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Sample records for models show reasonable

  1. Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  2. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process.

  3. Causal reasoning with mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Barbey, Aron K; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.

  4. Causal reasoning with mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.

  5. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  6. Modelling the dynamics of reasoning processes: reasoning by assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    To model the dynamics of cognitive processes, often the Dynamical Systems Theory (DST) is advocated. However, for higher cognitive processes such as reasoning and certain forms of natural language processing the techniques adopted within DST are not very adequate. This paper shows how an analysis of

  7. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Segler, Marwin H S

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows Organic Chemists to solve synthetic problems and to invent novel transformations. Here, we propose a model which mimics chemical reasoning and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180,000 randomly selected binary reactions. We show that our data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-) discovering novel transformations (even including transition-metal catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph, and because each single reaction prediction is typically ac...

  8. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  9. A computational model of analogical reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵沁平

    1997-01-01

    A computational model of analogical reasoning is presented, which divides analogical reasoning process into four subprocesses, i.e. reminding, elaboration, matching and transfer. For each subprocess, its role and the principles it follows are given. The model is discussed in detail, including salient feature-based reminding, relevance-directed elaboration, an improved matching model and a transfer model. And the advantages of this model are summarized based on the results of BHARS, which is an analogical reasoning system implemented by this model.

  10. Cognitive modelling of human temporal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, AGB

    2003-01-01

    Modelling human reasoning characterizes the fundamental human cognitive capacity to describe our past experience and use it to form expectations as well as plan and direct our future actions. Natural language semantics analyzes dynamic forms of reasoning in which the real-time order determines the

  11. Context Based Reasoning in Business Process Models

    OpenAIRE

    Balabko, Pavel; Wegmann, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Modeling approaches often are not adapted to human reasoning: models are ambiguous and imprecise. A same model element may have multiple meanings in different functional roles of a system. Existing modeling approaches do not relate explicitly these functional roles with model elements. A principle that can solve this problem is that model elements should be defined in a context. We believe that the explicit modeling of context is especially useful in Business Process Modeling (BPM) where the ...

  12. A Causal Model for Diagnostic Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guoqiang; CHENG Hu

    2000-01-01

    Up to now, there have been many methods for knowledge representation and reasoning in causal networks, but few of them include the research on the coactions of nodes. In practice, ignoring these coactions may influence the accuracy of reasoning and even give rise to incorrect reasoning. In this paper, based on multilayer causal networks, the definitions on coaction nodes are given to construct a new causal network called Coaction Causal Network, which serves to construct a model of neural network for diagnosis followed by fuzzy reasoning, and then the activation rules are given and neural computing methods are used to finish the diagnostic reasoning. These methods are proved in theory and a method of computing the number of solutions for the diagnostic reasoning is given. Finally, the experiments and the conclusions are presented.

  13. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Segler, Marwin H. S.; Waller, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows Organic Chemists to solve synthetic problems and to invent novel transformations. Here, we propose a model which mimics chemical reasoning and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outpe...

  14. Symbolic Deductive Reasoning using Connectionist Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Horia Zaharia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to combine the possibility of symbolic deductive reasoning with the learning capability of the connectionist models. We introduce several algorithms for learning relations between concepts and finding paths in a transitive manner between learned concepts. An application that implements the proposed model is described and a number of case studies are presented.

  15. Structured Statistical Models of Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Everyday inductive inferences are often guided by rich background knowledge. Formal models of induction should aim to incorporate this knowledge and should explain how different kinds of knowledge lead to the distinctive patterns of reasoning found in different inductive contexts. This article presents a Bayesian framework that attempts to meet…

  16. A dynamic model of reasoning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Guy E; Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2016-02-01

    Previous models of category-based induction have neglected how the process of induction unfolds over time. We conceive of induction as a dynamic process and provide the first fine-grained examination of the distribution of response times observed in inductive reasoning. We used these data to develop and empirically test the first major quantitative modeling scheme that simultaneously accounts for inductive decisions and their time course. The model assumes that knowledge of similarity relations among novel test probes and items stored in memory drive an accumulation-to-bound sequential sampling process: Test probes with high similarity to studied exemplars are more likely to trigger a generalization response, and more rapidly, than items with low exemplar similarity. We contrast data and model predictions for inductive decisions with a recognition memory task using a common stimulus set. Hierarchical Bayesian analyses across 2 experiments demonstrated that inductive reasoning and recognition memory primarily differ in the threshold to trigger a decision: Observers required less evidence to make a property generalization judgment (induction) than an identity statement about a previously studied item (recognition). Experiment 1 and a condition emphasizing decision speed in Experiment 2 also found evidence that inductive decisions use lower quality similarity-based information than recognition. The findings suggest that induction might represent a less cautious form of recognition. We conclude that sequential sampling models grounded in exemplar-based similarity, combined with hierarchical Bayesian analysis, provide a more fine-grained and informative analysis of the processes involved in inductive reasoning than is possible solely through examination of choice data.

  17. A Quantum Probability Model of Causal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Jennifer S.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2012-01-01

    People can often outperform statistical methods and machine learning algorithms in situations that involve making inferences about the relationship between causes and effects. While people are remarkably good at causal reasoning in many situations, there are several instances where they deviate from expected responses. This paper examines three situations where judgments related to causal inference problems produce unexpected results and describes a quantum inference model based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory that can explain these effects. Two of the three phenomena arise from the comparison of predictive judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of an effect given a cause) with diagnostic judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of a cause given an effect). The third phenomenon is a new finding examining order effects in predictive causal judgments. The quantum inference model uses the notion of incompatibility among different causes to account for all three phenomena. Psychologically, the model assumes that individuals adopt different points of view when thinking about different causes. The model provides good fits to the data and offers a coherent account for all three causal reasoning effects thus proving to be a viable new candidate for modeling human judgment. PMID:22593747

  18. A quantum probability model of causal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Jennifer S; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2012-01-01

    People can often outperform statistical methods and machine learning algorithms in situations that involve making inferences about the relationship between causes and effects. While people are remarkably good at causal reasoning in many situations, there are several instances where they deviate from expected responses. This paper examines three situations where judgments related to causal inference problems produce unexpected results and describes a quantum inference model based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory that can explain these effects. Two of the three phenomena arise from the comparison of predictive judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of an effect given a cause) with diagnostic judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of a cause given an effect). The third phenomenon is a new finding examining order effects in predictive causal judgments. The quantum inference model uses the notion of incompatibility among different causes to account for all three phenomena. Psychologically, the model assumes that individuals adopt different points of view when thinking about different causes. The model provides good fits to the data and offers a coherent account for all three causal reasoning effects thus proving to be a viable new candidate for modeling human judgment.

  19. A quantum probability model of causal reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Trueblood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People can often outperform statistical methods and machine learning algorithms in situations that involve making inferences about the relationship between causes and effects. While people are remarkably good at causal reasoning in many situations, there are several instances where they deviate from expected responses. This paper examines three situations where judgments related to causal inference problems produce unexpected results and describes a quantum inference model based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory that can explain these effects. Two of the three phenomena arise from the comparison of predictive judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of an effect given a cause with diagnostic judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of a cause given an effect. The third phenomenon is a new finding examining order effects in predictive causal judgments. The quantum inference model uses the notion of incompatibility among different causes to account for all three phenomena. Psychologically, the model assumes that individuals adopt different points of view when thinking about different causes. The model provides good fits to the data and offers a coherent account for all three causal reasoning effects thus proving to be a viable new candidate for modeling human judgment.

  20. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Economides

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.

  1. Stimulating Scientific Reasoning with Drawing-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnes, Dewi; van Joolingen, Wouter; Leenaars, Frank

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the way students' reasoning about evolution can be supported by drawing-based modeling. We modified the drawing-based modeling tool SimSketch to allow for modeling evolutionary processes. In three iterations of development and testing, students in lower secondary education worked on creating an evolutionary model. After each iteration, the user interface and instructions were adjusted based on students' remarks and the teacher's observations. Students' conversations were analyzed on reasoning complexity as a measurement of efficacy of the modeling tool and the instructions. These findings were also used to compose a set of recommendations for teachers and curriculum designers for using and constructing models in the classroom. Our findings suggest that to stimulate scientific reasoning in students working with a drawing-based modeling, tool instruction about the tool and the domain should be integrated. In creating models, a sufficient level of scaffolding is necessary. Without appropriate scaffolds, students are not able to create the model. With scaffolding that is too high, students may show reasoning that incorrectly assigns external causes to behavior in the model.

  2. A universal model of diagnostic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat

    2009-08-01

    Clinical judgment is a critical aspect of physician performance in medicine. It is essential in the formulation of a diagnosis and key to the effective and safe management of patients. Yet, the overall diagnostic error rate remains unacceptably high. In more than four decades of research, a variety of approaches have been taken, but a consensus approach toward diagnostic decision making has not emerged. In the last 20 years, important gains have been made in psychological research on human judgment. Dual-process theory has emerged as the predominant approach, positing two systems of decision making, System 1 (heuristic, intuitive) and System 2 (systematic, analytical). The author proposes a schematic model that uses the theory to develop a universal approach toward clinical decision making. Properties of the model explain many of the observed characteristics of physicians' performance. Yet the author cautions that not all medical reasoning and decision making falls neatly into one or the other of the model's systems, even though they provide a basic framework incorporating the recognized diverse approaches. He also emphasizes the complexity of decision making in actual clinical situations and the urgent need for more research to help clinicians gain additional insight and understanding regarding their decision making.

  3. Therapeutic reasoning: from hiatus to hypothetical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissessur, S.; Geijteman, E.C.T.; Al-Dulaimy, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Richir, M.C.; Arnold, A.E.R.; Vries, de T.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Extensive research has been conducted on clinical reasoning to gain better understanding of this process. Clinical reasoning has been defined as the process of thinking critically about the diagnosis and patient management. However, most research has focused on the process of diagnostic re

  4. Proportional Reasoning of Preservice Elementary Education Majors: An Epistemic Model of the Proportional Reasoning Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleener, M. Jayne

    Current research and learning theory suggest that a hierarchy of proportional reasoning exists that can be tested. Using G. Vergnaud's four complexity variables (structure, content, numerical characteristics, and presentation) and T. E. Kieren's model of rational number knowledge building, an epistemic model of proportional reasoning was…

  5. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity.

  6. Concept model semantics for DL preferential reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The preferential and rational consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and colleagues play a central role in non-monotonic reasoning, not least because they provide the foundation for the determination of the important notion of rational...

  7. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; FISHBEIN, MARTIN

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are ...

  8. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach.

  9. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new...

  10. Reasoning about causes and consequences in Mulitlevel Flow Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    -end topology of the multilevel flow models and may be used for design of human machine interfaces supporting diagrammatic reasoning about spatial-temporal aspects of dynamic situations. The principles described in the paper have been used in the implementation of a model based reasoning system.......The purpose of the paper is to describe how multilevel flow models are used for reasoning about causes and consequences in complex dynamic processes. Reasoning in MFM models derives its power from representation of process knowledge on several levels of specification. The detailed specification...... is the basis for implementation of automated model based reasoning functions whereas the more abstract specifica-tions provides generic process knowledge for formulation of reasoning strategies and for giving explanations. Reasoning strategies and explanations can be directly visualized in terms of the means...

  11. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  12. Logical Reasoning versus Information Processing in the Dual-Strategy Model of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2017-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model, proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b), which suggests that people might have access to both…

  13. Six-step reasoning model for robot-soccer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The decision-making system of robot-soccer is a kind of knowledge system. A Six-step Reasoning Model is established by formalizing its expert knowledge and decision-making process. Furthermore, many other models can be considered as mutation and evolution of the Six-step Reasoning Model.

  14. Overcoming limitations of model-based diagnostic reasoning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzblatt, Lester J.; Marcotte, Richard A.; Piazza, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a model-based diagnostic system to overcome the limitations of model-based reasoning systems is discussed. It is noted that model-based reasoning techniques can be used to analyze the failure behavior and diagnosability of system and circuit designs as part of the system process itself. One goal of current research is the development of a diagnostic algorithm which can reason efficiently about large numbers of diagnostic suspects and can handle both combinational and sequential circuits. A second goal is to address the model-creation problem by developing an approach for using design models to construct the GMODS model in an automated fashion.

  15. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a functio...

  16. A model of synthesis based on functional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Zavbi, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of how to carry out functional reasoning. The model is based on the domain theory, and it links the stepwise determination of the artefact´s characteristics during the design process to different ways of carrying out functional reasoning found in the literature....... The model proposes of a set of the mental objects and a number of ways to carry out functional reasoning available to the engineering designer. The result of the research presented in this paper is the building of a hypothesis "in the form of a model" with explanatory power....

  17. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  18. A Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR) presented in this paper is an innovative solution for non-intrusively monitoring the state of health (SoH) and...

  19. CONVERSE REASONING FOR FULL DEPRESSION-FEATURE MODEL AND PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new approach, namely, "defining protrusion-feature with depression-parameter" is advanced, which focuses on the shortcomings of protrusion-feature alteration method; The full depression-feature model is built up, and a basic converse reasoning iterative algorithm for machining process is given.The detailed examination has been implemented on the feature-based modeling system for light industry product (QJFMS) and the converse reasoning on fixture-based machining process is achieved.

  20. Reasoning with probabilistic and deterministic graphical models exact algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Dechter, Rina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical models (e.g., Bayesian and constraint networks, influence diagrams, and Markov decision processes) have become a central paradigm for knowledge representation and reasoning in both artificial intelligence and computer science in general. These models are used to perform many reasoning tasks, such as scheduling, planning and learning, diagnosis and prediction, design, hardware and software verification, and bioinformatics. These problems can be stated as the formal tasks of constraint satisfaction and satisfiability, combinatorial optimization, and probabilistic inference. It is well

  1. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffner, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  2. A theory and a computational model of spatial reasoning with preferred mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Marco; Knauff, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Inferences about spatial arrangements and relations like "The Porsche is parked to the left of the Dodge and the Ferrari is parked to the right of the Dodge, thus, the Porsche is parked to the left of the Ferrari," are ubiquitous. However, spatial descriptions are often interpretable in many different ways and compatible with several alternative mental models. This article suggests that individuals tackle such indeterminate multiple-model problems by constructing a single, simple, and typical mental model but neglect other possible models. The model that first comes to reasoners' minds is the preferred mental model. It helps save cognitive resources but also leads to reasoning errors and illusory inferences. The article presents a preferred model theory and an instantiation of this theory in the form of a computational model, preferred inferences in reasoning with spatial mental models (PRISM). PRISM can be used to simulate and explain how preferred models are constructed, inspected, and varied in a spatial array that functions as if it were a spatial working memory. A spatial focus inserts tokens into the array, inspects the array to find new spatial relations, and relocates tokens in the array to generate alternative models of the problem description, if necessary. The article also introduces a general measure of difficulty based on the number of necessary focus operations (rather than the number of models). A comparison with results from psychological experiments shows that the theory can explain preferences, errors, and the difficulty of spatial reasoning problems.

  3. An Agent Memory Model Enabling Rational and Biased Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a memory model that facilitates versatile reasoning mechanisms over the beliefs stored in an agent's belief base. Based on an approach for belief aggregation, a model is introduced for controlling both the formation of abstract and complex beliefs and the

  4. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in

  5. A Quantitative Causal Model Theory of Conditional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbach, Philip M.; Erb, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose and test a causal model theory of reasoning about conditional arguments with causal content. According to the theory, the acceptability of modus ponens (MP) and affirming the consequent (AC) reflect the conditional likelihood of causes and effects based on a probabilistic causal model of the scenario being judged. Acceptability…

  6. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in dynami

  7. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  8. Topological bifurcations in a model society of reasonable contrarians

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    People are often divided into conformists and contrarians, the former tending to align to the majority opinion in their neighborhood and the latter tending to disagree with that majority. In practice, however, the contrarian tendency is rarely followed when there is an overwhelming majority with a given opinion, which denotes a social norm. Such reasonable contrarian behavior is often considered a mark of independent thought, and can be a useful strategy in financial markets. We present the opinion dynamics of a society of reasonable contrarian agents. The model is a cellular automaton of Ising type, with antiferromagnetic pair interactions modeling contrarianism and plaquette terms modeling social norms. We introduce the entropy of the collective variable as a way of comparing deterministic (mean-field) and probabilistic (simulations) bifurcation diagrams. In the mean field approximation the model exhibits bifurcations and a chaotic phase, interpreted as coherent oscillations of the whole society. However, i...

  9. Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Chaudhuri, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Assembly-based modeling is a promising approach to broadening the accessibility of 3D modeling. In assembly-based modeling, new models are assembled from shape components extracted from a database. A key challenge in assembly-based modeling is the identification of relevant components to be presented to the user. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic reasoning approach to this problem. Given a repository of shapes, our approach learns a probabilistic graphical model that encodes semantic and geometric relationships among shape components. The probabilistic model is used to present components that are semantically and stylistically compatible with the 3D model that is being assembled. Our experiments indicate that the probabilistic model increases the relevance of presented components. © 2011 ACM.

  10. More evidence for a dual-process model of conditional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Forgues, Hugues Lortie; Brunet, Marie-Laurence

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have shown that the deductive inferences that people make have global properties that reflect the statistical information implicit in the premises. This suggests that such reasoning can be explained by a single, underlying probabilistic model. In contrast, the dual process model of conditional reasoning (Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle, 2005b) proposes that people can use either a logical, counterexample-based strategy or a probabilistic one. In two studies, we presented reasoners with sequences of affirmation-of-the-consequent inferences that differed with respect to the statistical properties of the premises, either explicitly or implicitly. As predicted by the dual-process model, an analysis of individual response patterns showed the presence of two distinct strategies, with use of the counterexample strategy being associated with higher levels of abstract-reasoning competence. Use of the counterexample strategy was facilitated by the explicit presentation of counterexample information. In a further study, we then examined explicitly probabilistic inferences. This study showed that although most reasoners made statistically appropriate inferences, the ability to make more-accurate inferences was associated with higher levels of abstract reasoning competence. These results show that deductive inferential reasoning cannot be explained by a single, unitary process and that any analysis of reasoning must consider individual differences in strategy use.

  11. Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained

  12. Possibilities: A framework for modeling students' deductive reasoning in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Jonathan David Housley

    Students often make errors when trying to solve qualitative or conceptual physics problems, and while many successful instructional interventions have been generated to prevent such errors, the process of deduction that students use when solving physics problems has not been thoroughly studied. In an effort to better understand that reasoning process, I have developed a new framework, which is based on the mental models framework in psychology championed by P. N. Johnson-Laird. My new framework models how students search possibility space when thinking about conceptual physics problems and suggests that errors arise from failing to flesh out all possibilities. It further suggests that instructional interventions should focus on making apparent those possibilities, as well as all physical consequences those possibilities would incur. The possibilities framework emerged from the analysis of data from a unique research project specifically invented for the purpose of understanding how students use deductive reasoning. In the selection task, participants were given a physics problem along with three written possible solutions with the goal of identifying which one of the three possible solutions was correct. Each participant was also asked to identify the errors in the incorrect solutions. For the study presented in this dissertation, participants not only performed the selection task individually on four problems, but they were also placed into groups of two or three and asked to discuss with each other the reasoning they used in making their choices and attempt to reach a consensus about which solution was correct. Finally, those groups were asked to work together to perform the selection task on three new problems. The possibilities framework appropriately models the reasoning that students use, and it makes useful predictions about potentially helpful instructional interventions. The study reported in this dissertation emphasizes the useful insight the

  13. A neural model of rule generation in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel; Eliasmith, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is a fundamental and complex aspect of human intelligence. In particular, how do subjects, given a set of particular examples, generate general descriptions of the rules governing that set? We present a biologically plausible method for accomplishing this task and implement it in a spiking neuron model. We demonstrate the success of this model by applying it to the problem domain of Raven's Progressive Matrices, a widely used tool in the field of intelligence testing. The model is able to generate the rules necessary to correctly solve Raven's items, as well as recreate many of the experimental effects observed in human subjects.

  14. Product Modelling and Functional Reasoning in Conceptual Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志航; 宋慧军; 陈康宁

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a product model in conceptual design, Domain Structure Template, is proposed, which combines the functional domain and the physical domain with the behaviour domain. Seven types of primary mappings units connecting functions, behaviours and carriers during conceptual design process are identified according to the characteristics of the conceptual design of mechanical products.Based on these seven primary mappings, a hierarchical functional reasoning framework characterizing the process of conceptual design is presented. A case study for the conceptual design of industry sewing machines with chain-stitch is described to demonstrate the product modelling and the scheme generation based on the presented model.

  15. Capability Model for Case-Based Reasoning in Collaborative Commerce Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative commerce (c-commerce) has become an innovative business paradigm that helps companies achieve high operational performance through inter-organizational collaboration. This paper presents an effective case-based reasoning (CBR) capability model for solution selection in c-commerce applications, as CBR is widely used in knowledge management and electronic commerce.Based on the case-based competence model suggested by Smyth and McKenna, a directed graph was used to represent the collaborative reasoning history of CBR systems, where information of reasoning process ability was extracted. Experiment was carried out on a travel dataset. By integrating case-based competence and reasoning process ability, the capability is more suitable to reflect the real ability of CBR systems. The result shows that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the capability of CBR systems and enhance the performance of collaborative case-based reasoning in c-commerce environment.

  16. CAD Parts-Based Assembly Modeling by Probabilistic Reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kai-Ke

    2016-04-11

    Nowadays, increasing amount of parts and sub-assemblies are publicly available, which can be used directly for product development instead of creating from scratch. In this paper, we propose an interactive design framework for efficient and smart assembly modeling, in order to improve the design efficiency. Our approach is based on a probabilistic reasoning. Given a collection of industrial assemblies, we learn a probabilistic graphical model from the relationships between the parts of assemblies. Then in the modeling stage, this probabilistic model is used to suggest the most likely used parts compatible with the current assembly. Finally, the parts are assembled under certain geometric constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework through a variety of assembly models produced by our prototype system. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Modelling Chemical Reasoning to Predict and Invent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Waller, Mark P

    2016-11-11

    The ability to reason beyond established knowledge allows organic chemists to solve synthetic problems and invent novel transformations. Herein, we propose a model that mimics chemical reasoning, and formalises reaction prediction as finding missing links in a knowledge graph. We have constructed a knowledge graph containing 14.4 million molecules and 8.2 million binary reactions, which represents the bulk of all chemical reactions ever published in the scientific literature. Our model outperforms a rule-based expert system in the reaction prediction task for 180 000 randomly selected binary reactions. The data-driven model generalises even beyond known reaction types, and is thus capable of effectively (re-)discovering novel transformations (even including transition metal-catalysed reactions). Our model enables computers to infer hypotheses about reactivity and reactions by only considering the intrinsic local structure of the graph and because each single reaction prediction is typically achieved in a sub-second time frame, the model can be used as a high-throughput generator of reaction hypotheses for reaction discovery.

  18. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  19. The Cognitive-Miser Response Model: Testing for Intuitive and Deliberate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenholt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    In a number of psychological studies, answers to reasoning vignettes have been shown to result from both intuitive and deliberate response processes. This paper utilizes a psychometric model to separate these two response tendencies. An experimental application shows that the proposed model facilitates the analysis of dual-process item responses…

  20. A connectionist computational model for epistemic and temporal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila Garcez, Artur S; Lamb, Luís C

    2006-07-01

    The importance of the efforts to bridge the gap between the connectionist and symbolic paradigms of artificial intelligence has been widely recognized. The merging of theory (background knowledge) and data learning (learning from examples) into neural-symbolic systems has indicated that such a learning system is more effective than purely symbolic or purely connectionist systems. Until recently, however, neural-symbolic systems were not able to fully represent, reason, and learn expressive languages other than classical propositional and fragments of first-order logic. In this article, we show that nonclassical logics, in particular propositional temporal logic and combinations of temporal and epistemic (modal) reasoning, can be effectively computed by artificial neural networks. We present the language of a connectionist temporal logic of knowledge (CTLK). We then present a temporal algorithm that translates CTLK theories into ensembles of neural networks and prove that the translation is correct. Finally, we apply CTLK to the muddy children puzzle, which has been widely used as a test-bed for distributed knowledge representation. We provide a complete solution to the puzzle with the use of simple neural networks, capable of reasoning about knowledge evolution in time and of knowledge acquisition through learning.

  1. Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Griffiths, Thomas L; Kemp, Charles

    2006-07-01

    Inductive inference allows humans to make powerful generalizations from sparse data when learning about word meanings, unobserved properties, causal relationships, and many other aspects of the world. Traditional accounts of induction emphasize either the power of statistical learning, or the importance of strong constraints from structured domain knowledge, intuitive theories or schemas. We argue that both components are necessary to explain the nature, use and acquisition of human knowledge, and we introduce a theory-based Bayesian framework for modeling inductive learning and reasoning as statistical inferences over structured knowledge representations.

  2. Reasoning About Strategies: On the Model-Checking Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Mogavero, Fabio; Perelli, Giuseppe; Vardi, Moshe Y

    2011-01-01

    In open systems verification, to formally check for reliability, one needs an appropriate formalism to model the interaction between agents and express the correctness of the system no matter how the environment behaves. An important contribution in this context is given by modal logics for strategic ability, in the setting of multi-agent games, such as ATL, ATL*, and the like. Recently, Chatterjee, Henzinger, and Piterman introduced Strategy Logic (CHP-SL), with the aim of getting a powerful framework for reasoning explicitly about strategies. CHP-SL is obtained by using first-order quantifications over strategies and it has been investigated in the setting of two-agents turned-based games, where a non-elementary model-checking algorithm has been provided. While CHP-SL is a very expressive logic, we claim that it does not fully capture the strategic aspects of multi-agent systems. In this paper, we introduce and study a more general strategy logic, denoted SL, for reasoning about strategies in multi-agent co...

  3. System reliability assessment with an approximate reasoning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Helm, T.M.; Boerigter, S.T.

    1998-12-31

    The projected service life of weapons in the US nuclear stockpile will exceed the original design life of their critical components. Interim metrics are needed to describe weapon states for use in simulation models of the nuclear weapons complex. The authors present an approach to this problem based upon the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) that allows meaningful assessments to be made in an environment where reliability models are incomplete. AR models are designed to emulate the inference process used by subject matter experts. The emulation is based upon a formal logic structure that relates evidence about components. This evidence is translated using natural language expressions into linguistic variables that describe membership in fuzzy sets. The authors introduce a metric that measures the acceptability of a weapon to nuclear deterrence planners. Implication rule bases are used to draw a series of forward chaining inferences about the acceptability of components, subsystems and individual weapons. They describe each component in the AR model in some detail and illustrate its behavior with a small example. The integration of the acceptability metric into a prototype model to simulate the weapons complex is also described.

  4. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2016-12-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  5. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2017-02-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  6. Model-Based Reasoning in the Upper-Division Physics Laboratory: Framework and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H J

    2014-01-01

    Constructing and using models are core scientific practices that have gained significant attention within K-12 and higher education. Although modeling is a broadly applicable process, within physics education, it has been preferentially applied to the iterative development of broadly applicable principles (e.g., Newton's laws of motion in introductory mechanics). We review and extend existing frameworks on modeling to develop a new framework that more naturally describes model-based reasoning in upper-division physics labs. A significant feature of the new framework is that measurement tools (in addition to the physical system being studied) are subjected to the process of modeling. Think-aloud interviews were used to document examples of model-based reasoning in the laboratory and refine the modeling framework. The interviews showed how students productively applied similar facets of modeling to the physical system and measurement tools: construction, prediction, interpretation of data, identification of mod...

  7. Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charlie C L

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products.  Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).   Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving...

  8. Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

  9. Model-based reasoning in the physics laboratory: Framework and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hu, Dehui; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We review and extend existing frameworks on modeling to develop a new framework that describes model-based reasoning in introductory and upper-division physics laboratories. Constructing and using models are core scientific practices that have gained significant attention within K-12 and higher education. Although modeling is a broadly applicable process, within physics education, it has been preferentially applied to the iterative development of broadly applicable principles (e.g., Newton's laws of motion in introductory mechanics). A significant feature of the new framework is that measurement tools (in addition to the physical system being studied) are subjected to the process of modeling. Think-aloud interviews were used to refine the framework and demonstrate its utility by documenting examples of model-based reasoning in the laboratory. When applied to the think-aloud interviews, the framework captures and differentiates students' model-based reasoning and helps identify areas of future research. The interviews showed how students productively applied similar facets of modeling to the physical system and measurement tools: construction, prediction, interpretation of data, identification of model limitations, and revision. Finally, we document students' challenges in explicitly articulating assumptions when constructing models of experimental systems and further challenges in model construction due to students' insufficient prior conceptual understanding. A modeling perspective reframes many of the seemingly arbitrary technical details of measurement tools and apparatus as an opportunity for authentic and engaging scientific sense making.

  10. GLOBAL PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: AN ANALOGICAL REASONING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk KIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in terms of the access to essential, life-saving medicines. The multinational pharmaceutical companies have been severely criticized by their various stakeholders because of their business models, particularly because of the stringent patent protection on the pharmaceutical products. The multinational pharmaceutical companies should find a new strategic direction to balance their R&D-intensive, expensive business with the access to essential, lifesaving medicines since favorable public relations are critical for the multinational pharmaceutical companies to maintain their profitable business. This paper adopts an Analogical Reasoning Model (ARM to propose a new strategic direction for the multinational pharmaceutical companies in an effort to balance their expensive business with the enhanced social responsibility. In essence, the ARM helps the multinational pharmaceutical companies formulate viable strategies that can realize a win-win situation not only for their stakeholders but also for the pharmaceutical companies themselves. The ARM is constructed, analyzing the food and beverage industry as a source environment, and suggests a comprehensive, industry-wide, multi-stakeholder public-private partnership, led not by the public sector but by the multinational pharmaceutical companies.

  11. Modelling defeasible reasoning by means of adaptive logic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verdée

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I present a dynamic logic game for defeasible reasoning. I argue that, as far as defeasible reasoning is concerned, one should distinguish between practical and ideal rationality. Starting from the adaptive logic framework, I formalize both rationality notions by means of logic game

  12. Student use of model-based reasoning when troubleshooting an electronic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Heather; Stetzer, Mackenzie; van de Bogart, Kevin; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri

    2016-03-01

    Troubleshooting systems is an integral part of experimental physics in both research and educational settings. Accordingly, ability to troubleshoot is an important learning goal for undergraduate physics lab courses. We investigate students' model-based reasoning on a troubleshooting task using data collected in think-aloud interviews during which pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning circuit. Our analysis scheme was informed by the Experimental Modeling Framework, which describes physicists' use of mathematical and conceptual models when reasoning about experimental systems. We show that system and subsystem models were crucial for the evaluation of repairs to the circuit and played an important role in some troubleshooting strategies. Finally, drawing on data from interviews with electronics instructors from a broad range of institution types, we outline recommendations for model-based approaches to teaching and learning troubleshooting skills.

  13. Student use of model-based reasoning when troubleshooting an electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    Troubleshooting systems is an integral part of experimental physics in both research and educational settings. Accordingly, ability to troubleshoot is an important learning goal for undergraduate physics lab courses. We investigate students' model-based reasoning on a troubleshooting task using data collected in think-aloud interviews during which pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning circuit. Our analysis scheme was informed by the Experimental Modeling Framework, which describes physicists' use of mathematical and conceptual models when reasoning about experimental systems. We show that system and subsystem models were crucial for the evaluation of repairs to the circuit and played an important role in some troubleshooting strategies. Finally, drawing on data from interviews with electronics instructors from a broad range of institution types, we outline recommendations for model-based approaches to teaching and learning troubleshooting skills.

  14. A Solved Model to Show Insufficiency of Quantitative Adiabatic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Long-Jiang; LIU Yu-Zhen; TONG Dian-Min

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic theorem is a useful tool in processing quantum systems slowly evolving,but its practical application depends on the quantitative condition expressed by Hamiltonian's eigenvalues and eigenstates,which is usually taken as a sufficient condition.Recently,the sumciency of the condition was questioned,and several counterex amples have been reported.Here we present a new solved model to show the insufficiency of the traditional quantitative adiabatic condition.

  15. A defeasible reasoning model of inductive concept learning from examples and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ontañón, Santiago; Dellunde, Pilar; Godo, Lluís; Plaza, Enric

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a logical model of inductive generalization, and specifically of the machine learning task of inductive concept learning (ICL). We argue that some inductive processes, like ICL, can be seen as a form of defeasible reasoning. We define a consequence relation characterizing which hypotheses can be induced from given sets of examples, and study its properties, showing they correspond to a rather well-behaved non-monotonic logic. We will also show that with the addition of a...

  16. Modeling argumentation based semantics using non-monotonic reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Argumentation theory is an alternative style of formalizing non-monotonic reasoning. It seems, argumentation theory is a suitable framework for practical and uncertain reasoning, where arguments support conclusions. Dung's approach is an unifying framework which has played an influential role on argumentation research and Artificial Intelligence. Even though the success of the argumentation theory, it seems that argumentation theory is so far from being efficiently implemented like the logic ...

