WorldWideScience

Sample records for models requires cooperation

  1. THE 3C COOPERATION MODEL APPLIED TO THE CLASSICAL REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Luiz Gava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to the users' cooperative work are not considered in the traditional approach of software engineering, since the user is viewed independently of his/her workplace environment or group, with the individual model generalized to the study of collective behavior of all users. This work proposes a process for software requirements to address issues involving cooperative work in information systems that provide distributed coordination in the users' actions and the communication among them occurs indirectly through the data entered while using the software. To achieve this goal, this research uses ergonomics, the 3C cooperation model, awareness and software engineering concepts. Action-research is used as a research methodology applied in three cycles during the development of a corporate workflow system in a technological research company. This article discusses the third cycle, which corresponds to the process that deals with the refinement of the cooperative work requirements with the software in actual use in the workplace, where the inclusion of a computer system changes the users’ workplace, from the face to face interaction to the interaction mediated by the software. The results showed that the highest degree of users' awareness about their activities and other system users contribute to a decrease in their errors and in the inappropriate use of the system

  2. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  3. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression. PMID:29693007

  4. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  5. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Jäger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques.

  6. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  7. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.

  8. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  9. Emergence of cooperativity in a model biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotrattanadumrong, Rachapun; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-06-01

    Evolution to multicellularity from an aggregate of cells involves altruistic cooperation between individual cells, which is in conflict with Darwinian evolution. How cooperation arises and how a cell community resolves such conflicts remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous emergence of cell differentiation and the subsequent division of labour in evolving cellular metabolic networks. In spatially extended cell aggregates, our findings reveal that resource limitation can lead to the formation of subpopulations and cooperation of cells, and hence multicellular communities. A specific example of our model can explain the recently observed oscillatory growth in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

  10. 75 FR 18505 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration... promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in efforts to...

  11. 75 FR 18508 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of... promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in efforts to...

  12. Requirements and Algorithms for Cooperation of Heterogeneous Radio Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Mino, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines the requirements for cooperation of heterogeneous radio access networks (RANs) and proposes a novel radio resource management (RRM) framework for support of mobility and quality of service (QoS) in a heterogeneous communication environment comprising IMT-Advanced and legacy...... systems.The RRM mechanisms are evaluated for the scenario of intra-RAN and inter-RAN user mobility. The RRM framework incorporates as novelty improved triggering mechanisms, a network-controlledmobility management scheme with policy enforcement on different levels in the RANarchitecture, and a distributed...

  13. 75 FR 18504 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... undertaken by regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of...

  14. 78 FR 14306 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...]; (Formerly Docket No. 00D-1631)] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory...

  15. 76 FR 57060 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration... regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory...

  16. 75 FR 18507 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of... associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in...

  17. 77 FR 20406 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has...

  18. 76 FR 57054 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... (MRK),'' (VICH GL46). This guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH...

  19. 76 FR 57057 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration... undertaken by regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of...

  20. Reduction of buffering requirements: Another advantage of cooperative transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Yet another advent of cooperative transmission is exposed in this letter. It is shown that cooperation lends itself to the reduction of buffer sizes of wireless sensor nodes. It is less likely to find the channel busy when cooperative transmission is employed in the network. Otherwise, in the lack of cooperation, the probability of build up of packet queues in transmission buffers increases.

  1. A Cooperation Model Applied in a Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Rodriguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for collaboration in a global world has become a key factor for success for many organizations and individuals. However in several regions and organizations in the world, it has not happened yet. One of the settings where major obstacles occur for collaboration is in the business arena, mainly because of competitive beliefs that cooperation could hurt profitability. We have found such behavior in a wide variety of countries, in advanced and developing economies. Such cultural behaviors or traits characterized entrepreneurs by working in isolation, avoiding the possibilities of building clusters to promote regional development. The needs to improve the essential abilities that conforms cooperation are evident. It is also very difficult to change such conduct with adults. So we decided to work with children to prepare future generations to live in a cooperative world, so badly hit by greed and individualism nowadays. We have validated that working with children at an early age improves such behavior. This paper develops a model to enhance the essential abilities in order to improve cooperation. The model has been validated by applying it at a kindergarten school.

  2. 40 CFR 35.6250 - Support agency Cooperative Agreement requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6250 Support agency... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support agency Cooperative Agreement...

  3. 76 FR 32218 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ...] (formerly FDA-2003D-0474) International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... among the European Union, Japan, and the United States. The International Cooperation on Harmonisation...

  4. Nordic Model of Subregional Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzela Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nordic co-operation is renowned throughout the world and perceived as the collaboration of a group of countries which are similar in their views and activities. The main pillars of the Nordic model of co-operation are the tradition of constitutional principles, activity of public movements and organisations, freedom of speech, equality, solidarity, and respect for the natural environment. In connection with labour and entrepreneurship, these elements are the features of a society which favours efficiency, a sense of security and balance between an individual and a group. Currently, the collaboration is a complex process, including many national, governmental and institutional connections which form the “Nordic family”.

  5. 76 FR 57058 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... been undertaken by regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international...

  6. 78 FR 14308 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal... been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical... regulatory authorities and industry associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory...

  7. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION IN RUSSIA: THE PROBLEM OF ORGANIZATION MODEL CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nilsson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In today's Russia many agricultural co-operatives are established from the top downwards. The national project "Development of Agroindustrial Complex" and other governmental programs initiate the formation of cooperative societies. These cooperatives are organized in accordance with the traditional cooperative model. Many of them do, however, not have any real business activities. The aim of this paper to investigate if traditional cooperatives (following principles such as collective ownership, one member one vote, equal treatment, and solidarity, etc. constitute the best organizational model for cooperatives societies under the present conditions in the Russian agriculture.

