; Vallini, L.; Riechers, D. A.; Pavesi, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present the first attempt to detect outflows from galaxies approaching the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) using a sample of nine star-forming (SFR = 31 ± 20 M⊙ yr- 1) z ∼ 5.5 galaxies for which the [C II]158 μm line has been previously obtained with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We first fit each line with a Gaussian function and compute the residuals by subtracting the best-fitting model from the data. We combine the residuals of all sample galaxies and find that the total signal is characterized by a flux excess of ∼0.5 mJy extended over ∼1000 km s-1. Although we cannot exclude that part of this signal is due to emission from faint satellite galaxies, we show that the most probable explanation for the detected flux excess is the presence of broad wings in the [C II] lines, signatures of starburst-driven outflows. We infer an average outflow rate of \\dot{M}=54± 23 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, providing a loading factor η =\\dot{M}/SFR=1.7± 1.3 in agreement with observed local starbursts. Our interpretation is consistent with outcomes from zoomed hydrosimulations of Dahlia, a z ∼ 6 galaxy (SFR˜ 100 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}), whose feedback-regulated star formation results into an outflow rate \\dot{M}˜ 30 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}. The quality of the ALMA data is not sufficient for a detailed analysis of the [C II] line profile in individual galaxies. Nevertheless, our results suggest that starburst-driven outflows are in place in the EoR and provide useful indications for future ALMA campaigns. Deeper observations of the [C II] line in this sample are required to better characterize feedback at high-z and to understand the role of outflows in shaping early galaxy formation.

  2. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  3. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  4. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  5. User Simulations for Interactive Search : Evaluating Personalized Query Suggestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Järvelin, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the question “what is the influence of user search behaviour on the effectiveness of personalized query suggestion?”. We implemented a method for query suggestion that generates candidate follow-up queries from the documents clicked by the user. This is a potentially

  6. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2015-01-01

    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  7. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    are selected since they cover 1 http://www.yelp.com Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  8. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  9. Suggestibility, intelligence, memory recall and personality: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1983-01-01

    A new suggestibility test, potentially useful in the context of police interrogation, was administered to 45 subjects who also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Suggestibility was significantly related to low intelligence, poor memory recall, neuroticism and social desirability.

  10. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. The present meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from ten studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = 0.24; 95% Confidence Interval = −0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. Results question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts. PMID:21644122

  12. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  13. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Freedom of Information Act. Many requesters will receive pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters of...

  14. Sexual Harrassment: Suggested Policy and Procedures for Handling Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1983

    1983-01-01

    AAUP guidelines on establishing institutional policy and procedures for handling sexual harassment complaints are outlined. Sexual harassment is defined and procedures for both bringing and resolving a complaint are suggested. (MSE)

  15. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  16. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  17. Placebo Effects of Open-label Verbal Suggestions on Itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie H. Meeuwis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Placebo effects are positive outcomes that are not due to active treatment components, which may be elicited even when patients are aware of receiving an inert substance (open-label. This proof-of-principle study investigated for the first time whether open-label placebo effects on itch can be induced by verbal suggestions alone. Ninety-two healthy volunteers were randomized to experimental (open-label suggestions or control (no suggestions groups. Self-reported itch evoked by histamine iontophoresis was the primary study outcome. In addition, itch expectations, skin condition and affect were assessed. The experimental group expected lower itch than the control group, which was, in turn, related to less experienced itch in this group only, although no significantly different itch levels were reported between groups. The results illustrate a potential role for open-label placebo effects in itch, and suggest that further study of verbal suggestions through an extensive explanation of placebo effects might be promising for clinical practice.

  18. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  19. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  1. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  2. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  3. Hypnosis, suggestion, and placebo in the reduction of experimental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, N P; Perlini, A H; Robertson, L A

    1989-08-01

    Two experiments compared placebo and hypnotic analgesia in high and low hypnotizable subjects. Experiment 1 demonstrated that hypnotic and placebo analgesia were equally ineffective in low hypnotizables, but that hypnotic analgesia was much more effective than placebo analgesia in high hypnotizables. Experiment 2 replicated these results, but also included low and high hypnotizables who were given a nonhypnotic suggestion for analgesia. Both the low and high hypnotizables in this group reported greater suggested than placebo analgesia and as much suggested analgesia as high hypnotizable hypnotic subjects. Both experiments found substantial discrepancies between the amount of pain reduction subjects expected from the various treatments and the amount of pain reduction they actually reported following exposure to those treatments. In Experiment 2, subjects in all treatments who reduced reported pain engaged in more cognitive coping and less catastrophizing than those who did not reduce pain. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  4. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  5. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  6. Suggested technical scheme to help resolve regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.

    1978-07-01

    A management-planning model envisioned as a useful tool for planning and guiding the development of a nuclear waste repository data base is described. It incorporates the technical assessment goals and objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and it provides a strategy for reaching them. The model strategy includes provisions for the breadth, timeliness, and defensibility of its predictions. Consideration is given to observational data, its structure, and future refinements. The structure of the data is consistent with the needs of a systems model whose structure is proposed to resolve questions about repository safety. Uncertainties are categorized as an aid in defining and resolving technical issues. The model provides a framework for ultimately exposing all the sensitive and controversial factors. Some quantitative aspects of data acquisition are presented. 12 figures.

  7. Teaching Culture Through Language: Suggestions for the Italian Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    Examines the conflict between students' focus on learning the grammar and vocabulary of a foreign language instead of considering the culture that lies beneath the target language, in this case, Italian. Suggestions are made for overcoming the practical difficulty of imposing a language as a cultural entity upon the students. (25 references) (CK)

  8. A suggestion for planning cover crop mixtures: zones of occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers may be able to improve the competitiveness of cover crop mixtures by selecting species to occupy zones in the cover crop canopy. This suggestion is based on a study where we compared four cover crop treatments, 1, 3, 6, and 9 species mixtures, for biomass production. Treatments were est...

  9. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Institutes of Health. Published in the New England Journal of Medicine on March 27, 2014, this study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to ... of NIMH. “If this new report of disorganized architecture in the brains of ...

  10. A Suggested Journalism Curriculum for California Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margosian, Arthur

    The purpose of this study was to develop a suggested journalism curriculum for California junior colleges, based upon the functions and content of journalism programs as they should be, as perceived by a representative group of junior college instructrs and editors of daily and weekly newspapers in California. Data were collected from…

  11. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  12. Asthma control - Practical suggestions for practicing doctors in family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Many surveys of asthma care suggest that only 5% of asthmatics are meeting the 'Goals of asthma management' as set out in the. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Despite the availability of useful asthma therapies and treatment strategies, the morbidity from asthma has remained significant.

  13. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  14. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requiremen...

  15. Should Authors be Requested to Suggest Peer Reviewers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Al-Khatib, Aceil

    2018-02-01

    As part of a continuous process to explore the factors that might weaken or corrupt traditional peer review, in this paper, we query the ethics, fairness and validity of the request, by editors, of authors to suggest peer reviewers during the submission process. One of the reasons for the current crisis in science pertains to a loss in trust as a result of a flawed peer review which is by nature biased unless it is open peer review. As we indicate, the fact that some editors and journals rely on authors' suggestions in terms of who should peer review their paper already instills a potential way to abuse the trust of the submission and publishing system. An author-suggested peer reviewer choice might also tempt authors to seek reviewers who might be more receptive or sympathetic to the authors' message or results, and thus favor the outcome of that paper. Authors should thus not be placed in such a potentially ethically compromising situation, especially as a mandatory condition for submission. However, the fact that they do not have an opt-out choice during the submission process-especially when using an online submission system that makes such a suggestion compulsory-may constitute a violation of authors' rights.

  16. Where to Look First for Suggestibility in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Peter A.; Siegal, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Investigated preschool children's suggestibility following exposure to biased information. Children heard a story followed the next day by either biased, unbiased, or no information. Found that children were able to identify the original story details six days later when the questions were phrased in an explicit manner that referred to the time of…

  17. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  18. Suggestions for Improving Ugandan Higher Education to Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every country invests in formal education to develop and empower its citizens with the capacity needed to practically work and transform their surrounding environmental resources into productive employment after graduation. The high and growing rate of graduate unemployment in Uganda suggests however, that most of ...

  19. The Family Life Cycle: Some Suggestions for Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Harold; Feldman, Margaret

    1975-01-01

    The lifetime family, the family of ego, is distinguished from the lineage family which is the family lasting through time over generations. Use of the term lifetime family career and lineage family cycle is suggested. The family career is used to describe the participation of a person in the family. (Author)

  20. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  1. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  2. Suggested physical therapy protocol for reduction of lipomatosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of suggested physical therapy protocol in lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs. Twenty female patients with stage I lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs ranged in age from 30 to 45 years. They received a complete decongestive physical therapy program and diet regimen.

  3. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  4. Tuck in Your Shirt, You Squid: Suggestions in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Janet; Carrell, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    An English discourse completion questionnaire consisting of 60 situations designed to elicit suggestions in English was administered to 28 native speakers of Chinese or Malay and to 12 native speakers of American English. Non-native speakers of English were more direct in their responses. Native and non-native speakers significantly differed in…

  5. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  6. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... estimates of sexually antagonistic selection will be important to fully resolve these alternatives. [Bedhomme S., Chippindale A. K., Prasad N. G., Delcourt M., Abbott J. K., Mallet M. A. and Rundle H. D. 2011 Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic ...

  7. The Classroom as a Service Encounter: Suggestions for Value Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ed; McLarney, Carolan

    2000-01-01

    Conceives of the classroom as a service encounter between marketer (instructor) and stakeholders (students), making stakeholder satisfaction the key to meeting learning goals. Suggests ways to create value in the classroom: understanding what stakeholders need and want, efficiently delivering services, and demonstrating product leadership. (SK)

  8. History of Mathematics and Problem Solving: A Teaching Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meavilla, V.; Flores, A.

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a teaching suggestion, using the history of mathematics, to give students from middle school and high school the possibility of facing problems found in old mathematics books and comparing their solutions with those given in those books. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  9. A SUGGESTED CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING A SCIENCE PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    SUGGESTIONS AND A CHECKLIST FOR THE EVALUATION OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE PROGRAMS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION BULLETIN. AN INTRODUCTORY SECTION DEALS WITH THE IMPORTANCE OF (1) BROAD FACULTY PARTICIPATION, AND (2) UP-TO-DATE CONTENT AND METHODS IN PROGRAM EVALUATION. EXPLANATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION…

  10. Asthma control - Practical suggestions for practicing doctors in family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the 'Goals of asthma management' as set out in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Despite the availability of useful asthma therapies and treatment strategies, the morbidity from asthma has remained significant. This review includes practical suggestions on optimal asthma control for the family practitioner.

  11. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... [Khandelwal G, Gupta J and Jayaram B 2012 DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes. J. Biosci. 37 433–444] DOI ..... illustration for detecting potential new genes in 12 different genomes with varied GC ..... maps and genetic map of DNA double strand. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

  12. Learning through doing: Suggesting a deliberative approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... democracy as a more substantive approach to political participation, and by some consideration of how this relates to the rights and capabilities of children as political actors. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions about how institutions in South Africa could be utilized to realize a more flexible and nuanced ...

  13. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  14. Suggestion of a Viewpoint Change for the Classification Criteria of Redox Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Kim, Sungki; Kim, Kihyang

    2017-01-01

    The four representative models that define oxidation-reduction reactions are often used differently in different situations or contexts in chemistry textbooks. Although integrated models have been suggested to overcome the confusion caused by this, they have not been successful. We therefore aim to interpret the causes for difficulties in the…

  15. Communicating about nuclear events: Some suggestions to improve INES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermisch, Céline; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and its use, both from an epistemic and an ethical perspective. As very few papers have been dedicated to this subject, our critical analysis is mainly based on the INES 2009 User's Manual and on technical information issued by different nuclear agencies. Our critical analysis leads to suggest several elements, which could contribute to the improvement of the INES scale and thereby to a better communication about nuclear events. First, we show that multiple criteria are used to assign an INES rating, which could lead to an insufficient differentiation between events. In order to avoid this issue, we suggest to clarify the criteria that are used to assess the level of the event. Then, we show that level 7 of the INES scale is ill-defined as it does not allow to properly take differences in severity between disasters into account. In this regard, we recommend to use an open scale instead. Moreover, we highlight the fact that INES is able to take into account neither events with long-term evolution nor events involving multiple initiators. In this respect, we suggest providing additional guidelines and reflecting about the data on which to rely, in order to assess an INES level. Furthermore, we reflect on who should be rating a nuclear event and we recommend that, for severe events, an independent and plural agency should be in charge. Finally, we show why INES appears to be insufficient for a global communication, and we suggest to complement the INES rating with additional information in parallel. -- Highlights: •We provide a critical analysis of the INES scale and suggestions to improve it. •The rating criteria should be clarified to allow differentiation between events. •An open scale should be used to differentiate between level-7 accidents. •Additional guidelines should be provided for complex and evolving events. •We provide suggestions to satisfy

  16. As abordagens market-driven e market-driving de orientação para o mercado e inovação: proposição de um modelo integrado Market-driving strategy for market orientation: a theoretical model and suggestions for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Direcionamentos recentes da teoria de orientação para o mercado têm apontado para a natureza eminentemente reativa das estratégias relacionadas. Argumenta-se que a abordagem tradicional - market-driven - seja excessivamente determinista e de forte conotação adaptativa perante o ambiente externo. Essa visão passa a ser complementada por uma nova perspectiva - market-driving -, pressupondo a possibilidade de que as estruturas e o comportamento do mercado possam ser modelados pelas organizações. Entretanto, ainda são incipientes os esforços na construção de um modelo de referência que possa nortear futuras pesquisas no âmbito dessa estratégia. É nessa problemática que se insere o objetivo do presente trabalho, em vistas de apresentar um modelo teórico e proposições de pesquisa sobre o tema, baseados em intensiva revisão de literatura. Como conclusão, o modelo construído permite vislumbrar os antecedentes da estratégia market-driving, suas respectivas ações de implementação e variáveis correlatas. Também se verifica a natureza complementar dessa abordagem em relação à postura tradicional de orientação. Ao final, apresentam-se as implicações acadêmicas e gerenciais do presente estudo, bem como a agenda para pesquisas futuras.Recent developments in the market orientation theory have been indicating for the reactive nature of the related strategies. It argues that the traditional approach, market-driven, is excessively determinism and of strong adaptative connotation in front of external atmosphere. That vision becomes complemented by a new perspective, market-driving, presupposing that the market structures and its behavior can be modeled by the organizations. However, this theory is still incipient in the construction of a reference model that can orientate future research using that strategy. This paper looks for fulfill this gap by presenting a theoretical model and some research propositions on the theme

  17. DIPNECH: when to suggest this diagnosis on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnon, G.; Favelle, O.; Marchand-Adam, S.; De Muret, A.; Revel, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an under-recognized disease characterized by proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the bronchial wall. It is considered a pre-invasive lesion for lung carcinoid tumours and is found in 5.4% of patients undergoing surgical resection for lung carcinoid tumours. Other manifestations of DIPNECH include bronchial obstruction and formation of tumorlets. DIPNECH preferentially affects middle-aged women. Patients are either asymptomatic or present with long-standing dyspnoea due to obstructive syndrome that can be mistaken for asthma. At CT, mosaic attenuation with multiple small nodules is very suggestive of DIPNECH. The aim of this review is to describe DIPNECH-related CT features and correlate them with histology, in order to help radiologists suggest this diagnosis and distinguish DIPNECH from other causes of mosaic perfusion

  18. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  19. Ten suggestions to strengthen the science of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belovsky, G.E.; Botkin, Daniel B.; Crowl, T.A.; Cummins, K.W.; Franklin, J.F.; Hunter, M.L.; Joern, A.; Lindenmayer, D.B.; MacMahon, J.A.; Margules, C.R.; Scott, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    There are few well-documented, general ecological principles that can be applied to pressing environmental issues. When they discuss them at all, ecologists often disagree about the relative importance of different aspects of the science's original and still important issues. It may be that the sum of ecological science is not open to universal statements because of the wide range of organizational, spatial, and temporal phenomena, as well as the sheer number of possible interactions. We believe, however, that the search for general principles has been inadequate to establish the extent to which generalities are possible. We suggest that ecologists may need to reconsider how we view our science. This article lists 10 suggestions for ecology, recognizing the many impediments to finding generalizations in this field, imposed in part by the complexity of the subject and in part by limits to funding for the study of ecology.

  20. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  1. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  2. Oncologic prevention and suggested working standards in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ground of the available data, this paper presents the problem of malignant diseases in Central Serbia, and most common carcinogens. Division of carcinogens, cancerogenesis and natural history of disease, early detection of cancer and palliative management are explained. The role and capacities of primary health care doctors in treatment of patients with suspect malignant disease are presented. Authors are suggesting standards for medical tasks and contemporary principles in approach to patients with malignant diseases in everyday practice.

  3. Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir

    2017-01-01

    The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.

  4. Early sonographic findings suggestive of the human fetal tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, E Z; Bronshtein, M

    1996-04-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of a human tail was suggested in six fetuses with ultrasound findings of an echogenic protrusion in the lumbo-sacral region. All fetuses were at 14-16 weeks' gestation. The ultrasound findings disappeared in all cases at 22-23 weeks. Dermal abnormalities such as pilonidal sinus, deep dimples, and scarred tissue were found in all six newborns. It is possible that the late regression of the embryonic human tail was the cause of these dermal findings.

  5. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  6. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest) recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a s...

  7. Suggested instructions for the completion of delivery commitment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Delivery Commitment Schedule form contained in Appendix C of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the Standard Contract). In particular, the presentation describes some preliminary suggested instructions for completing the form in a manner that may aid the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

  8. CHINESE EFL UNDERGRADUATES’ ACADEMIC WRITING: RHETORICAL DIFFICULTIES AND SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Bian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties encountered by students in L2 academic writing has been a subject of research for several decades. However, to date, there still remains a lack of detailed and in-depth investigation into this area of interest. This qualitative study thoroughly investigated the rhetorical difficulties faced by Chinese EFL undergraduate academic writers, and collected suggestions on how to address these rhetorical issues. To be sufficiently detailed and thorough, this study divided students' difficulties into process- and product-related difficulties, and used triangulated data from supervisors' perspectives, students' perspectives, and supervisors' comments to address research questions. Although there were no strong generalizations derived from data from different perspectives and sources, the findings of this study showed supervisor perceptions of the rhetorical difficulties the students experienced were almost identical. In nature these rhetorical difficulties were culturallyembedded and genre-related issues; and the degree of difficulty experienced by each student varied. In this study, supervisors and students both suggested that, to solve rhetorical difficulties, teacher student communication should be improved. This study provided empirical evidence to contrastive rhetoric theory and socio-cultural theory. It also offered suggestions on how to strengthen future research in this area of inquiry, and how to improve academic writing teaching in L2 educational contexts.

  9. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  10. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarovich, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  11. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  12. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Suggestions for Realization Rather than Professionalization in Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Fred

    1987-01-01

    A literature review shows lack of consensus in defining adult education and rejection of the application of the traditional model of professionalism to adult basic education (ABE). Carl Rogers' concept of substituting realization for professionalization, as well as the literature of staff preservice and inservice training, can help practitioners…

  14. Radiographic adenoid evaluation – suggestion of referral parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo F.N. Feres

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: this model was shown to be potentially useful as a screening tool to include patients with, at least, two-thirds adenoid obstruction. Moreover, one of the categorical parameters was demonstrated to be relatively more useful, as well as a potentially safer assessment tool to exclude patients with less than three-quarters obstruction, to be indicated for adenoidectomy.

  15. Scientific evidence suggests a changed approach in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Schiller, Bernt; Dellve, L.

    2017-01-01

    Ergonomic interventions have generally been unsuccessful in improving workers’ health, with concurrent rationalization efforts negating potentially successful intervention initiatives. We propose the two aims are considered simultaneously, aiming at the joint consideration of competitive performa...... to carry out such research. The present authors bring forth the vision of “a Nordic Model for development of more sustainable production systems”....