  17. Bayesian Diagnostic Network: A Powerful Model for Representation and Reasoning of Engineering Diagnostic Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhao-yong

    2005-01-01

    Engineering diagnosis is essential to the operation of industrial equipment. The key to successful diagnosis is correct knowledge representation and reasoning. The Bayesian network is a powerful tool for it. This paper utilizes the Bayesian network to represent and reason diagnostic knowledge, named Bayesian diagnostic network. It provides a three-layer topologic structure based on operating conditions, possible faults and corresponding symptoms. The paper also discusses an approximate stochastic sampling algorithm. Then a practical Bayesian network for gas turbine diagnosis is constructed on a platform developed under a Visual C++ environment. It shows that the Bayesian network is a powerful model for representation and reasoning of diagnostic knowledge. The three-layer structure and the approximate algorithm are effective also.

  18. Research on monthly flow uncertain reasoning model based on cloud theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In view of the mid and long term runoff forecasting containing many uncertain factors,this paper constructs a uncertain reasoning model (UR) based on the cloud theory to solve the problem of uncertain reasoning.Firstly,in the proposed model,a classification method,i.e.,attribute oriented induction maximum variance (MaxVar),is used to divide the runoff series into different intervals,which are softened and described by the cloud membership with expected value (Ex),entropy (En) and hyper-entropy (He),then an uncertain reasoning rule set is constructed by means of the runoff value generalization and applied to monthly flow for uncertain prediction.Next,a new modification formula is used to calculate He in runoff forecasting,and a confident level probability prediction interval is obtained by statistical method.Finally,this paper takes the monthly flow of Manwan station in China as an example and uses UR model,LSSVM model,and ARMA model to calculate the monthly flow,respectively.The results show that the UR model has the highest prediction accuracy compared to other models,and that it not only provides random output but also supports probability interval prediction.

  19. Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and modeling of defeasible information and non-monotonic reasoning services. Here we formalize a possible way of introducing non-monotonic reasoning into ORM2 schemas, enriching the language with special set of new constraints....

  20. A Pro-Environmental Reasoned Action Model for Measuring Citizens’ Intentions regarding Ecolabel Product Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Nadlifatin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecolabel products are one approach towards environmental sustainability. Ecolabel programs have been socialized by governments all over the world to reduce environmental harm caused by the daily life cycles of the products that citizens use. The present study was aimed at measuring citizens’ behavior intention (BI regarding ecolabel product usage. An extended theory of reasoned action (TRA, namely that of pro-environmental reasoned action (PERA, is used as the predictor model. A total of 213 questionnaire data, collected from citizens of Indonesia, was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The analysis results show that the PERA model is able to describe 68% of citizens’ BI regarding ecolabel product usage. The analysis results also reveal that attitude is a key determinant factor. Several practical suggestions based on the results can be used as input for policy makers and company management to consider in their efforts to increase citizens’ BI to use ecolabel products.

  1. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  2. New Normative Standards of Conditional Reasoning and the Dual-Source Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eSingmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning towards Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998 for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer & Kleiter, 2005, 2010 exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer, Beller, & Hütter, 2010 is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  3. Prediction model for permeability index by integrating case-based reasoning with adaptive particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hongqiu; Yang Chunhua; Gui Weihua

    2009-01-01

    To effectively predict the permeability index of smelting process in the imperial smelting furnace, an intelligent prediction model is proposed. It integrates the case-based reasoning (CBR) with adaptive particle swarm optimization (PSO). The number of nearest neighbors and the weighted features vector are optimized online using the adaptive PSO to improve the prediction accuracy of CBR. The adaptive inertia weight and mutation operation are used to overcome the premature convergence of the PSO. The proposed method is validated a compared with the basic weighted CBR. The results show that the proposed model has higher prediction accuracy and better performance than the basic CBR model.

  4. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...

  5. HYBRID REASONING MODEL FOR STRENGTHENING THE PROBLEM SOLVING CAPABILITY OF EXPERT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Khandelwal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we briefly outlined popular case-based reasoning combinations. More specifically, we focus on combinations of case-based reasoning with rule based reasoning, and model based reasoning. Further we examined the strengths and weaknesses of various reasoning models, case-based reasoning, rule-based reasoning and model-based reasoning, and discuss how they can be combined to form a more robust and better-performing hybrid. In a decision support system to address the variety of tasks a user performs, a single type of knowledge and reasoning method is often not sufficient. It is often necessary to determine which reasoning method would be the most appropriate for each task, and a combination of different methods has often shown the best results. In this study CBR was mixed with other RBR and MBR approaches to promote synergies and benefits beyond those achievable using CBR or other individual reasoning approaches alone. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages, which are proved to be complementary in a large degree. So, it is well-justified to combine these to produce effective hybrid approaches, surpassing the disadvantages of each component method. “KNAPS-CR” model integrates problem solving with learning from experience within an extensive model of different knowledge types. “KNAPS-CR” has a reasoning strategy which first attempts case-based reasoning, then rule-based reasoning, and, finally, model-based reasoning. It learns from each problem solving session by updating its collection of cases, irrespective of which reasoning method that succeeded in solving the problem.

  6. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...... the Type I error if a theory predicts that the race model prediction holds in a given experimental condition. © 2011 Psychonomic Society, Inc....

  7. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...... the Type I error if a theory predicts that the race model prediction holds in a given experimental condition. © 2011 Psychonomic Society, Inc....

  8. Showing Automatically Generated Students' Conceptual Models to Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marin, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A student conceptual model can be defined as a set of interconnected concepts associated with an estimation value that indicates how well these concepts are used by the students. It can model just one student or a group of students, and can be represented as a concept map, conceptual diagram or one of several other knowledge representation…

  9. A data model that captures clinical reasoning about patient problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. C.; Johnson, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a data model that has been implemented for the CPMC Ambulatory Care System, and exemplify its function for patient problems. The model captures some nuances of clinical thinking about patients that are not accommodated in most other models, such as an evolution of clinical understanding about patient problems. A record of this understanding has clinical utility, and serves research interests as well as medical audit concerns. The model is described with an example, and advantages and limitations in the current implementation are discussed. PMID:8563311

  10. Reasoning with Atomic-Scale Molecular Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Tinker, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    The studies reported in this paper are an initial effort to explore the applicability of computational models in introductory science learning. Two instructional interventions are described that use a molecular dynamics model embedded in a set of online learning activities with middle and high school students in 10 classrooms. The studies indicate…

  11. Universal triple I fuzzy reasoning algorithm of function model based on quotient space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qiang; Shen Guanting; and Liu Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiencies of analysis capacity from different levels and fuzzy treating method in product function modeling of conceptual design, the theory of quotient space and universal triple I fuzzy reasoning method are introduced, and then the function modeling algorithm based on the universal triple I fuzzy reasoning method is proposed. Firstly, the product function granular model based on the quotient space theory is built, with its function granular representation and computing rules defined at the same time. Secondly, in order to quickly achieve function granular model from function requirement, the function modeling method based on universal triple I fuzzy reasoning is put forward. Within the fuzzy reasoning of universal triple I method, the small-distance-activating method is proposed as the kernel of fuzzy reasoning; how to change function requirements to fuzzy ones, fuzzy computing methods, and strategy of fuzzy reasoning are respectively investigated as well; the function modeling algorithm based on the universal triple I fuzzy reasoning method is achieved. Lastly, the validity of the function granular model and function modeling algorithm is validated. Through our method, the reasonable function granular model can be quickly achieved from function requirements, and the fuzzy character of conceptual design can be well handled, which greatly improves conceptual design.

  12. Reason Maintenance in Product Modelling via Open Source CAD System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present and future challenges of a new product design, forecasting and risk management launch strategy for a new product modelling decision process. This paper intends to propose and to look towards the development of a low-cost integrated CAD-CAPP-CAD/CAM product modelling system for the design and manufacture of a proposed product. It is a mapping between several design phases like functional design, technical design and physical design. The modelling data generation process begins with the drafting of a product to be maintained using the drafting software package. From the CAD drawing, the data are transferred to be used as the product models and a CAPP software package will then prepare the operational parameters for the manufacturing of the product. These process data are relayed to a CAM software package, which will then generate the automating information-processing functions. The final stage of the function is to support design and manufacturing operations that may have reaped many benefits in terms of its initial equipment and software costs.

  13. The reasoned/reactive model: A new approach to examining eating decisions among female college dieters and nondieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Holly; Holub, Shayla C; Dolan, Elaine A

    2016-12-01

    Female college students are prone to unhealthy eating patterns that can impact long-term health. This study examined female students' healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors with three decision-making models. Specifically, the theory of reasoned action, prototype/willingness model, and new reasoned/reactive model were compared to determine how reasoned (logical) and reactive (impulsive) factors relate to dietary decisions. Females (N=583, Mage=20.89years) completed measures on reasoned cognitions about foods (attitudes, subjective norms, nutrition knowledge, intentions to eat foods), reactive cognitions about foods (prototypes, affect, willingness to eat foods), dieting, and food consumption. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the new reasoned/reactive model to be the preeminent model for examining eating behaviors. This model showed that attitudes were related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods. Affect was related to willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas nutrition knowledge was related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy foods only. Intentions and willingness were related to healthy and unhealthy food consumption. Dieting status played a moderating role in the model and revealed mean-level differences between dieters and nondieters. This study highlights the importance of specific factors in relation to female students' eating decisions and unveils a comprehensive model for examining health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Three fuzzy reasoning models as a decision suport aid, to find an electrical energy tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a laboratory-work developed as an example of approximate (fuzzy reasoning for students, possible to be used as a decision – support to estimate an electrical energy (EE price for consumers. The three fuzzy tariff estimation models that are developed, integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A.-single-supplier rate position, but and some (social constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. Although is possible, the paper not refer to a partial-price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy, etc. This “laboratory-work-paper” shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A. and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model, until can obtain an acceptable and true price. In this aim, the three fuzzy models use different rules for pricing: conservative, aggressive, and different order of words concerning the rules respectively, finally doing a comparation among prices and models. The paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, with certitude, can create a discussion base, about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a modality to find and to refine an EE price.

  15. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    of environmental hazards, frame the problem of constructing autonomous science instruments. we are developing a model of the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) that is currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. LENA is a particle detector that uses high voltage electrostatic optics and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to image neutral atom emissions from the denser regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. As with most spacecraft borne science instruments, phenomena in addition to neutral atoms are detected by LENA. Solar radiation and energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts are of particular concern because they may help generate currents that may compromise LENA's long term performance. An explicit model of the instrument response has been constructed and is currently in use on board IMAGE to dynamically adapt LENA to the presence or absence of energetic background radiations. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modelling this system may be applied to other instruments. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. Our future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  16. Student Modeling using Case-Based Reasoning in Conventional Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Hidayah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional face-to-face classrooms are still the main learning system applied in Indonesia. In assisting such conventional learning towards an optimal learning, formative evaluations are needed to monitor the progress of the class. This task can be very hard when the size of the class is large. Hence, this research attempted to create a classroom monitoring system based on student’s data of Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology UGM. In order to achieve the goal, a student modeling using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR was proposed. A generic student model based on jCOLIBRI 2.3 framework was developed. The model represented student’s knowledge of a subject. The result showed that the system was able to store and retrieve student’s data for suggestion of the current situation and formative evaluation for one of the subject in the Department.

  17. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Model Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya’nan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy sets theory cannot describe the data comprehensively, which has greatly limited the objectivity of fuzzy time series in uncertain data forecasting. In this regard, an intuitionistic fuzzy time series forecasting model is built. In the new model, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is used to divide the universe of discourse into unequal intervals, and a more objective technique for ascertaining the membership function and nonmembership function of the intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed. On these bases, forecast rules based on intuitionistic fuzzy approximate reasoning are established. At last, contrast experiments on the enrollments of the University of Alabama and the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index are carried out. The results show that the new model has a clear advantage of improving the forecast accuracy.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Argument Length and Validity on Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotello, Caren M.; Heit, Evan

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to assess models of inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning, the authors, in 3 experiments, examined the effects of argument length and logical validity on evaluation of arguments. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants were given either induction or deduction instructions for a common set of stimuli. Two distinct effects were…

  19. Evaluation of an e-PBL model to promote individual reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2013-01-01

    Medical educators should promote the development of student clinical reasoning toward independence in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate an online problem-based learning (e-PBL) model designed to promote student individual reasoning in supplement to traditional PBL. Twelve e-PBL modules were added to the fully problem-based curriculum for Year 2 at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM). In this e-PBL, students worked on the problems individually in an online setting, followed by face-to-face discussions in a colloquium. The cases were presented using interactive multimedia to enhance the authenticity of the case and stimulate student interest in learning. A formative evaluation study was conducted to determine student satisfaction with e-PBL and its effectiveness as perceived by the students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A cohort of Year 2 students at SKKUSOM (n = 38) took part in this study. Students perceived e-PBL significantly more positively after they had taken a module in terms of its ability to foster problem-solving skills and its ability to allow them to learn in ways suited to individual learning styles. Additionally, student survey and interview revealed that a vast majority of students were satisfied with the overall learning process in e-PBL and perceived it positively in fostering knowledge acquisition and clinical reasoning. Moreover, students found the cases realistic and engaging. The results show the potential of e-PBL to enhance traditional PBL by promoting the development of individual reasoning in a flexible online-learning environment and offering cases in an interactive multimedia format, which warrants further investigation into its impact on student learning outcomes.

  20. Model-based analysis and reasoning in science: The MARS curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Kalyani; Glaser, Robert

    Scientists and researchers in many disciplines frequently resort to modeling and model-based reasoning to concretize abstract ideas, to simplify and clarify complex phenomena, to predict trends, and to explain mechanisms and processes. National projects working to reform science education explicitly recommend the development of an appreciation for the centrality of models in the teaching and learning of science. This article describes a model-centered, computer-supported, semester-long science curriculum for middle-school students designed to encourage conceptual understanding and to foster the development of model-based reasoning skills. In the Model-based Analysis and Reasoning in Science (MARS) project, an attempt is made to create an environment conducive to fostering conceptual understanding and reasoning about scientific phenomena that involve balance of forces. Visual models that are dynamic and interactive are presented not only to concretize abstract ideas but also as reasoning tools that give students the leverage to solve problems in a variety of contexts. This model-centered curriculum focuses on a network of concepts important for understanding hydrostatics; that is, floating and sinking, as an exemplar for the general principle of balance of forces. How students understand these concepts and use models as a disciplinary resource to engage in chains of reasoning that integrate concepts into networks of relations is of special interest for study. How students use that understanding in new situations within the same explanatory system is also being studied. A major pedagogical question is how middle-school students can be taught to engage in model-based reasoning, a form of reasoning that scientists routinely use.

  1. Model-Based Reasoning in the Physics Laboratory: Framework and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hu, Dehui; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    We review and extend existing frameworks on modeling to develop a new framework that describes model-based reasoning in introductory and upper-division physics laboratories. Constructing and using models are core scientific practices that have gained significant attention within K-12 and higher education. Although modeling is a broadly applicable…

  2. Graph Models for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning for Contemporary and Emerging Needs – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engels Rajangam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available —Reasoning is the fundamental capability which requires knowledge. Various graph models have proven to be very valuable in knowledge representation and reasoning. Recently, explosive data generation and accumulation capabilities have paved way for Big Data and Data Intensive Systems. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning with large and growing data is extremely challenging but crucial for businesses to predict trends and support decision making. Any contemporary, reasonably complex knowledge based system will have to consider this onslaught of data, to use appropriate and sufficient reasoning for semantic processing of information by machines. This paper surveys graph based knowledge representation and reasoning, various graph models such as Conceptual Graphs, Concept Graphs, Semantic Networks, Inference Graphs and Causal Bayesian Networks used for representation and reasoning, common and recent research uses of these graph models, typically in Big Data environment, and the near future needs and challenges for graph based KRR in computing systems. Observations are presented in a table, highlighting suitability of the surveyed graph models for contemporary scenarios.

  3. Using concept maps to create reasoning models to teach thinking: An application for solving kinematics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez-Borreguero

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present research carried out with university students taking the subject “Concept Maps in Teaching” within the Master’s Degree on Research in Teaching and Learning of the Experimental Sciences. The objective of this study was to elaborate a reasoning model, created using concept maps, that captures modes of thinking of expert teachers about solving kinematics problems. This model, used as a framework for those with less expertise in a particular form of argumentation, identifies approaches to solving certain types of problems. This paper focuses on the creation, utilisation, and validation of a reasoning model for solving kinematics problems. This model may apply to other types of learning content (concepts, procedures, but primarily arguments. The study was conducted during a school year with 60 students using a pre-test and post-test method to quantify the effectiveness of the reasoning model developed in problem solving. The statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the performance of the experimental and control groups. The results suggest that the development and use of this type of meta-reasoning, which is necessary for building a reasoning model, are of great help in teaching our students to reason about kinematics problem solving.

  4. Learning about causes from people and about people as causes: probabilistic models and social causal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Seiver, Elizabeth; Bridgers, Sophie; Gopnik, Alison

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge children face is uncovering the causal structure of the world around them. Previous research on children's causal inference has demonstrated their ability to learn about causal relationships in the physical environment using probabilistic evidence. However, children must also learn about causal relationships in the social environment, including discovering the causes of other people's behavior, and understanding the causal relationships between others' goal-directed actions and the outcomes of those actions. In this chapter, we argue that social reasoning and causal reasoning are deeply linked, both in the real world and in children's minds. Children use both types of information together and in fact reason about both physical and social causation in fundamentally similar ways. We suggest that children jointly construct and update causal theories about their social and physical environment and that this process is best captured by probabilistic models of cognition. We first present studies showing that adults are able to jointly infer causal structure and human action structure from videos of unsegmented human motion. Next, we describe how children use social information to make inferences about physical causes. We show that the pedagogical nature of a demonstrator influences children's choices of which actions to imitate from within a causal sequence and that this social information interacts with statistical causal evidence. We then discuss how children combine evidence from an informant's testimony and expressed confidence with evidence from their own causal observations to infer the efficacy of different potential causes. We also discuss how children use these same causal observations to make inferences about the knowledge state of the social informant. Finally, we suggest that psychological causation and attribution are part of the same causal system as physical causation. We present evidence that just as children use covariation between

  5. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  6. The Development and Psychometric Modeling of an Embedded Assessment for a Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning Learning Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert Andrew

    2012-01-01

    "Data modeling" is an approach that helps students to transform initial, and often misguided, understandings of variability and chance to forms of reasoning that coordinate chance with variability by designing learning environments that support this reasoning by allowing students to invent and revise models. The Assessing Data Modeling…

  7. Bayesian network modeling method based on case reasoning for emergency decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Lei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian network has the abilities of probability expression, uncertainty management and multi-information fusion.It can support emergency decision-making, which can improve the efficiency of decision-making.Emergency decision-making is highly time sensitive, which requires shortening the Bayesian Network modeling time as far as possible.Traditional Bayesian network modeling methods are clearly unable to meet that requirement.Thus, a Bayesian network modeling method based on case reasoning for emergency decision-making is proposed.The method can obtain optional cases through case matching by the functions of similarity degree and deviation degree.Then,new Bayesian network can be built through case adjustment by case merging and pruning.An example is presented to illustrate and test the proposed method.The result shows that the method does not have a huge search space or need sample data.The only requirement is the collection of expert knowledge and historical case models.Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can reuse historical case models, which can reduce the modeling time and improve the efficiency.

  8. Inductive reasoning in medicine: lessons from Carl Gustav Hempel's 'inductive-statistical' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Lauterbach, Karl Wilhelm

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the fundamental requirements of sound scientific explanations and predictions and common fallacies that occur in explaining and predicting medical problems. To this end, the paper presents Carl Gustav Hempel's 'covering-law' model (1948 and 1962) and reviews some of the criticism of the model. The strength of Hempel's model is that it shows that inductive arguments, when applied with the requirement of maximal specificity, can serve as explanations as well as predictions. The major weakness of the 'covering-law' model, its inability to portray causal relatedness, has been addressed by philosophers such as Wesley Salmon. While few philosophers today agree with the 'covering-law' model in its original formulation, there is widespread consensus that the law has made a central contribution to describing the fundamental requirements of sound scientific explanations. Applying this model and its revisions in the medical context may help uncover potentially undetected fallacies in reasoning when explaining and predicting medical problems.

  9. Probabilistic conditional reasoning: Disentangling form and content with the dual-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-08-01

    The present research examines descriptive models of probabilistic conditional reasoning, that is of reasoning from uncertain conditionals with contents about which reasoners have rich background knowledge. According to our dual-source model, two types of information shape such reasoning: knowledge-based information elicited by the contents of the material and content-independent information derived from the form of inferences. Two experiments implemented manipulations that selectively influenced the model parameters for the knowledge-based information, the relative weight given to form-based versus knowledge-based information, and the parameters for the form-based information, validating the psychological interpretation of these parameters. We apply the model to classical suppression effects dissecting them into effects on background knowledge and effects on form-based processes (Exp. 3) and we use it to reanalyse previous studies manipulating reasoning instructions. In a model-comparison exercise, based on data of seven studies, the dual-source model outperformed three Bayesian competitor models. Overall, our results support the view that people make use of background knowledge in line with current Bayesian models, but they also suggest that the form of the conditional argument, irrespective of its content, plays a substantive, yet smaller, role.

  10. Agent based reasoning for the non-linear stochastic models of long-range memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononovicius, A.; Gontis, V.

    2012-02-01

    We extend Kirman's model by introducing variable event time scale. The proposed flexible time scale is equivalent to the variable trading activity observed in financial markets. Stochastic version of the extended Kirman's agent based model is compared to the non-linear stochastic models of long-range memory in financial markets. The agent based model providing matching macroscopic description serves as a microscopic reasoning of the earlier proposed stochastic model exhibiting power law statistics.

  11. Building on the Enriched Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Mastery Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Michou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational theories – the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory – have recently been combined to explain students’ motivation, making it possible to study the “what” and the “why” of learners’ achievement strivings. The present study built on this approach by (a investigating whether the distinction between autonomous or volitional and controlling or pressuring reasons can be meaningfully applied to the adoption of mastery-avoidance goals, (b investigating the concurrent and prospective relations between mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying reasons and learning strategies when mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons were also considered, and by (c incorporating psychological need experiences as an explanatory variable in the relation between achievement motives (i.e., the motive to succeed and motive to avoid failure and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons. In two Turkish university students samples ('N' = 226, 'Mage '= 22.36; 'N' = 331, 'Mage '= 19.5, autonomous and controlling reasons appeared applicable to mastery-avoidance goals and regression and path analysis further showed that mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous reasons fail to predicted learning strategies over and above the pursuit of mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons. Finally, need experiences were established as mediators between achievement motives and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons.

  12. A Common Reasoning Model and Its Application in Knowledge—Based System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方青

    1991-01-01

    To use reasoning knowledge accurately and efficiently,many reasoning methods have been proposed.However,the differences in form among the methods may obstruct the systematical analysis and harmonious integration of them.In this paper,a common reasoning model JUM(Judgement Model)is introduced.According to JUM,a common knowledge representation form is abstracted from different reasoning methods and its limitation is reduced.We also propose an algorithm for transforming one type of JUMs into another.In some cases,the algorithm can be used to resolve the key problem of integrating different types of JUM in one system.It is possible that a new architecture of knowledge-based system can be realized under JUM.

  13. A neurocomputational model of analogical reasoning and its breakdown in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Robert G; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Holyoak, Keith J; Hummel, John E; Chow, Tiffany W; Miller, Bruce L; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2004-03-01

    Analogy is important for learning and discovery and is considered a core component of intelligence. We present a computational account of analogical reasoning that is compatible with data we have collected from patients with cortical degeneration of either their frontal or anterior temporal cortices due to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These two patient groups showed different deficits in picture and verbal analogies: frontal lobe FTLD patients tended to make errors due to impairments in working memory and inhibitory abilities, whereas temporal lobe FTLD patients tended to make errors due to semantic memory loss. Using the "Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies" model, we provide a specific account of how such deficits may arise within neural networks supporting analogical problem solving.

  14. Reasoning, logic, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. A Model for Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence: Need Satisfaction and Reasons for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…

  16. Reasoning with Conditionals: A Test of Formal Models of Four Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. "Psychological Review," 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). "If."…

  17. A Model for Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence: Need Satisfaction and Reasons for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…

  18. A study of critical reasoning in online learning: application of the Occupational Performance Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; Batorski, Rosemary E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of an online guided independent study on critical reasoning skills. Twenty-one first-semester Master of Occupational Therapy students completed an online assignment designed to facilitate application of the Occupational Performance Process Model (Fearing & Clark) and kept reflective journals. Data from the journals were analyzed in relation to the three sets of questions, question type and results of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). This assignment appeared to be effective for enhancing awareness and use of critical reasoning skills. Differences in patterns of critical reasoning between students with high and low WGCTA scores and results of an inductive analysis of the journal entries are discussed. Future research investigating the types of feedback that effectively facilitate development of critical reasoning and whether students with high and low WGCTA scores might benefit from different types of instruction and/or feedback is recommended.

  19. Fuzzy reasoning model using fuzzy Petri Nets for the monitoring of robotic assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a fuzzy Petri net model to deal with the monitoring of robotic assembly. Based on the fuzzy Petri net model. All efficient composite reasoning mode was proposed to perform fuzzy reasoning automatically. It can determine whether there exists an antecedent-consequence relationship between two contact states. Furthermore, various types of sensor signals can be converted to the same form of real values between zero and one, and the contradiction among large number, high degree of truth and importance of input conditions can be resolved very well by introducing the weight factors and priorities for sensor signals. Finally, a pegin-the-hole example was given to illustrate the reasonability and feasibility of the proposed model.

  20. An API for Integrating Spatial Context Models with Spatial Reasoning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2006-01-01

    The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible and ...... modeling. The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system, and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms.......The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible...

  1. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  2. Bifurcations in models of a society of reasonable contrarians and conformists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl

    2015-10-01

    We study models of a society composed of a mixture of conformist and reasonable contrarian agents that at any instant hold one of two opinions. Conformists tend to agree with the average opinion of their neighbors and reasonable contrarians tend to disagree, but revert to a conformist behavior in the presence of an overwhelming majority, in line with psychological experiments. The model is studied in the mean-field approximation and on small-world and scale-free networks. In the mean-field approximation, a large fraction of conformists triggers a polarization of the opinions, a pitchfork bifurcation, while a majority of reasonable contrarians leads to coherent oscillations, with an alternation of period-doubling and pitchfork bifurcations up to chaos. Similar scenarios are obtained by changing the fraction of long-range rewiring and the parameter of scale-free networks related to the average connectivity.

  3. Bifurcations in models of a society of reasonable contrarians and conformists

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2015-01-01

    We study models of a society composed of a mixture of conformist and reasonable contrarian agents that at any instant hold one of two opinions. Conformists tend to agree with the average opinion of their neighbors and reasonable contrarians to disagree, but revert to a conformist behavior in the presence of an overwhelming majority, in line with psychological experiments. The model is studied in the mean field approximation and on small-world and scale-free networks. In the mean field approximation, a large fraction of conformists triggers a polarization of the opinions, a pitchfork bifurcation, while a majority of reasonable contrarians leads to coherent oscillations, with an alternation of period-doubling and pitchfork bifurcations up to chaos. Similar scenarios are obtained by changing the fraction of long-range rewiring and the parameter of scale-free networks related to the average connectivity.

  4. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Conveying clinical reasoning based on visual observation via eye-movement modelling examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2012). Conveying clinical reasoning based on visual observation via eye-movement modelling examples. Instructional Science, 40(5), 813-827. doi:10.1007/s11251-012-9218-5

  6. PERPEST model, a case-based reasoning approach to predict ecological risks of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Roelsma, J.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper discusses PERPEST, a model that uses case-based reasoning to predict the effects of a particular concentration of a pesticide on a defined aquatic ecosystem, based on published information about the effects of pesticides on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems as observ

  7. Conveying clinical reasoning based on visual observation via eye-movement modelling examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2012). Conveying clinical reasoning based on visual observation via eye-movement modelling examples. Instructional Science, 40(5), 813-827. doi:10.1007/s11251-012-9218-5

  8. Diversity Courses and Students' Moral Reasoning: A Model of Predispositions and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Mayhew, Matthew J.; Engberg, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how moral reasoning develops for 236 students enrolled in either a diversity course or a management course. These courses were compared based on the level of diversity inclusion and type of pedagogy employed in the classroom. We used causal modelling to compare the two types of courses, controlling for the…

  9. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  10. MANAGEMENT OF AN ATYPICAL ANKLE SPRAIN PATIENT THROUGH HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE REASONING MODEL OF CLINICAL REASONING IMPLEMENTED BY INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING DISABILITY AND HEALTH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is a process by which physiotherapists interacted with patients, their family and other health- care professionals. It is the thinking process that professionals tend to apply in clinical practice. Given that novice as well as expert practitioners prefer to go through some steps while they were dealing with unfamiliar cases. This process is known as hypothetico deductive reasoning. This reasoning approach involved the generation of hypothesis based on clinical data and knowledge and testing of hypothesis through further inquiry. We are expert in musculoskeletal physiotherapy treatment and favoring the atypical history of patient we went through step by step from assessment to discharge Methods: A case based study through hypothetico deductive reasoning model of clinical reasoning. The objective of the study was to investigate the physiotherapy management strategies of an atypical ankle sprain patient through hypothetico deductive reasoning which comprised of cue acquisition, hypothesis generation, cue interpretation and hypothesis evaluation by implementing International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Results: The patient responded well to treatment as patient reported that 100% swelling decreased, could bear more weight (95% on foot, decrease pain (1 cm on 10 cm VAS scale, improved muscle strength by manual muscle testing by grade V in ankle planter flexors (PF as well as dorsiflexors (DF, invertors as well as evertors and the functional status of patient was improved by 80% according to lower extremity functional scale. Conclusion: Clinical reasoning is an important approach in physiotherapy. It helps the practitioners in decision making and choosing the best alternative options for the well being of patients. We think it is necessary for all practitioners to have sound propositional and non-propositional knowledge in order to provide effective management protocol for patients focusing

  11. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  12. Effects of belief and logic on syllogistic reasoning: Eye-movement evidence for selective processing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Linden J; Phillips, Peter; Wade, Caroline N; Quayle, Jeremy D

    2006-01-01

    Studies of syllogistic reasoning have demonstrated a nonlogical tendency for people to endorse more believable conclusions than unbelievable ones. This belief bias effect is more dominant on invalid syllogisms than valid ones, giving rise to a logic by belief interaction. We report an experiment in which participants' eye movements were recorded in order to provide insights into the nature and time course of the reasoning processes associated with manipulations of conclusion validity and believability. Our main dependent measure was people's inspection times for syllogistic premises, and we tested predictions deriving from three contemporary mental-models accounts of the logic by belief interaction. Results supported recent "selective processing" theories of belief bias (e.g., Evans, 2000; Klauer, Musch, & Naumer, 2000), which assume that the believability of a conclusion biases model construction processes, rather than biasing the search for falsifying models (e.g., Oakhill & Johnson-Laird, 1985) or a response stage of reasoning arising from subjective uncertainty (e.g., Quayle & Ball, 2000). We conclude by suggesting that the eye-movement analyses in reasoning research may provide a useful adjunct to other process-tracing techniques such as verbal protocol analysis.

  13. A set for relational reasoning: Facilitation of algebraic modeling by a fraction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-12-01

    Recent work has identified correlations between early mastery of fractions and later math achievement, especially in algebra. However, causal connections between aspects of reasoning with fractions and improved algebra performance have yet to be established. The current study investigated whether relational reasoning with fractions facilitates subsequent algebraic reasoning using both pre-algebra students and adult college students. Participants were first given either a relational reasoning fractions task or a fraction algebra procedures control task. Then, all participants solved word problems and constructed algebraic equations in either multiplication or division format. The word problems and the equation construction tasks involved simple multiplicative comparison statements such as "There are 4 times as many students as teachers in a classroom." Performance on the algebraic equation construction task was enhanced for participants who had previously completed the relational fractions task compared with those who completed the fraction algebra procedures task. This finding suggests that relational reasoning with fractions can establish a relational set that promotes students' tendency to model relations using algebraic expressions.

  14. The theory of reasoned action as parallel constraint satisfaction: towards a dynamic computational model of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Thrush, Roxanne; Plaut, David C

    2013-01-01

    The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior), does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence). To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constraint satisfaction mechanism among a set of beliefs. In two simulations, we show that constraint satisfaction can simultaneously incorporate the effects of past experience (via learning) with the effects of immediate social context to yield behavioral intention, i.e., intention is dynamically constructed from both an individual's pre-existing belief structure and the beliefs of others in the individual's social context. In a third simulation, we illustrate the predictive ability of the model with respect to empirically derived behavioral intention. As the first known computational model of health behavior, it represents a significant advance in theory towards understanding the dynamics of health behavior. Furthermore, our approach may inform the development of population-level agent-based models of health behavior that aim to incorporate psychological theory into models of population dynamics.

  15. The theory of reasoned action as parallel constraint satisfaction: towards a dynamic computational model of health behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Orr

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior, does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence. To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constraint satisfaction mechanism among a set of beliefs. In two simulations, we show that constraint satisfaction can simultaneously incorporate the effects of past experience (via learning with the effects of immediate social context to yield behavioral intention, i.e., intention is dynamically constructed from both an individual's pre-existing belief structure and the beliefs of others in the individual's social context. In a third simulation, we illustrate the predictive ability of the model with respect to empirically derived behavioral intention. As the first known computational model of health behavior, it represents a significant advance in theory towards understanding the dynamics of health behavior. Furthermore, our approach may inform the development of population-level agent-based models of health behavior that aim to incorporate psychological theory into models of population dynamics.

  16. A Knowledge-reuse Based Intelligent Reasoning Model for Worsted Process Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The textile process planning is a knowledge reuse process in nature, which depends on the expert's knowledge and experience. It seems to be very difficult to build up an integral mathematical model to optimize hundreds of the processing parameters. In fact, the existing process cases which were recorded to ensure the ability to trace production steps can also be used to optimize the process itself. This paper presents a novel knowledge-reuse based hybrid intelligent reasoning model (HIRM) for worsted process optimization. The model architecture and reasoning mechanism are respectively described. An applied case with HIRM is given to demonstrate that the best process decision can be made, and important processing parameters such as for raw material optimized.

  17. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  18. Model-based interpretation of the ECG: a methodology for temporal and spatial reasoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, D. A.; Widman, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    A new software architecture for automatic interpretation of the electrocardiogram is presented. Using the hypothesize-and-test paradigm, a semi-quantitative physiological model and production rule-based knowledge are combined to reason about time- and space-varying characteristics of complex heart rhythms. A prototype system implementing the methodology accepts a semi-quantitative description of the onset and morphology of the P waves and QRS complexes that are observed in the body-surface el...

  19. Investigating the role of model-based reasoning while troubleshooting an electric circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R; Stetzer, MacKenzie R; Lewandowski, H J

    2016-01-01

    We explore the overlap of two nationally-recognized learning outcomes for physics lab courses, namely, the ability to model experimental systems and the ability to troubleshoot a malfunctioning apparatus. Modeling and troubleshooting are both nonlinear, recursive processes that involve using models to inform revisions to an apparatus. To probe the overlap of modeling and troubleshooting, we collected audiovisual data from think-aloud activities in which eight pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning electrical circuit. We characterize the cognitive tasks and model-based reasoning that students employed during this activity. In doing so, we demonstrate that troubleshooting engages students in the core scientific practice of modeling.

  20. Investigating the role of model-based reasoning while troubleshooting an electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the overlap of two nationally recognized learning outcomes for physics lab courses, namely, the ability to model experimental systems and the ability to troubleshoot a malfunctioning apparatus. Modeling and troubleshooting are both nonlinear, recursive processes that involve using models to inform revisions to an apparatus. To probe the overlap of modeling and troubleshooting, we collected audiovisual data from think-aloud activities in which eight pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning electrical circuit. We characterize the cognitive tasks and model-based reasoning that students employed during this activity. In doing so, we demonstrate that troubleshooting engages students in the core scientific practice of modeling.

  1. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Paddy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. Discussion Parallel dual processing models of reasoning posit two cognitive modes of information processing that are in constant operation as humans reason. One mode has been described as experiential, fast and heuristic; the other as rational, conscious and rule based. Within such models, the uptake of new research evidence can be represented by the latter mode; it is reflective, explicit and intentional. On the other hand, well practiced clinical judgments can be positioned in the experiential mode, being automatic, reflexive and swift. Research suggests that individual differences between people in both cognitive capacity (e.g., intelligence and cognitive processing (e.g., thinking styles influence how both reasoning modes interact. This being so, it is proposed that these same differences between doctors may moderate the uptake of new research evidence. Such dispositional characteristics have largely been ignored in research investigating effective strategies in implementing research evidence. Whilst medical decision-making occurs in a complex social environment with multiple influences and decision makers, it remains true that an individual doctor's judgment still retains a key position in terms of diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients. This paper argues therefore, that individual differences between doctors in terms of

  2. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-04-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

  3. Software Cost Estimation Model Based on Integration of Multi-agent and Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Sakran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate software cost estimation is a vital task that affects the firm's software investment decisions before committing required resources to that project or bidding for a contract. This study proposes an improved Case-Based Reasoning (CBR approach integrated with multi-agent technology to retrieve similar projects from multi-organizational distributed datasets. The study explores the possibility of building a software cost estimation model by collecting software cost data from distributed predefined project cost databases. The model applying CBR method to find similar projects in historical data derived from measured software projects developed by different organizations.

  4. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  5. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  6. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation - Lessons Learned From IMAGE/LENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Rilee, Michael L.; Truszkowski, Walt; Bailin, Sidney C.

    2001-01-01

    Model-based reasoning has been applied as an autonomous control strategy on the Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) instrument currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. Explicit models of instrument subsystem responses have been constructed and are used to dynamically adapt the instrument to the spacecraft's environment. These functions are cast as part of a Virtual Principal Investigator (VPI) that autonomously monitors and controls the instrument. In the VPI's current implementation, LENA's command uplink volume has been decreased significantly from its previous volume; typically, no uplinks are required for operations. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modeling this system may be applied to other instruments. Future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  7. Analytical comparison of Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action about mobile advertising acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tabatabaei Nasab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of high speed wireless network technologies and the increasing market penetration of cell phones the global advertising industry’s interest in using this medium as a means of marketing communication is rising. However, in spite of the increasing number of companies investing in mobile marketing campaigns, there is, as yet, little academic research on this topic and the nature and implications of this channel are not yet understood fully.Mobile advertising refers to advertisements delivered through a mobile device in form of text message. Current research is considered as applied objectively and its methodology is descriptive-analytical. Research data is gathered through distribution of questionnaire among a sample of 578 Yazd university students. To study users' attitude and intention, Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action are applied for accepting mobile advertising. Also SPSS16 and Lisrel 850 softwares are used for data analysis and research models are compared according to goodness of fit indices. On the basis of Lisrel structural equation results, both aforementioned models of mobile advertising acceptance were well-fitted and it is proved that the theory of reasoned action was fitted better than Technology Acceptance Model.

  8. Multi-Domain Modeling and Simulation of an Aircraft System for Advanced Vehicle-Level Reasoning Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : F. Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simulation based health monitoring system test-bed for aircraft systems. The purpose of the test-bed is to provide a technology neutral basis for implementing and evaluation of reasoning systems on vehicle level and software architecture in support of the safety and maintenance process. This simulation test-bed will provide the sub-system level results and data which can be fed to the VLRS to generate vehicle level reasoning to achieve broader level diagnoses. This paper describes real-time system architecture and concept of operations for the aircraft major sub-systems. The four main components in the real-time test-bed are the aircraft sub-systems (e.g. battery, fuel, engine, generator, heating and lighting system simulation model, fault insertion unit, health monitoring data processing and user interface. In this paper, we adopted a component based modelling paradigm for the implementation of the virtual aircraft systems. All of the fault injections are currently implemented via software. The fault insertion unit allows for the repeatable injection of faults into the system. The simulation test-bed has been tested with many different faults which were undetected on system level to process and detect on the vehicle level reasoning. This article also shows how one system fault can affect the overall health of the vehicle.

  9. H2RM: A Hybrid Rough Set Reasoning Model for Prediction and Management of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rahman; Hussain, Jamil; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Hussain, Maqbool; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-03

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose level that results either from a deficiency of insulin produced by the body, or the body's resistance to the effects of insulin. Accurate and precise reasoning and prediction models greatly help physicians to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment procedures of different diseases. Though numerous models have been proposed to solve issues of diagnosis and management of diabetes, they have the following drawbacks: (1) restricted one type of diabetes; (2) lack understandability and explanatory power of the techniques and decision; (3) limited either to prediction purpose or management over the structured contents; and (4) lack competence for dimensionality and vagueness of patient's data. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel hybrid rough set reasoning model (H2RM) that resolves problems of inaccurate prediction and management of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For verification of the proposed model, experimental data from fifty patients, acquired from a local hospital in semi-structured format, is used. First, the data is transformed into structured format and then used for mining prediction rules. Rough set theory (RST) based techniques and algorithms are used to mine the prediction rules. During the online execution phase of the model, these rules are used to predict T1DM and T2DM for new patients. Furthermore, the proposed model assists physicians to manage diabetes using knowledge extracted from online diabetes guidelines. Correlation-based trend analysis techniques are used to manage diabetic observations. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the existing methods with 95.9% average and balanced accuracies.

  10. A model presented for classification ECG signals base on Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sayari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of heart diseases/abnormalities can prolong life and enhance the quality of living through appropriate treatment; thus classifying cardiac signals will be helped to immediate diagnosing of heart beat type in cardiac patients. The present paper utilizes the case base reasoning (CBR for classification of ECG signals. Four types of ECG beats (normal beat, congestive heart failure beat, ventricular tachyarrhythmia beat and atrial fibrillation beat obtained from the PhysioBank database was classified by the proposed CBR model. The main purpose of this article is classifying heart signals and diagnosing the type of heart beat in cardiac patients that in proposed CBR (Case Base Reasoning system, Training and testing data for diagnosing and classifying types of heart beat have been used. The evaluation results from the model are shown that the proposed model has high accuracy in classifying heart signals and helps to clinical decisions for diagnosing the type of heart beat in cardiac patients which indeed has high impact on diagnosing the type of heart beat aided computer.

  11. Testing anthropic reasoning for the cosmological constant with a realistic galaxy formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Sudoh, Takahiro; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The anthropic principle is one of the possible explanations for the cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) problem. In previous studies, a dark halo mass threshold comparable with our Galaxy must be assumed in galaxy formation to get a reasonably large probability of finding the observed small value, $P(<$$\\Lambda_{\\rm obs})$, though stars are found in much smaller galaxies as well. Here we examine the anthropic argument by using a semi-analytic model of cosmological galaxy formation, which can reproduce many observations such as galaxy luminosity functions. We calculate the probability distribution of $\\Lambda$ by running the model code for a wide range of $\\Lambda$, while other cosmological parameters and model parameters for baryonic processes of galaxy formation are kept constant. Assuming that the prior probability distribution is flat per unit $\\Lambda$, and that the number of observers is proportional to stellar mass, we find $P(<$$\\Lambda_{\\rm obs}) = 6.7 \\%$ without introducing any galaxy mass thres...

  12. Modelling Activities In Kinematics Understanding quantitative relations with the contribution of qualitative reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    In Greek traditional teaching a lot of significant concepts are introduced with a sequence that does not provide the students with all the necessary information required to comprehend. We consider that understanding concepts and the relations among them is greatly facilitated by the use of modelling tools, taking into account that the modelling process forces students to change their vague, imprecise ideas into explicit causal relationships. It is not uncommon to find students who are able to solve problems by using complicated relations without getting a qualitative and in-depth grip on them. Researchers have already shown that students often have a formal mathematical and physical knowledge without a qualitative understanding of basic concepts and relations." The aim of this communication is to present some of the results of our investigation into modelling activities related to kinematical concepts. For this purpose, we have used ModellingSpace, an environment that was especially designed to allow students from eleven to seventeen years old to express their ideas and gradually develop them. The ModellingSpace enables students to build their own models and offers the choice of observing directly simulations of real objects and/or all the other alternative forms of representations (tables of values, graphic representations and bar-charts). The students -in order to answer the questions- formulate hypotheses, they create models, they compare their hypotheses with the representations of their models and they modify or create other models when their hypotheses did not agree with the representations. In traditional ways of teaching, students are educated to utilize formulas as the most important strategy. Several times the students recall formulas in order to utilize them, without getting an in-depth understanding on them. Students commonly use the quantitative type of reasoning, since it is primarily used in teaching, although it may not be fully understood by them

  13. A model comparison approach shows stronger support for economic models of fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Towner, Mary C; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul

    2013-05-14

    The demographic transition is an ongoing global phenomenon in which high fertility and mortality rates are replaced by low fertility and mortality. Despite intense interest in the causes of the transition, especially with respect to decreasing fertility rates, the underlying mechanisms motivating it are still subject to much debate. The literature is crowded with competing theories, including causal models that emphasize (i) mortality and extrinsic risk, (ii) the economic costs and benefits of investing in self and children, and (iii) the cultural transmission of low-fertility social norms. Distinguishing between models, however, requires more comprehensive, better-controlled studies than have been published to date. We use detailed demographic data from recent fieldwork to determine which models produce the most robust explanation of the rapid, recent demographic transition in rural Bangladesh. To rigorously compare models, we use an evidence-based statistical approach using model selection techniques derived from likelihood theory. This approach allows us to quantify the relative evidence the data give to alternative models, even when model predictions are not mutually exclusive. Results indicate that fertility, measured as either total fertility or surviving children, is best explained by models emphasizing economic factors and related motivations for parental investment. Our results also suggest important synergies between models, implicating multiple causal pathways in the rapidity and degree of recent demographic transitions.

  14. Modeling the alcoholic fermentation of xylose by Pichia stipitis using a qualitative reasoning approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrin, F. (INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Biometrics and Artificial Intelligence Station, 31 - Castanet-Tolosan (France)); Delgenes, J.P. (INRA, Biotechnological Lab. for Food Industry Environment, 11 - Narbonne (France)); Moletta, R. (INRA, Biotechnological Lab. for Food Industry Environment, 11 - Narbonne (France))

    1994-03-01

    Qualitative Reasoning is a set of Artificial Intelligence theories, methods, and techniques that provide an answer to modeling problems in domains in which one can have a clear notion of how a system is functioning without being able to express it as classical mathematical equations, and where is posed the problem of using jointly quantitative and qualitative data, as well as processing a big amount of complex knowledge. SIMAO ('a System to Interpret Measurements And Observations') is an attempt to deal with such problems. Although primarily devised for heterogeneous data interpretation in hydroecology, it was thought possible to use SIMAO in a wider context, like biotechnological processes. Starting from specific problems posed by a batch fermentation, the D-xylose conversion into ethanol by the yeast Pichia stipitis, this paper descibes how was built and used a SIMAO model aimed at predicting the fermentation issue from initial conditions, i.e. set-points values and substrate concentration. (orig.)

  15. Phonological and visual distinctiveness effects in syllogistic reasoning: implications for mental models theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Linden J; Quayle, Jeremy D

    2009-09-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the representational distinctiveness of terms within categorical syllogisms was manipulated in order to examine the assumption of mental models theory that abstract, spatially based representations underpin deduction. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated conclusion validity for syllogisms containing either phonologically distinctive terms (e.g., harks, paps, and fids) or phonologically nondistinctive terms (e.g., fuds, fods, and feds). Logical performance was enhanced with the distinctive contents, suggesting that the phonological properties of syllogism terms can play an important role in deduction. In Experiment 2, participants received either the phonological materials from Experiment 1 or syllogisms involving distinctive or nondistinctive visual contents. Logical inference was again enhanced for the distinctive contents, whether phonological or visual in nature. Our findings suggest a broad involvement of multimodal information in syllogistic reasoning and question the assumed primacy of abstract, spatially organized representations in deduction, as is claimed by mental models theorists.

  16. Application of uncertainty reasoning based on cloud model in time series prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦春; 胡谷雨

    2003-01-01

    Time series prediction has been successfully used in several application areas, such as meteoro-logical forecasting, market prediction, network traffic forecasting, etc. , and a number of techniques have been developed for modeling and predicting time series. In the traditional exponential smoothing method, a fixed weight is assigned to data history, and the trend changes of time series are ignored. In this paper, an uncertainty reasoning method, based on cloud model, is employed in time series prediction, which uses cloud logic controller to adjust the smoothing coefficient of the simple exponential smoothing method dynamically to fit the current trend of the time series. The validity of this solution was proved by experiments on various data sets.

  17. Application of uncertainty reasoning based on cloud model in time series prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦春; 胡谷雨

    2003-01-01

    Time series prediction has been successfully used in several application areas, such as meteorological forecasting, market prediction, network traffic forecasting, etc., and a number of techniques have been developed for modeling and predicting time series. In the traditional exponential smoothing method, a fixed weight is assigned to data history, and the trend changes of time series are ignored. In this paper, an uncertainty reasoning method, based on cloud model, is employed in time series prediction, which uses cloud logic controller to adjust the smoothing coefficient of the simple exponential smoothing method dynamically to fit the current trend of the time series. The validity of this solution was proved by experiments on various data sets.

  18. Testing anthropic reasoning for the cosmological constant with a realistic galaxy formation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoh, Takahiro; Totani, Tomonori; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    The anthropic principle is one of the possible explanations for the cosmological constant (Λ) problem. In previous studies, a dark halo mass threshold comparable with our Galaxy must be assumed in galaxy formation to get a reasonably large probability of finding the observed small value, P(running the model code for a wide range of Λ, while other cosmological parameters and model parameters for baryonic processes of galaxy formation are kept constant. Assuming that the prior probability distribution is flat per unit Λ, and that the number of observers is proportional to stellar mass, we find P(extremely small, we conclude that the anthropic argument is a viable explanation, if the value of Λ observed in our Universe is determined by a probability distribution.

  19. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Prioritizing the purchase of spare parts using an approximate reasoning models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S. W. (Stephen W.); Bott, T. F. (Terrence F.); Jackson, J. W. (Joseph W.)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of a spare parts prioritization model should be consonant with the amount and quality of data available to populate it. When production processes are new and the reliability database is sparse and represents primarily expert knowledge, an approximate reasoning (AR) based model is appropriate. AR models are designed to emulate the inferential processes used by experts in making judgments. We have designed and tested such a model for the planned component production process for nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model successfully represents the experts knowledge concerning the frequency and consequences of a part failure. The use of linguistic variables provides an adaptable format for eliciting this knowledge and providing a consistent brisis for valuing the effect on production of different parts. Ranking the parts for inclusion in a spare parts inventory is a straightforward transformation of the AR output. The basis for this ranking is directly traceable to the elicitation results. AR-based models are well-suited to prioritization problems with these characteristics.

  1. The Effect of Generate Argument’ Instruction Model to Increase Reasoning Ability of Seventh Grade Students on Interactions of Living Thing with their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawanti, Y.; Siahaan, P.; Widodo, A.

    2017-02-01

    This study aim to examine the effect of generates an argument instruction model to increase students’ thinking skills, especially reasoning ability in lesson material of interactions of living thing with their environment. The study use weak experimental method with and the design is One-group pretest-posttest design. Sample in this study consists of 34 junior high school students of Seventh Grade in one of the junior high school in Ciamis. The instrument used to collect data is the essay questions of reasoning ability test according to reasoning Marzano’s framework which consist of the eight indicators that are comparing, classifying, induction, deduction, constructing support, analyzing perspectives, analyzing errors, and abstraction. In generally, the results show there is an increase in the students’ reasoning ability is significantly (Sig = 0.000). In addition, an increase in the ability of reasoning also viewed based on gender, and the result show there is not significantly (Sig = 0.168) the difference of reasoning ability between male student and female student. Increasing the ability of reasoning divided into two categories that is middle and low category.

  2. Case-Based Reasoning(CBR) Model for Ultra-Fast Cooling in Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao,WANG Zhaodong,; WANG Guodong

    2014-01-01

    New generation thermo-mechanical control process(TMCP) based on ultra-fast cooling is being widely adopted in plate mill to product high-performance steel material at low cost. Ultra-fast cooling system is complex because of optimizing the temperature control error generated by heat transfer mathematical model and process parameters. In order to simplify the system and improve the temperature control precision in ultra-fast cooling process, several existing models of case-based reasoning(CBR) model are reviewed. Combining with ultra-fast cooling process, a developed R5 CBR model is proposed, which mainly improves the case representation, similarity relation and retrieval module. Certainty factor is defined in semantics memory unit of plate case which provides not only internal data reliability but also product performance reliability. Similarity relation is improved by defined power index similarity membership function. Retrieval process is simplified and retrieval efficiency is improved apparently by windmill retrieval algorithm. The proposed CBR model is used for predicting the case of cooling strategy and its capability is superior to traditional process model. In order to perform comprehensive investigations on ultra-fast cooling process, different steel plates are considered for the experiment. The validation experiment and industrial production of proposed CBR model are carried out, which demonstrated that finish cooling temperature(FCT) error is controlled within±25℃ and quality rate of product is more than 97%. The proposed CBR model can simplify ultra-fast cooling system and give quality performance for steel product.

  3. Case-based reasoning(CBR) model for ultra-fast cooling in plate mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Zhaodong; Wang, Guodong

    2014-11-01

    New generation thermo-mechanical control process(TMCP) based on ultra-fast cooling is being widely adopted in plate mill to product high-performance steel material at low cost. Ultra-fast cooling system is complex because of optimizing the temperature control error generated by heat transfer mathematical model and process parameters. In order to simplify the system and improve the temperature control precision in ultra-fast cooling process, several existing models of case-based reasoning(CBR) model are reviewed. Combining with ultra-fast cooling process, a developed R5 CBR model is proposed, which mainly improves the case representation, similarity relation and retrieval module. Certainty factor is defined in semantics memory unit of plate case which provides not only internal data reliability but also product performance reliability. Similarity relation is improved by defined power index similarity membership function. Retrieval process is simplified and retrieval efficiency is improved apparently by windmill retrieval algorithm. The proposed CBR model is used for predicting the case of cooling strategy and its capability is superior to traditional process model. In order to perform comprehensive investigations on ultra-fast cooling process, different steel plates are considered for the experiment. The validation experiment and industrial production of proposed CBR model are carried out, which demonstrated that finish cooling temperature(FCT) error is controlled within ±25°C and quality rate of product is more than 97%. The proposed CBR model can simplify ultra-fast cooling system and give quality performance for steel product.

  4. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  5. Modeling and Reasoning over Distributed Systems using Aspect-Oriented Graph Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Leila; 10.4204/EPTCS.21.4

    2010-01-01

    Aspect-orientation is a relatively new paradigm that introduces abstractions to modularize the implementation of system-wide policies. It is based on a composition operation, called aspect weaving, that implicitly modifies a base system by performing related changes within the system modules. Aspect-oriented graph grammars (AOGG) extend the classic graph grammar formalism by defining aspects as sets of rule-based modifications over a base graph grammar. Despite the advantages of aspect-oriented concepts regarding modularity, the implicit nature of the aspect weaving operation may also introduce issues when reasoning about the system behavior. Since in AOGGs aspect weaving is characterized by means of rule-based rewriting, we can overcome these problems by using known analysis techniques from the graph transformation literature to study aspect composition. In this paper, we present a case study of a distributed client-server system with global policies, modeled as an aspect-oriented graph grammar, and discuss ...

  6. Model-based interpretation of the ECG: a methodology for temporal and spatial reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D A; Widman, L E

    1993-06-01

    A new software architecture for automatic interpretation of the electrocardiographic rhythm is presented. Using the hypothesize-and-test paradigm, a semiquantitative physiological model and production rule-based knowledge are combined to reason about time- and space-varying characteristics of complex heart rhythms. A prototype system implementing the methodology accepts a semiquantitative description of the onset and morphology of the P waves and QRS complexes that are observed in the body-surface electrocardiogram. A beat-by-beat explanation of the origin and consequences of each wave is produced. The output is in the standard cardiology laddergram format. The current prototype generates the full differential diagnosis of narrow-complex tachycardia and correctly diagnoses complex rhythms, such as atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia with either hidden or visible P waves and varying degrees of AV block.

  7. The markup is the model: reasoning about systems biology models in the Semantic Web era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Mendes, Pedro

    2008-06-07

    Metabolic control analysis, co-invented by Reinhart Heinrich, is a formalism for the analysis of biochemical networks, and is a highly important intellectual forerunner of modern systems biology. Exchanging ideas and exchanging models are part of the international activities of science and scientists, and the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) allows one to perform the latter with great facility. Encoding such models in SBML allows their distributed analysis using loosely coupled workflows, and with the advent of the Internet the various software modules that one might use to analyze biochemical models can reside on entirely different computers and even on different continents. Optimization is at the core of many scientific and biotechnological activities, and Reinhart made many major contributions in this area, stimulating our own activities in the use of the methods of evolutionary computing for optimization.

  8. Why Friedman's Non-monotonic Reasoning Defies Hempel's Covering Law Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); Y-H. Tan

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We wil

  9. Why Friedman's non-monotonic reasoning defies Hempel's covering law model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); Yao-Hua Tan (Yao Hua)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We wil

  10. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  11. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  12. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-05-19

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network.

  13. Primary Reasoning behind the Double ITCZ Phenomenon in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江龙; 张学洪; 俞永强; 戴福山

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the processes behind the double ITCZ phenomenon, a common problem in Coupled ocean-atmosphere General Circulation Models (CGCMs), using a CGCM-FGCM-0 (Flexible General Circulation Model, version 0). The double ITCZ mode develops rapidly during the first two years of the integration and becomes a perennial phenomenon afterwards in the model. By way of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) for SST, sea surface pressure, and sea surface wind, some air-sea interactions are analyzed. These interactions prompt the anomalous signals that appear at the beginning of the coupling to develop rapidly. There are two possible reasons, proved by sensitivity experiments: (1) the overestimated east-west gradient of SST in the equatorial Pacific in the ocean spin-up process, and (2) the underestimated amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast in CCM3 (the Community Climate Model, Version Three). The overestimated east-west gradient of SST brings the anomalous equatorial easterly. The anomalous easterly, affected by the Coriolis force in the Southern Hemisphere, turns into an anomalous westerly in a broad area south of the equator and is enhanced by atmospheric anomalous circulation due to the underestimated amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast simulated by CCM3. The anomalous westerly leads to anomalous warm advection that makes the SST warm in the southeast Pacific.The double ITCZ phenomenon in the CGCM is a result of a series of nonlocal and nonlinear adjustment processes in the coupled system, which can be traced to the uncoupled models, oceanic component, and atmospheric component. The zonal gradient of the equatorial SST is too large in the ocean component and the amount of low-level stratus over the Peruvian coast is too low in the atmosphere component.

  14. Assessing the "Rothstein Falsification Test": Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Chaplin, Duncan Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    In an influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) shows that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible and large future teacher effects on past student achievement. This is the basis of a falsification test that "appears" to indicate bias in typical VAM estimates of teacher contributions to student learning on standardized…

  15. Model Penilaian dan Pemilihan Trade Show Bagi Industri Kreatif di Sektor Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Fauzya Rizana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the criteria for choosing a trade show and develops a basic model of exhibition selection for creative industry players before deciding to participate in a trade show. It is necessary to ensure that expenses in terms of business, money, and time, will be worth the results. Based on literature review and interviews, six criteria were used, namely location, booth position, organizational reputation, cost estimation, prestige, and reputation of other participants. After selection criteria are identified, then calculations are performed to measure the criteria weight by using the AHP approach. Based on weight calculations, it was found that booth positions had the highest importance weight, followed by trade show location, organizers reputation, cost estimation, prestige and reputation of other participants. The weight value is then used to calculate the trade show's prediction value. The predicted value generated from the model is then compared to the value of the past data. The model has an accuracy rate of 89% and does not have a significant difference between the value generated by the model and the value of the past data.

  16. Combining Facts and Expert Opinion in Analytical Models via Logical and Probabilistic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    worlds in which no birds fly and worlds in which all birds but one fly. 26 6.0 References [1] John Cheng, Ray Emami, Larry Kerschberg...BALER………..Bayesian and Logical Engine for Reasoning BC-Hugin……...Big Clique Hugin BN……………..Bayesian Network BRUSE………..Bayesian Reasoning Using

  17. Applying Covariational Reasoning While Modeling Dynamic Events: A Framework and a Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marilyn; Jacobs, Sally; Coe, Edward; Larsen, Sean; Hsu, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Develops covariational reasoning and proposes a framework for describing mental actions when interpreting and representing dynamic function events. Investigates calculus students' ability to reason about covarying quantities in dynamic situations. Suggests that curriculum and instruction should emphasize moving students to a coordinated image of…

  18. Calculating and Understanding: Formal Models and Causal Explanations in Science, Common Reasoning and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the different types of reasoning and physical explanation used in science, common thought, and physics teaching. It then reflects on the learning difficulties connected with these various approaches, and suggests some possible didactic strategies. Although causal reasoning occurs very frequently in common thought…

  19. Calculating and Understanding: Formal Models and Causal Explanations in Science, Common Reasoning and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the different types of reasoning and physical explanation used in science, common thought, and physics teaching. It then reflects on the learning difficulties connected with these various approaches, and suggests some possible didactic strategies. Although causal reasoning occurs very frequently in common thought…

  20. Knowledge Extraction for Discriminating Male and Female in Logical Reasoning from Student Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. E. ElAlfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The learning process is a process of communication and interaction between the teacher and his students on one side and between the students and each others on the other side. Interaction of the teacher with his students has a great importance in the process of learning and education. The pattern and style of this interaction is determined by the educational situation, trends and concerns, and educational characteristics. Classroom interaction has an importance and a big role in increasing the efficiency of the learning process and raising the achievement levels of students. Students need to learn skills and habits of study, especially at the university level. The effectiveness of learning is affected by several factors that include the prevailing patterns of interactive behavior in the classroom. These patterns are reflected in the activities of teacher and learners during the learning process. The effectiveness of learning is also influenced by the cognitive and non cognitive characteristics of teacher that help him to succeed, the characteristics of learners, teaching subject, and the teaching methods. This paper presents a machine learning algorithm for extracting knowledge from student model. The proposed algorithm utilizes the inherent characteristic of genetic algorithm and neural network for extracting comprehensible rules from the student database. The knowledge is used for discriminating male and female levels in logical reasoning as a part of an expert system course.

  1. On approximate reasoning and minimal models for the development of robust outdoor vehicle navigation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-11-01

    Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ``minimal model`` for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept.

  2. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    , the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

  3. Development of Learning Management Model Based on Constructivist Theory and Reasoning Strategies for Enhancing the Critical Thinking of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaipichit, Dudduan; Jantharajit, Nirat; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study issues around the management of science learning, problems that are encountered, and to develop a learning management model to address those problems. The development of that model and the findings of its study were based on Constructivist Theory and literature on reasoning strategies for enhancing…

  4. Modeling the mechanism of action of a DGAT1 inhibitor using a causal reasoning platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E Enayetallah

    Full Text Available Triglyceride accumulation is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Genetic disruption of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, which catalyzes the final reaction of triglyceride synthesis, confers dramatic resistance to high-fat diet induced obesity. Hence, DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the molecular events shaping the mechanism of action of DGAT1 pharmacological inhibition have not been fully explored yet. Here, we investigate the metabolic molecular mechanisms induced in response to pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 using a recently developed computational systems biology approach, the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE. The CRE algorithm utilizes microarray transcriptomic data and causal statements derived from the biomedical literature to infer upstream molecular events driving these transcriptional changes. The inferred upstream events (also called hypotheses are aggregated into biological models using a set of analytical tools that allow for evaluation and integration of the hypotheses in context of their supporting evidence. In comparison to gene ontology enrichment analysis which pointed to high-level changes in metabolic processes, the CRE results provide detailed molecular hypotheses to explain the measured transcriptional changes. CRE analysis of gene expression changes in high fat habituated rats treated with a potent and selective DGAT1 inhibitor demonstrate that the majority of transcriptomic changes support a metabolic network indicative of reversal of high fat diet effects that includes a number of molecular hypotheses such as PPARG, HNF4A and SREBPs. Finally, the CRE-generated molecular hypotheses from DGAT1 inhibitor treated rats were found to capture the major molecular characteristics of DGAT1 deficient mice, supporting a phenotype of decreased lipid and increased insulin sensitivity.

  5. A clinical reasoning model focused on clients' behaviour change with reference to physiotherapists: its multiphase development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvén, Maria; Hochwälder, Jacek; Dean, Elizabeth; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-05-01

    A biopsychosocial approach and behaviour change strategies have long been proposed to serve as a basis for addressing current multifaceted health problems. This emphasis has implications for clinical reasoning of health professionals. This study's aim was to develop and validate a conceptual model to guide physiotherapists' clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change. Phase 1 consisted of the exploration of existing research and the research team's experiences and knowledge. Phases 2a and 2b consisted of validation and refinement of the model based on input from physiotherapy students in two focus groups (n = 5 per group) and from experts in behavioural medicine (n = 9). Phase 1 generated theoretical and evidence bases for the first version of a model. Phases 2a and 2b established the validity and value of the model. The final model described clinical reasoning focused on clients' behaviour change as a cognitive, reflective, collaborative and iterative process with multiple interrelated levels that included input from the client and physiotherapist, a functional behavioural analysis of the activity-related target behaviour and the selection of strategies for behaviour change. This unique model, theory- and evidence-informed, has been developed to help physiotherapists to apply clinical reasoning systematically in the process of behaviour change with their clients.