  16. Suggesting a new paradigm for agricultural extension policy: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of approaches and functions, the study found that public sector extension in West Africa is undergoing transformation including decentralization and outsourcing extension services in the context of adopting a pluralistic system of extension delivery. While up to six models of extension are a commonly applied in the ...

  17. RATES OF FITNESS DECLINE AND REBOUND SUGGEST PERVASIVE EPISTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfeito, L; Sousa, A; Bataillon, T; Gordo, I

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the factors that determine the rate of adaptation is a major question in evolutionary biology. One key parameter is the effect of a new mutation on fitness, which invariably depends on the environment and genetic background. The fate of a mutation also depends on population size, which determines the amount of drift it will experience. Here, we manipulate both population size and genotype composition and follow adaptation of 23 distinct Escherichia coli genotypes. These have previously accumulated mutations under intense genetic drift and encompass a substantial fitness variation. A simple rule is uncovered: the net fitness change is negatively correlated with the fitness of the genotype in which new mutations appear—a signature of epistasis. We find that Fisher's geometrical model can account for the observed patterns of fitness change and infer the parameters of this model that best fit the data, using Approximate Bayesian Computation. We estimate a genomic mutation rate of 0.01 per generation for fitness altering mutations, albeit with a large confidence interval, a mean fitness effect of mutations of −0.01, and an effective number of traits nine in mutS− E. coli. This framework can be extended to confront a broader range of models with data and test different classes of fitness landscape models. PMID:24372601

  18. [Suggested low vision care for visually impaired children in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosová, E; Kukurová, E; Gerinec, A

    2011-02-01

    There is currently no system of registration for visually impaired children in Slovakia and the current prevalence of visual impairment (VI), low vision and blindness is unknown for this population. We propose a template for a process of registration of visually impaired children in Slovakia as well as a system for the Low Vision Health Core for this population. Based on a literature search, we report our data of the estimated prevalence of VI in children in Slovakia and the number of registered students with VI. We have created a registration form and suggested a template of registration for VI children as well as the Health Care System for this population. In industrialized countries, the prevalence of VI, including blindness is 10 -22/10,000 in children aged less than 16 years. Extrapolating these figures to the Slovak population, we estimate that there will be between 1500 to 3200 VI children under the age of 19 years. Only 752 students with VI of this age were recorded in Slovakia in 2009/2010. We suggest that three Low Vision Centres for VI children should be adequate to cater for the VI population, each of which should provide all levels of care and that ophthalmologists should register patients with VI by filling the proposed registration form. The number of VI children in Slovakia appears to be very low. The only way of accurately assessing the prevalence is to introduce a VI registration system into the country, to be carried out by the ophthalmologists. We suggest that the Low vision service provided by the health authority needs to be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary care (including visual rehabilitation by low vision aids). Only if the Health Insurance will adequately remunerate the Ophthalmologists for the individual procedures will they be motivated enough to provide this level of health care to VI patients.

  19. Suggestions for a consistent terminology for seismic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crampin, S. (British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (UK))

    1989-10-01

    Seismic anisotropy is an unfamiliar concept to many geophysicists and the use of misleading and ambiguous terminology has made it more difficult to understand. The author suggests here a consistent terminology in which simple expressions have specific meanings similar to their colloquial meanings. It is hoped that the use of such language will help to make the increasing number of papers reporting seismic anisotropy more readily comprehensible to the non-specialist. This is a list of terms which may make anisotropy easier to understand for those familiar with wave propagation in isotropic solids.

  20. Analysis and suggestions on standard system for general nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhenglong

    1999-08-01

    The standard system has been analyzed and researched for the general nuclear instruments and propounded following suggestions against the problems in standard's system: seriously adopting the international standards and recommending Chinese standards toward the world; appropriately regularizing the system's frame and the standard's configurations to make it more scientific, perfect and applicable; enhancing the construction of technical and basic standards, promoting the standardization of entire nuclear instruments; replenishing the standards of the testing methods and straightening out the standard's level, further completing the standard's system. In short, all of them are to enhance quality, readability and maneuverability of standards, to exert sufficiently the effects of standards

  1. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  2. Partnership-Based Health Care: Suggestions for Effective Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddie M Potter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Societal transformation often starts with one visionary and a compelling idea. However, if there are no followers, the idea quickly becomes marginalized. It “takes a village” to build a movement, and the more system layers that can be addressed, the more likely the transformation will take hold. This article describes the framework for creating the necessary changes for partnership-based health care. It also makes suggestions for ensuring successful application of partnership-based systems change. This article is for all readers seeking to apply partnership principles in their own fields of influence.

  3. A new dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year

  4. A suggestion for multidisciplinarity: the fluorescence phenomenon observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches involving daily phenomena are valuable teaching tools to stimulate reflections in order to comprehend that scientific knowledge is developed in a collective process, as well as to understand the importance that scientific research cannot be done in a unique area of knowledge for the full understanding of any phenomenon. We suggest the fluorescence phenomenon observation in some materials, objects and living organisms so that students realize the interaction between Physics, Chemistry and Biology, generally regarded as not correlated disciplines.

  5. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  6. Six Suggestions for Research on Games in Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    for various research fields, since an increasing number of references point to resources that only exist on the web. However, present practices using URL and date reference cannot be regarded as persistent due to the volatile nature of the Internet, - and present practices for references to web archives only...... refer to archive URLs which depends on the web archives access implementations. A major part of the suggested adjustments is a new web reference standard for archived web references (called wPID), which is a supplement to the current practices. The purpose of the standard is to support general, global...

  8. Credit risk identification and suggestions of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Wang, Haichao; Chen, Zhongyuan; Hao, Yuxing; Jiang, Hailong; Qian, Hanhan; Wang, Meibao

    2018-03-01

    The power industry has a long history of credit problems, and the power industry has credit problems such as power users defaulting on electricity bills before the new electricity reform. With the reform of the power system, the credit problems in the power industry will be more complicated. How to effectively avoid the risk factors existing in the course of market operation and how to safeguard the fairness and standardization of market operation is an urgent problem to be solved. This paper first describes the credit risk in power market, and analyzes the components of credit risk identification in power market, puts forward suggestions on power market risk management.

  9. Big data learning and suggestions in modern apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G.; Nadesh, R. K.; ArivuSelvan, K.

    2017-11-01

    Among many other tasks involved for emergent location-based applications such as those involved in prescribing touring places and those focused on publicizing based on destination, destination prediction is vital. Dealing with destination prediction involves determining the probability of a location (destination) depending on historical trajectories. In this paper, a destination prediction based on probabilistic model (Machine Learning Model) feed-forward neural networks will be presented, which will work by making the observation of driver’s habits. Some individuals drive to same locations such as work involving same route every day of the working week. Here, streaming of real-time driving data will be sent through Kafka queue in apache storm for real-time processing and finally storing the data in MongoDB.

  10. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  11. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  12. Current and Suggested focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, J. B.; Robertson, D. G. C.; Mackey, P. J.

    The production of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals by pyrometallurgical processes will remain a critical element in meeting the demand for materials in both developed and developing nations. Given the important need to reduce and minimise greenhouse gas emissions the technological focus of future pyrometallurgical R&D by universities and industry alike must concentrate on sustainability issues such as improved energy efficiency, recycling and waste minimization. Continued efforts are also needed on process optimization and new process development with a view to reducing capital and operating costs of the new large "mega" plants. Using the academic and industrial backgrounds of the authors, the present paper reviews the current status of R&D in pyrometallurgy in university departments with a particular emphasis on sustainability issues. The role of industry and government laboratories is also reviewed although primarily for developed countries. The paper also includes comments and suggestions on the future requirements for education and R&D in pyrometallurgy in developed countries to maximise sustainability. It is also suggested that future R&D in pyrometallurgy will be even more concentrated in developing countries — most notably China.

  13. Eyewitness recall and suggestibility in individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Henry, L

    2016-12-01

    Many criminal justice professionals perceive the eyewitness skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities to be weaker than those of typically developing (TD) individuals. Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disabilities, yet there is no research addressing eyewitness skills in this population. This study examined the eyewitness recall and suggestibility of young people with DS. Young people with DS and mental age-matched TD children viewed a video of a non-violent petty crime and were subsequently asked to freely recall the event before being asked general and specific questions incorporating both misleading and non-leading prompts. Compared with mental age-matched TD individuals, young people with DS produced as much information, were just as accurate and were no more suggestible. The eyewitness memory skills of young people with DS are comparable to those of mental age-matched TD children. The implications of these findings for the forensic context and eyewitness memory are discussed. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hemimegalencephaly: signal changes suggesting abnormal myelination on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan); Arai, N. [Dept. of Clinical Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Tamagawa, K. [Dept. of Neuropediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oda, M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed the MRI of 17 patients with hemimegalencephaly to investigate abnormal myelination in this condition. On images of seven patients aged 18 months or less, the white matter on the affected side suggested advanced myelination for the age. On T1-weighted images of three patients aged 1 month, the anterior limb of the internal capsule in the affected hemisphere was myelinated, and T1 shortening was not clearly seen in the pre- and postcentral gyri. The cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter was isointense in two patients. Images of two patients aged 4 to 5 months and of five patients aged 8-18 months showed myelination that extended more peripherally in the white matter of the affected hemisphere. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  15. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  16. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  17. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  18. Considerations about ISO 14001, and suggestions for the next revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss a number of issues related to ISO 14001:2004, the international standard for environmental management systems (EMS) with the purpose of improving the next edition in order to recognize and reflect new recognitions in approaches to pollution prevention. The stan......The aim of this paper is to discuss a number of issues related to ISO 14001:2004, the international standard for environmental management systems (EMS) with the purpose of improving the next edition in order to recognize and reflect new recognitions in approaches to pollution prevention....... The standard is a process standard that leaves room for interpretation at company level as well as among lead auditors from certifying bodies. A case study is presented and shows lack of life cycle thinking in product development. The paper suggests changes of ISO 14001:2004 in order to include a clear product...

  19. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...... in relation to air pollution exposure at the transcriptome level. The findings underline the necessity of implementing environmental health policy measures specifically for protecting children's health....

  20. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...... systematics. RESULTS: By reconstructing the developmental neuroanatomy of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis cf. spirorbis (Spirorbinae), we found striking differences in the overall neural architecture, the innervation pattern, and the ontogenetic establishment of the nervous supply of the operculum...... such as the prostomial appendages may have evolved independently in respective serpulid sublineages and therefore require reassessment before being used in phylogenetic analyses. Our findings corroborate recent molecular studies that argue for a revision of serpulid systematics. In addition, our data on Spirorbis...

  1. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan

    2007-08-01

    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  2. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  4. MOOCs for Teacher Professional Development: Reflections and Suggested Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher Professional Development (TPD has become a major policy priority within education systems worldwide. But keeping teachers professionally up-to-date and providing them professional development opportunities on continuing basis is a big challenge. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs can be a cost and resource effective means to complement the traditional methods of professional development of teachers. This optimism is based on the assumption that use of MOOCs will facilitate mass training of teachers as per their convenience and ease. The other assumption is that being MOOCs-based training, it will be easy to adapt it to different cultures and languages. Considering these assumptions, this concept paper which is based on reviews of different reports, documents and research papers - discusses the challenges of TPD, reflects upon promises of using MOOCs for TPD; details initiatives and experiences of using MOOCs for TPD; and suggests actions for promoting the use of MOOCs for TPD.

  5. Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

    2011-08-01

    Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information.

  6. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  7. An hypnotic suggestion: review of hypnosis for clinical emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2014-04-01

    Hypnosis has been used in medicine for nearly 250 years. Yet, emergency clinicians rarely use it in emergency departments or prehospital settings. This review describes hypnosis, its historical use in medicine, several neurophysiologic studies of the procedure, its uses and potential uses in emergency care, and a simple technique for inducing hypnosis. It also discusses reasons why the technique has not been widely adopted, and suggests methods of increasing its use in emergency care, including some potential research areas. A limited number of clinical studies and case reports suggest that hypnosis may be effective in a wide variety of conditions applicable to emergency medical care. These include providing analgesia for existing pain (e.g., fractures, burns, and lacerations), providing analgesia and sedation for painful procedures (e.g., needle sticks, laceration repair, and fracture and joint reductions), reducing acute anxiety, increasing children's cooperation for procedures, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of acute psychiatric conditions, and providing analgesia and anxiolysis for obstetric/gynecologic problems. Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating Prior Learning Assessment Programs: A Suggested Framework

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    Nan L. Travers and Marnie T. Evans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, American institutions have been expected to include systematic program reviews to meet accrediting standards, either by independent or governmental review agencies. Program evaluation is critical for several reasons: it provides systematic ways to assess what needs improvement or what needs changing and it provides ways to validate practices, whether to internal or external audiences (Mishra, 2007. Most program evaluative models are focused on academic programs, which don’t fit the uniqueness of prior learning assessment programs. This paper proposes an evaluative framework for prior learning assessment programs, which takes into account the type of work within prior learning assessment programs and uses program portfolios, similar to how students are asked to document their work.

  9. Anomalous weak boson couplings suggestions from unitarity and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gounaris, G.J.; Tsirigoti, G.; Gounaris, G J; Renard, F M; Tsirigoti, G

    1995-01-01

    Taking into account the constraints from LEP1 and lower energy experiments, we identify the seven SU(2)\\times U(1) gauge invariant purely bosonic dim=6 operators which provide a quite general description of how New Physics could reflect in the bosonic world, if it happens that all new degrees of freedom are too heavy to be directly produced in the future colliders. Five of these operators are CP conserving and the remaining ones are CP violating. We derive the unitarity constraints for the CP violating operators and compare them with the already known constraints for the CP conserving ones. Dynamical renormalizable models are also presented, which partly elucidate what the appearance of each of these operators can teach us on the mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking.

  10. Improving therapeutic use of homework: suggestions from mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P

    2011-10-01

    The majority of mental health clinicians report the use of homework to support their case management, but practitioner surveys indicate that homework is not routinely used. To examine barriers that mental health case managers experience in implementing homework and to identify strategies to promote successful homework administration. One hundred thirty-four surveys were completed by mental health case managers. The survey examined their use of homework for individuals diagnosed with a severe mental health problem. It also asked them to identify barriers to regularly implement homework and describe strategies to promote more regular use of homework. On average, homework was used at 50% of clinical contacts. The primary reasons for not using homework included allocating insufficient time at appointments, perceived client resistance for using homework and concerns that the client was too unwell. Strategies used to overcome these difficulties included prioritising the use of homework and ensuring that homework assignments were achievable. Clinicians are able to identify a range of practical strategies to promote the use of homework. Discussion focuses on the application of the suggested strategies to promote regular use of homework. This includes discussion of possible training approaches to enhance systematic homework administration.

  11. Dehumanizing Communication Reified among Undergraduates and Lecturers: Issues and Suggestions

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    Duvie Adanma Nnekwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses dehumanizing communication reified among undergraduates and t lecturers. Dehumanization is the act of degrading people with respect to their best qualities and denial of humanness to others. On the other hand, communication is human interaction and learning. Communication becomes rude when it is deliberately directed resulting in dehumanizing communication. The paper, therefore, examines dehumanizing communication in terms of its being intentional and unintentional and dehumanizing communication between lecturers and students and among students. It also took a swipe on the effects of dehumanizing communication on students and lecturers as well as proffer solutions to mitigating effect of dehumanizing communication between lecturer and students and among students. The suggested solutions among others include inter-group dialogue programme among contending groups in the student community, establishment of multicultural centers on campus in order to bring contending groups together (i.e. lecturers and students of all races and ethnicity. A compulsory course on “pedagogy of positiveness” is also recommended in the university curriculum to instill in the students the value of respecting people who may be different. Keywords: Dehumanization, Intentional and Unintentional Communication, Reified, Lecturers, Undergraduates, Teaching and Learning, Classroom

  12. Cytological Findings Suggesting Sexuality in Phytomonas davidi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available On few occasions, Phytomonas davidi (McGhee & Postell isolate cultures in LIT (liver infusion-tryptose medium around 27oC presented, as seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a set of peculiar morphological features, among them being noticeable the pairs of apposed cells attached by their posterior ends, where occurred a stained line and/or a dilatation, usually bulb-like in shape; sometimes this dilatation could occupy one of the cells or hold both together. In some pairs, the nucleus of each parasite seemed migrating towards the other, entering into such dilatation; in others, both nuclei were inside it, sometimes in close proximity or seeming fused; peculiar chromatin arrangements involving both nuclei were occasionally observed. Several mono or binucleate round forms bearing one or two flagella, as well as flagellate slender cells without nucleus were concomitantly seen there. In some instances, an intriguing small stained body occurred beside a single large nucleus, either in pairs presenting the bulb-like structure or in round cells. These cytological findings seemed steps of a dynamic process suggesting sexuality, since in several of them nuclear interactions following fusion of two parasites appeared to occur

  13. Elegy as a film genre. Adaptation — inspiration — suggestion

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    Rafał Koschany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that this is article is concerned to answer is how the position of the film elegy can be best formally established — with its artistic representations, as well as its functioning in the genology of the genre. An attempt to provide definitive answers that emerge from interdisciplinary, film and literary discourse brings a number of substantial threads. Firstly, there is, indeed, no theoretical description of the elegy as a film genre, though the very name does appear in many titles. Secondly, it seems that a juxtaposition of available examples of film ad-aptations of elegies does not lead to any consistent conclusion, since, apart from the suggestion proposed by the author, they are different in terms of formal and thematic elements involved. Thirdly, any attempt at a genological profiling has to, somehow, refer to a more or less fixed literary genre and the relevant theory behind it. In a most general way, one can state, albeit with a number of reservations, that the elegiac film is characterized by a distinguishable style, often simply called the elegiac style, and the theme, very broadly associated with time and the theme of passing.

  14. Foreign accents: suggested competencies for improving communicative pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Lorna D

    2005-05-01

    In the past 20 years, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have joined their English as a Second Language (ESL) colleagues to address the pronunciation skills of second language speakers of English. This paper introduces SLPs to the ESL term "communicative pronunciation" as the underpinning for the commonly accepted terms "accent modification" or "accent reduction." Initially, professionals in both speech pathology and ESL felt that accent intervention was outside the scope of speech pathology practice, though that stance is softening. If an essential part of our mission as speech pathologists is to improve communicative competence for all persons, then making pronunciation more intelligible falls under that heading. This article on foreign accents limits discussion to: (1) the rationale for intervening with foreign accented adults; (2) an outline of a broader scope and definition of effective instruction for this population; (3) suggestions for trainer preparation; (4) recommendations for productive literature searches; and (5) a brief discussion of principles guiding assessment and instruction planning. The article includes relevant research and references outside the field of speech pathology that should stimulate future productive research efforts as well as more in-depth papers on specific instruction and assessment issues. While this article is intended to stand alone, readers may benefit from the content and references in another article in this issue by the same author.

  15. Suggestion, persuasion and work: Psychotherapies in communist Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The latter two approaches had striking similarities with parallel developments in behavioural and cognitive therapies in the West. In part, this was because clinicians on both sides of the 'iron curtain' drew upon shared European traditions from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Nevertheless, this article argues that in the Soviet sphere, those promoting these approaches appropriated socialist thought as a source of inspiration and justification, or at the very least, as a convenient political shield.

  16. Demystifying Survey Research: Practical Suggestions for Effective Question Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah H. Charbonneau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ Recent research has yielded several studies helpful for understanding the use of the survey technique in various library environments. Despite this, there has been limited discussion to guide library practitioners preparing survey questions. The aim of this article is to provide practical suggestions for effective questions when designing written surveys.Methods ‐ Advice and important considerations to help guide the process of developing survey questions are drawn from a review of the literature and personal experience.Results ‐ Basic techniques can be incorporated to improve survey questions, such as choosing appropriate question forms and incorporating the use of scales. Attention should be paid to the flow and ordering of the survey questions. Careful wording choices can also help construct clear, simple questions. Conclusion ‐ A well‐designed survey questionnaire can be a valuable source of data. By following some basic guidelines when constructing written survey questions, library and information professionals can have useful data collection instruments at their disposal.