  6. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders.

  7. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munck, Estefanía; Palomo, Valle; Muñoz-Sáez, Emma; Perez, Daniel I; Gómez-Miguel, Begoña; Solas, M Teresa; Gil, Carmen; Martínez, Ana; Arahuetes, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS.

  8. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munck, Estefanía; Palomo, Valle; Muñoz-Sáez, Emma; Perez, Daniel I.; Gómez-Miguel, Begoña; Solas, M. Teresa; Gil, Carmen; Martínez, Ana; Arahuetes, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS. PMID:27631495

  9. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  10. MTO1-deficient mouse model mirrors the human phenotype showing complex I defect and cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Becker

    Full Text Available Recently, mutations in the mitochondrial translation optimization factor 1 gene (MTO1 were identified as causative in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory chain defect. Here, we describe an MTO1-deficient mouse model generated by gene trap mutagenesis that mirrors the human phenotype remarkably well. As in patients, the most prominent signs and symptoms were cardiovascular and included bradycardia and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the mutant mice showed a marked worsening of arrhythmias during induction and reversal of anaesthesia. The detailed morphological and biochemical workup of murine hearts indicated that the myocardial damage was due to complex I deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, neurological examination was largely normal in Mto1-deficient mice. A translational consequence of this mouse model may be to caution against anaesthesia-related cardiac arrhythmias which may be fatal in patients.

  11. Drawing-to-learn: a framework for using drawings to promote model-based reasoning in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, Kim; Thomas, Stephen

    2015-03-02

    The drawing of visual representations is important for learners and scientists alike, such as the drawing of models to enable visual model-based reasoning. Yet few biology instructors recognize drawing as a teachable science process skill, as reflected by its absence in the Vision and Change report's Modeling and Simulation core competency. Further, the diffuse research on drawing can be difficult to access, synthesize, and apply to classroom practice. We have created a framework of drawing-to-learn that defines drawing, categorizes the reasons for using drawing in the biology classroom, and outlines a number of interventions that can help instructors create an environment conducive to student drawing in general and visual model-based reasoning in particular. The suggested interventions are organized to address elements of affect, visual literacy, and visual model-based reasoning, with specific examples cited for each. Further, a Blooming tool for drawing exercises is provided, as are suggestions to help instructors address possible barriers to implementing and assessing drawing-to-learn in the classroom. Overall, the goal of the framework is to increase the visibility of drawing as a skill in biology and to promote the research and implementation of best practices.

  12. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  13. Assessing model-based reasoning using evidence-centered design a suite of research-based design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mislevy, Robert J; Riconscente, Michelle; Wise Rutstein, Daisy; Ziker, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides theory, practical guidance, and support tools to help designers create complex, valid assessment tasks for hard-to-measure, yet crucial, science education standards. Understanding, exploring, and interacting with the world through models characterizes science in all its branches and at all levels of education. Model-based reasoning is central to science education and thus science assessment. Current interest in developing and using models has increased with the release of the Next Generation Science Standards, which identified this as one of the eight practices of science and engineering. However, the interactive, complex, and often technology-based tasks that are needed to assess model-based reasoning in its fullest forms are difficult to develop. Building on research in assessment, science education, and learning science, this Brief describes a suite of design patterns that can help assessment designers, researchers, and teachers create tasks for assessing aspects of model-based...

  14. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  15. A connectionist framework for reasoning: Reasoning with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    We present a connectionist architecture that supports almost instantaneous deductive and abductive reasoning. The deduction algorithm responds in few steps for single rule queries and in general, takes time that is linear with the number of rules in the query. The abduction algorithm produces an explanation in few steps and the best explanation in time linear with the size of the assumption set. The size of the network is polynomially related to the size of other representations of the domain, and may even be smaller. We base our connectionist model on Valiant`s Neuroidal model (Val94) and thus make minimal assumptions about the computing elements, which are assumed to be classical threshold elements with states. Within this model we develop a reasoning framework that utilizes a model-based approach to reasoning (KKS93; KR94b). In particular, we suggest to interpret the connectionist architecture as encoding examples of the domain we reason about and show how to perform various reasoning tasks with this interpretation. We then show that the representations used can be acquired efficiently from interactions with the environment and discuss how this learning process influences the reasoning performance of the network.

  16. Can basin-scale recharge be estimated reasonably with water-balance models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, A.E.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Schaap, M.G.; Hinnell, A.C.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2006-01-01

    We examine in-place recharge as an example of the complex, basin-scale hydrologic processes that are being represented with simplified numerical models. The rate and distribution of recharge depend on local meteorological conditions and hydrogeologic properties. The pattern of recharge is defined predominantly by the distribution of net precipitation (precipitation less evapotranspiration), but different pedotransfer functions (PTFs) predict different fractions of precipitation that become in-place recharge at a given location. At any single location, these differences can often be explained on the basis of the PTF characteristics, but because of the complex averaging that occurs across a basin, the combined effects of meteorological variation and soil textural variation on the basin-wide recharge rates cannot be predicted on the basis of the characteristics of different PTFs. In fact, we show that the same basin-scale numerical model, using identical inputs and modeling options, can produce almost an order of magnitude variation in predicted basin total recharge depending on the choice of PTF. This suggests that sensitivity analyses should be performed on the choice of constitutive relationship (e.g., PTF) when assessing the predictive capability of basin-scale hydrologic models. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  17. The Effect of 3D-Modeling Training on Students' Spatial Reasoning Relative to Gender and Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafhalter, Andrej; Vukman, Karin Bakracevic; Glodež, Srecko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish whether gender and age have an impact on spatial reasoning and its development through the use of 3D modeling. The study was conducted on a sample of 196 children from sixth to ninth grade, of whom 95 represented the experimental group and 101 the control group. The experimental group received 3D modeling…

  18. Understanding Predisposition in College Choice: Toward an Integrated Model of College Choice and Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Paul E.; Johnson, Todd E.; Pitre, Charisse Cowan

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to improve traditional models of college choice that draw from recruitment and enrollment management paradigms. In adopting a consumer approach to college choice, this article seeks to build upon consumer-related research, which centers on behavior and reasoning. More specifically, this article seeks to move inquiry beyond the…

  19. Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidis, Veronica S.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be…

  20. A Tri-Part Model for Genetics Literacy: Exploring Undergraduate Student Reasoning about Authentic Genetics Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Stephenson, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Genetics literacy is becoming increasingly important as advancements in our application of genetic technologies such as stem cell research, cloning, and genetic screening become more prevalent. Very few studies examine how genetics literacy is applied when reasoning about authentic genetic dilemmas. However, there is evidence that situational…

  1. A comparison of behavioural alternative models in the context of the theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Meertens, R.

    1996-01-01

    In Fishbein & Ajzen's theory of reasoned action, behaviour is predicted by the behavioural intention, which in turn is determined by a personal attitudinal and a social normative factor. These variables are usually measured with respect to the behaviour of interest, ignoring the choice process betwe

  2. A Tri-Part Model for Genetics Literacy: Exploring Undergraduate Student Reasoning about Authentic Genetics Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Stephenson, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Genetics literacy is becoming increasingly important as advancements in our application of genetic technologies such as stem cell research, cloning, and genetic screening become more prevalent. Very few studies examine how genetics literacy is applied when reasoning about authentic genetic dilemmas. However, there is evidence that situational…

  3. Using a Model to Describe Students' Inductive Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadas, Maria C.; Castro, Encarnacion; Castro, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We present some aspects of a wider investigation (Canadas, 2007), whose main objective is to describe and characterize inductive reasoning used by Spanish students in years 9 and 10 when they work on problems that involved linear and quadratic sequences. Method: We produced a test composed of six problems with different…

  4. Explanatory item response modeling of children's change on a dynamic test of analogical reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Hickendorff, M.; Resing, W.C.M.; Heiser, W.J.; de Boeck, P.A.L.

    Dynamic testing is an assessment method in which training is incorporated into the procedure with the aim of gauging cognitive potential. Large individual differences are present in children's ability to profit from training in analogical reasoning. The aim of this experiment was to investigate

  5. Practical Application of the MFM Suite on a PWR System: Modelling and Reasoning on Causes and Consequences of Process Anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Thunem, Harald P - J; Lind, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) is a functional modelling methodology which applies means - end and parts - whole decomposition and aggregation techniques to handle the complexity of engineering systems. It has been adopted in several case studies to model the process goal and functions of PWR...... is equipped with an MFM Model Editing Interface to facilitate the modelling process and MFM model analysis modules to run diag nosis and prognosis analyses based on developed models. New features of the MFM Suite also include making corresponding process diagram for the plant being modelled with MFM...... and linking the MFM model to its process components. The purpose of this report is to make a comprehensive demonstration of how to use the MFM Suite to develop MFM models and run causal reasoning for abnormal situations. This report will explain the capability of representing process and operational knowledge...

  6. Model for Bidding and Tendering with Bill of Quantities Based on Bid-Winning Estimate at Reasonable Low Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jirong; Zhong Sheng; Guo Yaohuang

    2006-01-01

    The possibility and rationality of introducing an bid-winning estimate based on a reasonable low price into construction bidding mode with bill of quantities were analyzed by setting up a model for bidding and tendering, and the functions of the estimate of reasonable low price in the bidding were revealed. On this basis, a new bidding mode of the project with bill of quantities was proposed. The application of the new mode will be advantageous to the promotion of the bill of quantities in China.

  7. Rubber particle proteins, HbREF and HbSRPP, show different interactions with model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Zhendre, Vanessa; Henry, Sarah; Thévenot, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Alves, Isabel D; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The biomembrane surrounding rubber particles from the hevea latex is well known for its content of numerous allergen proteins. HbREF (Hevb1) and HbSRPP (Hevb3) are major components, linked on rubber particles, and they have been shown to be involved in rubber synthesis or quality (mass regulation), but their exact function is still to be determined. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with various membrane models (lipid monolayers, liposomes or supported bilayers, and multilamellar vesicles) to mimic the latex particle membrane. We combined various biophysical methods (polarization-modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)/ellipsometry, attenuated-total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), fluorescence spectroscopy) to elucidate their interactions. Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) shows less affinity than rubber elongation factor (REF) for the membranes but displays a kind of "covering" effect on the lipid headgroups without disturbing the membrane integrity. Its structure is conserved in the presence of lipids. Contrarily, REF demonstrates higher membrane affinity with changes in its aggregation properties, the amyloid nature of REF, which we previously reported, is not favored in the presence of lipids. REF binds and inserts into membranes. The membrane integrity is highly perturbed, and we suspect that REF is even able to remove lipids from the membrane leading to the formation of mixed micelles. These two homologous proteins show affinity to all membrane models tested but neatly differ in their interacting features. This could imply differential roles on the surface of rubber particles.

  8. Antiparasitic mebendazole shows survival benefit in 2 preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Aprhys, Colette M; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

    2011-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor. During routine animal studies, we serendipitously observed that fenbendazole, a benzimidazole antihelminthic used to treat pinworm infection, inhibited brain tumor engraftment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments with benzimidazoles identified mebendazole as the more promising drug for GBM therapy. In GBM cell lines, mebendazole displayed cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 µM. Mebendazole disrupted microtubule formation in GBM cells, and in vitro activity was correlated with reduced tubulin polymerization. Subsequently, we showed that mebendazole significantly extended mean survival up to 63% in syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic mouse glioma models. Mebendazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has a long track-record of safe human use, and was effective in our animal models with doses documented as safe in humans. Our findings indicate that mebendazole is a possible novel anti-brain tumor therapeutic that could be further tested in clinical trials.

  9. Cybrid models of Parkinson's disease show variable mitochondrial biogenesis and genotype-respiration relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Paula M; Dunham, Lisa D; Quigley, Caitlin K; Morton, Stephanie L; Bergquist, Kristen E; Bennett, James P

    2009-12-01

    Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is a nervous system-wide disease that presents with a bradykinetic movement disorder and frequently progresses to include depression and cognitive impairment. Cybrid models of sPD are based on expression of sPD platelet mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in neural cells and demonstrate some similarities to sPD brains. In sPD and CTL cybrids we characterized aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis, mtDNA genomics, composition of the respirasome and the relationships among isolated mitochondrial and intact cell respiration. Cybrid mtDNA levels varied and correlated with expression of PGC-1 alpha, a transcriptional co-activator regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Levels of mtDNA heteroplasmic mutations were asymmetrically distributed across the mitochondrial genome; numbers of heteroplasmies were more evenly distributed. Neither levels nor numbers of heteroplasmies distinguished sPD from CTL. sPD cybrid mitochondrial ETC subunit protein levels were not altered. Isolated mitochondrial complex I respiration rates showed limited correlation with whole cell complex I respiration rates in both sPD and CTL cybrids. Intact cell respiration during the normoxic-anoxic transition yielded K(m) values for oxygen that directly related to respiration rates in CTL but not in sPD cell lines. Both sPD and CTL cybrid cells are substantially heterogeneous in mitochondrial genomic and physiologic properties. Our results suggest that mtDNA depletion may occur in sPD neurons and could reflect impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Cybrids remain a valuable model for some aspects of sPD but their heterogeneity mitigates against a simple designation of sPD phenotype in this cell model.

  10. Fundamental mathematical model shows that applied electrical field enhances chemotherapy delivery to tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moarefian, Maryam; Pascal, Jennifer A

    2016-02-01

    Biobarriers imposed by the tumor microenvironment create a challenge to deliver chemotherapeutics effectively. Electric fields can be used to overcome these biobarriers in the form of electrochemotherapy, or by applying an electric field to tissue after chemotherapy has been delivered systemically. A fundamental understanding of the underlying physical phenomena governing tumor response to an applied electrical field is lacking. Building upon the work of Pascal et al. [1], a mathematical model that predicts the fraction of tumor killed due to a direct current (DC) applied electrical field and chemotherapy is developed here for tumor tissue surrounding a single, straight, cylindrical blood vessel. Results show the typical values of various parameters related to properties of the electrical field, tumor tissue and chemotherapy drug that have the most significant influence on the fraction of tumor killed. We show that the applied electrical field enhances tumor death due to chemotherapy and that the direction and magnitude of the applied electrical field have a significant impact on the fraction of tumor killed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Aerobic Toluene Degraders in the Rhizosphere of a Constructed Wetland Model Show Diurnal Polyhydroxyalkanoate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lünsmann, Vanessa; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Taubert, Anja; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; von Bergen, Martin; Heipieper, Hermann J; Müller, Jochen A; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-07-15

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are successfully applied for the treatment of waters contaminated with aromatic compounds. In these systems, plants provide oxygen and root exudates to the rhizosphere and thereby stimulate microbial degradation processes. Root exudation of oxygen and organic compounds depends on photosynthetic activity and thus may show day-night fluctuations. While diurnal changes in CW effluent composition have been observed, information on respective fluctuations of bacterial activity are scarce. We investigated microbial processes in a CW model system treating toluene-contaminated water which showed diurnal oscillations of oxygen concentrations using metaproteomics. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to assess diurnal expression patterns of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation. We observed stable aerobic toluene turnover by Burkholderiales during the day and night. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis was upregulated in these bacteria during the day, suggesting that they additionally feed on organic root exudates while reutilizing the stored carbon compounds during the night via the glyoxylate cycle. Although mRNA copies encoding the anaerobic enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) were relatively abundant and increased slightly at night, the corresponding protein could not be detected in the CW model system. Our study provides insights into diurnal patterns of microbial processes occurring in the rhizosphere of an aquatic ecosystem. Constructed wetlands are a well-established and cost-efficient option for the bioremediation of contaminated waters. While it is commonly accepted knowledge that the function of CWs is determined by the interplay of plants and microorganisms, the detailed molecular processes are considered a black box. Here, we used a well-characterized CW model system treating toluene-contaminated water to investigate the microbial processes influenced by diurnal plant root exudation. Our results indicated stable

  12. Pertinent reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors venture beyond one of the fundamental assumptions in the non-monotonic reasoning community, namely that non-monotonic entailment is supra-classical. They investigate reasoning which uses an infra-classical entailment...

  13. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  14. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills......Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  15. Speed of Reasoning and Its Relation to Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, Frank; Klein Entink, Rinke H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying abilities, the predictive validities of two…

  16. Speed of reasoning and its relation to reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldhammer, F.; Klein Entink, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying ab

  17. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mountcastle, A M [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Concord Field Station, Bedford, MA 01730 (United States); Daniel, T L, E-mail: mtcastle@u.washington.ed [Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

  18. SC-535, a Novel Oral Multikinase Inhibitor, Showed Potent Antitumor Activity in Human Melanoma Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is considered as one of the most aggressive and deadliest cancers and current targeted therapies of melanoma often suffer limited efficacy or drug resistance. Discovery of novel multikinase inhibitors as anti-melanoma drug candidates is still needed. Methods: In this investigation, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma activities of SC-535, which is a novel small molecule multikinase inhibitor discovered by us recently. We analyzed inhibitory effects of SC-535 on various melanoma cell lines and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC in vitro. Tumor xenografts in athymic mice were used to examine the in vivo activity of SC-535. Results: SC-535 could efficiently inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1/2/3, B-RAF, and C-RAF kinases. It showed significant antiangiogenic potencies both in vitro and in vivo and considerable anti-proliferative ability against several melanoma cell lines. Oral administration of SC-535 resulted in dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth in WM2664 and C32 xenograft mouse models. Studies of mechanisms of action indicated that SC-535 suppressed the tumor angiogenesis and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in human melanoma cells. SC-535 possesses favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Conclusion: All of these results support SC-535 as a potential candidate for clinical studies in patients with melanoma.

  19. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone's effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females.Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14 or controlled cortical impact (CCI (n = 21 injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9-27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28.Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits.Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI.

  20. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  1. A Framework for Building and Reasoning with Adaptive and Interoperable PMESII Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Supply AND NO Gasoline in Market THEN Anger among Population (0.8) or an action symbol as in IF Anger among Population THEN Keep QRF Stand By (0.8...There are COTS and open source tools on the market for both deductive and abductive reasoning with production rules. For example, CLIPS is an open...is the technology used to make movie recommendations on NetFlix and related websites and services. The CPEF system can store user profiles so as to

  2. Showing a model's eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an

  3. Showing a model's eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an o

  4. What Can the Bohr-Sommerfeld Model Show Students of Chemistry in the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-01-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. To increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study aims to elaborate a framework…

  5. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshio; Takagi, Atsushi

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and functions by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  6. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIMURAToshio; TAKAGIAtsushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and the active control force is constructed by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  7. Comparing of four IRT models when analyzing two tests for inductive reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, E.; Sijtsma, K.; Hamers, J.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the nonparametric IRT Mokken models of monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity and the parametric Rasch and Verhelst models for the analysis of binary test data. First, the four IRT models are discussed and compared at the theoretical level, and for each model,

  8. Particular Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Berker, Selim

    2007-01-01

    Moral particularists argue that because reasons for action are irreducibly context-dependent, the traditional quest in ethics for true and exceptionless moral principles is hopelessly misguided. In making this claim, particularists assume a general framework according to which reasons are the ground floor normative units undergirding all other normative properties and relations. They then argue that there is no cashing out in finite terms either (i) when a given non-normative feature gives ri...

  9. Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica S. Pantelidis

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. Thisarticle lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed.Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions onwhen to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be used to determine whento use virtual reality in an education or training course is presented.

  10. Investigating the Role of Model-Based Reasoning While Troubleshooting an Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the overlap of two nationally recognized learning outcomes for physics lab courses, namely, the ability to model experimental systems and the ability to troubleshoot a malfunctioning apparatus. Modeling and troubleshooting are both nonlinear, recursive processes that involve using models to inform revisions to an apparatus. To probe the…

  11. Embedding Analogical Reasoning into 5E Learning Model: A Study of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecioglu-Kaymakci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the 5E learning model affects learning about the Solar System when an analogical model is utilized in teaching. The data were gathered in an urban middle school 7th grade science course while teaching relevant astronomy topics. The analogical model developed by the researchers was administered to 20…

  12. Embedding Analogical Reasoning into 5E Learning Model: A Study of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecioglu-Kaymakci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the 5E learning model affects learning about the Solar System when an analogical model is utilized in teaching. The data were gathered in an urban middle school 7th grade science course while teaching relevant astronomy topics. The analogical model developed by the researchers was administered to 20…

  13. Chapman, A. . Camels, diamonds and counterfactuals : a model for teaching causal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Marijke

    2011-01-01

    In het artikel ‘Camels, diamonds and counterfactuals: a model for teaching causal reasoning’ beschrijft Chapman een onderwijsmodel voor vooruitgang in oorzakelijk redeneren. Dit model is bedoeld voor 16+-leerlingen die met dit model worden toegerust om een robuuste oorzakelijke analyse te maken. Cha

  14. Sufficient reason and reason enough

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    I offer an analysis of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and its relevancy for the scientific endeavour. I submit that the world is not, and cannot be, rational - only some brained beings are. The Principle of Sufficient Reason is not a necessary truth nor a physical law. It is just a guiding metanomological hypothesis justified a posteriori by its success in helping us to unveil the mechanisms that operate in Nature.

  15. Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Nellie

    2016-01-01

    This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving pr

  16. Simple solvable energy-landscape model that shows a thermodynamic phase transition and a glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G

    2012-06-01

    When a liquid melt is cooled, a glass or phase transition can be obtained depending on the cooling rate. Yet, this behavior has not been clearly captured in energy-landscape models. Here, a model is provided in which two key ingredients are considered in the landscape, metastable states and their multiplicity. Metastable states are considered as in two level system models. However, their multiplicity and topology allows a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit for slow cooling, while a transition to the glass is obtained for fast cooling. By solving the corresponding master equation, the minimal speed of cooling required to produce the glass is obtained as a function of the distribution of metastable states.

  17. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L

    2017-07-01

    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Reexamination of the State of the Art Cloud Modeling Shows Real Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Andreas D.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Malinowski, S. P.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Bryan, George; Lebo, Zachary; Milbrandt, Jason; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Tessendorf, Sarah; Theriault, Julie M.; Thompson, Gregory

    2013-05-25

    Following up on an almost thirty year long history of International Cloud Modeling Workshops, that started out with a meeting in Irsee, Germany in 1985, the 8th International Cloud Modeling Workshop was held in July 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The workshop, hosted by the Institute of Geophysics at the University of Warsaw, was organized by Szymon Malinowski and his local team of students and co-chaired by Wojciech Grabowski (NCAR/MMM) and Andreas Muhlbauer (University of Washington). International Cloud Modeling Workshops have been held traditionally every four years typically during the week before the International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP) . Rooted in the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) weather modification program, the core objectives of the Cloud Modeling Workshop have been centered at the numerical modeling of clouds, cloud microphysics, and the interactions between cloud microphysics and cloud dynamics. In particular, the goal of the workshop is to provide insight into the pertinent problems of today’s state-of-the-art of cloud modeling and to identify key deficiencies in the microphysical representation of clouds in numerical models and cloud parameterizations. In recent years, the workshop has increasingly shifted the focus toward modeling the interactions between aerosols and clouds and provided case studies to investigate both the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation as well as the impact of cloud and precipitation processes on aerosols. This time, about 60 (?) scientists from about 10 (?) different countries participated in the workshop and contributed with discussions, oral and poster presentations to the workshop’s plenary and breakout sessions. Several case leaders contributed to the workshop by setting up five observationally-based case studies covering a wide range of cloud types, namely, marine stratocumulus, mid-latitude squall lines, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, Arctic stratus and winter-time orographic

  19. Rodin: an open toolset for modelling and reasoning in Event-B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrial, Jean-Raymond; Butler, Michael J.; Hallerstede, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Event-B is a formal method for system-level modelling and analysis. Key features of Event-B are the use of set theory as a modelling notation, the use of refinement to represent systems at different abstraction levels and the use of mathematical proof to verify consistency between refinement levels...

  20. Abstracting and reasoning over ship trajectories and web data with the Simple Event Model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. van Hage; V. Malaisé; G.K.D. de Vries; A.Th. Schreiber; M.W. van Someren

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between low-level features and semantics is a problem commonly acknowledged in the Multimedia community. Event modeling can fill this gap by representing knowledge about the data at different level of abstraction. In this paper we present the Simple Event Model (SEM) and its applica

  1. Effects of anxiety on analogical reasoning: a test of three theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M R; Revelle, W

    1985-11-01

    Three mediational theories of anxiety and performance, namely, cue utilization theory (Easterbrook, 1959), attentional theory (Mandler & Sarason, 1952; Wine, 1971), and working memory capacity theory (M. W. Eysenck, 1979), were compared for their efficacy in explaining anxiety-induced performance decrements on a task of analogical reasoning. One hundred two subjects who varied in their trait and state anxiety levels completed 100 geometric analogies under either relaxed (reassurance, non-time-limited) or stressed (ego-threat, time-limited) conditions. Response time and error rate data for nine levels of task complexity (1-, 2-, and 3-element analogies with zero, one, or two transformations per element) were analyzed by means of multivariate analysis of variance. Results in the relaxed condition supported attentional theory in that the more anxious subjects were both slower and less accurate than were the less anxious subjects. In the stressed condition, none of the three anxiety-performance theories was supported. More anxious subjects were faster but made more errors than did less anxious subjects. Thus in the stressed condition, performance differences suggested differences in speed-accuracy trade-off strategies rather than differences in processing abilities. The limitations of attentional theory and the need to study the effects of anxiety and time stress on information processing are discussed.

  2. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the ...

  3. Verbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  4. Selection of a Tritium Dose Model: Defensibility and Reasonableness for DOE Authorization Basis Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); O`Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This paper highlights the logic used to select a dispersion/consequence methodology, describes the collection of tritium models contained in the suite of analysis options (the `tool kit`), and provides application examples.

  5. Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy Show Different Patterns of Sarcolemmal Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Genetic defects in a number of components of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC) lead to distinct forms of muscular dystrophy. However, little is known about how alterations in the DGC are manifested in the pathophysiology present in dystrophic muscle tissue. One hypothesis is that the DGC protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced damage. Using tracer molecules, we compared sarcolemmal integrity in animal models for muscular dystrophy and in muscular dystrophy patient samples. Ev...

  6. Modeling the Intention to Choose Natural Vaginal Delivery: Using Reasoned Action and Social Cognitive Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Kanani, Safieh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Behavioral Intention Model is one of the best and most widely models used regarding attitude of behavioral of pregnancy and decrease the rate of cesarean section (CS) among pregnant women, except effect of attitude and subjective norms on behavioral intention. Two variables of self-efficacy, and outcome expectation, relate to individual’s behavior in an upcoming situation, and both of them are important at the development of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to de...

  7. A Model Lesson: Finland Shows Us What Equal Opportunity Looks Like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2012-01-01

    International indicators show that Finland has one of the most educated citizenries in the world, provides educational opportunities in an egalitarian manner, and makes efficient use of resources. But at the beginning of the 1990s, education in Finland was nothing special in international terms. The performance of Finnish students on international…

  8. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  9. The PROMETHEUS bundled payment experiment: slow start shows problems in implementing new payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; Ridgely, M Susan; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2011-11-01

    Fee-for-service payment is blamed for many of the problems observed in the US health care system. One of the leading alternative payment models proposed in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 is bundled payment, which provides payment for all of the care a patient needs over the course of a defined clinical episode, instead of paying for each discrete service. We evaluated the initial "road test" of PROMETHEUS Payment, one of several bundled payment pilot projects. The project has faced substantial implementation challenges, and none of the three pilot sites had executed contracts or made bundled payments as of May 2011. The pilots have taken longer to set up than expected, primarily because of the complexity of the payment model and the fact that it builds on the existing fee-for-service payment system and other complexities of health care. Participants continue to see promise and value in the bundled payment model, but the pilot results suggest that the desired benefits of this and other payment reforms may take time and considerable effort to materialize.

  10. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  11. Turn-Taking Model in the Chinese Recruitment Reality show-BelongtoYou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theories of conversational analysis proposed by Sacks et al,this paper chooses excerpts of candidates’inter-view from the Chinese recruitment reality TV show BelongtoYou in Tianjin TV. Through analyzing the excerpt, how the rules of turn-taking are applied in this program will be demonstrated. And the features of turn-taking strategies used by the host,candi-dates and bosses will be concluded.

  12. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-14

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species.

  13. Modeling the Intention to Choose Natural Vaginal Delivery: Using Reasoned Action and Social Cognitive Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Kanani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Behavioral Intention Model is one of the best and most widely models used regarding attitude of behavioral of pregnancy and decrease the rate of cesarean section (CS among pregnant women, except effect of atti-tude and subjective norms on behavioral intention. Two variables of self-efficacy, and outcome expectation, relate to individual’s behavior in an upcoming situation, and both of them are important at the development of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to explain women’s inten-tion to choose natural vaginal delivery (NVD. The variables of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, derived from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, and Behavioral Intention Model constructs were used to define the model.Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in nature and took place in Pars Abad, Iran in 2014. The non-probability sample consisted of 200 pregnant women who voluntarily participated in the study and provided the data. SPSS 21 and MPLUS 6.8 were employed to analyze the data.Results: Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and attitude toward NVD were associated with intention to choose the NVD.Conclusion: The study findings may play a role in designing educational inter-ventions aimed at influencing the NVD and improving childbirth programs.

  14. A reasoned overview on Boussinesq-type models: the interplay between physics, mathematics and numerics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocchini, Maurizio

    2013-12-08

    This paper, which is largely the fruit of an invited talk on the topic at the latest International Conference on Coastal Engineering, describes the state of the art of modelling by means of Boussinesq-type models (BTMs). Motivations for using BTMs as well as their fundamentals are illustrated, with special attention to the interplay between the physics to be described, the chosen model equations and the numerics in use. The perspective of the analysis is that of a physicist/engineer rather than of an applied mathematician. The chronological progress of the currently available BTMs from the pioneering models of the late 1960s is given. The main applications of BTMs are illustrated, with reference to specific models and methods. The evolution in time of the numerical methods used to solve BTMs (e.g. finite differences, finite elements, finite volumes) is described, with specific focus on finite volumes. Finally, an overview of the most important BTMs currently available is presented, as well as some indications on improvements required and fields of applications that call for attention.

  15. A new bovine conjunctiva model shows that Listeria monocytogenes invasion is associated with lysozyme resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jessica; Owen, A Rhys; Glanvill, Amy; Francis, Asher; Maboni, Grazieli; Nova, Rodrigo J; Wapenaar, Wendela; Rees, Catherine; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2015-08-31

    Listerial keratoconjunctivitis ('silage eye') is a wide spread problem in ruminants causing economic losses to farmers and impacts negatively on animal welfare. It results from direct entry of Listeria monocytogenes into the eye, often following consumption of contaminated silage. An isolation protocol for bovine conjunctival swabbing was developed and used to sample both infected and healthy eyes bovine eyes (n=46). L. monocytogenes was only isolated from one healthy eye sample, and suggests that this organism can be present without causing disease. To initiate a study of this disease, an infection model was developed using isolated conjunctiva explants obtained from cattle eyes post slaughter. Conjunctiva were cultured and infected for 20 h with a range of L. monocytogenes isolates (n=11), including the healthy bovine eye isolate and also strains isolated from other bovine sources, such as milk or clinical infections. Two L. monocytogenes isolates (one from a healthy eye and one from a cattle abortion) were markedly less able to invade conjunctiva explants, but one of those was able to efficiently infect Caco2 cells indicating that it was fully virulent. These two isolates were also significantly more sensitive to lysozyme compared to most other isolates tested, suggesting that lysozyme resistance is an important factor when infecting bovine conjunctiva. In conclusion, we present the first bovine conjunctiva explant model for infection studies and demonstrate that clinical L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of bovine keratoconjunctivitis are able to infect these tissues.

  16. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury. METHODS: Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28. RESULTS: The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  17. Workshop report: modeling the molecular mechanism of bacterial spore germination and elucidating reasons for germination heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indest, Karl J; Buchholz, Wallace G; Faeder, Jim R; Setlow, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of 2 days, top researchers in the fields of bacterial spore biology and computational biology discussed approaches to determine the cause of spore germination heterogeneity. Biological and mathematical data gaps were identified, and experimental approaches and computational strategies for modeling spore germination were presented and evaluated. As a result of these interactions, future research directions were defined, the outcome of which should result in a robust model to help define the molecular mechanism(s) of spore germination. Mechanistic understanding of germination will be instrumental for developing novel sterilization, treatment, and decontamination strategies to mitigate threats posed by spores.

  18. A model SN2 reaction ‘on water’ does not show rate enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine V.; Benjamin, Ilan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations of the benchmark nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN2) Cl- + CH3Cl are carried out at the water liquid/vapor interface. The reaction free energy profile and the activation free energy are determined as a function of the reactants' location normal to the surface. The activation free energy remains almost constant relative to that in bulk water, despite the fact that the barrier is expected to significantly decrease as the reaction is carried out near the vapor phase. We show that this is due to the combined effects of a clustering of water molecules around the nucleophile and a relatively weak hydration of the transition state.

  19. Model-based reasoning: using visual tools to reveal student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckie, Douglas; Harrison, Scott H; Ebert-May, Diane

    2011-03-01

    Using visual models is common in science and should become more common in classrooms. Our research group has developed and completed studies on the use of a visual modeling tool, the Concept Connector. This modeling tool consists of an online concept mapping Java applet that has automatic scoring functions we refer to as Robograder. The Concept Connector enables students in large introductory science courses to visualize their thinking through online model building. The Concept Connector's flexible scoring system, based on tested grading schemes as well as instructor input, has enabled >1,000 physiology students to build maps of their ideas about plant and animal physiology with the guidance of automatic and immediate online scoring of homework. Criterion concept maps developed by instructors in this project contain numerous expert-generated or "correct" propositions connecting two concept words together with a linking phrase. In this study, holistic algorithms were used to test automated methods of scoring concept maps that might work as well as a human grader.

  20. Reason, Intuition, and Social Justice: Elaborating on Parson's Career Decision-Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Blustein, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly a century ago, Frank Parsons established the Vocation Bureau in Boston and spawned the development of the counseling profession. Elaborating on Parsons's socially responsible vision for counseling, the authors examine contemporary perspectives on career decision making that include both rational and alternative models and propose that these…

  1. A Mediation Model to Explain the Role of Mathematics Skills and Probabilistic Reasoning on Statistics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Caterina; Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Among the wide range of factors related to the acquisition of statistical knowledge, competence in basic mathematics, including basic probability, has received much attention. In this study, a mediation model was estimated to derive the total, direct, and indirect effects of mathematical competence on statistics achievement taking into account…

  2. Substandard model? At last, a good reason to opt for a sexier theory of particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, A

    2001-01-01

    According to experimenters at Brookhaven, a tiny discrepancy in the magnetism of the muon may signal a crack in the Standard Model. The deviation could be the first piece of hard evidence for a more complete theory called supersymmetry (1 page).

  3. In vitro and in vivo models of Huntington's disease show alterations in the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Monica; Battista, Natalia; Valenza, Marta; Mastrangelo, Nicolina; Malaponti, Marinella; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Centonze, Diego; Finazzi-Agrò, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Elena; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in R6/2 mice, a widely used model of Huntington's disease (HD). We measured the endogenous content of N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the activity of their biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipase, respectively) and hydrolytic enzymes [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase, respectively] and of their target receptors (type 1 cannabinoid receptor, type 2 cannabinoid receptor, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1) in the brains of wild-type and R6/2 mice of different ages, as well as in the striatum and cortex of 12-week-old animals. In addition, we measured FAAH activity in lymphocytes of R6/2 mice. In the whole brains of 12-week-old R6/2 mice, we found reductions in N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D activity, diacylglycerol lipase activity and cannabinoid receptor binding, mostly associated with changes in the striatum but not in the cortex, as well as an increase in 2-arachidonoylglycerol content as compared with wild-type littermates, without any other change in ECS elements. Then, our analysis was extended to HD43 cells, an inducible cellular model of HD derived from rat ST14A cells. In both induced and noninduced conditions, we demonstrated a fully functional ECS. Overall, our data suggest that the ECS is differently affected in mouse and human HD, and that HD43 cells are suitable for high-throughput screening of FAAH-oriented drugs affecting HD progression.

  4. A zebrafish model of glucocorticoid resistance shows serotonergic modulation of the stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGriffiths

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One function of glucocorticoids is to restore homeostasis after an acute stress response by providing negative feedback to stress circuits in the brain. Loss of this negative feedback leads to elevated physiological stress and may contribute to depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the early, developmental effects of glucocorticoid signaling deficits on stress physiology and related behaviors using a mutant zebrafish, grs357, with non-functional glucocorticoid receptors. These mutants are morphologically inconspicuous and adult-viable. A previous study of adult grs357 mutants showed loss of glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback and elevated physiological and behavioral stress markers. Already at five days post-fertilization, mutant larvae had elevated whole body cortisol, increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and failed to show normal suppression of stress markers after dexamethasone treatment. Mutant larvae had larger auditory-evoked startle responses compared to wildtype sibling controls (grwt, despite having lower spontaneous activity levels. Fluoxetine (Prozac treatment in mutants decreased startle responding and increased spontaneous activity, making them behaviorally similar to wildtype. This result mirrors known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in modifying glucocorticoid signaling and alleviating stress disorders in human patients. Our results suggest that larval grs357 zebrafish can be used to study behavioral, physiological and molecular aspects of stress disorders. Most importantly, interactions between glucocorticoid and serotonin signaling appear to be highly conserved among vertebrates, suggesting deep homologies at the neural circuit level and opening up new avenues for research into psychiatric conditions.

  5. The atherogenic Scarb1 null mouse model shows a high bone mass phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Corine; Martin-Falstrault, Louise; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), the Scarb1 gene product, is a receptor associated with cholesteryl ester uptake from high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which drives cholesterol movement from peripheral tissues toward the liver for excretion, and, consequently, Scarb1 null mice are prone to atherosclerosis. Because studies have linked atherosclerosis incidence with osteoporosis, we characterized the bone metabolism in these mice. Bone morphometry was assessed through microcomputed tomography and histology. Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) were used to characterize influence of endogenous SR-BI in cell functions. Total and HDL-associated cholesterol in null mice were increased by 32-60%, correlating with its role in lipoprotein metabolism. Distal metaphyses from 2- and 4-mo-old null mice showed correspondingly 46 and 37% higher bone volume fraction associated with a higher number of trabeculae. Histomorphometric analyses in 2-mo-old null male mice revealed 1.42-fold greater osteoblast surface, 1.37-fold higher percent mineralizing surface, and 1.69-fold enhanced bone formation rate. In vitro assays for MSCs from null mice revealed 37% higher proliferation rate, 48% more alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% greater mineralization potential and a 2-fold osterix (Sp7) expression, yet a 0.5-fold decrease in caveolin-1 (Cav1) expression. Selective uptake levels of HDL-associated cholesteryl oleate and estradiol were similar between MSC from wild-type and Scarb1 null mice, suggesting that its contribution to this process is not its main role in these cells. However, Scarb1 knockout stunted the HDL-dependent regulation of Cav1 genic expression. Scarb1 null mice are not prone to osteoporosis but show higher bone mass associated with enhanced bone formation.

  6. Phase errors elimination in compact digital holoscope (CDH) based on a reasonable mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongfu; Qu, Weijuan; Cheng, Cheeyuen; Wang, Zhaomin; Asundi, Anand

    2015-03-01

    In the compact digital holoscope (CDH) measurement process, theoretically, we need to ensure the distances between the reference wave and object wave to the hologram plane exactly match. However, it is not easy to realize in practice due to the human factors. This can lead to a phase error in the reconstruction result. In this paper, the strict theoretical analysis of the wavefront interference is performed to demonstrate the mathematical model of the phase error and then a phase errors elimination method is proposed based on the advanced mathematical model, which has a more explicit physical meaning. Experiments are carried out to verify the performance of the presented method and the results indicate that it is effective and allows the operator can make operation more flexible.

  7. Auditors’ Perceptions of Reasonable Assurance the Effectiveness of the Audit Risk Model. Case from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Valipour; Javad Moradi; Hajar Moazaminezhad

    2012-01-01

    Despite the definition of the concept of logical confidence in auditing standards, the results from some studies conducted indicate a meaningful difference between perceptions this basic concept, by different auditors (Law, 2008, 180). The results from some researches also indicate that auditors’ perceptions about the effectiveness of the audit risk model vary (which is based on auditing general principles on the basis of risk) (Arense, 2006, 148). In so doing, aiming at studying the proof fo...

  8. NMR Metabolomics Show Evidence for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selen, Ebru Selin; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Tonelli, Marco; Bütz, Daniel E; Haviland, Julia A; Porter, Warren P; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2015-08-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p metabolic substrates in the plasma and kidneys of treated mice are associated with altered amino acid metabolism, increased cytoplasmic PP, and increased mitochondrial activity, leading to a more oxidized state. This study identifies biomarkers associated with metabolic dysfunction in kidney mitochondria of a prenatal gluococorticoid-treated mouse model of PCOS that may be used as early predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PCOS metabolic disorder in women.

  9. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  10. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  11. Reasoned versus reactive prediction of behaviour: a meta-analysis of the prototype willingness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jemma; Kothe, Emily; Mullan, Barbara; Monds, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The prototype willingness model (PWM) was designed to extend expectancy-value models of health behaviour by also including a heuristic, or social reactive pathway, to better explain health-risk behaviours in adolescents and young adults. The pathway includes prototype, i.e., images of a typical person who engages in a behaviour, and willingness to engage in behaviour. The current study describes a meta-analysis of predictive research using the PWM and explores the role of the heuristic pathway and intentions in predicting behaviour. Eighty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the PWM was supported and explained 20.5% of the variance in behaviour. Willingness explained 4.9% of the variance in behaviour over and above intention, although intention tended to be more strongly related to behaviour than was willingness. The strength of the PWM relationships tended to vary according to the behaviour being tested, with alcohol consumption being the behaviour best explained. Age was also an important moderator, and, as expected, PWM behaviour was best accounted for within adolescent samples. Results were heterogeneous even after moderators were taken into consideration. This meta-analysis provides support for the PWM and may be used to inform future interventions that can be tailored for at-risk populations.

  12. Model-based reasoning for power system management using KATE and the SSM/PMAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Carreira, Daniel J.; Mckenzie, F. D.; Gann, Brian

    1993-01-01

    The overall goal of this research effort has been the development of a software system which automates tasks related to monitoring and controlling electrical power distribution in spacecraft electrical power systems. The resulting software system is called the Intelligent Power Controller (IPC). The specific tasks performed by the IPC include continuous monitoring of the flow of power from a source to a set of loads, fast detection of anomalous behavior indicating a fault to one of the components of the distribution systems, generation of diagnosis (explanation) of anomalous behavior, isolation of faulty object from remainder of system, and maintenance of flow of power to critical loads and systems (e.g. life-support) despite fault conditions being present (recovery). The IPC system has evolved out of KATE (Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer), developed at NASA-KSC. KATE consists of a set of software tools for developing and applying structure and behavior models to monitoring, diagnostic, and control applications.

  13. Diagrammatic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds of diagram manipulation: Sometimes diagrams...... are manipulated in order to profile known information in an optimal fashion. At other times diagrams are explored in order to gain new insights, solve problems or discover hidden meaning potentials. The latter cases often entail manipulations that either generate additional information or extract information...

  14. Promoting the Understanding of Scientific Reasoning, Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis: A Course for Astrophysics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NSF-supported “AstroCom NYC” program, a collaboration of the City University of New York, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and Columbia University has the explicit goal of increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in astronomy and astrophysics by providing pedagogical mentoring and research experiences to undergraduate students. To supplement AstroCom scholars' undergraduate course work, and as a gateway to summer astrophysics research opportunities, we implemented a course called “Methods of Scientific Research” (MSR). The semester-long MSR course emphasizes the study of data using computers and other digital tools in a laboratory environment that encourages collaborative and active learning. We enroll early physical science majors and deliberately seek to inculcate habits of mind needed for science research, including assigning physical meaning to variables and measurements; engaging in mathematical modeling; quantifying error; eliminating bias; proposing hypotheses; creating predictions; testing predictions. Using laptop computers interfaced with probeware, students collect and analyze data using graphing software. Students study concepts such as motion, temperature, magnetism, electricity, gas pressure, and force with open-ended investigations where large data sets can be readily collected and replicated during a course meeting. Students are guided to examine data for patterns and trends, to make meaning of descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values, correlation coefficients and root mean square error values, and in general to understand, judge, and describe the studied phenomena based on data. A secondary goal of the course is to familiarize students with the facilities at AMNH, where they will do summer research as part of AstroCom NYC, in an effort to build a sense of belonging and to help them begin to self-identify as a scientist. We will discuss some our activities and

  15. The Effects of Reasoning, Use of Models, Sex Type, and Their Interactions on Posttest Achievement in Chemical Bonding after Constant Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Halsted, Douglas A.

    1985-01-01

    Determined the effects of reasoning, use of models during testing, and sex type on posttest achievement in chemical bonding under controlled instruction. Indicates that chemistry students' (N=84) reasoning capabilities influenced performance; other variables were not significant. Other conclusions are noted and discussed. (DH)

  16. The Comparison of Inductive Reasoning under Risk Conditions between Chinese and Japanese Based on Computational Models: Toward the Application to CAE for Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Terai, Asuka; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Inductive reasoning under risk conditions is an important thinking process not only for sciences but also in our daily life. From this viewpoint, it is very useful for language learning to construct computational models of inductive reasoning which realize the CAE for foreign languages. This study proposes the comparison of inductive reasoning…

  17. Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female "swimsuit models".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Do self-identified bisexual men and women actually show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest? To answer this question, I studied bisexual men's and women's sexual attraction to photographed male and female "swimsuit models" that varied in attractiveness. Participants (663 college students and gay pride attendees, including 14 self-identified bisexual men and 17 self-identified bisexual women) rated their degree of sexual attraction to 34 male and 34 female swimsuit models. Participants' viewing times to models were unobtrusively assessed. Results showed that bisexual men and women showed bisexual patterns of attraction and viewing times to photo models, which strongly distinguished them from same-sex heterosexual and homosexual participants. In contrast to other groups, which showed evidence of greater male than female category specificity, bisexual men and women did not differ in category specificity. Results suggest that there are subsets of men and women who display truly bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest.

  18. Flawed reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, M.W.; Owen, B.M.

    1993-07-15

    The FERC's failure to investigate the Entergy/GSU merger's effects on market power may force other agencies to examine electric utility mergers on their own. The competitive effects of the proposed merger Entergy and Gulf States Utilities (GSU) will not be further investigated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), according to a January 1993 order. The FERC's primary justification is that the [open quotes]open access[close quotes] transmission conditions offered by the merging parties eliminated concern over market power in transmission and bulk power. The FERC's reasoning is flawed. If the merger were to lead to an increase in market power, the proposed transmission conditions would not prevent the merged firm from exercising that power. The FERC also justifies its decision not to investigate the competitive effects of the merger on the grounds that no intervenor had demonstrated that present competition between the two systems is more than de minimis. This is not an appropriate standard. Intervenors demonstrated that Entergy's and GSU's transmission system offer alternative contract routes for bulk power between generators and customers. Even if Entergy and GSU both do not actually sell significant amounts of the same transmission-service, an antitrust evaluation should consider whether the availability of a second, independent route constrains the pricing of the first. The FERC's reasoning indicates that it has lost its way in carrying out its responsibilities to protect consumers. Open access to transmission systems may play an important role in increasing competition in bulk power markets. However, the FERC's goal should be to promote competition, not merely to open access for its own sake. In its enthusiasm to secure [open quotes]open access[close quotes], the FERC appears willing to ignore possible reductions in competition.

  19. Maritime investigation model based on Reason Model%基于Reason模型的海事调查模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文正; 杨亮

    2011-01-01

    Reason模型是Reason先生提出的旨在提高人们认知事故本性能力的模型.虽然Reason先生提出Reason模型的本意不在指导海事调查,但其模型的通用性和适用性为如何科学地开展海事调查提供了基础.本文修改原始的Reason模型,并赋予其实际含义,提出适用于海事调查的Reason-M事故因果模型,并通过一例海上工伤事故的分析以验证模型在海事调查中的适用性.

  20. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  1. Predicting and understanding undergraduate students' intentions to gamble in a casino using an extended model of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Seok

    2013-06-01

    Given that current television programming contains numerous gambling portrayals, it is imperative to understand whether and to what extent these gambling behaviors in media influence individuals' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. This study explores an extended model of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) by including gambling media exposure as a distal, mediating and mediated factor in predicting undergraduate students' intentions to gamble in a casino. Findings show that the extended model of TRA clearly indicates that the constructs of gambling media exposure, prior gambling experience, and level of gambling addiction contribute to the prediction of undergraduate students' casino gambling intentions. Theoretical implications of gambling media effects and practical implications for public policy are discussed, and future research directions are outlined.

  2. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  3. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  4. Logical Varieties of Instrumental Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental reasons play a central role in our practical deliberations because we apply the distinction between reasonable and unreasonable not only to beliefs, but to actions also. The question of what one has an instrumental reason to do is an important substantive question that is relevant to the general theory of practical reasoning and to ethics, too. It will be my object in the present study to show that we have different kinds of instrumental reasons, which depend solely on their logi...

  5. Five reasons not to use numerical models in water resource management (Arne Richter Award Lecture for OYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable water resource management in a quickly changing world poses new challenges to hydrology and decision sciences. Systems analysis can contribute to promote sustainable practices by providing the theoretical background and the operational tools for an objective and transparent appraisal of policy options for water resource systems (WRS) management. Traditionally, limited availability of data and computing resources imposed to use oversimplified WRS models, with little consideration of modeling uncertainties and of the non-stationarity and feedbacks between WRS drivers, and a priori aggregation of costs and benefits. Nowadays we increasingly recognize the inadequacy of these simplifications, and consider them among the reasons for the limited use of model-generated information in actual decision-making processes. On the other hand, fast-growing availability of data and computing resources are opening up unprecedented possibilities in the way we build and apply numerical models. In this talk I will discuss my experiences and ideas on how we can exploit this potential to improve model-informed decision-making while facing the challenges of uncertainty, non-stationarity, feedbacks and conflicting objectives. In particular, through practical examples of WRS design and operation problems, my talk will aim at stimulating discussion about the impact of uncertainty on decisions: can inaccurate and imprecise predictions still carry valuable information for decision-making? Does uncertainty in predictions necessarily limit our ability to make 'good' decisions? Or can uncertainty even be of help for decision-making, for instance by reducing the projected conflict between competing water use? Finally, I will also discuss how the traditionally separate disciplines of numerical modelling, optimization, and uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have in my experience been just different facets of the same 'systems approach'.

  6. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  7. Co-reference and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare R; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2004-01-01

    Co-reference occurs when two or more noun phrases refer to the same individual, as in the following inferential problem: Mark is kneeling by the fire or he is looking at the TV but not both. / Mark is kneeling by the fire. / Is he looking at the TV? In three experiments, we compared co-referential reasoning problems with problems referring to different individuals. Experiment 1 showed that co-reference improves accuracy. In Experiment 2, we replicated that finding and showed that co-reference speeds up both reading and inference. Experiment 3 showed that the effects of co-reference are greatest when the premises and the conclusion share co-referents. These effects led the participants to make illusory inferences--that is, to draw systematically invalid conclusions. The results are discussed in terms of the mental model theory of reasoning.

  8. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-150 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in in the low mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  9. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 100-600 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in the entire mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  10. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning in Product Style Acquisition Incorporating Valence-Arousal-Based Emotional Cellular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqian Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional cellular (EC, proposed in our previous works, is a kind of semantic cell that contains kernel and shell and the kernel is formalized by a triple- L = , where P denotes a typical set of positive examples relative to word-L, d is a pseudodistance measure on emotional two-dimensional space: valence-arousal, and δ is a probability density function on positive real number field. The basic idea of EC model is to assume that the neighborhood radius of each semantic concept is uncertain, and this uncertainty will be measured by one-dimensional density function δ. In this paper, product form features were evaluated by using ECs and to establish the product style database, fuzzy case based reasoning (FCBR model under a defined similarity measurement based on fuzzy nearest neighbors (FNN incorporating EC was applied to extract product styles. A mathematical formalized inference system for product style was also proposed, and it also includes uncertainty measurement tool emotional cellular. A case study of style acquisition of mobile phones illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  11. Role models play the greatest role - a qualitative study on reasons for choosing postgraduate training at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, Bonnie; Harendza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Why physicians choose a certain specialty at a university hospital for their postgraduate training is incompletely understood. Our aim was to identify factors that led physicians from different generations to opt for postgraduate training in a specialty with high or low patient contact at a university hospital. We conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with residents and attending physicians from the departments of Internal Medicine (high patient contact) and Laboratory Medicine (low patient contact) at the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. We used template analysis to code the interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed the data. Initial codes and concepts were shaped into categories until agreement on the final template was reached. We identified five main categories of factors that influenced postgraduate specialty selection. Role models with a civilized code of behavior and expertise in their specialty had had the greatest influence on participants' choice of a specialty across generations. Electives and a doctoral thesis project had also influenced participants' decisions, mainly because of meeting a role model in their supervisor. Patient contact and intellectual challenges were identified as contributing factors in the selection of a specialty with high patient contact. As reasons for selecting a university hospital for postgraduate education four categories were identified: the possibility to participate in scientific research, a broad spectrum of activities, personal contacts and future career opportunities. The professional attitudes of teachers as role models were identified as having the greatest influence on postgraduate education choices. Besides other actions to attract students to certain specialties for their postgraduate education, the aspect of being perceived as a role model while teaching requires particular attention when preparing medical faculty for undergraduate medical teaching.

  12. Role models play the greatest role – a qualitative study on reasons for choosing postgraduate training at a university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, Bonnie; Harendza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Why physicians choose a certain specialty at a university hospital for their postgraduate training is incompletely understood. Our aim was to identify factors that led physicians from different generations to opt for postgraduate training in a specialty with high or low patient contact at a university hospital. Methods: We conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with residents and attending physicians from the departments of Internal Medicine (high patient contact) and Laboratory Medicine (low patient contact) at the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. We used template analysis to code the interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed the data. Initial codes and concepts were shaped into categories until agreement on the final template was reached. Results: We identified five main categories of factors that influenced postgraduate specialty selection. Role models with a civilized code of behavior and expertise in their specialty had had the greatest influence on participants’ choice of a specialty across generations. Electives and a doctoral thesis project had also influenced participants’ decisions, mainly because of meeting a role model in their supervisor. Patient contact and intellectual challenges were identified as contributing factors in the selection of a specialty with high patient contact. As reasons for selecting a university hospital for postgraduate education four categories were identified: the possibility to participate in scientific research, a broad spectrum of activities, personal contacts and future career opportunities. Conclusions: The professional attitudes of teachers as role models were identified as having the greatest influence on postgraduate education choices. Besides other actions to attract students to certain specialties for their postgraduate education, the aspect of being perceived as a role model while teaching requires particular attention when preparing medical faculty for undergraduate

  13. Neural correlates of acoustic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangmeier, Thomas; Knauff, Markus

    2009-01-16

    We report an fMRI experiment on deductive reasoning with acoustically presented problems. Twelve volunteers received problems in which an acoustic stimulus came from the left or the right of another stimulus. The participants then heard a third stimulus coming from the left or the right of one of the proceeding stimuli. Their task was to determine the spatial relation between the two stimuli they never perceived together. In the psychology of reasoning, such problems are called transitive inferences or three-term-series problems. During the early phases of the inference, activity in primary and secondary acoustic areas and in the anterior prefrontal cortex was found. Further processing was accompanied by activity in medial frontal gyrus, the cingulate cortex, and in the parietal cortex. In the final phase, activity was found in the left frontal cortex, the right cerebellum, the right superior temporal gyrus, and in the parietal lobule. These results show that different brain areas are related to different phases of an inference. Based on these findings, we propose a three-stage-model of acoustic reasoning and identify the neural structures that are involved in the cognitive processes taking place in each phase. The results also show how acoustically presented reasoning problems differ from problems in which the problems are presented visually.

  14. Hill-type muscle model parameters determined from experiments on single muscles show large animal-to-animal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Marcus; Guschlbauer, Christoph; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Hooper, Scott L; Büschges, Ansgar

    2012-11-01

    Models built using mean data can represent only a very small percentage, or none, of the population being modeled, and produce different activity than any member of it. Overcoming this "averaging" pitfall requires measuring, in single individuals in single experiments, all of the system's defining characteristics. We have developed protocols that allow all the parameters in the curves used in typical Hill-type models (passive and active force-length, series elasticity, force-activation, force-velocity) to be determined from experiments on individual stick insect muscles (Blümel et al. 2012a). A requirement for means to not well represent the population is that the population shows large variation in its defining characteristics. We therefore used these protocols to measure extensor muscle defining parameters in multiple animals. Across-animal variability in these parameters can be very large, ranging from 1.3- to 17-fold. This large variation is consistent with earlier data in which extensor muscle responses to identical motor neuron driving showed large animal-to-animal variability (Hooper et al. 2006), and suggests accurate modeling of extensor muscles requires modeling individual-by-individual. These complete characterizations of individual muscles also allowed us to test for parameter correlations. Two parameter pairs significantly co-varied, suggesting that a simpler model could as well reproduce muscle response.

  15. A Proposed Model of Self-Generated Analogical Reasoning for the Concept of Translation in Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This paper explored and described the analogical reasoning occurring in the minds of different science achievement groups for the concept of translation in protein synthesis. "What is the process of self-generated analogical reasoning?", "What types of matching was involved?" and "What are the consequences of the matching…

  16. A Proposed Model of Self-Generated Analogical Reasoning for the Concept of Translation in Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This paper explored and described the analogical reasoning occurring in the minds of different science achievement groups for the concept of translation in protein synthesis. "What is the process of self-generated analogical reasoning?", "What types of matching was involved?" and "What are the consequences of the matching…

  17. Some reasoning on the improvement of the ETAS modeling at the occurrence of the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Lombardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of the ETAS model to the first 20 days of the 2016 central Italy sequence. Despite of the provisional nature of data, the model is able to describe the occurrence rate, but for the first hours after the mainshock occurrence. A sensitivity analysis of the model to two uncertainty sources, the model parameters and the occurrence history, shows that the second has a main role in controlling the performance of the ETAS model, more than the uncertainty on parameters. Previous results, together with the clear inability of ETAS to forecast the occurrence of a sequence before its starting time, give important suggestions about possible improvements. Here, a very preliminary attempt in this sense is presented.

  18. Estimating individual influences of behavioral intentions: an application of random-effects modeling to the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeker, D; Flay, B R; Petraitis, J

    1996-02-01

    Methods are proposed and described for estimating the degree to which relations among variables vary at the individual level. As an example of the methods, M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen's (1975; I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1980) theory of reasoned action is examined, which posits first that an individual's behavioral intentions are a function of 2 components: the individual's attitudes toward the behavior and the subjective norms as perceived by the individual. A second component of their theory is that individuals may weight these 2 components differently in assessing their behavioral intentions. This article illustrates the use of empirical Bayes methods based on a random-effects regression model to estimate these individual influences, estimating an individual's weighting of both of these components (attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms) in relation to their behavioral intentions. This method can be used when an individual's behavioral intentions, subjective norms, and attitudes toward the behavior are all repeatedly measured. In this case, the empirical Bayes estimates are derived as a function of the data from the individual, strengthened by the overall sample data.

  19. Plectasin shows intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus in human THP-1 monocytes and in a mouse peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Sandberg, Anne; Baudoux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    was maintained (maximal relative efficacy [E(max)], 1.0- to 1.3-log reduction in CFU) even though efficacy was inferior to that of extracellular killing (E(max), >4.5-log CFU reduction). Animal studies included a novel use of the mouse peritonitis model, exploiting extra- and intracellular differentiation assays...... concentration. These findings stress the importance of performing studies of extra- and intracellular activity since these features cannot be predicted from traditional MIC and killing kinetic studies. Application of both the THP-1 and the mouse peritonitis models showed that the in vitro results were similar...

  20. Reasoning about the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    In this extended abstract, we briefly recall the abstract (categorical) notion of bisimulation from open morphisms, as introduced by Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The approach is applicable across a wide range of models of computation, and any such bisimulation comes automatically with characterist...... of reasoning about the past....

  1. How many studies are necessary to compare niche-based models for geographic distributions? Inductive reasoning may fail at the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, L C; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco jr, P

    2010-05-01

    The use of ecological niche models (ENM) to generate potential geographic distributions of species has rapidly increased in ecology, conservation and evolutionary biology. Many methods are available and the most used are Maximum Entropy Method (MAXENT) and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP). Recent studies have shown that MAXENT perform better than GARP. Here we used the statistics methods of ROC - AUC (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve) and bootstrap to evaluate the performance of GARP and MAXENT in generate potential distribution models for 39 species of New World coral snakes. We found that values of AUC for GARP ranged from 0.923 to 0.999, whereas those for MAXENT ranged from 0.877 to 0.999. On the whole, the differences in AUC were very small, but for 10 species GARP outperformed MAXENT. Means and standard deviations for 100 bootstrapped samples with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 30 species did not show any trends towards deviations from a zero difference in AUC values of GARP minus AUC values of MAXENT. Ours results suggest that further studies are still necessary to establish under which circumstances the statistical performance of the methods vary. However, it is also important to consider the possibility that this empirical inductive reasoning may fail in the end, because we almost certainly could not establish all potential scenarios generating variation in the relative performance of models.

  2. How many studies are necessary to compare niche-based models for geographic distributions? Inductive reasoning may fail at the end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Terribile

    Full Text Available The use of ecological niche models (ENM to generate potential geographic distributions of species has rapidly increased in ecology, conservation and evolutionary biology. Many methods are available and the most used are Maximum Entropy Method (MAXENT and the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP. Recent studies have shown that MAXENT perform better than GARP. Here we used the statistics methods of ROC - AUC (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and bootstrap to evaluate the performance of GARP and MAXENT in generate potential distribution models for 39 species of New World coral snakes. We found that values of AUC for GARP ranged from 0.923 to 0.999, whereas those for MAXENT ranged from 0.877 to 0.999. On the whole, the differences in AUC were very small, but for 10 species GARP outperformed MAXENT. Means and standard deviations for 100 bootstrapped samples with sample sizes ranging from 3 to 30 species did not show any trends towards deviations from a zero difference in AUC values of GARP minus AUC values of MAXENT. Ours results suggest that further studies are still necessary to establish under which circumstances the statistical performance of the methods vary. However, it is also important to consider the possibility that this empirical inductive reasoning may fail in the end, because we almost certainly could not establish all potential scenarios generating variation in the relative performance of models.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  4. Design for reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2009-01-01

    with such applications comprises three forms of reasoning: deduction, induction and abduction. Based on the work of Gregory Bateson, it is suggested that the disciplines of interaction design and information architecture are complementary parts of information processes. To show that abduction, induction and deduction...

  5. Connecting with The Biggest Loser: an extended model of parasocial interaction and identification in health-related reality TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Yoo, Jina H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates audience responses to health-related reality TV shows in the setting of The Biggest Loser. It conceptualizes a model for audience members' parasocial interaction and identification with cast members and explores antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interaction and identification. Data analysis suggests the following direct relationships: (1) audience members' exposure to the show is positively associated with parasocial interaction, which in turn is positively associated with identification, (2) parasocial interaction is positively associated with exercise self-efficacy, whereas identification is negatively associated with exercise self-efficacy, and (3) exercise self-efficacy is positively associated with exercise behavior. Indirect effects of parasocial interaction and identification on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are also significant. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  6. Can the PHS model (ISO7933) predict reasonable thermophysiological responses while wearing protective clothing in hot environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the prediction accuracy of the PHS (predicted heat strain) model on human physiological responses while wearing protective clothing ensembles was examined. Six human subjects (aged 29 ± 3 years) underwent three experimental trials in three different protective garments (clothing thermal insulation I(cl) ranges from 0.63 to 2.01 clo) in two hot environments (40 °C, relative humidities: 30% and 45%). The observed and predicted mean skin temperature, core body temperature and sweat rate were presented and statistically compared. A significant difference was found in the metabolic rate between FIRE (firefighting clothing) and HV (high visibility clothing) or MIL (military clothing) (p development of heart rate demonstrated the significant effects of the exposure time and clothing ensembles. In addition, the predicted evaporation rate during HV, MIL and FIRE was much lower than the experimental values. Hence, the current PHS model is not applicable for protective clothing with intrinsic thermal insulations above 1.0 clo. The results showed that the PHS model generated unreliable predictions on body core temperature when human subjects wore thick protective clothing such as firefighting clothing (I(cl) > 1.0 clo). The predicted mean skin temperatures in three clothing ensembles HV, MIL and FIRE were also outside the expected limits. Thus, there is a need for further extension for the clothing insulation validation range of the PHS model. It is recommended that the PHS model should be amended and validated by individual algorithms, physical or physiological parameters, and further subject studies.

  7. Causal reasoning in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.

  8. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika F. Asaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understanding of the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and sleep disturbances in a new model for RLS. Here, we tested learning andmemory in wild type and dBTBD9 mutant flies by Pavlovian olfactory conditioning, duringwhich a shock was paired with one of two odors. Flies were then placed in a T-maze with oneodor on either side, and successful associative learning was recorded when the flies chose theside with the unpaired odor. We hypothesized that due to disrupted sleep patterns, dBTBD9mutant flies would be unable to learn the shock-odor association. However, the current studyreports that the recently generated Drosophila model of RLS shows successful olfactorylearning, despite disturbed sleep patterns, with learning performance levels matching or betterthan wild type flies.