  17. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

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    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  18. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak

    2014-01-01

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report

  19. Self-directed attention, awareness of bodily states, and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, M F; Carver, C S; Gibbons, F X

    1979-09-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-directed attention would cause increased awareness of internal states and would thus reduce suggestibility effects. Experiment 1 applied this reasoning to the experience of an emotion. Males viewed moderately arousing slides of female nudes after being led to expect the slides to be either highly arousing or nonarousing. As predicted, ratings of the slides corresponded less with these experimentally-manipulated anticipations when self-focus was heightened by the presence of a mirror than when it was not. Experiment 2 examined a different internal experience: the perception of taste. Some subjects were led to expect a strong flavor as part of a test series, and other subjects were led to expect a weak flavor. Subjects high in private self-consciousness were less affected by this expectancy manipulation and more accurate in reporting their actual internal state than were subjects low in private self-consciousness. Discussion centers on the theoretical implications of the findings.

  20. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

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    Wanninger Andreas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid systematics. Results By reconstructing the developmental neuroanatomy of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis cf. spirorbis (Spirorbinae, we found striking differences in the overall neural architecture, the innervation pattern, and the ontogenetic establishment of the nervous supply of the operculum and the radioles in this species. Accordingly, the spirorbin operculum might not be homologous to the radioles or to the opercula of other serpulid taxa such as Serpula and Pomatoceros and is thus probably not a part of the tentacular crown. Conclusion We demonstrate that common morphological traits such as the prostomial appendages may have evolved independently in respective serpulid sublineages and therefore require reassessment before being used in phylogenetic analyses. Our findings corroborate recent molecular studies that argue for a revision of serpulid systematics. In addition, our data on Spirorbis neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system.

  1. Two suggestions to ''improve the utilization of ISABELLE''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. A very good communication system would make work as efficient as possible during times when the beam is off. Here are some ideas: (1) it should be a dedicated system that is always on or can be turned on from either position, and it should be impossible for the two ends to be on different channels; (2) tv is desirable so each individual can watch what the other is doing to avoid confusion; (3) slave CRT units would be desirable so both can watch a given waveform or other test signal; and (4) it should also be possible to monitor key voltages from either location. It seems reasonable that beam information would be stored in one or more files on a disc in the on-line computer system. Each experimenter's computer could then get whatever information was desired. Handling the information by computer is straightforward, and more or less standard systems for data-base management should be applicable. Having satisfactory sensors to monitor the information that is needed seems like more of a problem, but they are required in any case

  2. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    pityriasis rosea, for intrauterine fetal death. All miscarrying women reportedly revealed an aggressive course of widespread eruption and severe constitutional symptoms; all of them had HHV-6 DNA in the plasma, placenta, skin lesions, and fetal tissues, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma and skin lesions in 3 out of 8 (37.5%) miscarrying women. HHV-6 DNA was found only in the plasma of 2 out of 31 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma of 3 (9.45%) and in the skin lesions of 2 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy. The total abortion rate in women who developed pityriasis rosea during their pregnancy (13%) does not differ from that observed in the general population. Nevertheless, it is markedly higher in cases affected during the first 15 gestational weeks (57%) (4,5). Surprisingly, this devastating impact of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is almost completely unknown not only to the public but also to many members of the medical community. It is also largely unknown that, particularly during the first 15 gestational weeks, all pregnant women should avoid any contact with patients known to have pityriasis rosea. Since we have received a considerable number of requests for consultation with pregnant women with pityriasis rosea over the last few years, our group has compiled suggestions approaching the affected patients: 1. If an eruption suggestive for pityriasis rosea occurs in a pregnant woman, the following factors should be excluded: a. Exposure to drugs prior to the development of the rash (biologic agents, captopril, clonidine, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, lamotrigine, nortriptyline, barbiturates, metronidazole, terbinafine, omeprazole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and isotretinoin), which are capable of inducing a pityriasis rosea-like eruption (6) and b. Disorders included in the differential diagnosis (syphilis and infections due to parvovirus, herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein

  3. Morphologic Features Suggestive of Endometriosis in Nondiagnostic Peritoneal Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Beth T; Mittal, Khush

    2015-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common disorder that causes significant morbidity from dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Establishment of a definitive diagnosis has important therapeutic implications; however, only approximately 50% of biopsies of laparoscopically suspicious areas provide a diagnosis of endometriosis. Histologic criteria for diagnosis require the presence of endometrial glands or endometrial-type stroma. We hypothesize that other frequently present, but nondiagnostic, histologic features of endometriosis suggest its presence in patients with nondiagnostic peritoneal biopsies. We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of morphologic and immunohistochemical features that may improve the histologic diagnosis of endometriosis on laparoscopic peritoneal biopsies. We compared diagnostic (n=88) and nondiagnostic (n=54) peritoneal biopsies from pathologically confirmed endometriosis cases with negative peritoneal biopsies (n=84) from early-stage gynecologic cancer cases. Statistical analysis utilized the Fisher exact test. Multiple morphologic features were significantly increased in nondiagnostic biopsies from patients with endometriosis in comparison with those from negative controls, including foamy macrophages (P=0.0001) and submesothelial stromal clusters (SSCs) (P=0.0008). SSCs ranged from subtle aggregates of spindle cells to nodules of whorled spindle cells with small vessels and extravasated red blood cells resembling stromal endometriosis. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that ER and CD10-positive SSCs were present in a greater proportion of both nondiagnostic and diagnostic peritoneal biopsies and at a greater number of lesions per biopsy. The overall histologic detection rate of peritoneal biopsies for endometriosis was 62.0%, and inclusion of SSCs with or without foamy macrophages in the diagnostic criteria appreciably increased this rate to between 72.5% and 76.8%. We describe SSCs, which appear to be an early or less developed

  4. Genetic counselling in ALS: facts, uncertainties and clinical suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Battistini, Stefania; Calvo, Andrea; Caponnetto, Claudia; Conforti, Francesca L; Corbo, Massimo; Giannini, Fabio; Mandrioli, Jessica; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Ajmone, Clara; Mastro, Enza; Pain, Debora; Mandich, Paola; Penco, Silvana; Restagno, Gabriella; Zollino, Marcella; Surbone, Antonella

    2014-05-01

    The clinical approach to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been largely modified by the identification of novel genes, the detection of gene mutations in apparently sporadic patients, and the discovery of the strict genetic and clinical relation between ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). As a consequence, clinicians are increasingly facing the dilemma on how to handle genetic counselling and testing both for ALS patients and their relatives. On the basis of existing literature on genetics of ALS and of other late-onset life-threatening disorders, we propose clinical suggestions to enable neurologists to provide optimal clinical and genetic counselling to patients and families. Genetic testing should be offered to ALS patients who have a first-degree or second-degree relative with ALS, FTD or both, and should be discussed with, but not offered to, all other ALS patients, with special emphasis on its major uncertainties. Presently, genetic testing should not be proposed to asymptomatic at-risk subjects, unless they request it or are enrolled in research programmes. Genetic counselling in ALS should take into account the uncertainties about the pathogenicity and penetrance of some genetic mutations; the possible presence of mutations of different genes in the same individual; the poor genotypic/phenotypic correlation in most ALS genes; and the phenotypic pleiotropy of some genes. Though psychological, social and ethical implications of genetic testing are still relatively unexplored in ALS, we recommend multidisciplinary counselling that addresses all relevant issues, including disclosure of tests results to family members and the risk for genetic discrimination.

  5. Pre-hospital Obstacles in Thrombolytic Therapy and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is frequently encountered in emergency neurology clinics. Especially when administered within 3 hours of symptom onset, thrombolytic therapy is important in reducing ischemic injury and neurological disability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics according to application time, to identify situations which pose an obstacle to thrombolytic therapy and to review the thrombolytic therapy results in patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated and their age, gender, complaints, risk factors, previous history of stroke, with whom they live, how they arrived at the hospital and their application time information were recorded. Those who were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset were assessed as early, those admitted after 3 hours were assessed as late admission. Then the rate of thrombolytic therapy, final results and the clinical status in early admission patients and the reasons for delay in late admission patients were discussed. RESULTS: Among 361 acute ischemic stroke patients, the mean age was 66±14,1. 111 patients were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset, 246 patients were admitted after three hours. Patients arriving to emergency room with 112 Ambulance Service were admitted earlier than those brought in by family, and this difference was statistically significant. The most common causes of time loss in late admissions were the patients being referred from other centers and the unawareness of family about the importance of the disease. There were 13 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, and complications occurred in one patient. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Thrombolytic therapy is important in acute ischemic stroke for suitable patients.Our study suggested that the most important factors in spreading of performing the thrombolytic therapy are informing the public about

  6. A suggested theory of the conventional tomographic imaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Moores, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to re-examine the well established theoretical basis of conventional tomography in the light of more detailed techniques being applied elsewhere in image analysis. Transfer function theory has been used to quantify the amount of edge detail reproduced by this process and the information in a tomogram is investigated in terms of edge detail associated with well resolved (unblurred) detail and also that associated with unresolved detail. Because resolved and unresolved detail is associated with particular anatomical layers within the tomographed object, the theory has been used to define a cut plane thickness. A variety of different tube movements have been considered and calculated values of cut plane thickness are compared with those predicted by a simple geometric model. Besides the blurring associated with the tube movement the effect of X-ray focal spot, film-screen combination and also visual response of the observer have been included and their importance in the definition of cut plane thickness highlighted. One advantage of this approach appears to be the facility to quantify the performance of different tomographic tube movements and highlight the role of tomographic detail reproduced from body sections well removed from the cut plane. (author)

  7. Plasticity in neuromagnetic cortical responses suggests enhanced auditory object representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bernhard; Jamali, Shahab; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2013-12-05

    Auditory perceptual learning persistently modifies neural networks in the central nervous system. Central auditory processing comprises a hierarchy of sound analysis and integration, which transforms an acoustical signal into a meaningful object for perception. Based on latencies and source locations of auditory evoked responses, we investigated which stage of central processing undergoes neuroplastic changes when gaining auditory experience during passive listening and active perceptual training. Young healthy volunteers participated in a five-day training program to identify two pre-voiced versions of the stop-consonant syllable 'ba', which is an unusual speech sound to English listeners. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain responses were recorded during two pre-training and one post-training sessions. Underlying cortical sources were localized, and the temporal dynamics of auditory evoked responses were analyzed. After both passive listening and active training, the amplitude of the P2m wave with latency of 200 ms increased considerably. By this latency, the integration of stimulus features into an auditory object for further conscious perception is considered to be complete. Therefore the P2m changes were discussed in the light of auditory object representation. Moreover, P2m sources were localized in anterior auditory association cortex, which is part of the antero-ventral pathway for object identification. The amplitude of the earlier N1m wave, which is related to processing of sensory information, did not change over the time course of the study. The P2m amplitude increase and its persistence over time constitute a neuroplastic change. The P2m gain likely reflects enhanced object representation after stimulus experience and training, which enables listeners to improve their ability for scrutinizing fine differences in pre-voicing time. Different trajectories of brain and behaviour changes suggest that the preceding effect of a P2m increase relates to brain

  8. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  9. Strategies and suggestions for a healthy toddler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sally; Benuck, Irwin

    2013-09-01

    Nutritional challenges for toddlers are common because their eating behaviors are inconsistent; they may eat more or less than requirements meal to meal and day to day. To help reduce parental stress, it's essential to discuss with parents/caregivers their expectations on how and what they think their toddler should be eating. It is important to remember that toddlers are not little adults; portion sizes are often distorted (too large), and portions should reflect the individual child's age and development. Parents/caregivers can help with new food acceptance by modeling good mealtime behaviors such as limiting high-energy, low-nutritional food and drinks, eating healthy foods along with their children together at the table with the television shut off, and eating appropriate portion sizes. Pediatricians should inform concerned parents/caregivers that toddlers commonly do not accept new foods; foods may need to be introduced repeatedly, up to 10 to 15 times before a child will eat them. To adhere to National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines, parents and caregivers should focus on providing balanced meals that offer a variety of foods, with at least three to four food groups for meals and one to two food groups for snacks, always including familiar foods along with new foods. It is important to reassure families that adherence to NHLBI guidelines for toddlers may be difficult at first, but with the proper education, planning ahead for meal/snack times, and education of all providers caring for the toddler (including nannies, daycares, and family members), it can be done successfully. Improving the nutrition and health of their young toddler will help prevent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Evaluation and suggested improvements of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Urban

    2007-06-01

    This review has evaluated the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and improvements have been proposed. The BCS has a very strict solubility/dissolution limit, a generous P(e)-limit (> or = 14-times higher rate constant limit for dissolution than for permeation), and is stricter for drugs with a long half-life (t(1/2)). Available human in-vivo, in-vitro, and in-silico P(e)-methods cannot classify P(e) for moderately to highly permeable substances sufficiently well, and in-vitro data often underpredict the in-vivo dissolution potential and rate. Good in-vivo dissolution and absorption can be expected for most high P(e) drug products. It has not been possible to find a highly permeable product with a Dose number (D(o)) 40 and > 95% dissolved within 30 min and 3 h, respectively); the limit for high P(e) is increased (to >P(e) of metoprolol); accurate P(e)-models or in-vivo fraction absorbed data are used; solubility/dissolution tests are performed using real or validated simulated gastrointestinal fluids; in-vitro/in-vivo dissolution relationships are established; the t(1/2) is considered; and the rate-limiting step for in-vivo absorption is determined. A major change could be to reduce the BCS into two classes: permeation-rate (Class I) or dissolution-rate (Class II) limited absorption. It is believed that this could give a better balance and increase the number of biowaivers.

  11. Search for new quarks suggested by the superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, V.D.; Zwirner, F.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the possible phenomenology of the additional charge (-1/3) colour triplet particles D 1/2 of spin 1/2 and D 0 , anti D 0 c of spin 0 which are contained in each matter generation if the superstring is compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold. In the minimal model with no intermediate mass scales and supersymmetry breaking fed into the observable sector via a gaugino mass, either a spin-1/2 or a spin-0 D particle could be the lightest, and either could be as light as the present lower bound from e + e - experiments of about 20 GeV. The D particles could behave as leptoquarks coupling to quarks and leptons, in which case the single production process ep → D 0 (anti D 0 c )+X would occur, and D 0 (anti D 0 c ) → lq, D 1/2 → lq χ tilde decays would dominate, where χ tilde is the lightest supersymmetric particle. Alternatively, the D particles could behave as diquarks coupling to pairs of antiquarks, in which case the single production process anti pp → D 0 (anti D 0 c , anti D 0 , D 0 c )+X would occur, and D 0 (anti D 0 c ) → anti qanti q, D 0 c (anti D 0 ) → qq, D 1/2 → anti qanti q χ tilde decays would dominate. We present cross sections for ep → D 0 (anti D 0 c )+X, anti pp → D 0 (anti D 0 c , D 0 c , anti D 0 )+X, e + e - → D 0 anti D 0 (D 0 c anti D 0 c ) and D 1/2 anti D 1/2 , anti pp → D 0 anti D 0 (D 0 c anti D 0 c ) and D 1/2 anti D 1/2 +X. We calculate the experimental signals and estimate backgrounds for D production and decay in these processes. The decays D 0 (anti D 0 c ) → lq and D 1/2 → lq χ tilde or anti qanti q χ tilde would be detectable in most of these reactions, but D 0 (anti D 0 c ) → anti qanti q decays may only be detectable in e + e - → D 0 anti D 0 (D 0 c anti D 0 c ) collisions. (orig.)

  12. Variably hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segar, Simon Tristram; Volf, Martin; Isua, B.; Sisol, M.; Redmond, Conor; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Molem, K.; Dahl, Chris; Holloway, J. D.; Basset, Yves; Miller, S. E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Salminen, J.-P.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1866 (2017), č. článku 20171803. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-23862S; GA ČR GA15-24571S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0006 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * food webs * Geometridae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/284/1866/20171803.full.pdf

  13. Testing long-term memory in animal models of schizophrenia: suggestions from CNTRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Timothy J; Barch, Deanna M; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the results of discussions at the fourth meeting of Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) meeting, held over two days in Washington, DC in April 2011. The meeting focused on animal paradigms for assessing the cognitive constructs relevant to schizophrenia identified in previous CNTRICS meetings. This report focuses on the outcome of discussions in the general area of long-term memory. A number of candidate animal paradigms were discussed. Two of these - one for rodents and one for non-human primates - were recommended as particularly promising for further development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mathematical Models Suggest Facilitated Fatty Acids Crossing of the Luminal Membrane in the Cardiac Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Efrath

    2017-02-01

    Long-chain fatty acids cross a few membranes on their way from the capillary blood to the cardiomyocyte cytosol, where they are utilized as an essential source of energy. Details of the transport mechanism across those membranes remained elusive despite decades of laboratory and theoretical work. Here we inspect several optional scenarios for the crossing of the luminal membrane of the endothelial cell, the first barrier that should be crossed: a passive diffusion, facilitation by receptors for albumin and facilitation by fatty acids transporters. Related measured rate constants are incorporated in a theoretical simulation that is based on reaction-diffusion equations. Asymptotic analytical solutions for the resulting stiff boundary value problems are formulated based on singular perturbations theory. We conclude that a passive diffusion has to be supplemented with facilitation mechanisms in order to meet energy requirements. Binding sites for albumin, scattered on the membrane face, might enhance the flux provided that they internalize the captured fatty acids and speed up the dissociation of the albumin-fatty acids complex. As such enhancement is moderate, another mechanism seems to be essential for an adequate supply of fatty acids. Lack of experimental data prohibits us from computing the quantitative effect of membrane fatty acids transporters but their involvement in the membrane crossing is inferred.

  15. The Nature of Scatter at the DARHT Facility and Suggestions for Improved Modeling of DARHT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morneau, Rachel Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    This report describes the US Stockpile Stewardship Program which is meant to sustain and evaluate nuclear weapon stockpile with no underground nuclear tests. This research will focus on DARHT, the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility.

  16. The Structure of HIV-1 Rev Filaments Suggests a Bilateral Model for Rev-RRE Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattia, Michael A; Watts, Norman R; Cheng, Naiqian; Huang, Rick; Heymann, J Bernard; Grimes, Jonathan M; Wingfield, Paul T; Stuart, David I; Steven, Alasdair C

    2016-07-06

    HIV-1 Rev protein mediates the nuclear export of viral RNA genomes. To do so, Rev oligomerizes cooperatively onto an RNA motif, the Rev response element (RRE), forming a complex that engages with the host nuclear export machinery. To better understand Rev oligomerization, we determined four crystal structures of Rev N-terminal domain dimers, which show that they can pivot about their dyad axis, giving crossing angles of 90° to 140°. In parallel, we performed cryoelectron microscopy of helical Rev filaments. Filaments vary from 11 to 15 nm in width, reflecting variations in dimer crossing angle. These structures contain additional density, indicating that C-terminal domains become partially ordered in the context of filaments. This conformational variability may be exploited in the assembly of RRE/Rev complexes. Our data also revealed a third interface between Revs, which offers an explanation for how the arrangement of Rev subunits adapts to the "A"-shaped architecture of the RRE in export-active complexes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Taxes on cars and Gasoline to Control of Air Pollution: Suggested Models for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Nazrul Islam1,; Haradhan Kumar Mohajan; Joly Paul

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate some policies that would influence people to drive fewer miles and to buy smaller cars, better pollution control equipment, and cleaner fuel. An attempt has been made to quote the vehicle tax rates of Bangladesh. Introduction: Despite technological advances, the emissions of cars’ still can not be measured reliably enough to impose a Pigovian tax. Literature review: Literature review reveals that the gas tax depends on fuel type, engine size and po...