  9. Modelling molecular mechanisms: a framework of scientific reasoning to construct molecular-level explanations for cellular behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, M.H.W.; Boerwinkel, D.J.; Waarlo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although molecular-level details are part of the upper-secondary biology curriculum in most countries, many studies report that students fail to connect molecular knowledge to phenomena at the level of cells, organs and organisms. Recent studies suggest that students lack a framework to reason about

  10. Novel AAV-based rat model of forebrain synucleinopathy shows extensive pathologies and progressive loss of cholinergic interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Aldrin-Kirk

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable

  11. Pomalidomide shows significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with a major impact on the tumor microenvironment in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Copland, John A; Tun, Han W

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  12. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fuzzy case-based reasoning system, using a case-based reasoning (CBR system that learns from experience to solve problems. Different from a traditional case-based reasoning system that uses crisp cases, our system works with fuzzy ones. Specifically, we change a crisp case into a fuzzy one by fuzzifying each crisp case element (feature, according to the maximum degree principle. Thus, we add the “vague” concept into a case-based reasoning system. It is these somewhat vague inputs that make the outcomes of the prediction more meaningful and accurate, which illustrates that it is not necessarily helpful when we always create accurate predictive relations through crisp cases. Finally, we prove this and apply this model to practical weather forecasting, and experiments show that using fuzzy cases can make some prediction results more accurate than using crisp cases.

  13. In vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia show discrepancy in therapeutic effects of M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Desestret

    Full Text Available THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING ISCHEMIC STROKE IS DOMINATED BY INNATE IMMUNE CELLS: resident microglia and blood-derived macrophages. The ambivalent role of these cells in stroke outcome might be explained in part by the acquisition of distinct functional phenotypes: classically (M1 and alternatively activated (M2 macrophages. To shed light on the crosstalk between hypoxic neurons and macrophages, an in vitro model was set up in which bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured with hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. The results showed that macrophages provided potent protection against neuron cell loss through a paracrine mechanism, and that they expressed M2-type alternative polarization. These findings raised the possibility of using bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages in cellular therapy for stroke. Therefore, 2 million M2 macrophages (or vehicle were intravenously administered during the subacute stage of ischemia (D4 in a model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Functional neuroscores and magnetic resonance imaging endpoints (infarct volumes, blood-brain barrier integrity, phagocytic activity assessed by iron oxide uptake were longitudinally monitored for 2 weeks. This cell-based treatment did not significantly improve any outcome measure compared with vehicle, suggesting that this strategy is not relevant to stroke therapy.

  14. An Integrated Software Framework to Support Semantic Modeling and Reasoning of Spatiotemporal Change of Geographical Objects: A Use Case of Land Use and Land Cover Change Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolving Earth observation and change detection techniques enable the automatic identification of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC over a large extent from massive amounts of remote sensing data. It at the same time poses a major challenge in effective organization, representation and modeling of such information. This study proposes and implements an integrated computational framework to support the modeling, semantic and spatial reasoning of change information with regard to space, time and topology. We first proposed a conceptual model to formally represent the spatiotemporal variation of change data, which is essential knowledge to support various environmental and social studies, such as deforestation and urbanization studies. Then, a spatial ontology was created to encode these semantic spatiotemporal data in a machine-understandable format. Based on the knowledge defined in the ontology and related reasoning rules, a semantic platform was developed to support the semantic query and change trajectory reasoning of areas with LULCC. This semantic platform is innovative, as it integrates semantic and spatial reasoning into a coherent computational and operational software framework to support automated semantic analysis of time series data that can go beyond LULC datasets. In addition, this system scales well as the amount of data increases, validated by a number of experimental results. This work contributes significantly to both the geospatial Semantic Web and GIScience communities in terms of the establishment of the (web-based semantic platform for collaborative question answering and decision-making.

  15. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  16. Active suspension control of a one-wheel car model using single input rule modules fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIMURA Toshio; TERAMURA Itaru

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of an active suspension control of a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model to be treated here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is designed as the fuzzy control inferred by using single input rule modules fuzzy reasoning, and the active control force is released by actuating a pneumatic actuator. The excitation from the road profile is estimated by using a disturbance observer, and the estimate is denoted as one of the variables in the precondition part of the fuzzy control rules. A compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension system improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  17. The effects of reasoning, use of models, sex type, and their interactions on posttest achievement in chemical bonding after constant instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Halsted, Douglas A.

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to determine the effects of reasoning, use of models during testing, and sex type on posttest achievement in chemical bonding under controlled instruction. Eighty-four high school students taking chemistry were randomly assigned within their classes to models and no models groups for the posttest. Reasoning capabilities were assessed by the Piagetian Logical Operations Test (PLOT) (Staver & Gabel, JRST, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1979), prior to instruction. All students then received the same instruction on chemical bonding which included teacher demonstrations of concepts with three-dimensional molecular models, interspersed teacher questions during the introduction and development of concepts, student manipulation of three-dimensional molecular models during laboratory experiments, and text reading assignments on concepts prior to their instruction in class. The posttest on molecular geometry and shape contained three sections requiring memory and application (Bloom, Taxonomy of educational objective, handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay, 1956). Data were analyzed by regression (Nie et al., Statistical package for the social sciences, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975). Results indicate that reasoning accounted for a significant portion (p 0.05) portion of the variance on total scores or any section of posttest. The three-way interaction of reasoning, model usage, and sex type accounted for a significant portion (p < 0.05) of the variance in total scores, and in the memory and application sections of the posttest. Discussion focused on the results, conclusions, and implications for science teaching.

  18. New nonlinear multivariable model shows the relationship between central corneal thickness and HRTII topographic parameters in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kourkoutas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Kourkoutas1,2, Gerasimos Georgopoulos1, Antonios Maragos1, et al1Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Athens University, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, 417 Hellenic Army Shared Fund Hospital, Athens, GreecePurpose: In this paper a new nonlinear multivariable regression method is presented in order to investigate the relationship between the central corneal thickness (CCT and the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRTII optic nerve head (ONH topographic measurements, in patients with established glaucoma.Methods: Forty nine eyes of 49 patients with glaucoma were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were patients with (a HRT II ONH imaging of good quality (SD 30 < μm, (b reliable Humphrey visual field tests (30-2 program, and (c bilateral CCT measurements with ultrasonic contact pachymetry. Patients were classified as glaucomatous based on visual field and/or ONH damage. The relationship between CCT and topographic parameters was analyzed by using the new nonlinear multivariable regression model.Results: In the entire group, CCT was 549.78 ± 33.08 μm (range: 484–636 μm; intraocular pressure (IOP was 16.4 ± 2.67 mmHg (range: 11–23 mmHg; MD was −3.80 ± 4.97 dB (range: 4.04 – [−20.4] dB; refraction was −0.78 ± 2.46 D (range: −6.0 D to +3.0 D. The new nonlinear multivariable regression model we used indicated that CCT was significantly related (R2 = 0.227, p < 0.01 with rim volume nasally and type of diagnosis.Conclusions: By using the new nonlinear multivariable regression model, in patients with established glaucoma, our data showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between CCT and HRTII ONH structural measurements, in glaucoma patients.Keywords: central corneal thickness, glaucoma, optic nerve head, HRT 

  19. Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…

  20. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  1. Epimenides: Interoperability Reasoning for Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; van Horik, M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Epimenides, a system that implements a novel interoperability dependency reasoning approach for assisting digital preservation activities. A distinctive feature is that it can model also converters and emulators, and the adopted modelling approach enables the automatic reasoning

  2. Product Modelling and Functional Reasoning in Conceptual Design%概念设计中的产品建模及功能求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志航; 宋慧军; 陈康宁

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a product model in conceptual design, Domain Structure Template, is proposed, which combines the functional domain and the physical domain with the behaviour domain. Seven types of primary mappings units connecting functions, behaviours and carriers during conceptual design process are identified according to the characteristics of the conceptual design of mechanical products.Based on these seven primary mappings, a hierarchical functional reasoning framework characterizing the process of conceptual design is presented. A case study for the conceptual design of industry sewing machines with chain-stitch is described to demonstrate the product modelling and the scheme generation based on the presented model.

  3. Design for reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to position interaction design and information architecture in relation to design of interfaces to ICT applications meant to serve the goal of supporting users’ reasoning, be it learning applications or self-service applications such as citizen self-service. Interaction...... with such applications comprises three forms of reasoning: deduction, induction and abduction. Based on the work of Gregory Bateson, it is suggested that the disciplines of interaction design and information architecture are complementary parts of information processes. To show that abduction, induction and deduction...... play together in an information process, the paper reviews three examples: Plato's Socratic dialogues, the sociology of inscriptions, the practice of police investigation. All three examples illustrate the main point of the paper: that interaction design and information architecture are different...

  4. Causal reasoning with forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Causal composition allows people to generate new causal relations by combining existing causal knowledge. We introduce a new computational model of such reasoning, the force theory, which holds that people compose causal relations by simulating the processes that join forces in the world, and compare this theory with the mental model theory (Khemlani et al., 2014) and the causal model theory (Sloman et al., 2009), which explain causal composition on the basis of mental models and structural equations, respectively. In one experiment, the force theory was uniquely able to account for people's ability to compose causal relationships from complex animations of real-world events. In three additional experiments, the force theory did as well as or better than the other two theories in explaining the causal compositions people generated from linguistically presented causal relations. Implications for causal learning and the hierarchical structure of causal knowledge are discussed. PMID:25653611

  5. Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Marco; Franzmeier, Imke; Maier, Simon; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The psychology of reasoning is currently transitioning from the study of deductive inferences under certainty to inferences that have degrees of uncertainty in both their premises and conclusions; however, only a few studies have explored the cortical basis of uncertain reasoning. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we show that areas in the right superior parietal lobe (rSPL) are necessary for solving spatial relational reasoning problems under conditions of uncertainty. Twenty-four participants had to decide whether a single presented order of objects agreed with a given set of indeterminate premises that could be interpreted in more than one way. During the presentation of the order, 10-Hz TMS was applied over the rSPL or a sham control site. Right SPL TMS during the inference phase disrupted performance in uncertain relational reasoning. Moreover, we found differences in the error rates between preferred mental models, alternative models, and inconsistent models. Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved when people reason spatially and evaluate different kinds of uncertain conclusions.

  6. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  7. On the Potential of Functional Modeling Extensions to the CIM for Means-Ends Representation and Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Kullmann, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Engineering is the art of making complicated things work. There are few things an engineer can’t do. Explaining his work to a computer may be one of them. This paper introduces Functional Modeling with Multilevel Flow Models as an information modeling approach that explicitly relates the function...

  8. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  9. Prefrontal and parietal activity is modulated by the rule complexity of inductive reasoning and can be predicted by a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuqin; Liang, Peipeng; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging studies, increased task complexity can lead to increased activation in task-specific regions or to activation of additional regions. How the brain adapts to increased rule complexity during inductive reasoning remains unclear. In the current study, three types of problems were created: simple rule induction (i.e., SI, with rule complexity of 1), complex rule induction (i.e., CI, with rule complexity of 2), and perceptual control. Our findings revealed that increased activations accompany increased rule complexity in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and medial posterior parietal cortex (precuneus). A cognitive model predicted both the behavioral and brain imaging results. The current findings suggest that neural activity in frontal and parietal regions is modulated by rule complexity, which may shed light on the neural mechanisms of inductive reasoning.

  10. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: Biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, Adeline, E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Gourlay-France, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.gourlay@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Priadi, Cindy, E-mail: cindy.priadi@eng.ui.ac.id [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Ayrault@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Helene, E-mail: Marie-helene.tusseau@ifremer.fr [IFREMER Technopolis 40, 155 rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 92138 Issy-Les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-12-15

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. - Highlights: > Exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals. > Need for site-specific biodynamic parameters. > Field-determined AE provide a good fit between the biodynamic model predictions and bioaccumulation measurements. - The interpretation of metal bioaccumulation in transplanted zebra mussels with biodynamic modelling highlights the need for site-specific assimilation efficiencies of particulate metals.

  11. Experimental results showing the internal three-component velocity field and outlet temperature contours for a model gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ,2]. These inconsistencies are especially great when combustion is simulated when there are already flow inconsistencies after modeling the flow in cold flow simulations. To enable the improvement of CFD modeling and techniques, a CFD test case has been created to aid.... [7], attempts have to be made to ensure that as many of the factors that influence the combustor flow should be included in the tests. The combustor in which these experiments were performed is a full, non-premixed, cylindrical, can-type combustor...

  12. An integrated proteomics approach shows synaptic plasticity changes in an APP/PS1 Alzheimer's mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempf, Stefan J; Metaxas, Athanasios; Ibáñez-Vea, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signature of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid pathology.We used the double APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse, a widely used model of cerebral amyloidosis, to compare changes in proteome, including global phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycosyl...

  13. An integrated proteomics approach shows synaptic plasticity changes in an APP/PS1 Alzheimer´s mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempf, Stefan; Metaxas, Athanasios; Vea, Maria Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signature of Alzheimer ́s disease-associated amyloid pathology. We used the double APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse, a widely used model of cerebral amyloidosis, to compare changes in proteome, including global phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycos...

  14. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-07

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause.

  15. Demonstrating Chirality: Using a Mirror with Physical Models To Show Non-superimposability of Chiral Molecules with Their Mirror Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a remarkable demonstration on chiralty in molecules and the existence of enantiomers, also known as non-superimposable mirror images. Uses a mirror, a physical model of a molecule, and a bit of trickery involving the non-superimposable mirror image. (Author/NB)

  16. Assessing the Rothstein Test: Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased? Working Paper 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Chaplin, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    In a provocative and influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) finds that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible future teacher effects on past student achievement, a finding that obviously cannot be viewed as causal. This is the basis of a falsification test (the Rothstein falsification test) that appears to indicate bias in VAM…

  17. Assessing the "Rothstein Test": Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased? Working Paper 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Chaplin, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    In a provocative and influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) finds that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible future teacher effects on past student achievement, a finding that obviously cannot be viewed as causal. This is the basis of a falsification test (the Rothstein falsification test) that appears to indicate bias in VAM…

  18. The Kallikrein Inhibitor from Bauhinia bauhinioides (BbKI) shows antithrombotic properties in venous and arterial thrombosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marlon V; de Oliveira, Cleide; Salu, Bruno R; Andrade, Sonia A; Malloy, Paula M D; Sato, Ana C; Vicente, Cristina P; Sampaio, Misako U; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2014-05-01

    The Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Inhibitor (BbKI) is a Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitor of plant origin that has been shown to impair the viability of some tumor cells and to feature a potent inhibitory activity against human and rat plasma kallikrein (Kiapp 2.4 nmol/L and 5.2 nmol/L, respectively). This inhibitory activity is possibly responsible for an effect on hemostasis by prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Because the association between cancer and thrombosis is well established, we evaluated the possible antithrombotic activity of this protein in venous and arterial thrombosis models. Vein thrombosis was studied in the vena cava ligature model in Wistar rats, and arterial thrombosis in the photochemical induced endothelium lesion model in the carotid artery of C57 black 6 mice. BbKI at a concentration of 2.0 mg/kg reduced the venous thrombus weight by 65% in treated rats in comparison to rats in the control group. The inhibitor prolonged the time for total artery occlusion in the carotid artery model mice indicating that this potent plasma kallikrein inhibitor prevented thrombosis.

  19. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  20. 两个经济模型中的数学推导问题%On mathematical reasoning of two economic models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琳; 霍立功; 宋笑含

    2011-01-01

    In some popular document of western economics? There are some confusion in applying mathematical models to analysis some economic phenomena. Because authors have not clarified the economic meaning of some mathematical relationship between variables, it caused confusions in logic and misuse of mathematical tools, which has some invisibility and misleads readers in some degree. The paper analyzes the reasoning of two mathematical models in [l], which is very influential do mestically. One is reasoning of a model of factor supply, and the other is reasoning of general equilibrium conditions. The paper also points out a serious math error in [2]. After analyzing the root of the error, the paper gives accurate explanations and amends the models.%某些西方经济学文献在运用数学建模进行论证分析时,由于没有理清一些数学变量关系在经济上的含义,从而造成逻辑混乱或数学工具的错用,并由于其一定的隐蔽性,可能对读者造成相当程度的误导.首先分析国内颇具影响的文献[1]中两个数学模型中的推导问题,一个是关于要素供给模型的构建和推导,另一个是关于一般均衡条件的推导.然后指出文献[2]中一个严重的数学错误,在分析其错误根源的基础上,一并给出了相应的解释和修正.

  1. Reasoning about geological space: Coupling 3D GeoModels and topological queries as an aid to spatial data selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Jacynthe; Bédard, Karine; Kirkwood, Donna; Lachance, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    Topological relationships between geological objects are of great interest for mining and petroleum exploration. Indeed, adjacency, inclusion and intersection are common relationships between geological objects such as faults, geological units, fractures, mineralized zones and reservoirs. However, in the context of 3D modeling, actual geometric data models used to store those objects are not designed to manage explicit topological relationships. For example, with Gocad© software, topological analyses are possible but they require a series of successive manipulations and are time consuming. This paper presents the development of a 3D topological query prototype, TQuery, compatible with Gocad© modeling platform. It allows the user to export Gocad© objects to a data storage model that regularizes the topological relationships between objects. The development of TQuery was oriented towards the use of volumetric objects that are composed of tetrahedrons. Exported data are then retrieved and used for 3D topological and spatial queries. One of the advantages of TQuery is that different types of objects can be queried at the same time without restricting the operations to voxel regions. TQuery allows the user to analyze data more quickly and efficiently and does not require a 3D modeling specialist to use it, which is particularly attractive in the context of a decision-making aid. The prototype was tested on a 3D GeoModel of a continental red-bed copper deposit in the Silurian Robitaille Formation (Transfiguration property, Québec, Canada).

  2. Analogies in the teaching of Thomson and Bohr’s atomic models: A critic analysis about students’ reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Catão de Assis Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Assuming (i the importance of using analogies in science teaching, (ii the learning difficulties related to the atomic models both discussed in the literature and observed in our previous research, and (iii the gap found in the literature concerning studies that probe how students really understand analogies presented to them in science teaching, we investigate, in this study, how students from the Medium Level understand the atomic models from analogies used to present and explain them. In order to limit the study, we chose only the atomic models proposed by J.J.Thomson and Niels Bohr. This was because the analogies of “the plum pudding” and “the solar system” are very often used in their teaching. This study aims at discussing the contributions and limitations of using such analogies in the teaching of the correspondent atomic models. Data were gathered from a written questionnaire answered by 99 1st year students (from one public and one private school. Data analysis made it evident that most students do not understand the analogies, as well as the atomic models to which they are associated. Moreover, there is no meaning for them in using two different analogies for the atom. From data analysis we discuss some teaching implications. We also propose new research questions that may contribute to foster the discussion and the improvement in the teaching of the atomic models.

  3. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shusterman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his paper Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning, Richard Shusterman analyses the influence which Wittgensteinian aesthetics has had on contemporary criticism. Concentrating primarily on the second phase of Wittgenstein’s philosophy, Shusterman first demonstrates how the idea of language games and related concepts undermined both essentialist deductive and quasi-scientific inductive models of criticism. In place of these two approaches, Shusterman argues, Wittgensteinian aesthetics offers a new one, which he describes as perceptual-persuasive. In the next step, however, Shusterman observes that Wittgenstein’s followers often commit the very fallacy that Wittgenstein wanted to avoid, by imposing the perceptual persuasive model as the only valid solution for criticism. However, in order to be more in line with Wittgensteinian aesthetics, he argues, we should rather recognise the plurality of possibilities – perceptual-persuasive, deductive or inductive – whose choice depends on the language game currently played.

  5. 基于知识库的多层级中文文本查错推理模型%Reasoning Model of Multi-level Chinese Text Error-detecting Based on Knowledge Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林; 张仰森

    2012-01-01

    The previous search on text error-detecting focused on words-level, and the syntax and semantic errors reasoning are not paid enough attention. Words, syntax and semantic knowledge bases are enlarged and constructed by taking advantage of statistic model and massive People's Daily corpus to resolve the relevant level error reasoning, and the relevant multi-level reasoning model is put forward. The comprehensive three-level text proofreading algorithm is implemented. The constructed system can check various text errors. Experimental results show that the system has a befter performance, and the recall rate is 85.62%.%以往的中文文本查错研究主要针对字词错误,对句法、语义的错误推理研究不够.为此,利用统计模型和大规模人民日报语料库构建并扩充查错知识库,针对文本中字词、语法以及语义3个层次的错误,提出相应的多层级查错推理模型.设计并实现3个层级的文本查错算法,构建自动查错系统进行综合查错.实验结果表明,该系统查错性能较优,召回率达到85.62%.

  6. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  7. Some difficulties and inconsistencies when using habit strength and reasoned action variables in models of metered household water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bradley S; Martin, John F; Pearce, Meryl; Willis, Eileen

    2013-01-30

    Research employing household water consumption data has sought to test models of water demand and conservation using variables from attitude theory. A significant, albeit unrecognised, challenge has been that attitude models describe individual-level motivations while consumption data is recorded at the household level thereby creating inconsistency between units of theory and measurement. This study employs structural equation modelling and moderated regression techniques to addresses the level of analysis problem, and tests hypotheses by isolating effects on water conservation in single-person households. Furthermore, the results question the explanatory utility of habit strength, perceived behavioural control, and intentions for understanding metered water conservation in single-person households. For example, evidence that intentions predict water conservation or that they interact with habit strength in single-person households was contrary to theoretical expectations. On the other hand, habit strength, self-reports of past water conservation, and perceived behavioural control were good predictors of intentions to conserve water.

  8. A network model shows the importance of coupled processes in the microbial N cycle in the Cape Fear River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, David E.; Lisa, Jessica A.; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R.; Borrett, Stuart R.

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries serve important ecological and economic functions including habitat provision and the removal of nutrients. Eutrophication can overwhelm the nutrient removal capacity of estuaries and poses a widely recognized threat to the health and function of these ecosystems. Denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are microbial processes responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen and diminish the effects of eutrophication. Both of these microbial removal processes can be influenced by direct inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen substrates or supported by microbial interactions with other nitrogen transforming pathways such as nitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The coupling of nitrogen removal pathways to other transformation pathways facilitates the removal of some forms of inorganic nitrogen; however, differentiating between direct and coupled nitrogen removal is difficult. Network modeling provides a tool to examine interactions among microbial nitrogen cycling processes and to determine the within-system history of nitrogen involved in denitrification and anammox. To examine the coupling of nitrogen cycling processes, we built a nitrogen budget mass balance network model in two adjacent 1 cm3 sections of bottom water and sediment in the oligohaline portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary, NC, USA. Pathway, flow, and environ ecological network analyses were conducted to characterize the organization of nitrogen flow in the estuary and to estimate the coupling of nitrification to denitrification and of nitrification and DNRA to anammox. Centrality analysis indicated NH4+ is the most important form of nitrogen involved in removal processes. The model analysis further suggested that direct denitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification had similar contributions to nitrogen removal while direct anammox was dominant to coupled forms of anammox. Finally, results also indicated that partial

  9. Strategic reasoning and bargaining in catastrophic climate change games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendel, Vilhelm; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Lindgren, Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Two decades of international negotiations show that agreeing on emission levels for climate change mitigation is a hard challenge. However, if early warning signals were to show an upcoming tipping point with catastrophic damage, theory and experiments suggest this could simplify collective action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the actual threshold, no country would have a free-ride incentive to increase emissions over the tipping point, but it remains for countries to negotiate their emission levels to reach these agreements. We model agents bargaining for emission levels using strategic reasoning to predict emission bids by others and ask how this affects the possibility of reaching agreements that avoid catastrophic damage. It is known that policy elites often use a higher degree of strategic reasoning, and in our model this increases the risk for climate catastrophe. Moreover, some forms of higher strategic reasoning make agreements to reduce greenhouse gases unstable. We use empirically informed levels of strategic reasoning when simulating the model.

  10. Young Children's Reasoning about Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a "pre-biological" causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary…

  11. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  12. Pridopidine, a dopamine stabilizer, improves motor performance and shows neuroprotective effects in Huntington disease R6/2 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Di Pardo, Alba; Favellato, Mariagrazia; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio; Frati, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which new treatments are urgently needed. Pridopidine is a new dopaminergic stabilizer, recently developed for the treatment of motor symptoms associated with HD. The therapeutic effect of pridopidine in patients with HD has been determined in two double-blind randomized clinical trials, however, whether pridopidine exerts neuroprotection remains to be addressed. The main goal of this study was to define the potential neuroprotective effect of pridopidine, in HD in vivo and in vitro models, thus providing evidence that might support a potential disease-modifying action of the drug and possibly clarifying other aspects of pridopidine mode-of-action. Our data corroborated the hypothesis of neuroprotective action of pridopidine in HD experimental models. Administration of pridopidine protected cells from apoptosis, and resulted in highly improved motor performance in R6/2 mice. The anti-apoptotic effect observed in the in vitro system highlighted neuroprotective properties of the drug, and advanced the idea of sigma-1-receptor as an additional molecular target implicated in the mechanism of action of pridopidine. Coherent with protective effects, pridopidine-mediated beneficial effects in R6/2 mice were associated with an increased expression of pro-survival and neurostimulatory molecules, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor and DARPP32, and with a reduction in the size of mHtt aggregates in striatal tissues. Taken together, these findings support the theory of pridopidine as molecule with disease-modifying properties in HD and advance the idea of a valuable therapeutic strategy for effectively treating the disease. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aiello Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.

  14. 基于本体推理的在线评测系统网络连接模型%Network Connection Model for Online Judge System Based on Ontology Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国进; 丁立波

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the communication between different systems on the network, we put forward the model of the network connection. Aiming at the default value in network connection model that cannot be directly obtained by the HTML parser from the web page, this paper presents a solution based on ontology reasoning, which includes analyzing the web page with ontology, building ontology model for the page, defining rules in KAON2 ontology reasoning machine, and reasoning out the default value of network connection model. Experiments take an online judge system as an example. The results show that the method has high recognition rate and greatly improves the automation degree of the network connection model.%为了解决网络上不同系统之间连接的问题,提出了网络连接模型。针对网络连接模型中初始值无法由HTML 解析器从页面中直接获取,提出了基于本体推理的解决方案,即通过对网页进行本体分析,构建网页的本体模型,然后在 KAON2本体推理机中定义规则,推理出网络连接模型的初始值。实验以在线评测系统为例,结果证明,该方法具有很高的识别率,大大提高了网络连接模型的自动化程度。

  15. The theory of reasoned action as a model of marijuana use: tests of implicit assumptions and applicability to high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Diane M; Golder, Seana; Keller, Thomas E; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2002-09-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) is used to model decisions about substance use among young mothers who became premaritally pregnant at age 17 or younger. The results of structural equation modeling to test the TRA indicated that most relationships specified by the model were significant and in the predicted direction. Attitude was a stronger predictor of intention than norm, but both were significantly related to intention, and intention was related to actual marijuana use 6 months later. Outcome beliefs were bidimensional, and positive outcome beliefs, but not negative beliefs, were significantly related to attitude. Prior marijuana use was only partially mediated by the TRA variables; it also was directly related to intentions to use marijuana and to subsequent use.

  16. An inducible transgenic mouse model for immune mediated hepatitis showing clearance of antigen expressing hepatocytes by CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cebula

    Full Text Available The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreER(T2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred K(b/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance.

  17. Clarithromycin and dexamethasone show similar anti-inflammatory effects on distinct phenotypic chronic rhinosinusitis: an explant model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jin; Cao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Heng; Cui, Yong-Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2015-06-06

    Phenotype of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be an important determining factor of the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments. Although both glucocorticoids and macrolide antibiotics have been recommended for the treatment of CRS, whether they have different anti-inflammatory functions for distinct phenotypic CRS has not been completely understood. The aim of this study is to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of clarithromycin and dexamethasone on sinonasal mucosal explants from different phenotypic CRS ex vivo. Ethmoid mucosal tissues from CRSsNP patients (n = 15), and polyp tissues from eosinophilic (n = 13) and non-eosinophilic (n = 12) CRSwNP patients were cultured in an ex vivo explant model with or without dexamethasone or clarithromycin treatment for 24 h. After culture, the production and/or expression of anti-inflammatory molecules, epithelial-derived cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines, chemokines, dendritic cell relevant markers, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and tissue remodeling factors were detected in tissue explants or culture supernatants by RT-PCR or ELISA, respectively. We found that both clarithromycin and dexamethasone up-regulated the production of anti-inflammatory mediators (Clara cell 10-kDa protein and interleukin (IL)-10), whereas down-regulated the production of Th2 response and eosinophilia promoting molecules (thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, IL-33, CD80, CD86, OX40 ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1, CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, CCL5, IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophilic cationic protein) and Th1 response and neutrophilia promoting molecules (CXCL8, CXCL5, CXCL10, CXCL9, interferon-γ, and IL-12), from sinonasal mucosa from distinct phenotypic CRS. In contrast, they had no effect on IL-17A production. The expression of PRRs (Toll-like receptors and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) was induced, and the production of tissue remodeling factors (transforming growth factor-β1

  18. Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lluch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively. The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS. Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day, particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day (all p-values < 0.01. In order to meet nutritional targets, for both FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS individuals, the main dietary changes in optimized diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes.

  19. Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-02-20

    Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes.

  20. Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes. PMID:28230722

  1. An integrated proteomics approach shows synaptic plasticity changes in an APP/PS1 Alzheimer's mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Stefan J.; Metaxas, Athanasios; Ibáñez-Vea, María; Darvesh, Sultan; Finsen, Bente; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signature of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid pathology. We used the double APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse, a widely used model of cerebral amyloidosis, to compare changes in proteome, including global phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycosylation patterns, pathway-focused transcriptome and neurological disease-associated miRNAome with age-matched controls in neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and brainstem. We report that signalling pathways related to synaptic functions associated with dendritic spine morphology, neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, CREB signalling and cytoskeletal dynamics were altered in 12 month old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice, particularly in the neocortex and olfactory bulb. This was associated with cerebral amyloidosis as well as formation of argyrophilic tangle-like structures and microglial clustering in all brain regions, except for brainstem. These responses may be epigenetically modulated by the interaction with a number of miRNAs regulating spine restructuring, Aβ expression and neuroinflammation. We suggest that these changes could be associated with development of cognitive dysfunction in early disease states in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27144524

  2. Reasoning: The Fourth 'R'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Curtis

    1978-01-01

    Discusses an experimental competency-based general education program developed at Piedmont Technical College, stressing two process skills of communication and reasoning. Definition of "reasoning" is discussed and content and method for teaching a reasoning-based program are presented. (DR)

  3. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…

  4. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  5. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This article takes up recent discussions of nature and the sensorium in order to rethink public reason in deeply divided societies. The aim is not to reject the role of reason-giving but rather to infuse it with new meaning, bringing the reasonable back to its sensorially inflected circumstances....

  6. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  7. An orally available, small-molecule polymerase inhibitor shows efficacy against a lethal morbillivirus infection in a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Stefanie A; Yan, Dan; Hovingh, Elise S; Evers, Taylor J; Enkirch, Theresa; Reddy, G Prabhakar; Sun, Aiming; Saindane, Manohar T; Arrendale, Richard F; Painter, George; Liotta, Dennis C; Natchus, Michael G; von Messling, Veronika; Plemper, Richard K

    2014-04-16

    Measles virus is a highly infectious morbillivirus responsible for major morbidity and mortality in unvaccinated humans. The related, zoonotic canine distemper virus (CDV) induces morbillivirus disease in ferrets with 100% lethality. We report an orally available, shelf-stable pan-morbillivirus inhibitor that targets the viral RNA polymerase. Prophylactic oral treatment of ferrets infected intranasally with a lethal CDV dose reduced viremia and prolonged survival. Ferrets infected with the same dose of virus that received post-infection treatment at the onset of viremia showed low-grade viral loads, remained asymptomatic, and recovered from infection, whereas control animals succumbed to the disease. Animals that recovered also mounted a robust immune response and were protected against rechallenge with a lethal CDV dose. Drug-resistant viral recombinants were generated and found to be attenuated and transmission-impaired compared to the genetic parent virus. These findings may pioneer a path toward an effective morbillivirus therapy that could aid measles eradication by synergizing with vaccination to close gaps in herd immunity due to vaccine refusal.

  8. Predicting and understanding Korean high school students' science-track choice: Testing the theory of reasoned action by structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, Jeon-Ok; Crawley, Frank E.