  18. Labeling of thymine with 99m technetium: a suggestion of a chemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, Bianca; Silva, Claudia Ribeiro da; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Ribeiro, Barbara Luzia Almeida; Mattos, Maura Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Successful targeting of diagnose but also to stage cancer. It has been shown that certain tumor cells are permeable to low level of exogenous adenosine-diphosphate and adenosine-triphosphate nucleotides, that are incorporated into intracellular pools. We present the labeling of a nucleotide precursor, a base, thymine technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (author)

  19. Labeling of thymine with {sup 99m} technetium: a suggestion of a chemical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca; Silva, Claudia Ribeiro da; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Ribeiro, Barbara Luzia Almeida [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Mattos, Maura Ferreira [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1996-03-01

    Successful targeting of diagnose but also to stage cancer. It has been shown that certain tumor cells are permeable to low level of exogenous adenosine-diphosphate and adenosine-triphosphate nucleotides, that are incorporated into intracellular pools. We present the labeling of a nucleotide precursor, a base, thymine technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc). (author)

  20. Directions in Geoheritage Studies: Suggestions from the Italian Geomorphological Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    More and more attention has been focused on geological and geomorphological heritage in the past years, leading to several researches in the framework of conservation projects, both at administrative and at scientific level, involving national and international research groups whose purposes are the promotion of Earth Sciences knowledge and the conservation of geological heritage. This paper presents an overview of research and conservation projects in Italy, mainly focused on the geomorphological heritage. Members of the AIGEO Working Group on geomorphosites and cultural landscape analyzed the historical development, methodological issues and main results of these research projects in order to identify possible innovation lines to improve the awareness and knowledge on geodiversity and geoheritage by a wide public, including education, tourism and conservation sectors. In Italy numerous projects of research have been realized with the main aim of geomorphosites inventory and the proposal of assessment methodologies, and so to the improvement and to the analysis of risks and impacts related to their fruition. At an international level, many Italian researchers have also been involved in studies carried out in the Working Group "Geomorphological sites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG). At a national level several research lines are under development, offering different responses to methodological issues within the general topic of geodiversity and geoheritage: Geosites inventories and assessment activities are performed with powerful digital techniques and new reference models: among these, the investigation on the ecologic support role for increasing geomorphosites global value and the elaboration of quantitative assessment methods of the scientific quality of Geomorphosites, carried out specifically for territorial planning. Improvements in field data collection and visual representation of landforms lead to new findings in

  1. A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

    2011-11-01

    Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

  2. Laval University and Lakehead University Experiments at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    are downloaded synchronously into two data- bases MySQL and ElasticSearch. We query Elas- ticSearch for candidate suggestions while get train- ing data...from MySQL for MySQL has a better API for data retrieving though ElasticSearch also has all the data we need. ` Then a trained regressor will... MySQL and Elas- ticSearch as the crawler push data to the two sim- ultaneously. ` V. ONLINE RANKING MODEL A. Modeling of User Profile While

  3. Obesity and symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Kislov, Julia; Dickman, Ram; Wainstein, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Associated with neuropathy, symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and include nausea, vomiting, bloating and early satiety. Gastric motor abnormalities have been reported in obese patients, and obesity is associated with T2DM. An association between obesity and gastroparesis symptoms in diabetic patients with neuropathy has not been investigated. In this nested case-control study, 161 patients with neuropathy were identified from within a cross-sectional survey of 380 T2DM patients. Of these, 134 (83.2%, "cases") had at least one cardinal symptom suggestive of gastroparesis. The remaining symptom-free subjects served as controls. Logistic and general linear modeling was used to assess associations between obesity and the presence and number of symptoms. Subjects were 66.6±10 years of age. Cases were significantly more likely than controls to be obese (89% vs. 77%, P=.04), female (55.6% vs. 33.3%) and hypertensive (90.2% vs. 63%, P=.001) and to report adherence to diet (87.4% vs. 66.7%, P=.007). In a logistic regression model including sex, hypertension, antiaggregant therapy, adherence to diet therapy and an obesity-by-sex interaction term, obesity emerged as a significant independent predictor of any cardinal symptom suggestive of gastroparesis (odds ratio 9.86, 95% confidence interval 1.4-69.2, P=.02). Obesity was also identified as a significant independent predictor of number of cardinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis in the general linear model. Obese subjects reported significantly more early satiety (61.5% vs. 35.2%, P=.001), fullness (63.7% vs. 40.8%, P=.004), bloating (70.3% vs. 49.3%, P=.006) and abdominal distention (71.4 vs. 50.7%, P=.007) than nonobese subjects. Further, obese subjects reported more cardinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis symptoms (4.2±2.4 vs. 3.1±2.5, P=.01). Obesity emerged as a significant independent predictor of cardinal symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis

  4. Evidence suggests rigid aortic grafts increase systolic blood pressure: results of a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T; Morris, L; McGloughlin, T

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a serious complication of the aorta and is treated using vascular bypass grafts. Two main classes of graft are available to treat AAA; grafts implanted by open surgery and stent-grafts implanted using minimally invasive endovascular techniques. Both classes of graft consist of an aortic section which bifurcates into two iliac sections. It has been hypothesized that implantation of aortic grafts and stent-grafts serve to significantly increase abdominal aortic pressures. In this study, an open-loop computer-controlled pumping system was built to produce physiologically realistic pressure and flow-rates. Models of a compliant abdominal aortic aneurysm, a compliant walled graft and a tapered graft were manufactured using an injection moulding technique and fused deposition modelling was used to create a rigid walled graft. A specific transient flow-rate waveform was then applied at the inlet of each model and the resulting pressure waveforms 30 mm upstream from the bifurcation was recorded. Peak pressure measurements were recorded over the course of the pulse for each model. The compliant aneurysm model was found to have a systolic pressure of 107 mmHg while the complaint graft model was 153 mmHg. The rigid graft model had a peak systolic pressure of 199 mmHg. In the tapered graft, the peak pressure dropped to 142 mmHg. The data suggests that implanting a graft model in place of an aneurysm model in an in vitro flow circuit can increase the pressures recorded upstream from the iliac bifurcation and that tapered grafts may alleviate this problem.

  5. A critical review of "Internet addiction" criteria with suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Antonius J; Prause, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Three popular models of IA were discussed: Griffith’s components model; Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT); and the criteria by Tao et al. (2010). We selected these models because they are widely cited and propose specific criteria for IA disorder. Our approach is not meant to provide an exhaustive review, but to discuss and critique the most salient trends in the field. The models of Internet addiction share some criteria, including feeling a loss of control over Internet use; ensuing psychological, social, or professional conflict or problems; and preoccupation when not using the Internet. Other criteria inconsistently mentioned include: mood management, tolerance, withdrawal, and craving/anticipation. The models studied here share the assumption that the Internet can produce a qualitative shift to a diseased state in humans. We critically discussed the above criteria and concluded that the evidence base is currently not strong enough to provide support for an Internet addiction disorder. Future research areas are suggested: (1) Focusing on common impaired dimensions, (2) exploring neuroimaging as a model building tool, and (3) identifying shifts in the rewarding aspects of Internet use. Given the lack of consensus on the subject of Internet addiction, a focus on problem behaviors appears warranted.

  6. A critical review of “Internet addiction” criteria with suggestions for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN ROOIJ, ANTONIUS J.; PRAUSE, NICOLE

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Methods: Three popular models of IA were discussed: Griffith’s components model; Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT); and the criteria by Tao et al. (2010). We selected these models because they are widely cited and propose specific criteria for IA disorder. Our approach is not meant to provide an exhaustive review, but to discuss and critique the most salient trends in the field. Results: The models of Internet addiction share some criteria, including feeling a loss of control over Internet use; ensuing psychological, social, or professional conflict or problems; and preoccupation when not using the Internet. Other criteria inconsistently mentioned include: mood management, tolerance, withdrawal, and craving/anticipation. The models studied here share the assumption that the Internet can produce a qualitative shift to a diseased state in humans. Conclusions: We critically discussed the above criteria and concluded that the evidence base is currently not strong enough to provide support for an Internet addiction disorder. Future research areas are suggested: (1) Focusing on common impaired dimensions, (2) exploring neuroimaging as a model building tool, and (3) identifying shifts in the rewarding aspects of Internet use. Given the lack of consensus on the subject of Internet addiction, a focus on problem behaviors appears warranted. PMID:25592305

  7. Off-fault seismicity suggests creep below 10 km on the northern San Jacinto Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.; Beyer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Within the San Bernardino basin, CA, south of the juncture of the San Jacinto (SJF) and San Andreas faults (SAF), focal mechanisms show normal slip events that are inconsistent with the interseismic strike-slip loading of the region. High-quality (nodal plane uncertainty faults [Anderson et al., 2004]. However, the loading of these normal slip events remains enigmatic because the region is expected to have dextral loading between large earthquake events. These enigmatic normal slip events may be loaded by deep (> 10 km depth) spatially creep along the northern SJF. Steady state models show that over many earthquake cycles, the dextral slip rate on the northern SJF increases southward, placing the San Bernardino basin in extension. In the absence of recent large seismic events that could produce off-fault normal focal mechanisms in the San Bernardino basin, non-uniform deep aseismic slip on the SJF could account for this seismicity. We develop interseismic models that incorporate spatially non-uniform creep below 10 km on the SJF based on steady-state slip distribution. These model results match the pattern of deep normal slip events within the San Bernardino basin. Such deep creep on the SJF may not be detectable from the geodetic signal due to the close proximity of the SAF, whose lack of seismicity suggests that it is locked to 20 km. Interseismic models with 15 km locking depth on both faults are indistinguishable from models with 10 km locking depth on the SJF and 20 km locking depth on the SAF. This analysis suggests that the microseismicity in our multi-decadal catalog may record both the interseismic dextral loading of the region as well as off-fault deformation associated with deep aseismic creep on the northern SJF. If the enigmatic normal slip events of the San Bernardino basin are included in stress inversions from the seismic catalog used to assess seismic hazard, the results may provide inaccurate information about fault loading in this region.

  8. Issues of informed consent for intrapartum trials: a suggested consent pathway from the experience of the Release trial [ISRCTN13204258

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Andrew

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Service users within the NHS are increasingly being asked to participate in clinical research. In Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust, approximately 35% of women take part in research during their pregnancy. For many studies the consent process is simple; information is provided and signed consent is given. There is a difficulty, however, with obtaining informed consent from women in pregnancy who become eligible only when they develop unforeseen complications, especially when they occur acutely. The problem is compounded with women in labour who may be frightened, vulnerable, in pain, under the effect of opiate analgesia, or all of the above. If research to improve the care of these women is to continue, then special consent procedures are needed. These procedures must ensure that the woman's autonomy is protected whilst recognising that women under these circumstances vary enormously, both in their desire for information and their ability to comprehend it. This paper will discuss the obtaining of consent in this situation, and describe an information and consent pathway for intrapartum research which has been developed in collaboration with consumer groups as a way in which these issues can be tackled.

  9. A unified continental thickness from seismology and diamonds suggests a melt-defined plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharimena, Saikiran; Rychert, Catherine; Harmon, Nicholas

    2017-08-11

    Thick, rigid continents move over the weaker underlying mantle, although geophysical and geochemical constraints on the exact thickness and defining mechanism of the continental plates are widely discrepant. Xenoliths suggest a chemical continental lithosphere ~175 kilometers thick, whereas seismic tomography supports a much thicker root (>250 kilometers) and a gradual lithosphere-asthenosphere transition, consistent with a thermal definition. We modeled SS precursor waveforms from continental interiors and found a 7 to 9% velocity drop at depths of 130 to 190 kilometers. The discontinuity depth is well correlated with the origin depths of diamond-bearing xenoliths and corresponds to the transition from coarse to deformed xenoliths. At this depth, the xenolith-derived geotherm also intersects the carbonate-silicate solidus, suggesting that partial melt defines the plate boundaries beneath the continental interior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status...... of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest......In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been...

  11. Application of a mathematical model for the minimization of costs in a micro-company of the graphic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management, postponement and demand management are one of the operations of strategic importance for the economic success of organizations, in times of economic crisis or not. The objective of this article is to analyze the influence that a mathematical model focused on the management of raw material stocks in a microenterprise with seasonal demand. The research method adopted was of an applied nature, with a quantitative approach and with an exploratory and descriptive objective. The technical procedures adopted were the bibliographical survey, documentary analysis and mathematical modeling. The development of mathematical models for solving inventory management problems may allow managers to observe deviations in trading methods, as well as to support rapid decisions for possible unforeseen market or economic variability.

  12. Expectations, employment and prices: A suggested interpretation of the new ‘Farmerian’ economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a critical assessment of the new ‘Farmerian’ economics, i.e. the recent Farmer’s attempt to provide a new microfoundation of the General Theory grounded on modern search and business cycle theories. Specifically, I develop a theoretical model that summarizes the main arguments of the suggested approach by showing that a special importance has to be attached to the search mechanism, the choice of units and ‘animal spirits’ modelling. Thereafter, referring to selfmade real-business-cycle experiments, I discuss the main empirical implications of the resulting framework. Finally, I consider its policy implications by stressing the problematic nature of demand management interventions and the advisability of extending the role of the central bank in preventing financial bubbles and crashes.

  13. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.

  14. Genomic and experimental evidence suggests that Verrucomicrobium spinosum interacts with eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eSait

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of pathogens and symbionts is heavily biased towards phyla containing species that are straightforward to isolate in pure culture. Novel bacterial phyla are often represented by a handful of strains, and the number of species interacting with eukaryotes is likely underestimated. Identification of predicted pathogenesis and symbiosis determinants such as the Type III Secretion System (T3SS in the genomes of ‘free-living’ bacteria suggests that these microbes participate in uncharacterized interactions with eukaryotes. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis on Verrucomicrobium spinosum (phylum Verrucomicrobia and to begin characterization of its predicted T3SS. We showed the putative T3SS structural genes to be transcriptionally active, and that expression of predicted effector proteins was toxic to yeast in an established functional screen. Our results suggest that the predicted T3SS genes of V. spinosum could encode a functional T3SS, although further work is needed to determine whether V. spinosum produces a T3SS injectisome that delivers the predicted effectors. In the absence of a known eukaryotic host, we made use of invertebrate infection models. The injection or feeding of V. spinosum to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabiditis elegans, respectively, was shown to result in increased mortality rates relative to controls, a phenomenon exaggerated in C. elegans mutants hypersensitive to pathogen infection. This finding, although not conclusively demonstrating pathogenesis, suggests that V. spinosum is capable of pathogenic activity towards an invertebrate host. Symbiotic interactions with a natural host provide an alternative explanation for the results seen in the invertebrate models. Further work is needed to determine whether V. spinosum can establish and maintain interactions with eukaryotic species found in its natural habitat, and whether the predicted T3SS is directly involved in pathogenic or symbiotic activity.

  15. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Christian; Miccichè, Salvatore; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2017-01-01

    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i) in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii) in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  16. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bongiorno

    Full Text Available We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  17. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  18. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  19. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by 36Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, R G; Bonotto, D M

    2008-08-01

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km2 in the Paraná sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first 36Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) 36Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old (36Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process.

  20. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by 36Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Bonotto, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km 2 in the Parana sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first 36 Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) 36 Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old ( 36 Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process

  1. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by {sup 36}Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R.G. [CSIRO Land and Water, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)], E-mail: richard.cresswell@csiro.au; Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br

    2008-08-15

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km{sup 2} in the Parana sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first {sup 36}Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) {sup 36}Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old ({sup 36}Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process.

  2. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012 given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1 The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, 2 Contrary to Parris et al., an effect of the suggestion was observed in µ when RSI was 3500ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012 supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  3. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A.; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012) given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI) was 500 ms but not when it was 3500 ms. Analysis revealed that: (1) The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in μ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, (2) Contrary to Parris et al. an effect of the suggestion was observed in μ when RSI was 3500 ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012) supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively. PMID:24065947

  4. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012) given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI) was 500 ms but not when it was 3500 ms. Analysis revealed that: (1) The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in μ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, (2) Contrary to Parris et al. an effect of the suggestion was observed in μ when RSI was 3500 ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012) supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  5. Expect the unexpected: place-based protections can lead to unforeseen benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Daniel L. Bottom; Karen L. Haberman; Ken F. Bierly; Kim K. Jones; Charles A. Simenstad; Ayesha Gray; Kami S. Ellingson; Erin Baumgartner; Trevan J. Cornwell; Lance A. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    1. Protection of places important for aesthetic, ecological, and cultural values has been a goal of conservationists for over 150 years. Cornerstones of place-based conservation include legal designations, international agreements, and purchase by public or non-profit organizations.2. In the Salmon River catchment, Oregon, protections were initially...

  6. Unforeseen high temperature and humidity stability of FeCl3 intercalated few layer graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehenkel, Dominique Joseph; Bointon, Thomas Hardisty; Booth, Tim

    2015-01-01

    microscopy and Raman spectroscopy conclusively demonstrate the unforseen stability of this transparent conductor to a relative humidity up to 100% at room temperature for 25 days, to a temperature up to 150 degrees C in atmosphere and to a temperature as high as 620 degrees C in vacuum, that is more than......We present the first systematic study of the stability of the structure and electrical properties of FeCl3 intercalated few-layer graphene to high levels of humidity and high temperature. Complementary experimental techniques such as electrical transport, high resolution transmission electron...

  7. The curious case of Neotroglocarcinus dawydoffi (Decapoda, Cryptochiridae): unforeseen biogeographic patterns resulting from isolation

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E.T.

    2014-09-09

    © 2014 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. Coral gall crabs form a commonly overlooked component of the associated fauna of shallow-water reef corals and therefore little is known about their ecology and biogeography. This study investigated the biogeography and phylogenetic position of the informal Detocarcini species group within the Cryptochiridae. We used molecular data for two mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S) obtained from gall crabs covering (part of) a wide geographic range: the Red Sea, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Caledonia. Our phylogeny reconstructions portrayed the Detocarcini as paraphyletic within the monophyletic Cryptochiridae. A phylogeographic clustering was noticed in Neotroglocarcinus dawydoffi that was absent in its sister species, N. hongkongensis, and the closely related species Pseudocryptochirus viridis. A Neighbour Network was estimated for the N. dawydoffi dataset to visualize the similarity between sequences from different biogeographic areas, resulting in three groupings: (1) New Caledonia with Lembeh/Ternate (eastern Indonesia), (2) Semporna/Kudat (eastern Malaysia), and (3) Red Sea (Saudi Arabia). Cryptic speciation rather than isolation is discussed and rejected as an alternative explanation for the observed biogeographic pattern.

  8. Fostering Persistence: 3D Printing and the Unforeseen Impact on Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Daniel L.; Dominguez, Victoria S.

    2017-01-01

    Teaching persistence and problem solving must begin with selecting a problem that can be solved mathematically, that allows for multiple methods of solving, and that generally captures the attention and curiosity of the student (Marcus and Fey 2003; NCTM 1991; Van de Walle 2003). This article shows how a STEM three-dimensional (3D) printing…

  9. Unforeseen effects of supplementary feeding: ungulate baiting sites as hotspots for ground-nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Selva

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains. We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N=120 in feeding and control sites (N=12 at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%± 31.5 vs 35%± 32.1. The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5 of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group. Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision.

  10. Overprotection and lowered expectations of persons with disabilities: the unforeseen consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Karen Y

    2006-01-01

    Lowered expectations and overprotection of the individual with a disability can cause lowered self esteem which can result in a life time of underachievement and failure to reach their full potential. Both lowered expectations and overprotection are forms of discrimination. Internalization of discrimination causes the person with a disability to believe that they are less capable than a person without a disability. Parents and care providers of children with disabilities may overprotect the child to shield them from harm; however this can actually cause more damage. Successful parenting skills are required to help children and adolescents develop a positive self concept and high self esteem. Guidelines have been developed to assist parents, educators and other professionals regarding the effects of overprotection and lowered expectations.