    The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) was used to predict and understand Korean high school students' track choice for college entrance. First-year high school students (N = 665) from four representative regions of Korea participated in the study. The survey instruments were questionnaires developed according to the guidelines of the TRA. The target behavior of interest in this study was Korean students' choice of the science track when they completed the track application forms during the first year of high school. Predictors included TRA model and external variables. Multiple regression and the structural equation modeling with LISREL (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1986) were used to analyze the data. The TRA was found to be applicable for understanding and predicting track choice, with minor modifications. Subjective norm was found to exert a direct influence on personal beliefs and the target behavior.

  9. Reasoning the causality of city sprawl, traffic congestion, and green land disappearance in Taiwan using the CLD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Chang, Kaowen

    2014-11-06

    Many city governments choose to supply more developable land and transportation infrastructure with the hope of attracting people and businesses to their cities. However, like those in Taiwan, major cities worldwide suffer from traffic congestion. This study applies the system thinking logic of the causal loops diagram (CLD) model in the System Dynamics (SD) approach to analyze the issue of traffic congestion and other issues related to roads and land development in Taiwan's cities. Comparing the characteristics of development trends with yearbook data for 2002 to 2013 for all of Taiwan's cities, this study explores the developing phenomenon of unlimited city sprawl and identifies the cause and effect relationships in the characteristics of development trends in traffic congestion, high-density population aggregation in cities, land development, and green land disappearance resulting from city sprawl. This study provides conclusions for Taiwan's cities' sustainability and development (S&D). When developing S&D policies, during decision making processes concerning city planning and land use management, governments should think with a holistic view of carrying capacity with the assistance of system thinking to clarify the prejudices in favor of the unlimited developing phenomena resulting from city sprawl.

  10. Plausible Reasoning in Modular Robotics and Human Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Present paper continues the researches on cognitive system design. The goal ofthe paper is to illustrate the variety of models which can be constructed using the Bayesianplausible reasoning theory. The first case study develops a classical inverse kinematicalmodel into a Bayesian model. The second case study models the human reasoningpresented by the famous story of Sun Tzu: ‘Advance to Chengang by a hidden path’.

  11. 法律知识的因果表达和非单调推理模型%Causal Knowledge Representation and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Models in Law Consultant Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干红华; 潘云鹤

    2001-01-01

    Causal reasoning is the most important feature in law consultant systems. This paper analy-ses the structure of law clauses,proposes a representation model for law knowledge in terms of causal relationships and nonmonotonic reasoning models based on it. These models are successfully applied in the implementation of NBU-CALA+ ,a law expert consultant system for case analysis and interpreta-tion.

  12. Reasons in Support of Data Security and Data Security Management as Two Independent Concepts: A New Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Sajjadi, Samad; Kamkarhaghighi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Any information which is generated and saved needs to be protected against accidental or intentional losses and manipulations if it is to be used by the intended users in due time. As such, information managers have adopted numerous measures to achieve data security within data storage systems, along with the spread of information technology. The "data security models" presented thus far have unanimously highlighted the significance of data security management. For further clarification, the current study first introduces the "needs and improvement" cycle; the study will then present some independent definitions, together with a support umbrella, in an attempt to shed light on the data security management. Data security focuses on three features or attributes known as integrity, identity of sender(s) and identity of receiver(s). Management in data security follows an endless evolutionary process, to keep up with new developments in information technology and communication. In this process management develops new characteristics with greater capabilities to achieve better data security. The characteristics, continuously increasing in number, with a special focus on control, are as follows: private zone, confidentiality, availability, non-repudiation, possession, accountability, authenticity, authentication and auditability. Data security management steadily progresses, resulting in more sophisticated features. The developments are in line with new developments in information and communication technology and novel advances in intrusion detection systems (IDS). Attention to differences between data security and data security management by international organizations such as the International Standard Organization (ISO), and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is necessary if information quality is to be enhanced.

  13. How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    The education system needs strategies to attract future scientists and practitioners. There is an alarming decline in the number of students choosing science subjects. Reasons for this include the perceived complexity and the lack of effective cognitive tools that enable learners to acquire the expertise in a way that fits its qualitative nature. The DynaLearn project utilises a "Learning by modelling" approach to deliver an individualised and engaging cognitive tool for acquiring conceptual knowledge. The modelling approach is based on qualitative reasoning, a research area within artificial intelligence, and allows for capturing and simulating qualitative systems knowledge. Educational activities within the DynaLearn software address topics at different levels of complexity, depending on the educational goals and settings. DynaLearn uses virtual characters in the learning environment as agents for engaging and motivating the students during their modelling exercise. The DynaLearn software represents an interactive learning environment in which learners are in control of their learning activities. The software is able to coach them individually based on their current progress, their knowledge needs and learning goals. Within the project 70 expert models on different environmental issues covering seven core topics (Earth Systems and Resources, The Living World, Human population, Land and Water Use, Energy Resources and Consumption, Pollution, and Global Changes) will be delivered. In the context of the core topic "Land and Water Use" the Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management has developed a model on Sustainable River Catchment Management. River systems with their catchments have been tremendously altered due to human pressures with serious consequences for the ecological integrity of riverine landscapes. The operation of hydropower plants, the implementation of flood protection measures, the regulation of flow and sediment regime and intensive

  14. [Reason analysis of inadaptability and its correction research on the authenticity identification model of West Lake Longjing tea based on LVF micro-NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Pan, Li-Gang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Li, An; Jin, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Ye-Wei; Ma, Zhi-Hong

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper, the micro-NIR spectrometer with the splitter of linear variable filter was used to develop the recognition models of the West Lake Longjing tea and the ordinary flat tea of the year 2012 and 2013. The NIR spectral data of different years and different storage times were decomposed by PCA algorithm. The PLS-DA models were developed by the representative samples selected by the mathematical characteristics of PCA-scores' distribution in order to analyze the reason for the inadaptability of the models according to mathematical principles and find out the solution for its correction. Being examined by the external validation set, the adaptability of the authenticity identification model was enhanced effectively. The result of this research indicated that, for the West Lake Longjing tea and the ordinary flat tea, the correct recognition rate of the model developed by all different-year samples' NIR spectral data would be enhanced effectively. The model developed by the NIR spectral data of different storage time samples indicated that the physicochemical properties of the ordinary flat tea have changed remarkably after cryopreservation for 3 months, while the physicochemical properties of the West Lake Longjing tea are relatively stable. The model adaptabilities for different years and different storage times were studied according to the mathematical perspective of the principal component characteristics of spectral data. After the authenticity identification model of West Lake Longjing tea was developed, the prediction accuracy was enhanced effectively. This research would provide reference for not only the application of NIR spectroscopy in quality grading and safety of agricultural products, but also the enhancement of the prediction accuracy of the NIR grading models for agricultural products.

  15. Knowledge and vision engines: a new generation of image understanding systems combining computational intelligence methods and model-based knowledge representation and reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvychko, Igor

    2000-10-01

    Vision is a part of a larger informational system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. The solution to Image Understanding problems is suggested in form of active multilevel hierarchical networks represented dually as discrete and continuous structures. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Certainty Dimension converts attractors in neural networks into fuzzy sets, preserving input-output relationships. Symbols naturally emerge in such networks. Symbolic Space is a dual structure that combines closed distributed space split by the set of fuzzy regions, and discrete set of symbols equivalent to the cores of regions represented as points in the Certainty dimension. Model Space carries knowledge in form of links and relations between the symbols, and supports graph, diagrammatic and topological operations. Composition of spaces works similar to M. Minsky frames and agents, Gerard Edelman's maps of maps, etc., combining machine learning, classification and analogy together with induction, deduction and other methods of higher level model-based reasoning. Based on such principles, an Image Understanding system can convert images into knowledge models, effectively resolving uncertainty and ambiguity via feedback projections and does not require supercomputers.

  16. An integrated risk assessment model of township-scaled land subsidence based on an evidential reasoning algorithm and fuzzy set theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shu, Longcang; Burbey, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Land subsidence risk assessment (LSRA) is a multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem and is often characterized by both quantitative and qualitative attributes with various types of uncertainty. Therefore, the problem needs to be modeled and analyzed using methods that can handle uncertainty. In this article, we propose an integrated assessment model based on the evidential reasoning (ER) algorithm and fuzzy set theory. The assessment model is structured as a hierarchical framework that regards land subsidence risk as a composite of two key factors: hazard and vulnerability. These factors can be described by a set of basic indicators defined by assessment grades with attributes for transforming both numerical data and subjective judgments into a belief structure. The factor-level attributes of hazard and vulnerability are combined using the ER algorithm, which is based on the information from a belief structure calculated by the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory, and a distributed fuzzy belief structure calculated by fuzzy set theory. The results from the combined algorithms yield distributed assessment grade matrices. The application of the model to the Xixi-Chengnan area, China, illustrates its usefulness and validity for LSRA. The model utilizes a combination of all types of evidence, including all assessment information--quantitative or qualitative, complete or incomplete, and precise or imprecise--to provide assessment grades that define risk assessment on the basis of hazard and vulnerability. The results will enable risk managers to apply different risk prevention measures and mitigation planning based on the calculated risk states.

  17. Learning clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Ralph; Welch, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality, despite evidence-based guidelines and improved technology. Experts in clinical reasoning often use unconscious cognitive processes that they are not aware of unless they explain how they are thinking. Understanding the intuitive and analytical thinking processes provides a guide for instruction. How knowledge is stored is critical to expertise in clinical reasoning. Curricula should be designed so that trainees store knowledge in a way that is clinically relevant. Competence in clinical reasoning is acquired by supervised practice with effective feedback. Clinicians must recognise the common errors in clinical reasoning and how to avoid them. Trainees can learn clinical reasoning effectively in everyday practice if teachers provide guidance on the cognitive processes involved in making diagnostic decisions.

  18. Mathematical reasoning in Elementary School and Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Mata-Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the reasoning processes in mathematical tasks of two students in the 9th year of elementary school and two students in the second year of college. It also focuses the representation and meaningfulness, given their close relation with the mathematical reasoning. Results presented are based on two qualitative and interpretive studies which resort to several data sources. These results show that mastering of the algebraic language by the students in the 9th year is still insufficient to promptly solve the problems proposed, which does not occur with the college students though. All students use inductive initial strategies. However, one of the students in the 9th year and both college students revealed clearly their capability to reason deductively. The signification levels vary considerably, and several students have shown skills to build or mobilize relevant meanings. The model of analysis presented, articulating reasoning, representations and meaningfulness proved itself a promising tool to study the students’ reasoning processes.

  19. Mathematical Foundations of Qualitative Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Trave-Massuyes, Louise; Ironi, Liliana; Dague, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We examine different formalisms for modeling qualitatively physical systems and their associated inferential processes that allow us to derive qualitative predictions from the models. We highlight the mathematical aspects of these processes along with their potential and limitations. The article then bridges to quantitative modeling, highlighting the benefits of qualitative reasoning-based approaches in the framework of system identification, and discusses open research issues.

  20. FUZZY REASONING IN CYCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立明

    1990-01-01

    By the similarity between the syllogism in logic and a path proposition in graph theory,a new concept,fuzzy reasoning graph G has been given in this paper. Transitive closure has been studied and used to do reasoning related to self-loop in G,and an algorithm has been designed to cope with reasoning in other cycles in G. Both approaches are applicable and efficient.

  1. Formalizing Default Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    Fuzzy set systems can be used to solve the problem with uncertain knowledge,and default logic can be used to solve the problem with incomplete knowledge,in some sense.In this paper,based on interval-valued fuzzy sets we introduce a method of inference which combines approximate reasoning an default ogic,and give the procedure of transforming monotonic reasoning into default reasoning.

  2. Metacognition and reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Logan; Carruthers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the cognitive architecture of human meta-reasoning: that is, metacognition concerning one's own reasoning and decision-making. The view we defend is that meta-reasoning is a cobbled-together skill comprising diverse self-management strategies acquired through individual and cultural learning. These approximate the monitoring-and-control functions of a postulated adaptive system for metacognition by recruiting mechanisms that were designed for quite other purposes.

  3. Metacognition and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Logan; Carruthers, Peter

    2012-05-19

    This article considers the cognitive architecture of human meta-reasoning: that is, metacognition concerning one's own reasoning and decision-making. The view we defend is that meta-reasoning is a cobbled-together skill comprising diverse self-management strategies acquired through individual and cultural learning. These approximate the monitoring-and-control functions of a postulated adaptive system for metacognition by recruiting mechanisms that were designed for quite other purposes.

  4. Clinical reasoning in massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoon, Kim

    2008-08-20

    Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist. A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client's symptoms; knowledge of the client's anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns. The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client's symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution. The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education.

  5. Causal reasoning and models of cognitive tasks for naval nuclear power plant operators; Raisonnement causal et modelisation de l`activite cognitive d`operateurs de chaufferie nucleaire navale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Ferrer, P.

    1995-06-01

    In complex industrial process control, causal reasoning appears as a major component in operators` cognitive tasks. It is tightly linked to diagnosis, prediction of normal and failure states, and explanation. This work provides a detailed review of literature in causal reasoning. A synthesis is proposed as a model of causal reasoning in process control. This model integrates distinct approaches in Cognitive Science: especially qualitative physics, Bayesian networks, knowledge-based systems, and cognitive psychology. Our model defines a framework for the analysis of causal human errors in simulated naval nuclear power plant fault management. Through the methodological framework of critical incident analysis we define a classification of errors and difficulties linked to causal reasoning. This classification is based on shallow characteristics of causal reasoning. As an origin of these errors, more elementary component activities in causal reasoning are identified. The applications cover the field of functional specification for man-machine interfaces, operators support systems design as well as nuclear safety. In addition of this study, we integrate the model of causal reasoning in a model of cognitive task in process control. (authors). 106 refs., 49 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making agents...... organization-aware. It is designed such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how...

  7. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making agents...... organization-aware. It is designed such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how...... the agents can coordinate their organizational tasks using AORTA....

  8. CHAMPION: Intelligent Hierarchical Reasoning Agents for Enhanced Decision Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2011-11-15

    We describe the design and development of an advanced reasoning framework employing semantic technologies, organized within a hierarchy of computational reasoning agents that interpret domain specific information. Designed based on an inspirational metaphor of the pattern recognition functions performed by the human neocortex, the CHAMPION reasoning framework represents a new computational modeling approach that derives invariant knowledge representations through memory-prediction belief propagation processes that are driven by formal ontological language specification and semantic technologies. The CHAMPION framework shows promise for enhancing complex decision making in diverse problem domains including cyber security, nonproliferation and energy consumption analysis.

  9. Representing and Reasoning with the Internet of Things: a Modular Rule-Based Model for Ensembles of Context-Aware Smart Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Loke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware smart things are capable of computational behaviour based on sensing the physical world, inferring context from the sensed data, and acting on the sensed context. A collection of such things can form what we call a thing-ensemble, when they have the ability to communicate with one another (over a short range network such as Bluetooth, or the Internet, i.e. the Internet of Things (IoT concept, sense each other, and when each of them might play certain roles with respect to each other. Each smart thing in a thing-ensemble might have its own context-aware behaviours which when integrated with other smart things yield behaviours that are not straightforward to reason with. We present Sigma, a language of operators, inspired from modular logic programming, for specifying and reasoning with combined behaviours among smart things in a thing-ensemble. We show numerous examples of the use of Sigma for describing a range of behaviours over a diverse range of thing-ensembles, from sensor networks to smart digital frames, demonstrating the versatility of our approach. We contend that our operator approach abstracts away low-level communication and protocol details, and allows systems of context-aware things to be designed and built in a compositional and incremental manner.

  10. Causal Reasoning with Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    that it gives milk , whereas that a mirror reflects an 577 image is more important to a mirror than that it is made of glass. 578 Khemlani et al...higher cognitive functions, including general intelligence (Barbey et al., 2012b), fluid intelligence 708 (Barbey et al., 2012a, 2014a), cognitive...Architecture of fluid intelligence and 840 working memory revealed by lesion mapping. Brain Structure & Function, 219, 485-494. 841 Barbey, A.K., Colom, R

  11. Analyzing Error Medication Adverse Case Based on Reason Model%基于Reason模型给药错误不良个案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚庭; 李娟; 师文文; 储静

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students are lack of experiences when they start clinical practice, which leads to the frequent occurrence of nursing adverse events related to nursing students.Reason had put forward Organizational Accident Model, which pointed out that the system or organizational failures underlying the errors account the most for an adverse event,though it is partly caused by personal negligence or unskillfulness.The article analyzed a case of error medication administration relevant to a nursing student by using Reason model, in order to find out the un-derlying environmental and organizational defects and propose some measures avoiding similar events.%由于护生在临床实习阶段缺乏经验,与护生相关的护理不良事件频频发生。 Reason提出的组织事故模型指出,在不良事件中,虽有一部分来自个人的疏忽或技术的不良,但是更大部分来自系统、程序、工作环境中的潜藏失误。本文运用Reason模型,对一例护生临床实习期间经历的护理给药错误不良事件进行分析,寻找出事件背后潜在的环境与组织漏洞,并提出相关对策,以避免类似事件再次发生。

  12. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  13. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  14. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  15. Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Bettini, X. Wang, and S. Jajodia. A general framework for time granularity and its application to temporal reasoning. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial...Temporal representation and reasoning in artificial intelligence: Issues and approaches. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 28, 2000...Quantum mereotopology. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelli- gence, to appear. [42] A. C. Varzi. On the boundary between mereology and topology

  16. Intuition, Reason, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie A.; Prowse Turner, Jamie A.; Pennycook, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised…

  17. Teaching to Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros Rotge, Hector G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Physics courses is that the students learn how to use what they know to solve problems in the real world (competencies), but no one learns to do that seeing as the professor think in the blackboard. The program of a course uses topics as examples of reasoning. Reasoning involves the ability to use their knowledge. If we precisely…

  18. Clinical reasoning as social deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I will challenge the individualistic model of clinical reasoning. I will argue that sometimes clinical practice is rather machine-like, and information is called to mind and weighed, but the clinician is not just calculating how to use particular means to reach fixed ends. Often...

  19. Techniques for managing behaviour in pediatric dentistry: comparative study of live modelling and tell-show-do based on children's heart rates during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat-McHayleh, Nada; Harfouche, Alice; Souaid, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Tell-show-do is the most popular technique for managing children"s behaviour in dentists" offices. Live modelling is used less frequently, despite the satisfactory results obtained in studies conducted during the 1980s. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these 2 techniques on children"s heart rates during dental treatments, heart rate being the simplest biological parameter to measure and an increase in heart rate being the most common physiologic indicator of anxiety and fear. For this randomized, controlled, parallel-group single-centre clinical trial, children 5 to 9 years of age presenting for the first time to the Saint Joseph University dental care centre in Beirut, Lebanon, were divided into 3 groups: those in groups A and B were prepared for dental treatment by means of live modelling, the mother serving as the model for children in group A and the father as the model for children in group B. The children in group C were prepared by a pediatric dentist using the tell-show-do method. Each child"s heart rate was monitored during treatment, which consisted of an oral examination and cleaning. A total of 155 children met the study criteria and participated in the study. Children who received live modelling with the mother as model had lower heart rates than those who received live modelling with the father as model and those who were prepared by the tell-show-do method (p dentistry.

  20. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  1. A defeasible reasoning approach for description logic ontologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available or with incomplete information. Defeasible reasoning is one particular model for implementing non-monotonic reasoning. It is concerned with representing and reasoning with defeasible (nonstrict) facts about a domain. The defeasible counterpart of the strict fact...

  2. Logical Varieties in Normative Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark; Mestdagh, de Vey

    2011-01-01

    Although conventional logical systems based on logical calculi have been successfully used in mathematics and beyond, they have definite limitations that restrict their application in many cases. For instance, the principal condition for any logical calculus is its consistency. At the same time, knowledge about large object domains (in science or in practice) is essentially inconsistent. Logical prevarieties and varieties were introduced to eliminate these limitations in a logically correct way. In this paper, the Logic of Reasonable Inferences is described. This logic has been applied successfully to model legal reasoning with inconsistent knowledge. It is demonstrated that this logic is a logical variety and properties of logical varieties related to legal reasoning are developed.

  3. Logic, probability, and human reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF A GUILLAIN BARRE SYNDROME PATIENT THROUGH THREE TRACK REASONING: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Islam Nipa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is a thinking and decision making process which occur in clinical practice. It helps the health care providers to solve the clinical problem by using their reasoning process in an effective and efficient manner. Three track reasoning in one of the clinical reasoning process which includes the procedural, interactive and conditional reasoning to diagnose as well as ensure proper rehabilitation service according to patient and patient’s family members’ needs. Methods: A single case based study through the three track reasoning process. The purpose of this study was to explore the management strategies of a Gullian Barrie Syndrome (GBS patient through three track reasoning. We have tried to show how the basic idea behind the reasoning process helped to determine the reasoning process and diagnosis. However it has performed through theory and observation. We have also showed how we used the reasoning process through with the common sense reasoning. However it was the part of procedural reasoning in three track clinical reasoning. In three track reasoning, there is also interactive and procedural reasoning part through which we told patient story about his condition, identified his and his family members expectations and to establish hypothesis as GBS. So three track reasoning also supported us to do reasoning process rather than selecting another reasoning process. Results: After analyzing the reasoning process it was identified that to be strict in a single reasoning process is very difficult. Clinical reasoning is the clinician’s ability through which they can consider the interpretation of different clinical findings. An expert clinician must have critical thinking skill rather than ignoring any symptoms or overemphasize the symptoms. In addition, patient’s knowledge, believes and reasoning was found an important part of clinical reasoning process in this study. Conclusion: We have been practicing clinical

  5. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    OpenAIRE

    Peipeng Liang; Xiuqin Jia; Niels A Taatgen; Borst, Jelmer P.; Kuncheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the front...

  6. Exchanging Reasons: responses to critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bermejo-Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I provide responses to what I take to be the most salient aspects of John Biro, James Freeman, David Hitchcock, Robert Pinto, Harvey Siegel and Luis Vega’s criticisms to the normative model for argumentation that I have developed in Giving Reasons. Each response is articulated on a main question, i.e., the distinction between regulative and constitutive normativity within Argumentation Theory’s models, the semantic appraisal of argumentation, the concept of justification, the differences between Toulmin’s model and my model of argument and the analysis of the pragmatic dimension of argumentation.

  7. Rethinking moral reasoning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, K M

    1989-01-01

    Many nursing studies on moral reasoning and ethics have used Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The body of knowledge that resulted from these studies indicated that nurses and nursing students had consistently lower than expected levels of moral reasoning. Educational offerings were developed to assist nurses to improve their moral reasoning. This article explores the cognitive-developmental theory of moral development as one way of determining the moral development of nurses. Since this theory of moral reasoning focuses on the rational thought of the individual and does not consider the impact of the environment, it is of limited applicability in nursing. A new theory of morality needs to be developed--a more holistic one that will include both universal principles and contextual tissues.

  8. Critical Thinking and Reasoning in Middle School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esswein, Jennifer L.

    The research objectives addressed in this dissertation include: the measurement of the effects of an inquiry-based middle school science professional development program on teachers, the development and utilization of a student-level scientific reasoning ability test, and an examination of the connection between the scientific reasoning ability of teachers and that of their students. The effect of the inquiry-based science professional development on teachers was determined through pre- and post-test comparisons of scientific content tests, a scientific reasoning ability measure, and a self-reported survey of teacher classroom practices. Analyses showed significant increases on the level of scientific content knowledge as well as significant improvement in scientific reasoning ability. Pre- and post-test results of the classroom practices survey revealed a move from teacher-centered to student-centered teaching methods. A measure of scientific reasoning ability was developed and administered to middle-school students, and the results were analyzed using Rasch modeling. Analysis revealed a good fit to the Rasch model as well as to levels of cognitive demand within areas of scientific reasoning ability. Student abilities as estimated by the Rasch analysis were significantly higher from the time of the pre-test to the time of the post-test. Through the use of hierarchical linear modeling, a relationship between a teacher's ability to reason scientifically and the end-of-year reasoning ability scores of his or her students was established. Results indicated a significant, positive relationship between a teacher's scientific reasoning ability and that of his or her students.

  9. An integrated model of transcription factor diffusion shows the importance of intersegmental transfer and quaternary protein structure for target site finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Schmidt

    Full Text Available We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a 'hopping' motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure.

  10. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation : An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may corr

  11. An Engineering Approach to Atomic TransactionVerification: Use of a Simple Object Model to Achieve Semantics-basedReasoning at Compile-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, D.; Even, S.J.

    In this paper, we take an engineering approach to atomic transaction verification. We discuss the design and implementation of a verification tool that can reason about the semantics of atomic database operations. To bridge the gap between language design and automated reasoning, we make use of a

  12. Traditional difference-score analyses of reasoning are flawed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the belief bias effect in syllogistic reasoning have relied on three traditional difference score measures: the logic index, belief index, and interaction index. Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010, 2011) argued that the interaction index incorrectly assumes a linear receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Here, all three measures are addressed. Simulations indicated that traditional analyses of reasoning experiments are likely to lead to incorrect conclusions. Two new experiments examined the role of instructional manipulations on the belief bias effect. The form of the ROCs violated assumptions of traditional measures. In comparison, signal detection theory (SDT) model-based analyses were a better match for the form of the ROCs, and implied that belief bias and instructional manipulations are predominantly response bias effects. Finally, reanalyses of previous studies of conditional reasoning also showed non-linear ROCs, violating assumptions of traditional analyses. Overall, reasoning research using traditional measures is at risk of drawing incorrect conclusions.

  13. Mind-sets of functional reasoning in engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a function is of great importance in design. This paper describes from theory how designers should reason about functions when designing. This paper introduces the link model, showing how functions and properties link the product and its use, to the perceived value of the product...

  14. Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, F H; Shaw, G L; Ky, K N

    1995-02-06

    Motivated by predictions of a structured neuronal model of the cortex, we performed a behavioral experiment which showed that listening to a Mozart piano sonata produced significant short-term enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning in college students. Here we present results from an experiment which replicates these findings, and shows that (i) 'repetitive' music does not enhance reasoning; (ii) a taped short story does not enhance reasoning; and (iii) short-term memory is not enhanced. We propose experiments designed to explore the neurophysiological bases of this causal enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning by music, and begin to search for quantitative measures of further higher cognitive effects of music.

  15. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  16. A reasonable model or a liberal failure? The economic model in Latin America from the 1990s to the great crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez Ancochea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically evaluates the results in terms of economic growth and structural transformation of the new economic model implemented by most Latin American countries since the early 1990s. The new model, which had macroeconomic stability and export orientation as its core components, has been unable to develop more dynamic comparative advantages in the current global era and, as a result, has resulted in lower rates of economic growth than in Asia. The paper closes with an analysis of the impact of the current financial crisis in the region. It highlights the short-term costs, but also acknowledges the opportunities that the crisis is creating to promote a greater number of new progressive development alternatives that place more emphasis on the role of learning and innovation.

  17. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning. PMID:28750030

  18. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    it is mobilized in a world of deep pluralism. The article concludes with a discussion of how a renaturalized conception of public reason might change the positioning of contemporary democratic theory vis-a-vis the struggle for empowerment and pluralization in an age of neo-liberalism and state-surveillance....

  19. Reason destroys itself

    CERN Multimedia

    Penrose, Roger

    2008-01-01

    "Do we know for certain that 2 lus 2 equals 4? Of course we don't. Maybe every time everybody in the whole world has ever done that calculation and reasoned it through, they've made a mistake." (1 page0

  20. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  1. Reasoning with Geometric Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Geometry belongs to branches of mathematics that develop students' visualisation, intuition, critical thinking, problem solving, deductive reasoning, logical argument and proof (Jones, 2002). It provides the basis for the development of spatial sense and plays an important role in acquiring advanced knowledge in science, technology, engineering,…

  2. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  3. Reason and Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod eGoel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is be-cause they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4 tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4 tall? These are examples of instinctual biases affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phe-nomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of the article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an adulterated rationality account of reasoning to explain them.

  4. Diagnostic reasoning in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1993-01-01

    of system failures; and in medicine, diagnosis is the basis for any patient treatment. The paper presents a discussion of the basic nature of causal reasoning as applied for diagnosis and the mental strategies applied when diagnosis is viewed as an integrated part of ''natural decision making...

  5. Training in Inductive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Welko

    This study investigated the effects of K. J. Klauer's (1989) inductive reasoning training program of teaching children. Effects of training and the range of transfer of the training were assessed. The subjects were 34 third-grade Dutch children of average ability, matched on age, sex, and IQ. Children from the training condition (N=17) received…

  6. Representation and human reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  7. Ambiguity and reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, D.J.N. van; Jaspars, J.O.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, reasoning with ambiguous representations is explored in a formal way, with ambiguities at the level of propositions in propositional logic and predicate logic, and ambiguous representations of scopings in predicate logic as the main examples. First a version of propositional logic wit

  8. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  9. 略谈服装表演模特的训练方式%On the Training Mode of Fashion Show Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓玲

    2014-01-01

    Fashion show is an art of showing a model’s body in certain sense. This paper analyzes how an excellent model shows his or her own unique charm in the T-stage through training mainly from basic physical training; stage performance training and performance experience.%服装表演在某种意义上是展示模特形体的艺术。文章着重阐述了一名优秀的模特如何通过训练在T台上展示自己独特的魅力,主要从基础形体训练、舞台表演训练、表演经验积累3个方面进行了论述。

  10. 一种信号适度失真的宽线性SAEC模型%Reasonably distorted signal for stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation with widely linear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀常鹏; 姬红红; 郭伟平

    2013-01-01

    现有的立体声回声抵消器是一个实变量双输入双输出的装置,其结构复杂不易实现。宽线性模型的引入,提供了一种复变量单输入单输出的装置来替代实变量双输入双输出装置,其优点是只需处理一个复变量的输出信号而不是两个实变量输出信号,而且能通过复变量输入信号的相位和幅值分别调控声音的立体感和音质。利用输入信号适度失真的方法降低两个信号之间的相关性以解决因滤波而产生的非唯一性问题。把宽线性模型和失真信号应用到仿射投影算法中,通过仿真验证改进方法的误差性能和收敛速度。结果表明改进的方法具有误差小和收敛快的特点,因此宽线性SAEC模型更有优势。%The existing approach of stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation is designed by a two-input/two-output system with real random variables. Its structure appears to be complex and it is difficult to realize. This scheme will be recast as a single-input/single-output system with complex random variables by approved the widely linear model. The advantage of this method is that instead of handling two real output signals separately, it only handles one complex output signal. Moreover, the perception and quality of the stereo will be modified by the phase and module of the complex input signal, respectively. The coherence can be declined by making the input signal reasonably distorted in order to solve the nonuniqueness problem. The widely linear model and distorted signal are applied in affine projection algorithm to verify the misalignment and convergence. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method has good numerical features of less misalignment and fast convergence, so the SAEC with widely linear model has more advantage.

  11. Multiple Attributes Decision Making Model for Reasonable Allocation Schemes of Freeway Maintenance Machinery%高速公路养护机械合理配置方案的多属性决策模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彪; 戴彤焱; 何挺继

    2011-01-01

    以经济性、技术性、协调性、适应性为主要元素,构成表征养护机械配置方案的属性集合;利用三角模糊数的相似度和可能度理论,构建高速公路养护机械合理配置方案的多属性决策模型,模型中通过单目标优化模型确定属性的最优权重向量.以某高速公路机械化养护中心的养护机械配置为例,证明该方法切实可行.%The attributes' sets characterizing maintenance machinery allocation schemes are first constituted using the economy, technicality, coordination and adaptability as the major elements. Then the multi-attribute decision-making model for freeway maintenance machinery allocation schemes is built based on triangular fuzzy number and combined with the concept of similarity degree and possibility degree. The optimal weights are derived by solving an optimization model of simple object. The application of the maintenance machinery allocation of a certain freeway mechanization conservation center is presented for demonstration. Case study shows that the method of multi-object decision-making is feasible and effective. The model provides a new method for decision-making for reasonable allocation of freeway maintenance machinery.

  12. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  13. Deductive Reasoning. Technical Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    A progress report of work done in formulating a theory of deductive reasoning is given. Models for the three main kinds of syllogisms that have been investigated by students of human reasoning (categorical, conditional, and linear) have been formulated and tested. The theory and data for each of the three kinds of syllogisms is summarized. Some…

  14. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  15. Promoting the Multidimensional Character of Scientific Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, William S; Nelson, Jennifer; Adams, Byron J; Bell, John D

    2017-04-01

    This study reports part of a long-term program to help students improve scientific reasoning using higher-order cognitive tasks set in the discipline of cell biology. This skill was assessed using problems requiring the construction of valid conclusions drawn from authentic research data. We report here efforts to confirm the hypothesis that data interpretation is a complex, multifaceted exercise. Confirmation was obtained using a statistical treatment showing that various such problems rank students differently-each contains a unique set of cognitive challenges. Additional analyses of performance results have allowed us to demonstrate that individuals differ in their capacity to navigate five independent generic elements that constitute successful data interpretation: biological context, connection to course concepts, experimental protocols, data inference, and integration of isolated experimental observations into a coherent model. We offer these aspects of scientific thinking as a "data analysis skills inventory," along with usable sample problems that illustrate each element. Additionally, we show that this kind of reasoning is rigorous in that it is difficult for most novice students, who are unable to intuitively implement strategies for improving these skills. Instructors armed with knowledge of the specific challenges presented by different types of problems can provide specific helpful feedback during formative practice. The use of this instructional model is most likely to require changes in traditional classroom instruction.