  11. An unforeseen tragedy. The battle widens against the water crisis in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even at different depths can be safe. Arsenic is a natural element. It is also a poison. Only about 125 grams is enough to kill a person in a single dose. Arsenic is also extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter (the standard set by the World Health Organization, or WHO) over an extended period of time. It takes anywhere between 2 to 14 years for arsenicosis to develop. The problem of high levels of arsenic in numerous shallow and deep wells was first detected in Bangladesh in 1993, and was subsequently confirmed after 1995. Arsenic poisoning is difficult to detect because there is a lack of capacity and tools to diagnose it. Furthermore, only a minority of those suffering from arsenicosis can be easily identified from their skin condition. Thus, the majority of arsenicosis cases have gone undetected. To date, several thousands of patients with arsenic-related skin disease have been found in the first surveys. Available data on arsenic-related mortality is scarce, but dozens of deaths due to arsenic-induced skin cancer have been reported in the past few years. Because the majority of the country's tube wells were installed in the past two decades, it is likely that many more people will start developing symptoms in the next few years. The search for alternative and safe sources of drinking water intensified in the wake of the arsenic crisis. Through IAEA-supported projects in the field of isotope hydrology, scientific criteria have been developed to assess the safety of deep groundwater sources. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project in Bangladesh, work continues to provide strategic information to the World Bank and the government's arsenic mitigation programme, through isotopic analyses of groundwater in selected areas of the country

  12. Intestinal strongyloidiasis in a psoriatic patient following immunosuppressive therapy: Seeing the unforeseen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poongodi Lakshmi Santhana Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis , an intestinal nematode, has a complicated life cycle. Mostly asymptomatic, if symptomatic it has nonspecific, transient clinical manifestations. The two aggressive forms of the disease are: Hyperinfection syndrome (HS or disseminated syndrome (DS. Several risk factors have been associated with strongyloidiasis including immunosuppressive therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, diabetes, alcoholism, tuberculosis, impaired bowel motility, surgically created intestinal blind loops, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal failure. We describe a case of intestinal strongyloidiasis in a psoriatic patient treated with immunosuppressive therapy.

  13. Unforeseen Outcomes: Does Poorly-Resourced Literacy Tutoring Reinforce Apprentices--Low Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligo, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges faced by tutors who were providing remedial literacy support to New Zealand apprentices. Design/methodology/approach: As part of a wider, triangulated study of employers, tutors, apprentices, and industry training coordinators, the author undertook a qualitative analysis of ten…

  14. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback: Level of evidence in mental and brain disorders and suggestions for good clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; McGonigal, A; Lopez, R; Daudet, C; Kotwas, I; Bartolomei, F

    2015-12-01

    The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique. Firstly, this article investigates selected trials with the following criteria: study design with controlled, randomized, and open or blind protocol, primary endpoint related to the mental and brain disorders treated and assessed with standardized measurement tools, identifiable EEG neurophysiological targets, underpinned by pathophysiological relevance. Trials were found for: epilepsies, migraine, stroke, chronic insomnia, attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders, psychotic disorders. Secondly, this article investigates the principles of neurofeedback therapy in line with learning theory. Different underlying therapeutic models are presented didactically between two continua: a continuum between implicit and explicit learning and a continuum between the biomedical model (centred on "the disease") and integrative biopsychosocial model of health (centred on "the illness"). The main relevant learning model is to link neurofeedback therapy with the field of cognitive remediation techniques. The methodological specificity of neurofeedback is to be guided by biologically relevant neurophysiological parameters. Guidelines for good clinical practice of EEG NF concerning technical issues of electrophysiology and of learning are suggested. These require validation by

  15. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that diversification and body size evolution are independent in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainford, James L; Hofreiter, Michael; Mayhew, Peter J

    2016-01-08

    Skewed body size distributions and the high relative richness of small-bodied taxa are a fundamental property of a wide range of animal clades. The evolutionary processes responsible for generating these distributions are well described in vertebrate model systems but have yet to be explored in detail for other major terrestrial clades. In this study, we explore the macro-evolutionary patterns of body size variation across families of Hexapoda (insects and their close relatives), using recent advances in phylogenetic understanding, with an aim to investigate the link between size and diversity within this ancient and highly diverse lineage. The maximum, minimum and mean-log body lengths of hexapod families are all approximately log-normally distributed, consistent with previous studies at lower taxonomic levels, and contrasting with skewed distributions typical of vertebrate groups. After taking phylogeny and within-tip variation into account, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between diversification rate and body size, suggesting decoupling of the forces controlling these two traits. Likelihood-based modeling of the log-mean body size identifies distinct processes operating within Holometabola and Diptera compared with other hexapod groups, consistent with accelerating rates of size evolution within these clades, while as a whole, hexapod body size evolution is found to be dominated by neutral processes including significant phylogenetic conservatism. Based on our findings we suggest that the use of models derived from well-studied but atypical clades, such as vertebrates may lead to misleading conclusions when applied to other major terrestrial lineages. Our results indicate that within hexapods, and within the limits of current systematic and phylogenetic knowledge, insect diversification is generally unfettered by size-biased macro-evolutionary processes, and that these processes over large timescales tend to converge on apparently neutral

  16. LESPRO - an expert system for the decision support in determination and suggestion of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunova, J.; Duranova, T.; Hatar, E.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype expert system for advising emergency procedures for nuclear regulatory authority has been developed. The expert system ESPRO is known as goal oriented rule-based knowledge system. The system is based on emergency procedures developed in VUJE Trnava, Inc. for use by the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). The operation interpretation module uses the knowledge base of emergency procedures for the evaluation of source term and determination and suggestion of protective measures which is represented in the form of a Petri net model. Its verification and validation was done on the basis of the results of two exercises: joint exercise of ERC staff with Slovak Army Headquarters and full scale Mochovce NPP emergency exercise with use of the Mochovce NPP simulator. (author)

  17. Persistent scarring and dilated cardiomyopathy suggest incomplete regeneration of the apex resected neonatal mouse myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Heart damage in mammals is generally considered to result in scar formation, whereas zebrafish completely regenerate their hearts following an intermediate and reversible state of fibrosis after apex resection (AR). Recently, using the AR procedure, one-day-old mice were suggested to have full...... capacity for cardiac regeneration as well. In contrast, using the same mouse model others have shown that the regeneration process is incomplete and that scarring still remains 21days after AR. The present study tested the hypothesis that like in zebrafish, fibrosis in neonatal mammals could...... be an intermediate response before the onset of complete heart regeneration. Myocardial damage was performed by AR in postnatal day 1 C57BL/6 mice, and myocardial function and scarring assessed at day 180 using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and histology, respectively. AR mice...

  18. Several Conventional Risk Markers Suggesting Presence of Albuminuria Are Weak Among Rural Africans With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Christensen, Dirk L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate risk markers indicating the presence of albuminuria in patients with hypertension in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Urine albumin-creatinine ratio, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), blood pressure, anthropometry, and other patient characteristics including medications were assessed. We identified 160 patients with hypertension, of whom 68 (42.5%) were co-diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). Among the included participants, 57 (35.6%) had albuminuria (microalbuminuria [n=43] and macroalbuminuria [n=14]). A backward multivariate logistic regression model identified age (per 10-year increment) (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.95), HbA1c >53 compared with albuminuria. Only dysregulated DM and age were the conventional risk markers that seemed to suggest albuminuria among patients with hypertension in rural SSA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Antarctic lakes suggest millennial reorganizations of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brenda L; Denton, George H; Fountain, Andrew G; Hendy, Chris H; Henderson, Gideon M

    2010-12-14

    The phasing of millennial-scale oscillations in Antarctica relative to those elsewhere in the world is important for discriminating among models for abrupt climate change, particularly those involving the Southern Ocean. However, records of millennial-scale variability from Antarctica dating to the last glacial maximum are rare and rely heavily on data from widely spaced ice cores, some of which show little variability through that time. Here, we present new data from closed-basin lakes in the Dry Valleys region of East Antarctica that show high-magnitude, high-frequency oscillations in surface level during the late Pleistocene synchronous with climate fluctuations elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere. These data suggest a coherent Southern Hemisphere pattern of climate change on millennial time scales, at least in the Pacific sector, and indicate that any hypothesis concerning the origin of these events must account for synchronous changes in both high and temperate latitudes.

  20. Expression and knockdown of zebrafish folliculin suggests requirement for embryonic brain morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Emma J; Luijten, Monique N H; Gill, Harmeet; Li, Nan; Rawlings, Matthew; Bull, James C; Hadzhiev, Yavor; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Maher, Eamonn; Mueller, Ferenc

    2016-07-08

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. BHD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Folliculin (FLCN). Little is known about what FLCN does in a healthy individual and how best to treat those with BHD. As a first approach to developing a vertebrate model for BHD we aimed to identify the temporal and spatial expression of flcn transcripts in the developing zebrafish embryo. To gain insights into the function of flcn in a whole organism system we generated a loss of function model of flcn by the use of morpholino knockdown in zebrafish. flcn is expressed broadly and upregulated in the fin bud, somites, eye and proliferative regions of the brain of the Long-pec stage zebrafish embryos. Together with knockdown phenotypes, expression analysis suggest involvement of flcn in zebrafish embryonic brain development. We have utilised the zFucci system, an in vivo, whole organism cell cycle assay to study the potential role of flcn in brain development. We found that at the 18 somite stage there was a significant drop in cells in the S-M phase of the cell cycle in flcn morpholino injected embryos with a corresponding increase of cells in the G1 phase. This was particularly evident in the brain, retina and somites of the embryo. Timelapse analysis of the head region of flcn morpholino injected and mismatch control embryos shows the temporal dynamics of cell cycle misregulation during development. In conclusion we show that zebrafish flcn is expressed in a non-uniform manner and is likely required for the maintenance of correct cell cycle regulation during embryonic development. We demonstrate the utilisation of the zFucci system in testing the role of flcn in cell proliferation and suggest a function for flcn in regulating cell proliferation in vertebrate embryonic

  1. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  2. Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situdisease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation. Using a large-scale historic dataset, we explored several potential factors influencing disease dynamics in the boreal toad-Bd system: geographic isolation of populations, amphibian community richness, elevational differences, and habitat permanence. We found evidence that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be sub-optimal for Bd growth and where small boreal toad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission. In addition, boreal toads were more likely to recolonize high elevation sites after local extinction, again suggesting that high elevations may provide refuge from disease for boreal toads. We illustrate a modeling framework that will be useful to natural resource managers striving to make decisions in amphibian-Bdsystems. Our data suggest that in the southern Rocky Mountains high elevation sites should be prioritized for conservation initiatives like reintroductions.

  3. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  4. Striatal proteomic analysis suggests that first L-dopa dose equates to chronic exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Scholz

    Full Text Available L-3,4-dihydroxypheylalanine (L-dopa-induced dyskinesia represent a debilitating complication of therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD that result from a progressive sensitization through repeated L-dopa exposures. The MPTP macaque model was used to study the proteome in dopamine-depleted striatum with and without subsequent acute and chronic L-dopa treatment using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. The present data suggest that the dopamine-depleted striatum is so sensitive to de novo L-dopa treatment that the first ever administration alone would be able (i to induce rapid post-translational modification-based proteomic changes that are specific to this first exposure and (ii, possibly, lead to irreversible protein level changes that would be not further modified by chronic L-dopa treatment. The apparent equivalence between first and chronic L-dopa administration suggests that priming would be the direct consequence of dopamine loss, the first L-dopa administrations only exacerbating the sensitization process but not inducing it.

  5. Phylogeny suggests nondirectional and isometric evolution of sexual size dimorphism in argiopine spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism describes substantial differences between male and female phenotypes. In spiders, sexual dimorphism research almost exclusively focuses on size, and recent studies have recovered steady evolutionary size increases in females, and independent evolutionary size changes in males. Their discordance is due to negative allometric size patterns caused by different selection pressures on male and female sizes (converse Rensch's rule). Here, we investigated macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Argiopinae, a global lineage of orb-weaving spiders with varying degrees of SSD. We devised a Bayesian and maximum-likelihood molecular species-level phylogeny, and then used it to reconstruct sex-specific size evolution, to examine general hypotheses and different models of size evolution, to test for sexual size coevolution, and to examine allometric patterns of SSD. Our results, revealing ancestral moderate sizes and SSD, failed to reject the Brownian motion model, which suggests a nondirectional size evolution. Contrary to predictions, male and female sizes were phylogenetically correlated, and SSD evolution was isometric. We interpret these results to question the classical explanations of female-biased SSD via fecundity, gravity, and differential mortality. In argiopines, SSD evolution may be driven by these or additional selection mechanisms, but perhaps at different phylogenetic scales. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  7. Profumo di SUSY: Suggestive Correlations in the ATLAS and CMS High Jet Multiplicity Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Walker, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    We present persistently amassing evidence that the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations may indeed be already registering supersymmetry events at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Our analysis is performed in the context of a highly phenomenologically favorable model named No-Scale F-SU(5), which represents the unification of the F-lipped SU(5) Grand Unified Theory (GUT), two pairs of hypothetical TeV-scale vector-like supersymmetric multiplets derived out of F-Theory, and the dynamically established boundary conditions of No-Scale supergravity. We document highly suggestive correlations between the first inverse femtobarn of observations by CMS and ATLAS, where seductive excesses in multijet events, particularly those with nine or more jets, are unambiguously accounted for by a precision Monte-Carlo simulation of the F-SU(5) model space. This intimate correspondence is optimized by a unified gaugino mass in the neighborhood of M_{1/2}=518 GeV. We supplement this analysis by extrapolating for the expected data profile...

  8. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  9. Why we need to find time for digital humanities: presenting a new partnership model at the University of Sussex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Harvell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that academic libraries should develop and nurture strong, mutually beneficial relationships with researchers in digital humanities, the authors believe it is strategically important to invest time and resources exploring ideas and partnering with academic colleagues on projects. This approach can provide many unforeseen benefits to both the Library service and to the workforce. The article is based on our experience as Core Associates of the Sussex Humanities Lab at the University of Sussex. It outlines the impact this collaboration has had, including influencing working practices and culture within the Library, involvement in research bids, informing the development of new services, and addressing library questions using digital humanities methods. Most importantly, it exemplifies a new model of the librarian as equal partner in the research process.

  10. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients' beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41-88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for people presenting with symptoms suggestive

  11. Molecular phenotypes in triple negative breast cancer from African American patients suggest targets for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Robert; Sullivan, Catherine; Offor, Onyinye; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Halligan, Kyle; Fischbach, Neal; Shah, Mansi; Bossuyt, Veerle; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David P; Harris, Lyndsay N

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by high proliferation, poor differentiation and a poor prognosis due to high rates of recurrence. Despite lower overall incidence African American (AA) patients suffer from higher breast cancer mortality in part due to the higher proportion of TNBC cases among AA patients compared to European Americans (EA). It was recently shown that the clinical heterogeneity of TNBC is reflected by distinct transcriptional programs with distinct drug response profiles in preclinical models. In this study, gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate potential differences between TNBC tumors of EA and AA patients on a molecular level. In a retrospective cohort of 136 TNBC patients, a major transcriptional signature of proliferation was found to be significantly upregulated in samples of AA ethnicity. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles of AA tumors showed differential activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and a signature of BRCA1 deficiency in this cohort. Using signatures derived from the meta-analysis of TNBC gene expression carried out by Lehmann et al., tumors from AA patients were more likely of basal-like subtypes whereas transcriptional features of many EA samples corresponded to mesenchymal-like or luminal androgen receptor driven subtypes. These results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA and protein expression data, again showing enrichment of a basal-like phenotype in AA tumors and mesenchymal subtypes in EA tumors. In addition, increased expression of VEGF-activated genes together with elevated microvessel area determined by the AQUA method suggest that AA patients exhibit higher tumor vascularization. This study confirms the existence of distinct transcriptional programs in triple negative breast cancer in two separate cohorts and that these programs differ by racial group. Differences in TNBC subtypes and levels of tumor angiogenesis in AA versus EA patients

  12. Molecular phenotypes in triple negative breast cancer from African American patients suggest targets for therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindner

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is characterized by high proliferation, poor differentiation and a poor prognosis due to high rates of recurrence. Despite lower overall incidence African American (AA patients suffer from higher breast cancer mortality in part due to the higher proportion of TNBC cases among AA patients compared to European Americans (EA. It was recently shown that the clinical heterogeneity of TNBC is reflected by distinct transcriptional programs with distinct drug response profiles in preclinical models. In this study, gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate potential differences between TNBC tumors of EA and AA patients on a molecular level. In a retrospective cohort of 136 TNBC patients, a major transcriptional signature of proliferation was found to be significantly upregulated in samples of AA ethnicity. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles of AA tumors showed differential activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 and a signature of BRCA1 deficiency in this cohort. Using signatures derived from the meta-analysis of TNBC gene expression carried out by Lehmann et al., tumors from AA patients were more likely of basal-like subtypes whereas transcriptional features of many EA samples corresponded to mesenchymal-like or luminal androgen receptor driven subtypes. These results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA and protein expression data, again showing enrichment of a basal-like phenotype in AA tumors and mesenchymal subtypes in EA tumors. In addition, increased expression of VEGF-activated genes together with elevated microvessel area determined by the AQUA method suggest that AA patients exhibit higher tumor vascularization. This study confirms the existence of distinct transcriptional programs in triple negative breast cancer in two separate cohorts and that these programs differ by racial group. Differences in TNBC subtypes and levels of tumor angiogenesis in AA

  13. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. Results 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41–88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for

  14. Integrative genetic analysis suggests that skin color modifies the genetic architecture of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulur, Imge; Skol, Andrew D; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Onel, Kenan

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and presents a significant health care burden in many countries. In addition to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, the main causal factor for melanoma, genetic factors also play an important role in melanoma susceptibility. Although genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with melanoma, little is known about the proportion of disease risk attributable to these loci and their distribution throughout the genome. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of melanoma in 1,888 cases and 990 controls of European non-Hispanic ancestry. We estimated the overall narrow-sense heritability of melanoma to be 0.18 (P < 0.03), indicating that genetics contributes significantly to the risk of sporadically-occurring melanoma. We then demonstrated that only a small proportion of this risk is attributable to known risk variants, suggesting that much remains unknown of the role of genetics in melanoma. To investigate further the genetic architecture of melanoma, we partitioned the heritability by chromosome, minor allele frequency, and functional annotations. We showed that common genetic variation contributes significantly to melanoma risk, with a risk model defined by a handful of genomic regions rather than many risk loci distributed throughout the genome. We also demonstrated that variants affecting gene expression in skin account for a significant proportion of the heritability, and are enriched among melanoma risk loci. Finally, by incorporating skin color into our analyses, we observed both a shift in significance for melanoma-associated loci and an enrichment of expression quantitative trait loci among melanoma susceptibility variants. These findings suggest that skin color may be an important modifier of melanoma risk. We speculate that incorporating skin color and other non-genetic factors into genetic studies may allow for an improved understanding of melanoma

  15. Human allometry: adult bodies are more nearly geometrically similar than regression analysis has suggested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Richard F

    2010-01-01

    It is almost a matter of dogma that human body mass in adults tends to vary roughly in proportion to the square of height (stature), as Quetelet stated in 1835. As he realised, perfect isometry or geometric similarity requires that body mass varies with height cubed, so there seems to be a trend for tall adults to be relatively much lighter than short ones. Much evidence regarding component tissues and organs seems to accord with this idea. However, the hypothesis is presented that the proportions of the body are actually very much less size-dependent. Past evidence has mostly been obtained by least-squares regression analysis, but this cannot generally give a true picture of the allometric relationships. This is because there is considerable scatter in the data (leading to a low correlation between mass and height) and because neither variable causally determines the other. The relevant regression equations, though often formulated in logarithmic terms, effectively treat the masses as proportional to (body height)(b). Values of b estimated by regression must usually underestimate the true functional values, doing so especially when mass and height are poorly correlated. It is therefore telling support for the hypothesis that published estimates of b both for the whole body (which range between 1.0 and 2.5) and for its component tissues and organs (which vary even more) correlate with the corresponding correlation coefficients for mass and height. There is no simple statistical technique for establishing the true functional relationships, but Monte Carlo modelling has shown that the results obtained for total body mass are compatible with a true height exponent of three. Other data, on relationships between body mass and the girths of various body parts such as the thigh and chest, are also more consistent with isometry than regression analysis has suggested. This too is demonstrated by modelling. It thus seems that much of anthropometry needs to be re

  16. Professional Problems Experienced by Information Technology Teachers and Suggested Solutions: Longitudinal Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Keser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the opinions of teacher candidates in the fourth year of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies department (CEIT on the Problems Experienced by Information Technology (IT Teachers and Suggested Solutions and it has been designed in case study routine taking place within qualitative research tradition and in a longitudinal survey model. The final year IT teacher candidates receiving education in Ankara University Educational Sciences Faculty CEIT department in academic years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 have formed the study group of the research (N=123. The data obtained in the research by open-end questionnaire have been analysed and interpreted by inductive encoding technique, freuency analysis and descriptive content analysis. At the end of the study carried out, it has been determined that the IT teacher candidates have handled in two sub-dimensions the problems experienced by the IT teachers, these being, problems towards the courses the IT teachers attend and problems regarding the professional lives of IT teachers and suggested solutions in line with these. The leading problems towards the courses the IT teachers attend are that the courses are optional, the courses are grade-free, the course hours are few, the significance of IT not being comprehended very well by the executives, teachers, parents and students, inadequacy of physical means of IT classes and references of the course. And, the main problems regarding professional lives of IT course teachers are the duty, power and responsibility of IT teachers not made clear enough, difficulties in formative teacher practice, course hours which have to be completed by IT teachers not being able to be completed and problem of permanent staff, the courses that must be attended by IT teachers being taugth by teachers from other branches, lack of executives and experts trained from a field to supervise IT and formative teachers. And, the suggested leading

  17. Influence of suggestion in the DRM paradigm: what state of consciousness is associated with false memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Gaën; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2008-12-01

    We assessed the effect of suggestion on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm and associated it with the Remember-Know-Guess paradigm. Undergraduate students were given either lists of semantically related words or texts containing these words. After the recall task, if participants did not produce the critical lure, the experimenter suggested that the word had been present, using either a question (moderate suggestion) or an assertion (strong suggestion); these conditions were compared to a condition without suggestion. Afterwards, participants took a recognition test. The results showed that strong suggestions lead to more false recognitions than other conditions and the state of consciousness associated with false recognitions tends to be a feeling of knowing rather than remembering, regardless of the verbal version (list or text). Therefore moderate suggestions did not lead to more false recognitions compare to no suggestion. We discuss the impact of suggestion on consciousness associated with false memories.

  18. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Novel Transformations of Trenbolone Acetate Metabolites Suggest Incomplete Environmental Risk Assessment for Trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Jones, G.; Cwiertny, D. M.; Qu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In general, the existing regulatory and risk assessment paradigm for veterinary pharmaceuticals and other potential environmental contaminants is relatively simplistic as it equates contaminant degradation with significant reduction in associated ecological risk. However, it is becoming clear that there exist a number of environmental contaminants whose behaviors in the environment confound this assessment paradigm and whose environmental risk cannot be accurately assessed by laboratory studies demonstrating degradation or attenuation of compound concentrations in model environmental systems. For example, trenbolone acetate (TBA) is an androgenic growth promoting steroid used widely in animal agriculture in the United States, with the vast majority of U.S. beef cattle receiving TBA implants. Despite their significant economic value ( $1 billion annually), TBA metabolites can be potent endocrine disrupting compounds for sensitive species of aquatic organisms, capable of endocrine disruption at low ng/L concentrations. TBA metabolites are often considered rather reactive and prone to degradation, and risk assessment studies specifically point to their rapid degradation as evidence for limited ecological risks. However, we have recently demonstrated a most unexpected observation for TBA metabolite fate in environmental systems: namely that product-to-parent reversion is possible for certain TBA metabolites. Also, a variety of structural analogs and stereoisomers can arise from environmental transformation processes of TBA metabolites, potentially yielding a range of uncharacterized steroid structures capable of receptor interactions. None of these possibilities are accounted for in current risk assessment approaches for trenbolone or any other veterinary pharmaceutical. These observations confound most all current environmental risk assessment and contaminant fate models, and therefore improving our approach to environmental risk assessment needs to specifically

  20. Saccadic and postsaccadic disconjugacy in zebrafish larvae suggests independent eye movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Cheng Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction. We investigated the underlying mechanism of this ocular disconjugacy in the dark with a top-down approach. A mathematic ocular motor model, including an eye plant, a set of burst neurons, and a velocity-to-position neural integrator (VPNI, was built to simulate the typical larval eye movements in the dark. The modeling parameters, such as VPNI time constants, neural impulse signals generated by the burst neurons, and time constants of the eye plant, were iteratively adjusted to fit the average saccadic eye movement. These simulations suggest that four pools of burst neurons and four pools of VPNIs are needed to explain the disconjugate eye movements in our results. A premotor mechanism controls the synchronous timing of binocular saccades, but the pools of burst and integrator neurons in zebrafish larvae seem to be different (and maybe separate for both eyes and horizontal directions, which leads to the observed ocular disconjugacies during saccades and postsaccadic drifts in the dark.

  1. A collection of suggested electronic course templates for use in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill W. Fresen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The collection of electronic course templates suggested in this article results from collaborative investigation between instructional support staff and academic staff users of the virtual learning environment (VLE at two institutions, one in the United Kingdom and the other in the United States. The particular VLE in use at both institutions was Sakai, although the experience described here can be applied to the design process and workflow using any VLE that allows the selection and some configuration of standard tools.We applied the lattice model of Hill, Fresen and Geng (2012 to design and build a set of six course site templates, which are used as the basis on which site owners can easily build new sites in the VLE. As the ultimate goal of template provision is to underpin pedagogy, academics are free to use a template or build a site from scratch, based on their own teaching context, and they may adapt any template according to the pedagogical purpose and nature of the course. The underlying assumptions are that academic staff retain full control over the content, tools and permissions in their new site. The templates are not mutually exclusive – that is, aspects from any template may be incorporated, where applicable, into another one.We conclude that it is helpful for the VLE support team to take the lead in proposing a set of templates according to the predominant teaching and learning models in use at a particular institution, which may contribute to consistency across course sites and ultimately result in an improved student learning experience.

  2. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  3. Sex Discrimination: 2D Hand Representations Suggest Pan-Stimulus Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rayner Brooks

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether buying fruit or negotiating a peace deal, the sexes of the people involved affect the style of their interactions with each other. Indeed, even such an “objective” act as measuring blood pressure has been found to be influenced by an interaction between patient and observer sex (Millar & Accioly, 1996. As such, understanding the perceptual and neural correlates of the ability is important. Here we tested observer sensitivity to sex cues using a new partial body stimulus set: Static two-dimensional representations of human hands. Our data show that whilst availability of cues including absolute size, colour and texture enhances discrimination, those cues are not required for reliable performance on the task. Moreover, patterns of sensitivity arising in relation to hand stimuli show marked similarities with those associated with other stimulus sets—suggesting the existence of pan-stimulus effects. Implications of those findings for models of the perceptual and neural correlates of sex discrimination are discussed.

  4. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bokulich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir.

  5. Evidence to suggest that teeth act as human ornament displays signalling mate quality.

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    Colin A Hendrie

    Full Text Available Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value.

  6. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

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    Guillaume eRiviere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster’s developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5’-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment.

  7. Fractal analysis reveals subclasses of neurons and suggests an explanation of their spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela, Luis H; Coey, Charles A; Griff, Edwin R; Richardson, Michael J

    2016-07-28

    The present work used fractal time series analysis (detrended fluctuation analysis; DFA) to examine the spontaneous activity of single neurons in an anesthetized animal model, specifically, the mitral cells in the rat main olfactory bulb. DFA bolstered previous research in suggesting two subclasses of mitral cells. Although there was no difference in the fractal scaling of the interspike interval series at the shorter timescales, there was a significant difference at longer timescales. Neurons in Group B exhibited fractal, power-law scaled interspike intervals, whereas neurons in Group A exhibited random variation. These results raise questions about the role of these different cells within the olfactory bulb and potential explanations of their dynamics. Specifically, self-organized criticality has been proposed as an explanation of fractal scaling in many natural systems, including neural systems. However, this theory is based on certain assumptions that do not clearly hold in the case of spontaneous neural activity, which likely reflects intrinsic cell dynamics rather than activity driven by external stimulation. Moreover, it is unclear how self-organized criticality might account for the random dynamics observed in Group A, and how these random dynamics might serve some functional role when embedded in the typical activity of the olfactory bulb. These theoretical considerations provide direction for additional experimental work. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing, and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position, and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster's developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5′-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment. PMID:24778620

  9. Data Processing: Fifteen Suggestions for Computer Training in Your Business Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lowell L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents 15 suggestions for training business education students in the use of computers. Suggestions involve computer language, method of presentation, laboratory time, programing assignments, instructions and handouts, problem solving, deadlines, reviews, programming concepts, programming logic, documentation, and defensive programming. (CT)

  10. Suggested Methods for Preventing Core Saturation Instability in HVDC Transmission Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Ian

    2002-07-01

    overheating of filters or other components. This may also cause disconnection. In this thesis, several ways to reduce/eliminate the core saturation instability problem are described and most of them are also demonstrated by simulations on a modified CIGRE HVDC benchmark model in PSCAD/EMTDC version 3. PSCAD/EMTDC version 3 is a powerful simulation tool which perform simulations in the time domain and offers detailed models for transformers, power electronic switches etc. To understand and have confidence in the simulation results, the transformer models, the model for the on-line frequency scanner, and models for power electronic switches are evaluated in detail. The suggested initiatives that were successfully simulated are listed below: 1) Stabilizing loops in the control system of the HVDC link. These loops diminish the influence of the HVDC control system on core saturation instability. Some of the loops suggested are believed to give improvements in applications where it is required that the stabilizing loop are only active for a small band of frequencies. 2) A hybrid shunt filter connected to the commutation bus on the AC side. The hybrid filter consists of a PWM converter in addition to a passive circuit of components. It is superior to the plain passive filter because it does not cause any resonances with the AC grid and because it is not as sensitive to component drifting as passive filters. The hybrid filter prevents most of the second harmonic current generated by the HVDC converter to flow into the AC grid. This way the second harmonic component in the commutation voltages is significantly decreased. 3) A passive shunt filter connected to the commutation bus on the Ac side. Functions the same way as the hybrid shunt filter, but it may create resonances with the AC net. In addition it is more sensitive for changes in the component values than the hybrid filter. 4) A blocking LC filter between the low voltage potential and earth on the DC side This filter blocks any

  11. Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Asian origin of Native Americans is largely accepted. However uncertainties persist regarding the source population(s) within Asia, the divergence and arrival time(s) of the founder groups, the number of expansion events, and migration routes into the New World. mtDNA data, presented over the past two decades, have been used to suggest a single-migration model for which the Beringian land mass plays an important role. Results In our analysis of 568 mitochondrial genomes, the coalescent age estimates of shared roots between Native American and Siberian-Asian lineages, calculated using two different mutation rates, are A4 (27.5 ± 6.8 kya/22.7 ± 7.4 kya), C1 (21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya), C4 (21.0 ± 4.6 kya/20.0 ± 6.4 kya), and D4e1 (24.1 ± 9.0 kya/17.9 ± 10.0 kya). The coalescent age estimates of pan-American haplogroups calculated using the same two mutation rates (A2:19.5 ± 1.3 kya/16.1 ± 1.5 kya, B2:20.8 ± 2.0 kya/18.1 ± 2.4 kya, C1:21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya and D1:17.2 ± 2.0 kya/14.9 ± 2.2 kya) and estimates of population expansions within America (~21-16 kya), support the pre-Clovis occupation of the New World. The phylogeography of sublineages within American haplogroups A2, B2, D1 and the C1b, C1c andC1d subhaplogroups of C1 are complex and largely specific to geographical North, Central and South America. However some sub-branches (B2b, C1b, C1c, C1d and D1f) already existed in American founder haplogroups before expansion into the America. Conclusions Our results suggest that Native American founders diverged from their Siberian-Asian progenitors sometime during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and expanded into America soon after the LGM peak (~20-16 kya). The phylogeography of haplogroup C1 suggest that this American founder haplogroup differentiated in Siberia-Asia. The situation is less clear for haplogroup B2, however haplogroups A2 and D1 may have differentiated soon after the Native American founders divergence. A

  12. Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Bellis, Claire; Zlojutro, Mark; Melton, Phillip E; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E

    2011-10-07

    The Asian origin of Native Americans is largely accepted. However uncertainties persist regarding the source population(s) within Asia, the divergence and arrival time(s) of the founder groups, the number of expansion events, and migration routes into the New World. mtDNA data, presented over the past two decades, have been used to suggest a single-migration model for which the Beringian land mass plays an important role. In our analysis of 568 mitochondrial genomes, the coalescent age estimates of shared roots between Native American and Siberian-Asian lineages, calculated using two different mutation rates, are A4 (27.5 ± 6.8 kya/22.7 ± 7.4 kya), C1 (21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya), C4 (21.0 ± 4.6 kya/20.0 ± 6.4 kya), and D4e1 (24.1 ± 9.0 kya/17.9 ± 10.0 kya). The coalescent age estimates of pan-American haplogroups calculated using the same two mutation rates (A2:19.5 ± 1.3 kya/16.1 ± 1.5 kya, B2:20.8 ± 2.0 kya/18.1 ± 2.4 kya, C1:21.4 ± 2.7 kya/16.4 ± 1.5 kya and D1:17.2 ± 2.0 kya/14.9 ± 2.2 kya) and estimates of population expansions within America (~21-16 kya), support the pre-Clovis occupation of the New World. The phylogeography of sublineages within American haplogroups A2, B2, D1 and the C1b, C1c and C1d subhaplogroups of C1 are complex and largely specific to geographical North, Central and South America. However some sub-branches (B2b, C1b, C1c, C1d and D1f) already existed in American founder haplogroups before expansion into the America. Our results suggest that Native American founders diverged from their Siberian-Asian progenitors sometime during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and expanded into America soon after the LGM peak (~20-16 kya). The phylogeography of haplogroup C1 suggest that this American founder haplogroup differentiated in Siberia-Asia. The situation is less clear for haplogroup B2, however haplogroups A2 and D1 may have differentiated soon after the Native American founders divergence. A moderate population bottle neck

  13. Temporal Constraints of the Word Blindness Posthypnotic Suggestion on Stroop Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A.; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigated possible temporal constraints on the posthypnotic word blindness suggestion effect. In a completely within-subjects and counterbalanced design 19 highly suggestible individuals performed the Stroop task both with and without a posthypnotic suggestion that they would be unable to read the word dimension of the Stroop…

  14. The Predictive Utility of Hypnotizability: The Change in Suggestibility Produced by Hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S.; Coursen, Elizabeth L.; Shores, Jessica S.; Waszkiewicz, Jolanta A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The predictive utility of hypnotizability, conceptualized as the change in suggestibility produced by a hypnotic induction, was investigated in the suggested reduction of experimental pain. Method: One hundred and seventy-three participants were assessed for nonhypnotic imaginative suggestibility. Thereafter, participants experienced…

  15. Negative Epistasis between Sickle and Foetal Haemoglobin Suggests a Reduction in Protection against Malaria.

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    Bruno P Mmbando

    Full Text Available Haemoglobin variants, Sickle (HbS and foetal (HbF have been associated with malaria protection. This study explores epistatic interactions between HbS and HbF on malaria infection.The study was conducted between March 2004 and December 2013 within the sickle cell disease (SCD programme at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. SCD status was categorized into HbAA, HbAS and HbSS using hemoglobin electrophoresis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. HbF levels were determined by HPLC. Malaria was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic test and/or blood film. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations models were used to evaluate associations between SCD status, HbF and malaria.2,049 individuals with age range 0-70 years, HbAA 311(15.2%, HbAS 241(11.8% and HbSS 1,497(73.1% were analysed. At enrolment, malaria prevalence was significantly higher in HbAA 13.2% compared to HbAS 1.24% and HbSS 1.34% (p<0.001. Mean HbF was lower in those with malaria compared to those without malaria in HbAA (0.43% vs 0.82% but was the reverse in HbSS (8.10% vs 5.59%. An increase in HbF was associated with a decrease in risk of malaria OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.28, 0.90; p=0.021 in HbAA, whereas for HbSS the risk of malaria increased OR=2.94 (1.44, 5.98; p=0.003. A similar pattern was seen during multiple visits; HbAA OR=0.52 (0.34, 0.80; p=0.003 vs HbSS OR=2.01 (1.27, 3.23; p=0.003.Higher prevalence of malaria in HbAA compared to HbAS and HbSS confirmed the protective effect of HbS. Lower prevalence of malaria in HbAA with high HbF supports a protective effect of HbF. However, in HbSS, the higher prevalence of malaria with high levels of HbF suggests loss of malaria protection. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest a negative epistasis between HbF and HbS on malaria.

  16. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

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    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of

  17. Variable flowering phenology and pollinator use in a community suggest future phenological mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Pantis, John D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    2014-08-01

    Recent anthropogenic climate change is strongly associated with average shifts toward earlier seasonal timing of activity (phenology) in temperate-zone species. Shifts in phenology have the potential to alter ecological interactions, to the detriment of one or more interacting species. Recent models predict that detrimental phenological mismatch may increasingly occur between plants and their pollinators. One way to test this prediction is to examine data from ecological communities that experience large annual weather fluctuations. Taking this approach, we analyzed interactions over a four-year period among 132 plant species and 665 pollinating insect species within a Mediterranean community. For each plant species we recorded onset and duration of flowering and number of pollinator species. Flowering onset varied among years, and a year of earlier flowering of a species tended to be a year of fewer species pollinating its flowers. This relationship was attributable principally to early-flowering species, suggesting that shifts toward earlier phenology driven by climate change may reduce pollination services due to phenological mismatch. Earlier flowering onset of a species also was associated with prolonged flowering duration, but it is not certain that this will counterbalance any negative effects of lower pollinator species richness on plant reproductive success. Among plants with different life histories, annuals were more severely affected by flowering-pollinator mismatches than perennials. Specialized plant species (those attracting a smaller number of pollinator species) did not experience disproportionate interannual fluctuations in phenology. Thus they do not appear to be faced with disproportionate fluctuations in pollinator species richness, contrary to the expectation that specialists are at greatest risk of losing mutualistic interactions because of climate change.

  18. Positive evolutionary selection of an HD motif on Alzheimer precursor protein orthologues suggests a functional role.

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    István Miklós

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HD amino acid duplex has been found in the active center of many different enzymes. The dyad plays remarkably different roles in their catalytic processes that usually involve metal coordination. An HD motif is positioned directly on the amyloid beta fragment (Aβ and on the carboxy-terminal region of the extracellular domain (CAED of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP and a taxonomically well defined group of APP orthologues (APPOs. In human Aβ HD is part of a presumed, RGD-like integrin-binding motif RHD; however, neither RHD nor RXD demonstrates reasonable conservation in APPOs. The sequences of CAEDs and the position of the HD are not particularly conserved either, yet we show with a novel statistical method using evolutionary modeling that the presence of HD on CAEDs cannot be the result of neutral evolutionary forces (p<0.0001. The motif is positively selected along the evolutionary process in the majority of APPOs, despite the fact that HD motif is underrepresented in the proteomes of all species of the animal kingdom. Position migration can be explained by high probability occurrence of multiple copies of HD on intermediate sequences, from which only one is kept by selective evolutionary forces, in a similar way as in the case of the "transcription binding site turnover." CAED of all APP orthologues and homologues are predicted to bind metal ions including Amyloid-like protein 1 (APLP1 and Amyloid-like protein 2 (APLP2. Our results suggest that HDs on the CAEDs are most probably key components of metal-binding domains, which facilitate and/or regulate inter- or intra-molecular interactions in a metal ion-dependent or metal ion concentration-dependent manner. The involvement of naturally occurring mutations of HD (Tottori (D7N and English (H6R mutations in early onset Alzheimer's disease gives additional support to our finding that HD has an evolutionary preserved function on APPOs.