  16. Promoting the Multidimensional Character of Scientific Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Bradshaw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports part of a long-term program to help students improve scientific reasoning using higher order cognitive tasks set in the discipline of cell biology. This skill was assessed using problems requiring the construction of valid conclusions drawn from authentic research data. We report here efforts to confirm the hypothesis that data interpretation is a complex, multifaceted exercise. Confirmation was obtained using a statistical treatment showing that various such problems rank students differently—each contains a unique set of cognitive challenges. Additional analyses of performance results have allowed us to demonstrate that individuals differ in their capacity to navigate five independent generic elements that constitute successful data interpretation: biological context, connection to course concepts, experimental protocols, data inference, and integration of isolated experimental observations into a coherent model. We offer these aspects of scientific thinking as a “data analysis skills inventory,” along with usable sample problems that illustrate each element. Additionally, we show that this kind of reasoning is rigorous in that it is difficult for most novice students, who are unable to intuitively implement strategies for improving these skills. Instructors armed with knowledge of the specific challenges presented by different types of problems can provide specific helpful feedback during formative practice. The use of this instructional model is most likely to require changes in traditional classroom instruction.

  17. Exploring students' patterns of reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students' reasoning, we developed open-ended written content questions with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. We devised a protocol for developing written content questions that provided a common structure for probing and classifying students' sophistication level of reasoning. In designing our protocol, we considered several distinct criteria, and classified students' responses based on their performance for each criterion. First, we classified concepts into three types: Descriptive, Hypothetical, and Theoretical and categorized the abstraction levels of the responses in terms of the types of concepts and the inter-relationship between the concepts. Second, we devised a rubric based on Bloom's revised taxonomy with seven traits (both knowledge types and cognitive processes) and a defined set of criteria to evaluate each trait. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We used the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to rank the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. We conducted logistic regression for a sample of 18courses with about 900 students and reported the results for performing logistic regression to estimate the relationship between traits of reasoning and RTOP score. In addition, we analyzed conceptual structure of students' responses, based on conceptual classification schemes, and clustered students' responses into six categories. We derived regression model, to estimate the relationship between the sophistication of the categories of conceptual structure and RTOP scores. However, the

  18. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Boyapalle

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162 viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections.

  19. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyapalle, Sandhya; Xu, Weidong; Raulji, Payal; Mohapatra, Subhra; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s) as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid) was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs) and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC) model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162) viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections.

  20. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  1. A Spatial-Epistemic Logic for Reasoning about Security Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Toninho, Bernardo; 10.4204/EPTCS.51.1

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning about security properties involves reasoning about where the information of a system is located, and how it evolves over time. While most security analysis techniques need to cope with some notions of information locality and knowledge propagation, usually they do not provide a general language for expressing arbitrary properties involving local knowledge and knowledge transfer. Building on this observation, we introduce a framework for security protocol analysis based on dynamic spatial logic specifications. Our computational model is a variant of existing pi-calculi, while specifications are expressed in a dynamic spatial logic extended with an epistemic operator. We present the syntax and semantics of the model and logic, and discuss the expressiveness of the approach, showing it complete for passive attackers. We also prove that generic Dolev-Yao attackers may be mechanically determined for any deterministic finite protocol, and discuss how this result may be used to reason about security proper...

  2. Incorporating time and spatial-temporal reasoning into situation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Gabriel

    2010-04-01

    Spatio-temporal reasoning plays a significant role in situation management that is performed by intelligent agents (human or machine) by affecting how the situations are recognized, interpreted, acted upon or predicted. Many definitions and formalisms for the notion of spatio-temporal reasoning have emerged in various research fields including psychology, economics and computer science (computational linguistics, data management, control theory, artificial intelligence and others). In this paper we examine the role of spatio-temporal reasoning in situation management, particularly how to resolve situations that are described by using spatio-temporal relations among events and situations. We discuss a model for describing context sensitive temporal relations and show have the model can be extended for spatial relations.

  3. The probabilistic approach to human reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, M; Chater, N

    2001-08-01

    A recent development in the cognitive science of reasoning has been the emergence of a probabilistic approach to the behaviour observed on ostensibly logical tasks. According to this approach the errors and biases documented on these tasks occur because people import their everyday uncertain reasoning strategies into the laboratory. Consequently participants' apparently irrational behaviour is the result of comparing it with an inappropriate logical standard. In this article, we contrast the probabilistic approach with other approaches to explaining rationality, and then show how it has been applied to three main areas of logical reasoning: conditional inference, Wason's selection task and syllogistic reasoning.

  4. Truth-value transmittal fuzzy reasoning interpolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianping; LEUNG Yee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly associate fuzzy reasoning algorithm with the interpolation algorithm and discuss the limitation of defuzzification methods used commonly in the fuzzy reasoning algorithm. Secondly, we give a new fuzzy reasoning algorithm in case of single input, called the truth-value transmittal method, and discuss its properties. Finally, we analyze the rationality to adopy the truth-value transmittal method as the defuzzification method of full implication triple I method, and show that although CRI and triple I fuzzy reasoning method are different from fuzzy output set, they are uniform finally under the truth-value transmittal defuzzification method.

  5. Model Simulation of the Difference of Architectural Landscape Under the Reasonable Distribution%差异建筑群下景观合理分布优化模型仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贝娟

    2014-01-01

    Differences between the group of buildings under the landscape dynamic and stochastic characteristics of the traditional two-dimensional analysis method of geography, unable to deal with differences of landscape architecture uncertain characteristics, obtaining the results there is a big deviation of the distribution of landscape architecture according to the differences between the group of buildings landscape rational distribution problem, on the analysis of the differences between the group of buildings on the basis of feature modeling, building landscape architecture target location distribution model, according to the architectural features, landscape dynamic change analysis of differences between the group of architectural landscape distribution model of target location, accomplish rational distribution of the difference of architecture landscape position, by adopting the method of three dimensional grain yuan around the construction of grassland, forest and vegetation distribution modeling, through Oealcle spatial describing the relation between architectural landscape vegetation object model, to obtain the reasonable difference landscape reasonable distribution model under the group of buildings. The result of simulation experiment shows that the proposed model can realize the reasonable distribution of different group of landscape architecture has the high quality of layout.%差异群建筑下景观具有动态性和随机性特征,传统的二维地理分析方法,无法处理差异群建筑景观不确定特征,获取的建筑景观分布结果存在较大偏差,针对差异群建筑下景观合理分布问题,在分析差异群建筑地物建模的基础上,构建建筑景观目标位置分布模型,按照建筑景观动态变化特征,分析差异群建筑景观目标位置的分布模型,实现对差异群建筑景观位置的合理布局,采用三维纹元方法对建筑周围的草地、森林等植被

  6. Belief Discrepancy Reasoning in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the development of belief discrepancy reasoning, or how people evaluate disagreeing others, with 44 college and elderly respondents. Results showed the elderly were significantly lower in belief discrepancy reasoning and higher in dogmatism than the college sample. The elderly sample did not evidence intolerance, but rather relativism.…

  7. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.Calvyn oor Menslike Rede. In sy onlangse boek, The Unintended Reformation, maak Brad Gregory die stelling dat die Reformasie die substantiewe teleologiese deugde-etiek van die Rooms-Katolisisme vervang het met ‘n formele etiek gebaseer op reëls wat deur magistrate afgedwing moet word. Die Reformasie was, volgens Gregory, van mening dat die menslike rede sodanig deur sonde geskend is dat die mens nie langer deugde kan beoefen nie. Dit het tot ‘n skadelike skeiding tussen waardes en reëls gelei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Gregory se stelling op Calvyn van toepassing is. Die eerste afdeling bespreek die intellektuele omgewing waarin Calvyn gewerk het. Tweedens word Gregory se siening van die geskape

  8. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  9. Hippocampal gene expression analysis using the ORESTES methodology shows that homer 1a mRNA is upregulated in the acute period of the pilocarpine epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedissian, Marcelo; Longo, Beatriz M; Jaqueta, Carolina B; Schnabel, Beatriz; Paiva, Paulo B; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Briones, Marcelo R S

    2007-01-01

    In the study of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) the characterization of genes expressed in the hippocampus is of central importance for understanding their roles in epileptogenic mechanisms. Although several large-scale studies on TLE gene expression have been reported, precise assignment of individual genes associated with this syndrome is still debatable. Here we investigated differentially expressed genes by comparison of mRNAs from normal and epileptic rat hippocampus in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. For this we used a powerful EST sequencing methodology, ORESTES (Open Reading frame Expressed Sequence Tags), which generates sequence datasets enriched for mRNAs open reading frames (ORFs) rather than simple 5' and 3' ends of mRNAs. Analysis of our sequences shows that ORESTES readily enables the identification of epilepsy associated ORFs. PFAM analysis of protein motifs present in our ORESTES epilepsy database revealed diverse important protein family domains, such as cytoskeletal, cell signaling and protein kinase domains, which could be involved in processes underlying epileptogenesis. More importantly, we show that the expression of homer 1a, known to be coupled to mGluR and NMDA synaptic transmission, is associated with pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE). The combined use of the pilocarpine model of epilepsy with the ORESTES technique can significantly contribute to the identification of specific genes and proteins related to TLE. This is the first study applying a large-scale method for rapid shotgun sequencing directed to ORFs in epilepsy research.

  10. Human ESC-derived dopamine neurons show similar preclinical efficacy and potency to fetal neurons when grafted in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-11-06

    Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human ESC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Show Similar Preclinical Efficacy and Potency to Fetal Neurons when Grafted in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L.; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25517469

  12. Leveraging Qualitative Reasoning to Learning Manipulation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedrich Wolter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning and planning are powerful AI methods that exhibit complementary strengths. While planning allows goal-directed actions to be computed when a reliable forward model is known, learning allows such models to be obtained autonomously. In this paper we describe how both methods can be combined using an expressive qualitative knowledge representation. We argue that the crucial step in this integration is to employ a representation based on a well-defined semantics. This article proposes the qualitative spatial logic QSL, a representation that combines qualitative abstraction with linear temporal logic, allowing us to represent relevant information about the learning task, possible actions, and their consequences. Doing so, we empower reasoning processes to enhance learning performance beyond the positive effects of learning in abstract state spaces. Proof-of-concept experiments in two simulation environments show that this approach can help to improve learning-based robotics by quicker convergence and leads to more reliable action planning.

  13. Helping Students Develop Statistical Reasoning: Implementing a Statistical Reasoning Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Joan; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a model for an interactive, introductory secondary- or tertiary-level statistics course that is designed to develop students' statistical reasoning. This model is called a "Statistical Reasoning Learning Environment" and is built on the constructivist theory of learning.

  14. Climate envelope modeling and dispersal simulations show little risk of range extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L., in the Baltic sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Appelqvist

    Full Text Available The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future.

  15. Challenging Students' Intuitions—the Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students' Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Caroline; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2015-10-01

    A well-ordered biological complex can be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble. This is a concept that incorporates issues that may contradict students' everyday experiences and intuitions. In previous studies, we have shown that a tangible model of virus self-assembly, used in a group exercise, helps students to grasp the process of self-assembly and in particular the facet "random molecular collision". The present study investigates how and why the model and the group exercise facilitate students' learning of this particular facet. The data analysed consist of audio recordings of six group exercises ( n = 35 university students) and individual semi-structured interviews ( n = 5 university students). The analysis is based on constructivist perspectives of learning, a combination of conceptual change theory and learning with external representations. Qualitative analysis indicates that perceived counterintuitive aspects of the process created a cognitive conflict within learners. The tangible model used in the group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. In particular, the tangible model appeared to provide cues and possible explanations and functioned as an "eye-opener" and a "thinking tool". Lastly, the results show signs of emotions also being important elements for successful accommodation.

  16. Brief Report: Preliminary Proposal of a Conceptual Model of a Digital Environment for Developing Mathematical Reasoning in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Isabel; Breda, Ana; Almeida, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    There is clear evidence that in typically developing children reasoning and sense-making are essential in all mathematical learning and understanding processes. In children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), however, these become much more significant, considering their importance to successful independent living. This paper presents a…

  17. Is Parent Disciplinary Behavior Enduring or Situational? A Multilevel Modeling Investigation of Individual and Contextual Influences on Power Assertive and Inductive Reasoning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R.; Sanson, Ann V.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined individual difference and contextual effects on the disciplinary behavior of a representative sample of 296 parents. Both the use of power assertion and inductive reasoning were found to be higher when the child's behavior violated a moral compared to a conventional principle, and in response to deliberate versus accidental…

  18. Visual Reasoning Tools in Action: Double Number Lines, Area Models, and Other Diagrams Power Up Students' Ability to Solve and Make Sense of Various Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tad

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) identifies the strategic use of appropriate tools as one of the mathematical practices and emphasizes the use of pictures and diagrams as reasoning tools. Starting with the early elementary grades, CCSSM discusses students' solving of problems "by drawing." In later…

  19. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  20. Reasoning about Unreliable Actions

    CERN Document Server

    White, Graham

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the philosopher Davidson's semantics of actions, using a strongly typed logic with contexts given by sets of partial equations between the outcomes of actions. This provides a perspicuous and elegant treatment of reasoning about action, analogous to Reiter's work on artificial intelligence. We define a sequent calculus for this logic, prove cut elimination, and give a semantics based on fibrations over partial cartesian categories: we give a structure theory for such fibrations. The existence of lax comma objects is necessary for the proof of cut elimination, and we give conditions on the domain fibration of a partial cartesian category for such comma objects to exist.

  1. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  2. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  3. Combinatorics and Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Carolyn A; Uptegrove, Elizabeth B

    2010-01-01

    "Combinatorics and Reasoning: Representing, Justifying and Building Isomorphisms" is based on the accomplishments of a cohort group of learners from first grade through high school and beyond, concentrating on their work on a set of combinatorics tasks. By studying these students, the editors gain insight into the foundations of proof building, the tools and environments necessary to make connections, activities to extend and generalize combinatoric learning, and even explore implications of this learning on the undergraduate level. This volume underscores the power of attending to b

  4. Combinatorics and Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Carolyn A; Uptegrove, Elizabeth B

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorics and Reasoning: Representing, Justifying and Building Isomorphisms is based on the accomplishments of a cohort group of learners from first grade through high school and beyond, concentrating on their work on a set of combinatorics tasks. By studying these students, the editors gain insight into the foundations of proof building, the tools and environments necessary to make connections, activities to extend and generalize combinatoric learning, and even explore implications of this learning on the undergraduate level. This volume underscores the power of attending to basic ideas i

  5. Theoretical and practical significance of formal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Piaget's theory has profoundly influenced science education research. Following Piaget, researchers have focused on content-free strategies, developmentally based mechanisms, and structural models of each stage of reasoning. In practice, factors besides those considered in Piaget's theory influence whether or not a theoretically available strategy is used. Piaget's focus has minimized the research attention placed on what could be called practical factors in reasoning. Practical factors are factors that influence application of a theoretically available strategy, for example, previous experience with the task content, familiarity with task instructions, or personality style of the student. Piagetian theory has minimized the importance of practical factors and discouraged investigation of (1) the role of factual knowledge in reasoning, (2) the diagnosis of specific, task-based errors in reasoning, (3) the influence of individual aptitudes on reasoning (e.g., field dependence-independence), and (4) the effect of educational interventions designed to change reasoning. This article calls for new emphasis on practical factors in reasoning and suggests why research on practical factors in reasoning will enhance our understanding of how scientific reasoning is acquired and of how science education programs can foster it.

  6. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed F; Ihmaid, Saleh K; Ahmed, Hany E A; El-Adl, Khaled; Asiri, Ahmed M; Omar, Abdelsattar M

    2017-01-24

    Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a-j) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN). The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  7. Indole-2-carboxamide-based MmpL3 Inhibitors Show Exceptional Antitubercular Activity in an Animal Model of Tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Jozef; Onajole, Oluseye K; Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Merenbloom, Benjamin; Vistoli, Giulio; Bishai, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-07-14

    Our team had previously identified certain indolecarboxamides that represented a new chemical scaffold that showed promising anti-TB activity at both an in vitro and in vivo level. Based on mutational analysis using bacteria found resistant to one of these indolecarboxamides, we identified the trehalose monomycolate transporter MmpL3 as the likely target of these compounds. In the present work, we now further elaborate on the SAR of these compounds, which has led in turn to the identification of a new analog, 4,6-difluoro-N-((1R,2R,3R,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (26), that shows excellent activity against drug-sensitive (MIC = 0.012 μM; SI ≥ 16000), multidrug-resistant (MDR), and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, has superior ADMET properties, and shows excellent activity in the TB aerosol lung infection model. Compound 26 is also shown to work in synergy with rifampin. Because of these properties, we believe that indolecarboxamide 26 is a possible candidate for advancement to human clinical trials.

  8. Clinical reasoning as social deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    the ends are contested. The clinician deliberates together with colleagues and patients if particular means should be used under these circumstances. Deliberation is a public process and is not just taking place in the mind of the individual decision maker. It is a social and dialogical negotiation......In this paper I will challenge the individualistic model of clinical reasoning. I will argue that sometimes clinical practice is rather machine-like, and information is called to mind and weighed, but the clinician is not just calculating how to use particular means to reach fixed ends. Often...

  9. Neural correlates of depth of strategic reasoning in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2009-06-09

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate human mental processes in a competitive interactive setting--the "beauty contest" game. This game is well-suited for investigating whether and how a player's mental processing incorporates the thinking process of others in strategic reasoning. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject's choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. According to this model, high-level reasoners expect the others to behave strategically, whereas low-level reasoners choose based on the expectation that others will choose randomly. The data show that high-level reasoning and a measure of strategic IQ (related to winning in the game) correlate with the neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, demonstrating its crucial role in successful mentalizing. This supports a cognitive hierarchy model of human brain and behavior.

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  11. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  12. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-01

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  13. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington’s disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results. PMID:27110099

  14. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hui Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04 mg/mL to 2.49 mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands.

  15. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Dai-Min; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zong-Qi; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04 mg/mL to 2.49 mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands. PMID:22536281

  16. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees.

  17. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington's disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington's disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington's disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington's disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results.

  18. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  19. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients. PMID:28045968

  20. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  1. Daily supplementation of D-ribose shows no therapeutic benefits in the MHC-I transgenic mouse model of inflammatory myositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Coley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current treatments for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively called myositis focus on the suppression of an autoimmune inflammatory response within the skeletal muscle. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the successful suppression of muscle inflammation and an improvement in muscle function. Some evidence in the literature suggests that metabolic abnormalities in the skeletal muscle underlie the weakness that continues despite successful immunosuppression. We have previously shown that decreased expression of a purine nucleotide cycle enzyme, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1, leads to muscle weakness in a mouse model of myositis and may provide a mechanistic basis for muscle weakness. One of the downstream metabolites of this pathway, D-ribose, has been reported to alleviate symptoms of myalgia in patients with a congenital loss of AMPD1. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing exogenous D-ribose would improve muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. We treated normal and myositis mice with daily doses of D-ribose (4 mg/kg over a 6-week time period and assessed its effects using a battery of behavioral, functional, histological and molecular measures. RESULTS: Treatment with D-ribose was found to have no statistically significant effects on body weight, grip strength, open field behavioral activity, maximal and specific forces of EDL, soleus muscles, or histological features. Histological and gene expression analysis indicated that muscle tissues remained inflamed despite treatment. Gene expression analysis also suggested that low levels of the ribokinase enzyme in the skeletal muscle might prevent skeletal muscle tissue from effectively utilizing D-ribose. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with daily oral doses of D-ribose showed no significant effect on either disease progression or muscle function in the mouse model of myositis.

  2. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is treated in the essay. Here it is argued that Bonhoeffer may be appropriated in attempting to outline a Christological ontology of reason holding essential implications for the sources and conditions of public discourse....

  3. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  4. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  5. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  6. Moldability Evaluation for Molded Parts Based on Fuzzy Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Moldability evaluation for molded parts, which is the basis of concurrent design, is a key design stage in injection molding design. By moldability evaluation the design problems can be found timely and an optimum plastic part design achieved. In this paper, a systematic methodology for moldability evaluation based on fuzzy logic is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy set modeling for six key design attributes of molded parts is carried out respectively. Secondly, on the basis of this, the relationship between fuzzy sets for design attributes and fuzzy sets for moldability is established by fuzzy rules that are based on domain experts' experience and knowledge. At last the integral moldability for molded parts is obtained through fuzzy reasoning. The neural network based fuzzy reasoning approach presented in this paper can improve fuzzy reasoning efficiency greatly, especially for system having a large number of rules and complicated membership functions. An example for moldability evaluation is given to show the feasibility of this proposed methodology.

  7. Open Graphs and Computational Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. In particular, this allows equations and rewrite rules to be specified between graphs. Particular computational models can then be encoded as an axiomatic set of such rules. Further rules can be derived graphically and rewriting can be used to simulate the dynamics of a computational system, e.g. evaluating a program on an input. Examples of models which can be formalised in this way include traditional electronic circuits as well as recent categorical accounts of quantum information.

  8. Long-term field data and climate-habitat models show that orangutan persistence depends on effective forest management and greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Gregory

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asian deforestation rates are among the world's highest and threaten to drive many forest-dependent species to extinction. Climate change is expected to interact with deforestation to amplify this risk. Here we examine whether regional incentives for sustainable forest management will be effective in improving threatened mammal conservation, in isolation and when combined with global climate change mitigation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a long time-series of orangutan nest counts for Sabah (2000-10, Malaysian Borneo, we evaluated the effect of sustainable forest management and climate change scenarios, and their interaction, on orangutan spatial abundance patterns. By linking dynamic land-cover and downscaled global climate model projections, we determine the relative influence of these factors on orangutan spatial abundance and use the resulting statistical models to identify habitat crucial for their long-term conservation. We show that land-cover change the degradation of primary forest had the greatest influence on orangutan population size. Anticipated climate change was predicted to cause reductions in abundance in currently occupied populations due to decreased habitat suitability, but also to promote population growth in western Sabah by increasing the suitability of presently unoccupied regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We find strong quantitative support for the Sabah government's proposal to implement sustainable forest management in all its forest reserves during the current decade; failure to do so could result in a 40 to 80 per cent regional decline in orangutan abundance by 2100. The Sabah orangutan is just one (albeit iconic example of a forest-dependent species that stands to benefit from sustainable forest management, which promotes conservation of existing forests.

  9. Long-Term Field Data and Climate-Habitat Models Show That Orangutan Persistence Depends on Effective Forest Management and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Stephen D.; Brook, Barry W.; Goossens, Benoît; Ancrenaz, Marc; Alfred, Raymond; Ambu, Laurentius N.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Southeast Asian deforestation rates are among the world’s highest and threaten to drive many forest-dependent species to extinction. Climate change is expected to interact with deforestation to amplify this risk. Here we examine whether regional incentives for sustainable forest management will be effective in improving threatened mammal conservation, in isolation and when combined with global climate change mitigation. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a long time-series of orangutan nest counts for Sabah (2000–10), Malaysian Borneo, we evaluated the effect of sustainable forest management and climate change scenarios, and their interaction, on orangutan spatial abundance patterns. By linking dynamic land-cover and downscaled global climate model projections, we determine the relative influence of these factors on orangutan spatial abundance and use the resulting statistical models to identify habitat crucial for their long-term conservation. We show that land-cover change the degradation of primary forest had the greatest influence on orangutan population size. Anticipated climate change was predicted to cause reductions in abundance in currently occupied populations due to decreased habitat suitability, but also to promote population growth in western Sabah by increasing the suitability of presently unoccupied regions. Conclusions/Significance We find strong quantitative support for the Sabah government’s proposal to implement sustainable forest management in all its forest reserves during the current decade; failure to do so could result in a 40 to 80 per cent regional decline in orangutan abundance by 2100. The Sabah orangutan is just one (albeit iconic) example of a forest-dependent species that stands to benefit from sustainable forest management, which promotes conservation of existing forests. PMID:22970145

  10. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging.

  11. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    is a practical component (founded in logic) that enriches intelligent agents with organizational reasoning capabilities. We take the agent’s perspective by devising a component that integrates with the agent’s usual reasoning capabilities in a non-intrusive way. This results in agents that are both organization...... a generic framework that allows different kinds of agents to reason about different kinds of organizations. We present our results in three main parts. In the first part, we present the theoretical foundations for the AORTA framework, which consists of semantics of norms, an organizational metamodel......, and the AORTA reasoning component. The reasoning component is characterized by being completely decoupled from the cognitive agent, by its automated reasoning about norms and organizational options, and by the reasoning rules specified by the designer to act upon norms and options. We specify the reasoning...

  12. A novel, selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors that shows a potent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Genshi; Li, Wei-Ying; Chen, Daohong; Henry, James R; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Zhaogen; Zia-Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Bloem, Laura; Zhai, Yan; Huss, Karen; Peng, Sheng-Bin; McCann, Denis J

    2011-11-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are tyrosine kinases that are present in many types of endothelial and tumor cells and play an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as in maintaining tumor angiogenesis. Overexpression of FGFRs or aberrant regulation of their activities has been implicated in many forms of human malignancies. Therefore, targeting FGFRs represents an attractive strategy for development of cancer treatment options by simultaneously inhibiting tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as tumor angiogenesis. Here, we describe a potent, selective, small-molecule FGFR inhibitor, (R)-(E)-2-(4-(2-(5-(1-(3,5-Dichloropyridin-4-yl)ethoxy)-1H-indazol-3yl)vinyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol, designated as LY2874455. This molecule is active against all 4 FGFRs, with a similar potency in biochemical assays. It exhibits a potent activity against FGF/FGFR-mediated signaling in several cancer cell lines and shows an excellent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models representing the major FGF/FGFR relevant tumor histologies including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers and multiple myeloma, and with a well-defined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. LY2874455 also exhibits a 6- to 9-fold in vitro and in vivo selectivity on inhibition of FGF- over VEGF-mediated target signaling in mice. Furthermore, LY2874455 did not show VEGF receptor 2-mediated toxicities such as hypertension at efficacious doses. Currently, this molecule is being evaluated for its potential use in the clinic.

  13. Independence and dependence in human causal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2014-07-01

    Causal graphical models (CGMs) are a popular formalism used to model human causal reasoning and learning. The key property of CGMs is the causal Markov condition, which stipulates patterns of independence and dependence among causally related variables. Five experiments found that while adult's causal inferences exhibited aspects of veridical causal reasoning, they also exhibited a small but tenacious tendency to violate the Markov condition. They also failed to exhibit robust discounting in which the presence of one cause as an explanation of an effect makes the presence of another less likely. Instead, subjects often reasoned "associatively," that is, assumed that the presence of one variable implied the presence of other, causally related variables, even those that were (according to the Markov condition) conditionally independent. This tendency was unaffected by manipulations (e.g., response deadlines) known to influence fast and intuitive reasoning processes, suggesting that an associative response to a causal reasoning question is sometimes the product of careful and deliberate thinking. That about 60% of the erroneous associative inferences were made by about a quarter of the subjects suggests the presence of substantial individual differences in this tendency. There was also evidence that inferences were influenced by subjects' assumptions about factors that disable causal relations and their use of a conjunctive reasoning strategy. Theories that strive to provide high fidelity accounts of human causal reasoning will need to relax the independence constraints imposed by CGMs.

  14. Exploring the Interactions of the Dietary Plant Flavonoids Fisetin and Naringenin with G-Quadruplex and Duplex DNA, Showing Contrasting Binding Behavior: Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Snehasish; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Pradeep K; Bhowmik, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Guanine-rich sequences have the propensity to fold into a four-stranded DNA structure known as a G-quadruplex (G4). G4 forming sequences are abundant in the promoter region of several oncogenes and become a key target for anticancer drug binding. Here we have studied the interactions of two structurally similar dietary plant flavonoids fisetin and naringenin with G4 as well as double stranded (duplex) DNA by using different spectroscopic and modeling techniques. Our study demonstrates the differential binding ability of the two flavonoids with G4 and duplex DNA. Fisetin more strongly interacts with parallel G4 structure than duplex DNA, whereas naringenin shows stronger binding affinity to duplex rather than G4 DNA. Molecular docking results also corroborate our spectroscopic results, and it was found that both of the ligands are stacked externally in the G4 DNA structure. C-ring planarity of the flavonoid structure appears to be a crucial factor for preferential G4 DNA recognition of flavonoids. The goal of this study is to explore the critical effects of small differences in the structure of closely similar chemical classes of such small molecules (flavonoids) which lead to the contrasting binding properties with the two different forms of DNA. The resulting insights may be expected to facilitate the designing of the highly selective G4 DNA binders based on flavonoid scaffolds.

  15. Adjunctive treatment of brexpiprazole with fluoxetine shows a rapid antidepressant effect in social defeat stress model: Role of BDNF-TrkB signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Min; Ren, Qian; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Ohgi, Yuta; Futamura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Addition of low doses of the atypical antipsychotic drug brexpiprazole with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could promote antidepressant effect in patients with major depressive disorder although the precise mechanisms underlying the action of the combination are unknown. Combination of low dose of brexpiprazole (0.1 mg/kg) and SSRI fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) could promote a rapid antidepressant effect in social defeat stress model although brexpiprazole or fluoxetine alone did not show antidepressant effect. Furthermore, the combination significantly improved alterations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - TrkB signaling and dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens in the susceptible mice after social defeat stress. Interestingly, TrkB antagonist ANA-12 significantly blocked beneficial effects of combination of brexpiprazole and fluoxetine on depression-like phenotype. These results suggest that BDNF-TrkB signaling plays a role in the rapid antidepressant action of the combination of brexpiprazole and fluoxetine. PMID:27991542

  16. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  17. Object-oriented reasoning in cognitive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniak, Janusz

    2000-06-01

    The intelligence agent architecture widely employs methods of logic of belief. The goal of the paper is to find a correct and effective inference mechanism that can substantially improve resolution based traditional methods. The semantics of the mechanism is based on Minsky's frames. Each agent is modeled by Minsky's frames with their slots representing what agent believes in. Inference process is realized by daemons filling the frames slots. The filling in this context means setting unknown slot values. The order of reasoning is established by a directed acyclic graph and driven by the topological sorting as a reasoning strategy. The inference algorithm analysis shows that the new method works in polynomial time. Therefore it is more efficient than NP, resolution based traditional methods. The correctness of object oriented implementation of the algorithm is established by considering the inference process in terms of abstract relational systems and their isomorphisms. Finally an implementation methodology of agents and their inference process in object oriented language is presented. All the considered concepts and methodology are illustrated in object oriented solution to `three wisemen problem' implemented in Smalltalk.

  18. Deductive way of reasoning about the internet AS level topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D´avid Szab´o; Attila K˝or¨osi; J´ozsef B´ır´o; Andr´as Guly´as

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding about the AS level topology of the Internet is based on measurements and inductive-type models which set up rules describing the behavior (node and edge dynamics) of the individual ASes and generalize the consequences of these individual actions for the complete AS ecosystem using induction. In this paper we suggest a third, deductive approach in which we have premises for the whole AS system and the consequences of these premises are determined through deductive reasoning. We show that such a deductive approach can give complementary insights into the topological properties of the AS graph. While inductive models can mostly reflect high level statistics (e.g., degree distribution, clustering, diameter), deductive reasoning can identify omnipresent subgraphs and peering likelihood. We also propose a model, called YEAS, incorporating our deductive analytical findings that produces topologies contain both traditional and novel metrics for the AS level Internet.

  19. Geometric Reasoning for Automated Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Knight, Russell L.; Broderick, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of mission planning for NASA s operation of the International Space Station is the allocation and management of space for supplies and equipment. The Stowage, Configuration Analysis, and Operations Planning teams collaborate to perform the bulk of that planning. A Geometric Reasoning Engine is developed in a way that can be shared by the teams to optimize item placement in the context of crew planning. The ISS crew spends (at the time of this writing) a third or more of their time moving supplies and equipment around. Better logistical support and optimized packing could make a significant impact on operational efficiency of the ISS. Currently, computational geometry and motion planning do not focus specifically on the optimized orientation and placement of 3D objects based on multiple distance and containment preferences and constraints. The software performs reasoning about the manipulation of 3D solid models in order to maximize an objective function based on distance. It optimizes for 3D orientation and placement. Spatial placement optimization is a general problem and can be applied to object packing or asset relocation.

  20. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...