  19. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  20. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses suggest an additional hepatitis B virus genotype "I".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yu

    Full Text Available A novel hepatitis B virus (HBV strain (W29 was isolated from serum samples in the northwest of China. Phylogenetic and distance analyses indicate that this strain is grouped with a series of distinct strains discovered in Vietnam and Laos that have been proposed to be a new genotype I. TreeOrderScan and GroupScan methods were used to study the intergenotype recombination of this special group. Recombination plots and tree maps of W29 and these putative genotype I strains exhibit distinct characteristics that are unexpected in typical genotype C strains of HBV. The amino acids of P gene, S gene, X gene, and C gene of all genotypes (including subtypes were compared, and eight unique sites were found in genotype I. In vitro and in vivo experiments were also conducted to determine phenotypic characteristics between W29 and other representative strains of different genotypes obtained from China. Secretion of HBsAg in Huh7 cells is uniformly abundant among genotypes A, B, C, and I (W29, but not genotype D. HBeAg secretion is low in genotype I (W29, whose level is close to genotype A and much lower than genotypes B, C, and D. Results from the acute hydrodynamic injection mouse model also exhibit a similar pattern. From an overview of the results, the viral markers of W29 (I1 in Huh7 cells and mice had a more similar level to genotype A than genotype C, although the latter was closer to W29 in distance analysis. All evidence suggests that W29, together with other related strains found in Vietnam and Laos, should be classified into a new genotype.

  1. Diverse miRNA spatial expression patterns suggest important roles in homeostasis and regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estévez, Cristina; Arseni, Varvara; Thambyrajah, Roshana S; Felix, Daniel A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are an important class of non-protein coding small RNAs whose specific functions in animals are rapidly being elucidated. It is clear that miRNAs can play crucial roles in stem cell maintenance, cell fate determination and differentiation. We use planarians, which possess a large population of pluripotent somatic stem cells, as a powerful model system to study many aspects of stem cell biology and regeneration. In particular we wish to investigate the regulatory role miRNAs may have in planarian stem cell self renewal, proliferation and differentiation. Here, we characterized the differential spatial patterns of expression of miRNAs in whole and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization to nascent miRNA transcripts. These miRNA expression patterns are the first which have been determined for a Lophotrocozoan animal. We have characterized the expression patterns of 42 miRNAs in adult planarians, constituting a complete range of tissue specific expression patterns. We also followed miRNA expression during planarian regeneration. The majority of planarian miRNAs were expressed either in areas where stem cells (neoblasts) are located and/or in the nervous system. Some miRNAs were definitively expressed in stem cells and dividing cells as confirmed by in situ hybridisation after irradiation. We also found miRNAs to be expressed in germ stem cells of the sexual strain. Together, these data suggest an important role for miRNAs in stem cell regulation and in neural cell differentiation in planarians.

  2. Urinary metabolomics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): preliminary data at birth suggest it is a congenital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Pintus, Maria Cristina; Lussu, Milena; Atzori, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Stronati, Mauro; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Rocha, Gustavo; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Lacerenza, Serafina; Puddu, Silvia; Giuffrè, Mario; Serraino, Francesca; Mussap, Michele; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease is one of the principal causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Early identification of infants at the greater risk of developing BPD may allow a targeted approach for reducing disease severity and complications. The trigger cause of the disease comprehends the impairment of the alveolar development and the increased angiogenesis. Nevertheless, the molecular pathways characterizing the disease are still unclear. Therefore, the use of the metabolomics technique, due to the capability of identifying instantaneous metabolic perturbation, might help to recognize metabolic patterns associated with the condition. The purpose of this study is to compare urinary metabolomics at birth in 36 newborns with a gestational age below 29 weeks and birth weight BPD. Urine samples were collected within 24-36 h of life and immediately frozen at -80 °C. The (1)H-NMR spectra were analyzed using a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model coupled with orthogonal Signal Correction. Using this approach it was possible with urine at birth to discriminate newborns that will be later have a diagnosis of BPD with a high statistics power. In particular, we found five important discriminant metabolites in urine in BPD newborns: lactate, taurine, TMAO, myoinositol (which increased) and gluconate (which decreased). These preliminary results seem to be promising for the identification of predictor's biomarkers characterizing the BPD condition. These data may suggest that BPD is probably the result of an abnormal development (respiratory bud, vascular tree, hypodysplasia of pneumocytes) and could be considered a congenital disease (genetics plus intrauterine epigenetics). Early identification of infants at the greater risk of developing BPD may allow a targeted approach for reducing disease severity and complications.

  3. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  4. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  5. Community Peer-Led Falls Prevention Presentations: What Do the Experts Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Linda A M; Berlach, Richard G; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Falls among older adults are a major problem. Despite considerable progress in falls prevention research, older adults often show low motivation to engage in recommended preventive strategies. Peer-led falls prevention education for older adults may have potential for bridging the research evidence-practice gap, thereby promoting the uptake of falls prevention strategies. We evaluated peer educators' presentations of falls prevention education to community-dwelling older adults in regard to established criteria that were consistent with adult learning principles, the framework of health behaviour change, falls prevention guidelines, and recommendations for providing falls prevention information. We conducted a within-stage mixed model study using purposive and snowball sampling techniques to recruit 10 experts to evaluate video recordings of the delivery of three peer-led falls prevention presentations. Each expert viewed three videos and rated them using a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed items. There was a good level of expert agreement across the questionnaire domains. Though the experts rated some aspects of the presentations highly, they thought that the presentations were mainly didactic in delivery, not consistently personally relevant to the older adult audience, and did not encourage older adults to engage in the preventive strategies that were presented. Based on the experts' findings, we developed five key themes and recommendations for the effective delivery of peer-led falls prevention presentations. These included recommending that peer educators share falls prevention messages in a more interactive and experiential manner and that uptake of strategies should be facilitated by encouraging the older adults to develop a personalised action plan. Findings suggest that if peer-led falls prevention presentations capitalise on older adults' capability, opportunity, and motivation, the older adults may be more receptive to take up falls

  6. Integrating Safety and Security in the EU: Past developments and suggested ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Loris

    2016-01-01

    The Framework provided by the UN Model Regulation for the Transport of Dangerous Goods is the core of the legislation on transport of radioactive material (and all classes of dangerous goods) in the EU. This has resulted in European agreements ADR, RID and ADN for international transport as well as a single directive for land transport within the EU. In addition the EU has adopted a range of directives and regulations dealing specifically with several aspects of safety of nuclear and radioactive material. While the overall safety framework is now well developed and fairly stable, a security framework is evolving, based on the IAEA recommendations. In the EU, several initiatives such as the CBRN action plan and the review of the application of telematics for the transport of dangerous goods will most likely result in more developments coming on stream in the near future. This suggests that an integrated approach would be beneficial to avoid divergent developments and to keep track of new developments in an orderly fashion. An integrated approach for a safe and secure supply chain for radioactive material is proposed. The framework for a supply chain can be built around the extensive corpus of legislation/recommendations and concepts that are already existing (such as the “Known Consignor” in the framework of the EU aviation security or the “Authorised Economic Operator” in the EU Community Custom Code). This would allow for the need to maintain control of the numerous proposals that are taking place. Advantages and drawbacks are outlined. More generally, the development of an integrated safe and secure supply chain would bring clarity and transparency to the overall system of provisions for a safe and secure management of radioactive material. (author)

  7. [The effect of suggestibility on eyewitness identifications: A comparison between showups and lineups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    There are two types of eyewitness-identification procedures: showups and lineups. Although the false-identification rate of showups was considered to be higher than that of lineups, experimental research has not always supported the superiority of lineups. Further, suggestibility of showups is believed to produce higher false-identification rates, but no experimental study has manipulated suggestibility. In this study, we manipulated suggestibility; 258 participants performed photo identification in a showup or lineup. The results revealed that the correct-identification rate was higher in the showups than the lineups, and the rate of dangerous false identification for the innocent suspect did not differ between showups and lineups. In lineups alone, the false-identification rate of the high-suggestibility.condition was marginally higher than that of the low-suggestibility condition. The results indicate that suggestibility, which results from the preconception that the perpetrator must exist in the photos, increases false identifications in relative judgments, such as in lineups.

  8. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  9. Reservoir monitoring using borehole radars to improve oil recovery : Suggestions from 3D electromagnetic and fluid modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, F.; Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Hu, Xiangyun

    2018-01-01

    The recently developed smart well technology allows for sectionalized production control by means of downhole inflow control valves and monitoring devices. We consider borehole radars as permanently installed downhole sensors to monitor fluid evolution in reservoirs, and it provides the

  10. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Z; Hu, L; Elias, PM; Man, M-Q

    2018-01-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin.To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin.Following topical ...

  11. Taboo Communication and Social Change: Family Planning in Asia, and Some Suggested Modifications in the Classical Diffusion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.

    Taboo communication is examined in relation to its distinctive characteristics and its significance in inhibiting social change involving birth control in Asian and other countries. Taboo communication tends to occur between very high homophilous individuals, which poses problems for communications research. Research is inhibited when researchers…

  12. Mathematics Pedagogical Standards: A Suggested Model of Instruction in Enhancing the Mathematics Teacher’s Quality of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, N. S.; Jemali, M.; Zakaria, Z. Hj; Yusof, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at identifying the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics based on National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT, 2006) and Training and Development Agency for School (TDA, 2007). These known standards were used as a guide in identifying the constructs of the mathematics teacher’s instruction in the classroom. The survey method used in which a questionnaire instrument encompassed on the four identified constructs on the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics, namely professional practices, professional attributes, professional knowledge, and professional instructional processes. The instrument was tested during a pilot study and a Cronbach’s Alpha reliability index of greater than 0.85 was obtained. The actual research was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia involving 224 secondary schools with 1.120 mathematics teachers and 108 primary schools with 540 mathematics teachers. From the selected schools, only 820 secondary mathematics teachers (73.2%) and 361 primary teachers (66.9%) gave a response to the mailed questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that the secondary and primary mathematics teachers strongly agreed on three constructs; professional practices, professional attributes and professional instructional processes.

  13. Suggestions for Teaching the Principles of Continental Drift in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of current geographic ideas regarding continental drift and plate tectonics and suggests techniques for illustrating continental motions to elementary school pupils. (Author/DB)

  14. Effect of hypnotic suggestion on fibromyalgic pain: comparison between hypnosis and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Antoni; Pérez, Magdalena; Sala, José; Padrol, Anna; Rull, Maria

    2007-05-01

    The main aims of this experimental study are: (1) to compare the relative effects of analgesia suggestions and relaxation suggestions on clinical pain, and (2) to compare the relative effect of relaxation suggestions when they are presented as "hypnosis" and as "relaxation training". Forty-five patients with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental conditions: (a) hypnosis with relaxation suggestions; (b) hypnosis with analgesia suggestions; (c) relaxation. Before and after the experimental session, the pain intensity was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the sensory and affective dimensions were measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The results showed: (1) that hypnosis followed by analgesia suggestions has a greater effect on the intensity of pain and on the sensory dimension of pain than hypnosis followed by relaxation suggestions; (2) that the effect of hypnosis followed by relaxation suggestions is not greater than relaxation. We discuss the implications of the study on our understanding of the importance of suggestions used in hypnosis and of the differences and similarities between hypnotic relaxation and relaxation training.

  15. The suggestibility of children's memory for being touched: planting, erasing, and changing memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, K; Roe, C

    1997-02-01

    Investigates recent claims that it is relatively easy to suggestively plant false memories in children, by comparing the relative vulnerability to suggestibility of changed, planted, and erased memories. 80 4-year-olds and 80 10-year-olds either were touched in a specific way or were not touched at all, and it was later suggested that a different touch, a completely new touch, or no touch at all had occurred. The suggestibility effect occurred only in the changed memory condition; the difference between the experimental changed condition and the corresponding control condition was significant. In the planted and erased memory conditions no suggestibility effect occurred; there was no significant reduction in the experimental groups relative to the corresponding control conditions. Thus, although it is relatively easy to suggest to a child a change in an event that was experienced, it is less likely that an event can be planted in or erased from memory. It is thus inappropriate to provide courtroom testimony regarding the probability of suggestively planting false memories based on the classic suggestibility research, which has largely been restricted to the study of suggestively changing memories.

  16. Preclinical Studies Suggest Complex Nutraceutical Strategies May Have Potential for Preventing and Managing Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of signaling mechanisms triggered by toll receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages, as well as of pertinent cell-culture and rodent studies, suggests that various nutraceuticals may have clinical potential for preventing and treating Gram-negative sepsis. Endotoxin activation of TLR4 results in induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2); tissue factor (TF); and a range of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), that collaborate to generate the clinical picture of sepsis. Upstream activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes importantly to those effects by inducing superoxide production that promotes activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor (NF) κΒ. Bilirubin generated intracellularly by activation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) functions to provide feedback inhibition of NAPDH-oxidase complexes. Exogenous bilirubin, or its precursor, biliverdin, is protective in rodent models of sepsis. One nutraceutical, phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), is a biliverdin derivative that functions as a light-gathering chromophore in cyanobacteria such as spirulina and can be converted intracellularly to a compound structurally homologous to bilirubin that likewise inhibits NADPH-oxidase complexes. In rodent studies, administration of phycocyanin, to which PhyCB is covalently attached, has likewise been shown to be protective in rodent models of sepsis. Other nutraceuticals provide benefits in counteracting the effects of TLR4. Phase 2-inductive nutraceuticals, such as lipoic acid, have the potential to induce HO-1 activity in macrophages, promoting bilirubin production. They may also antagonize the upregulatory impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on macrophage signaling by boosting glutathione synthesis. Another nutraceutical, glycine, helps counter the TLR4-triggered calcium influx that occurs through

  17. Identification of Causes and Treatments for Chronic Pain in a Model of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    addition, unforeseen personnel turnover occurred when a technician left, and the position had to be backfilled. Because this move and personnel turnover ...new equipment to support this project, including minor equipment, like pipettes (variable volume, multichannel, repeater, serological), Hamilton

  18. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  19. Some biodiversity points and suggestions for the Myanmar Protected Area System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into a brief background section followed by Part I: Biodiversity Points, and Part II: Suggestions that are needed for the ecological integrity of actual and potential protected areas in Myanmar. Part I consists of general and Myanmar Biodiversity Considerations, and Part II consists of the following suggestions: (l) international financial and...

  20. A hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder for generative context-aware query suggestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sordoni, Alessandro; Bengio, Yoshua; Vahabi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Users may strive to formulate an adequate textual query for their information need. Search engines assist the users by presenting query suggestions. To preserve the original search intent, suggestions should be context-aware and account for the previous queries issued by the user. Achieving conte...

  1. Why Did Early Industrial Capitalists Suggest Minimum Wages and Social Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s – 20 years before Bismarck – they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint...

  2. Why Did Early Industrial Capitalists Suggest Minimum Wages and Social Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s –20 years before Bismarck– they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint...

  3. Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Bate, Sarah; Gothard, Stace

    2014-07-01

    The ability to enhance sensitivity to relevant (post)hypnotic suggestions has implications for creating clinically informed analogues of psychological and neuropsychological conditions and for the use of hypnotic interventions in psychological and medical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of oxytocin inhalation on a post-hypnotic suggestion that previously has been shown to improve the selectivity of attention in the Stroop task. In a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects study, medium hypnotizable individuals performed the Stroop task under normal conditions and when they had been given a post-hypnotic suggestion that they would perceive words as meaningless symbols. In line with previous research, Stroop interference was substantially reduced by the suggestion in the placebo condition. However, contrary to expectations, oxytocin impeded the effect of the word blindness suggestion on performance. The results are explained in terms of the requirement for the re-implementation of the word blindness suggestion on a trial-by-trial basis and the need to sustain activation of the suggestion between trials. The findings contrast with a recent study showing a beneficial effect of oxytocin on sensitivity to (post)hypnotic suggestions but are consistent with findings showing a detrimental effect of oxytocin on memory processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The social context for psychological distress from iatrogenic gynecomastia with suggestions for its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, Richard J; Oliffe, John L

    2009-04-01

    Gynecomastia (breast development in males) is a side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Medical interventions to prevent or treat gynecomastia carry risk of additional detrimental side effects. However, untreated gynecomastia can be physically uncomfortable and psychologically distressing. Shame from gynecomastia can lead patients to stop otherwise beneficial exercise. Our first aim is to explore the social context for gynecomastia and how it is interpreted by men with the condition, as well as by others, both male and female. Subsequently, we use our understanding of why gynecomastia is psychologically distressing to propose psychosocial interventions that could help men accept this side effect of ADT. We draw on academic literature, media accounts, and web-based testimonials from men with gynecomastia, to understand how gynecomastia is perceived by both patients and the medical community. We examine these resources in light of gynecomastia's impact on sex roles, sexuality, and gender identity issues. By exploring what breasts in a male mean to the individual, we produce an understanding of the social context for distress from gynecomastia. From this understanding, we derive hypotheses about who might be most distressed from gynecomastia and strategies for alleviating this distress. The shame and stigma of gynecomastia is linked to the objectification of women. We suggest that men fear that their breasts will marginalize and subordinate them within gender hierarchies. There is little evidence that breasts on a male erotically attract either men or women. Novel options for living with gynecomastia are contrasted with medicalized strategies including mastectomy. Assessment instruments need to be developed to identify patients most likely to experience distress from gynecomastia and seek out medical interventions. Surgical, radiological, or pharmacological interventions may not be universally necessary if greater acceptance of

  5. Development and application of terrestrial food chain models to assess health risks to man and releases of pollutants to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Hoffman, F.O.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Baes, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and application of mathematical models used to predict the terrestrial food chain transport of pollutants of potential importance to human health. A distinction is made between models developed specifically for assessment applications and models which may function as research tools. Differentiation is also made between models whose structure is based on steady-state relationships among food chain compartments and dynamic models developed to simulate food chain and pollutant kinetics. The strengths and weaknesses of these models are related to the needs of the model user, the availability of relevant data for parameter quantification, and the feasibility for model validation. For assessment purposes, an optimum level of structural complexity will be achieved when all parameters are readily measurable and predictive error due to unforeseen correlations among parameters is small. The optimum level of simplification, however, will be determined by model validation results and the ease of model implementation. Most examples are derived from models used to assess the terrestrial food chain transport of radionuclides because assessment methodologies for other types of pollutants are only at an early stage of development. It is concluded that current limitations in parameter quantification and model validation will probably restrict most assessment applications of terrestrial food chain models to a type of screening calculation. However, once pollutant releases actually occur, environmental monitoring will be necessary to ensure that potential model misprediction does not result in unacceptable consequences

  6. Development and application of terrestrial food-chain models to assess health risks to man from releases of pollutants to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Hoffman, O.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Baes, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews development and application of mathematical models used to predict the terrestrial food-chain transport of pollutants of potential importance to human health. A distinction is made between models developed specifically for assessment applications and models which may function as research tools. Differentiation is also made between models whose structure is based on steady-state relationships among food-chain compartments and dynamic models developed to simulate food-chain and pollutant kinetics. The strengths and weaknesses of these models are related to the needs of the model-user, the availability of relevant data for parameter quantification, and the feasibility for model validation. For assessment purposes, an optimum level of structural complexity will be achieved when all parameters are readily measurable and predictive error due to unforeseen correlations among parameters is small. The optimum level of simplification, however, will be determined by model validation results and the ease of model implementation. Most examples are derived from models used to assess the terrestrial food-chain transport of radionuclides because assessment methodologies for other types of pollutants are only at an early stage of development. It is concluded that current limitations in parameter quantification and model validation will probably restrict most assessment applications of terrestrial food-chain models to a type of screening calculation. However, once pollutant releases actually occur, environmental monitoring will be necessary to ensure that potential model misprediction does not result in unacceptable consequences. (author)

  7. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective.

  8. Attention in Parkinson’s Disease Mimicking Suggestion in Psychogenic Movement Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Sam Baik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The various reported psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs include tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, gait disorder, Parkinsonism, tics, and chorea. Although it is not easy to diagnose PMDs, several features such as distractibility, entrainment, suggestion and placebo trial are quite helpful to diagnose. Especially, distractibility or suggestion is a good tool to do in outpatient clinic easily. We describe a patient with parkinsonian features which were improved by internal suggestion to focusing attention. Initially, we suspected her diagnosis as PMDs; however she was confirmed with organic Parkinson’s disease later.

  9. Analysis of the reasons of recently some radioactive source accidents and suggestions for management countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yongjie; Feng Youcai; Song Chenxiu; Gao Huibin; Xing Jinsong; Pang Xinxin; Wang Xiaoqing; Wei Hong

    2007-01-01

    The article introduces recently some radioactive source accidents in China, and analyses the reasons of the accidents. Some important issues existed in the process of implementing new regulation were summarized, and some suggestions for managing radioactive sources are made. (authors)

  10. Responses to Deficiencies and Suggestions, AIHA Site Assessment July 12-14, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Jack T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harding, Ruth N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are the responses to the deficiencies and suggestions found during the American Industrial Hygiene Association external site assessment carried out July 12-14, 2016 in the Analytical Services and Instrumentation Division Analytical Laboratory.

  11. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Expertise in Medicine – Analysing and Fostering Professional Vision. Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Expertise in Medicine – Analysing and Fostering Professional Vision. Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  13. Increasing Comorbidities Suggest that Atopic Dermatitis Is a Systemic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, Patrick M.; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Paller, Amy S.; Kabashima, Kenji; Amagai, Masayuki; Luger, Thomas A.; Deleuran, Mette; Werfel, Thomas; Eyerich, Kilian; Stingl, Georg; Bagot, Martine; Hijnen, Dirk Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815519; Ardern-Jones, Michael; Reynolds, Nick; Spuls, Phyllis; Taieb, Alain

    Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of

  14. INITIATIVES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF GYMNASTICS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF THE PRINCIPALITY OF SERBIA (elementary schools, gymnastics, initiatives, suggestions, introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Mijatović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Upon gaining its autonomy in 1830, the Principality of Serbia also creates the conditions for faster development of education, since the Sultan’s edict granted it the right to open schools. The first Law on schools was passed at the suggestion of the Head of the Ministry of Education Jovan Sterija Popovic in 1844 (Ustrojenije javnog učilištnog nastavlenija, and predicted a complete organization of all schools: elementary, commercial, high and lycees. The Law also prescribed three years of elementary education in villages and four years in towns. For the first time education of female children is predicted“Law on structure of elementary schools” was passed in September 1863 and it predicted the introduction of the fourth grade in village schools. Thirty-eight years (1830-1868 passed from obtaining autonomy, i.e. the right in Serbia to open its schools, to the official introduction of the physical activity instruction in elementary schools. It was a period in which it was attempted to organize structure and work of elementary schools. However physical education used to appear in pedagogic literature, drafts of laws on schools and proposals of officials and schools commissions of the Ministry of Education of the Principality of Serbia: 1. Milovan Spasic had hold an office of the main school principal since 1845 and he wrote three books, as the main reference books for elementary school teachers. One of them is “Pedagogično metodično nastavlenije ya učitelje osnovnih škola” (1855 where he wrote about physical education of children. Although physical education was not present in the Curriculum, he treated it as the most important task of both teachers and parents. 2. In the “Projekt zakona o školama za Knjažestvo Srbije” (1859 where you can find the subjects to be taught in elementary schools, it was stated that “as on of the subjects for boys ‘physical practice’ and ‘gymnastics’ for girls should be taught.” 3

  15. Kaizen practice in healthcare: a qualitative analysis of hospital employees' suggestions for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna; Nystr?m, Monica Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Kaizen, or continuous improvement, lies at the core of lean. Kaizen is implemented through practices that enable employees to propose ideas for improvement and solve problems. The aim of this study is to describe the types of issues and improvement suggestions that hospital employees feel empowered to address through kaizen practices in order to understand when and how kaizen is used in healthcare. METHODS: We analysed 186 structured kaizen documents containing improvement suggest...

  16. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare suggested food portion sizes in UK schemes. Design The study collated and compared suggested portion sizes from selected UK schemes intended both for general advice and weight-loss advice. Setting Portion size schemes were included if they were relevant to the UK, provided actual portion size information, were intended for adults and were obtainable from the public domain in November 2010. Included schemes were from the food industry, non-governmental organis...

  17. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. The Role of Frontal Executive Functions in Hypnosis and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Parris, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There is both theoretical and empirical evidence supporting a role for frontal executive functions (FEFs) in hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility. However, the precise nature of this involvement is debated. While there is clear evidence that FEFs are impaired under hypnosis, the cause of this decreased function is unclear. Theories make differing predictions as to the role of FEFs in hypnotic suggestibility, with some arguing that decreased baseline (normal function outside of the hypnotic co...

  19. Clinically Isolated Syndromes Suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Noval, Susana; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Gabaldón, Laura; Manzano, Beatriz; Chamorro, Beatriz; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), which provides an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to evaluate RNFL thickness in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four patients with CIS suggestive of MS (8 optic neuritis [ON], 6 spinal cord s...

  20. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ulrich

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area. Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes.

  1. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-11-01

    To identify and compare suggested food portion sizes in UK schemes. The study collated and compared suggested portion sizes from selected UK schemes intended both for general advice and weight-loss advice. Portion size schemes were included if they were relevant to the UK, provided actual portion size information, were intended for adults and were obtainable from the public domain in November 2010. Included schemes were from the food industry, non-governmental organisations and health-care professionals. Suggested portion sizes of foods occurring in at least one scheme for general advice and at least one scheme for weight loss were included. Own brand on-pack portion size labelling from a large UK-wide supermarket was added to represent portion size advice from UK food retailers. Not applicable. The suggested portion sizes in the weight-loss advice schemes were often concordant, as were the general advice schemes, except one general advice scheme from a non-governmental organisation which was more closely aligned with the portion sizes for weight loss. Overall there were substantial discrepancies between suggested portion sizes for muesli and crunchy breakfast cereals, rice, pasta and potatoes, meat, fish and pulses, whereas portion sizes for cooked vegetables, dried fruit, some breakfast cereals and cheese were broadly consistent. There is a lack of consistency in the portion sizes communicated to the public. An independent and authoritative scheme of suggested portion sizes for all foods, with distinct recommendations for general advice and for weight-loss advice, could be of benefit.

  2. Application of the suggestion system in the improvement of the production process and product quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, H.; Mazur, A.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The elaboration is a case study and the research was carried out in the company Alco-Mot Ltd., which employs 120 people. The company specializes in the production of lead poles for industrial and traction batteries using gravity casting. The elements embedded in the cast are manufactured on a machining centre, which provides the stability of the process and of the dimensions of the product as well as a very short production time. As a result of observation and analysis the authors have developed a concept for the implementation of a dynamic suggestion system in ALCO-MOT, including, among others, a standard for actions in the implementation of the suggestion system, as well as clear guidelines for the processing and presentation of the activities undertaken in the time between the establishment of the concept (suggestions) and the benefits analysis after the proposed solutions have been implemented. The authors also present how suggestions proposed by ALCO-MOT staff contributed to the improvement of the processes of production and quality control. Employees offered more than 30 suggestions, of which more than a half are being implemented now and further actions are being prepared for implementation. The authors will present the results of improvements in, for example, tool replacement time, scrap reduction. The authors will present how kaizen can improve the production and quality control processes. They will present how the production and quality control processes looked before and after the implementation of employee suggestions.

  3. Brief report: the effect of suggestion on unpleasant dreams induced by ketamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Ho; Lee, Kun Moo; Lim, Se Hun; Cho, Kwang Rae; Kim, Myoung Hun; Ko, Myoung Jin; Shim, Joo Cheol; Oh, Min Kyung; Kim, Yong Han; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-05-01

    The use of ketamine may be associated with the recall of unpleasant dreams after sedation. We hypothesized that a positive suggestion before sedation could reduce the incidence of ketamine-induced unpleasant dreams. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 100 patients receiving sedation with ketamine for their procedure into 2 groups with 1 group having an anesthesiologist provide a mood-elevating suggestion to the patient before ketamine administration (suggestion group), whereas in the control group no suggestion was provided. Patients were provided with a pleasantness/unpleasantness scale to rate "the overall mood of the dream" as very unpleasant (grade 1), quite unpleasant (grade 2), neither or mixed (grade 3), quite pleasant (grade 4), and very pleasant (grade 5). In those patients who lost consciousness, the frequencies of grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 0%, 0%, 46%, 24%, and 30% in the suggestion group and were 6%, 2%, 70%, 12%, and 10%, respectively, in the control group (P=0.01). In the intent-to-treat population the overall frequency between groups was very similar. This study implies that when administering ketamine as part of a sedation regimen, positive suggestion may help reduce the recall of unpleasant dreaming. © 2011 International Anesthesia Research Society

  4. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  5. Leaf fossil record suggests limited influence of atmospheric CO2 on terrestrial productivity prior to angiosperm evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, C Kevin; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-06-26

    Declining CO(2) over the Cretaceous has been suggested as an evolutionary driver of the high leaf vein densities (7-28 mm mm(-2)) that are unique to the angiosperms throughout all of Earth history. Photosynthetic modeling indicated the link between high vein density and productivity documented in the modern low-CO(2) regime would be lost as CO(2) concentrations increased but also implied that plants with very low vein densities (less than 3 mm mm(-2)) should experience substantial disadvantages with high CO(2). Thus, the hypothesized relationship between CO(2) and plant evolution can be tested through analysis of the concurrent histories of alternative lineages, because an extrinsic driver like atmospheric CO(2) should affect all plants and not just the flowering plants. No such relationship is seen. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations, low vein densities are equally common among nonangiosperms throughout history and common enough to include forest canopies and not just obligate shade species that will always be of limited productivity. Modeling results can be reconciled with the fossil record if maximum assimilation rates of nonflowering plants are capped well below those of flowering plants, capturing biochemical and physiological differences that would be consistent with extant plants but previously unrecognized in the fossil record. Although previous photosynthetic modeling suggested that productivity would double or triple with each Phanerozoic transition from low to high CO(2), productivity changes are likely to have been limited before a substantial increase accompanying the evolution of flowering plants.

  6. Behavioral evidence of hunting and foraging techniques by a top predator suggests the importance of scavenging for preadults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, MªÀngels; Sánchez, Roberto; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano

    2017-06-01

    Scavenging may be a regular feeding behavior for some facultative raptor species occupying low quality habitats and/or with little experience in hunting techniques. However, its importance has been largely underestimated due to methodological limitations in identifying the real proportion in the diet. Here, through direct observations, we assessed the hunting and foraging success of the threatened Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti determining the influence of age, sex, breeding status, habitat quality, prey type, and landscape characteristics. From 465 observations, Spanish imperial eagles used hunting in flight (42%), scavenging (30%), hunting from a perch (16%) and kleptoparasitism (12%). Our model suggests that Prey size and Prey type best explain hunting success, followed by Landscape and Sex . Our findings suggest that Spanish imperial eagles increase hunting success with age, with scavenging and kleptoparasitism regularly used as juveniles. The absence of relationships with any of the variables considered suggests that kleptoparasitism is an opportunistic behavior used sporadically. Scavenging is also independent of habitat quality and landscape characteristics. Accordingly, low prey density is not a driver of carrion use for preadult individuals, suggesting that a lack of hunting ability obliges this age-class to use this alternative feeding technique regularly. As a result, the threatened Spanish imperial eagle population is also prone to mortality related to the illegal use of poison baits and, potentially, veterinary drugs (i.e., diclofenac).

  7. A Suggested Approach for a Cost Analysis of Alternative IMS Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besel, Ronald

    An approach to a cost analysis of pilot, prototype, model and operational versions of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is described. Five classes of systems (conceptual, pilot, prototype, model and operational) are defined, and a system development process relating classes of systems in presented.…

  8. Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

  9. Ozone plus radiation on aqueous solution of DNA - a suggestion for treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, Gouri; Gopakumar, Kamala; Krishnan, D.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation can be used in waste water or sewage treatment for degrading large molecules. A reduction in total organic carbon in model compounds has been reported, following irradiation treatment and this has been enhanced tenfold by bubbling oxygen containing ozone through aqueous solutions of phenols. In similar experiments aqueous solutions of DNA were used as model compounds and the results are reported. (UK)

  10. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.

    2013-01-01

    -scale coupling is critical to understanding major NS shortening and westerly tectonic escape in the Lake Mead area.One north-elongate uplift in the Hingeline shear zone is a positive flower structure along a strike-slip fault, and we postulate that most other large uplifts are diapiric, resulting from extension-normal inflow of ductile substrate, rather than second-order isostatic responses to tectonic unloading. We also postulate that large steep-axis rotations, and some small ones as well, result from basal tractions imparted by gradients in southerly directed subjacent ductile flow rather than by shear coupling imparted by laterally variable elongation strains. The shortening strain recorded in the rotations and related structures probably matches or exceeds the magnitude of lengthening, even for the Lake Mead area where we do not question local large (~65 km) west-directed lengthening. We assess the results of extensive recent earth-science research in the Lake Mead area and conclude that previously published models of N-S convergence, westerly tectonic rafting, and N-S occlusion are valid and record unique tectonic escape accommodation for south-directed displacement of the Great Basin sector of the Basin and Range. Genetic ties between the south-directed displacement and plate-interaction forces are elusive, and we suggest the displacement results from body forces inherent in the Basin and Range.

  11. The Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS1) in a sample of inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper comprises two studies which address the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, GSS1. In study 1, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of a sample of Portuguese inmates (N=40, Mage=37.5 years, SD=8.1) were compared to those of a sample of Icelandic inmates (Gudjonsson, 1997; Gudjonsson & Sigurdsson, 1996). Portuguese inmates' results were in line with the original results. In study 2, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of the sample of Portuguese inmates were compared to those of a general Portuguese population sample (N=57, Mage=36.1 years, SD=12.7). The forensic sample obtained significantly higher scores in suggestibility measures than the general population sample. ANOVA confirmed that the increased suggestibility in the inmates sample was due to the limited memory capacity of this latter group. Given that the results of both studies 1 and 2 are in keeping with the author's original results (Gudjonsson, 1997), this may be regarded as a confirmation of the validity of the Portuguese GSS1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring 2007-2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.

  13. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN THE MEDICAL SETTING: Suggestive Behaviors, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a personality dysfunction that is characterized by disinhibition and impulsivity, which oftentimes manifest as self-regulation difficulties. Patients with this disorder have always been present in medical settings, but have been described as "difficult patients" rather than patients with borderline personality disorder. According to empirical findings, a number of behaviors and medical syndromes/diagnoses are suggestive of borderline personality disorder. Suggestive behaviors in the medical setting may include aggressive or disruptive behaviors, the intentional sabotage of medical care, and excessive healthcare utilization. Suggestive medical syndromes and diagnoses in the medical setting may include alcohol and substance misuse (including the abuse of prescription medications), multiple somatic complaints, chronic pain, obesity, sexual impulsivity, and hair pulling. While not all-inclusive or diagnostic, these behaviors and syndromes/diagnoses may invite further clinical evaluation of the patient for borderline personality disorder.

  14. Taking responsibility for an act not committed: the influence of age and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Goodman, Gail S

    2003-04-01

    Inherent in false confessions is a person taking responsibility for an act he or she did not commit. The risk of taking such responsibility may be elevated in juveniles. To study possible factors that influence individuals' likelihood for taking responsibility for something they did not do, participants in a laboratory experiment were led to believe they crashed a computer when in fact they had not. Participants from 3 age groups were tested: 12- and 13-year-olds, 15- and 16-year-olds, and young adults. Half of the participants in each age group were presented with false evidence indicating liability. Additionally, suggestibility was investigated as a potential individual-difference factor affecting vulnerability to admissions of guilt. Results showed that younger and more suggestible participants were more likely than older and less suggestible participants to falsely take responsibility. Implications of these findings for juvenile justice are discussed.

  15. Small calcified lesions suggestive of neurocysticercosis are associated with mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. B. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and neurocysticercosis (NC. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of NC and MTS. Method: We randomly selected patients with different epilepsy types, including: MTS, primary generalized epilepsy (PGE and focal symptomatic epilepsy (FSE. Patients underwent a structured interview, followed by head computed tomography (CT. A neuroradiologist evaluated the scan for presence of calcified lesions suggestive of NC. CT results were matched with patients’ data. Results: More patients in the MTS group displayed calcified lesions suggestive of NC than patients in the other groups (p=0.002. On multivariate analysis, MTS was found to be an independent predictor of one or more calcified NC lesions (p=0.033. Conclusion: After controlling for confounding factors, we found an independent association between NC calcified lesions and MTS.

  16. Rare medical conditions and suggestive past-life memories: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; dos Santos Camargo, Luizete; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G; Schwartz, Gary E; Nasri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    We aim to report the case of a 38-year-old male with suggestive past-life memories during a regression session and to show how these memories were related to unusual medical conditions: (1) isolated obstruction of the right coronary artery in a young patient, (2) omental infarction, and (3) right aortic arch with isolation of the left subclavian artery. These conditions were related to the following suggestive past-life memories: (1) a priest who committed suicide with a crucifix nailed to his chest and (2) a medieval weapon (skull flail) hitting his cervical and left back region. There was an intriguing relation between the patient's suggestive past-life memories and rare medical conditions. In this article, the authors highlight possible explanations, rarity of findings, and similarities/differences from previous cases and potential pitfalls in this area. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suggestibility, social support, and memory for a novel experience in young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A.; Wallin, Allison R.; Papini, Silvia; Lench, Heather; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened during the prior event and the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC). During the second session, the interviewer behaved either supportively or nonsupportively. Greater acquiescence on the VSSC was associated with fewer correct responses to misleading questions about the laboratory event in the supportive and nonsupportive conditions and with more errors in response to specific questions in the nonsupportive condition. Results indicate that individual differences in children's suggestibility are related to the accuracy of their memory for separate events, although some of these relations may vary depending on the context in which children are interviewed. PMID:15904929

  18. Subjective sleep quality and suggested immobilization test in restless leg syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Nanba, Kazuyoshi; Honda, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yasuro; Arai, Heii

    2002-06-01

    The severity of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and/or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) was investigated by using a suggested immobilization test (SIT) and by measuring the influence of these disorders on the subjective sleep quality as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients with RLS and those with both RLS and PLMD showed remarkably high values for PSQI and SIT, whereas patients with PLMD only showed normal values for PSQI. These findings suggest that there is only a small pathological significance for periodic limb movements, and demonstrate the efficacy of SIT and PSQI for evaluating the severity of these disorders.

  19. A systematic review of suggestive seizure induction for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    Suggestive seizure induction is a widely used method for diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite seven decades of multidisciplinary research, however, there is still no unified protocol, no definitive agreement on the ethical framework and no consensus on diagnostic utility. This systematic review surveys the evidence at hand and addresses clinically relevant aspects of suggestive seizure induction. In addition to its use for facilitating the diagnostic process, its mechanism of action and utility in elucidating the psychopathology of PNES will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The concept of suggestion in the early history of advertising psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, D P

    1976-10-01

    As early as 1896, experimental psychologists began studying the mental processes involved in advertising. The first psychological theory of advertising maintained, in effect, that the consumer was a nonrational, suggestible creature under the hypnotic influence of the advertising copywriter. Walter Dill Scott was the major proponent of this theory, and it was largely through his writings that advertising men learned about the psychology of suggestion. Scott's theory was consistent with a growing trend in the advertising profession toward viewing consumer behavior as irrational. Scott's efforts might also be viewed as part of the trend in the advertising profession toward seeking a scientific basis for copywriting theory and practice.