  8. Flocking with minimal cooperativity: The panic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Eaves, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional lattice model of self-propelled spins that can change direction only upon collision with another spin. We show that even with ballistic motion and minimal cooperativity, these spins display robust flocking behavior at nearly all densities, forming long bands of stripes. The structural transition in this system is not a thermodynamic phase transition, but it can still be characterized by an order parameter, and we demonstrate that if this parameter is studied as a dynamical variable rather than a steady-state observable, we can extract a detailed picture of how the flocking mechanism varies with density.

  9. Flocking with minimal cooperativity: the panic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R; Eaves, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional lattice model of self-propelled spins that can change direction only upon collision with another spin. We show that even with ballistic motion and minimal cooperativity, these spins display robust flocking behavior at nearly all densities, forming long bands of stripes. The structural transition in this system is not a thermodynamic phase transition, but it can still be characterized by an order parameter, and we demonstrate that if this parameter is studied as a dynamical variable rather than a steady-state observable, we can extract a detailed picture of how the flocking mechanism varies with density.

  10. Selective Cooperation in Early Childhood - How to Choose Models and Partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Hermes

    Full Text Available Cooperation is essential for human society, and children engage in cooperation from early on. It is unclear, however, how children select their partners for cooperation. We know that children choose selectively whom to learn from (e.g. preferring reliable over unreliable models on a rational basis. The present study investigated whether children (and adults also choose their cooperative partners selectively and what model characteristics they regard as important for cooperative partners and for informants about novel words. Three- and four-year-old children (N = 64 and adults (N = 14 saw contrasting pairs of models differing either in physical strength or in accuracy (in labeling known objects. Participants then performed different tasks (cooperative problem solving and word learning requiring the choice of a partner or informant. Both children and adults chose their cooperative partners selectively. Moreover they showed the same pattern of selective model choice, regarding a wide range of model characteristics as important for cooperation (preferring both the strong and the accurate model for a strength-requiring cooperation tasks, but only prior knowledge as important for word learning (preferring the knowledgeable but not the strong model for word learning tasks. Young children's selective model choice thus reveals an early rational competence: They infer characteristics from past behavior and flexibly consider what characteristics are relevant for certain tasks.

  11. Defining the required infrastructure supporting co-operative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Kievit, M.; Maas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative Systems will play a critical role in enabling safe, smart and clean transport, as well as meeting the European Commission's 2020 policy goals. There is today a general understanding of the benefits of cooperative systems but there is still a need for further validation of the estimated

  12. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  13. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  14. 76 FR 57056 - International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...] International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal...,'' (VICH GL48). This guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on... associations to promote the international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in...

  15. The emergence of cooperation in tie strength models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Yue, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a tie strength model to explain the emergence of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games, assuming that cooperators preferentially allocate their investments to friends with strong ties. Two types of prisoner's dilemma models are examined in this study: the traditional two-strategy model considering only cooperators and defectors; the expanded three-strategy model consisting cooperators, defectors and extortioners. The results show that tie strength model contributes to the promotion of cooperation in both types of prisoner's dilemma games. However, we point out that the influence of the investment preference is quite different in the two prisoner's dilemma game settings. In the two-strategy prisoner's dilemma game, only small preference contributes to the promotion of cooperation. Once this preference exceeds a critical value, cooperation will be prohibited. We explain this phenomenon by arguing that extremely strong investment preference undermines the ability of cooperative clusters to resist defectors. Moreover, we extend the analysis into the three-strategy case and discover that the catalytic effect of extortioners can eliminate this first up and then down trend in the two-strategy model. The equilibrium fraction of cooperators is always positively correlated to the level of investment preference in three-strategy models.

  16. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  17. An ODP computational model of a cooperative binding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logé, Christophe; Najm, Elie; Chen, Ken

    1997-12-01

    A next generation of systems that should appear will have to manage simultaneously several geographically distributed users. These systems belong to the class of computer-supported cooperative work systems (CSCW). The development of such complex systems requires rigorous development methods and flexible open architectures. Open distributed processing (ODP) is a standardization effort that aims at providing such architectures. ODP features appropriate abstraction levels and a clear articulation between requirements, programming and infrastructure support. ODP advocates the use of formal methods for the specification of systems and components. The computational model, an object-based model, one of the abstraction levels identified within ODP, plays a central role in the global architecture. In this model, basic objects can be composed with communication and distribution abstractions (called binding objects) to form a computational specification of distributed systems, or applications. Computational specifications can then be mapped (in a mechanism akin to compilation) onto an engineering solution. We use an ODP-inspired method to computationally specify a cooperative system. We start from a general purpose component that we progressively refine into a collection of basic and binding objects. We focus on two issues of a co-authoring application, namely, dynamic reconfiguration and multiview synchronization. We discuss solutions for these issues and formalize them using the MT-LOTOS specification language that is currently studied in the ISO standardization formal description techniques group.

  18. More than friendship is required : an empirical test of cooperative firm strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesämaa, Ossi; Hair Jr, Joseph F

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine a proposed six-construct theoretical model of factors influencing successful cooperative relationships and strategy development. Design/methodology/approach - A theoretical model of strategy development and cooperative relationships was tested. Qualitative research among key experts identified 15 successful regional tourism networks. Two successful cooperative networks were selected based on annual revenues. A sample of 254 small and mediu...

  19. Cloud model construct for transaction-based cooperative systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plethora of cooperative enterprise models exist in practice. Inherent complex and tasking operations and lack of financial strength to procure cutting edge Information Technology infrastructure are some of the problems faced by these cooperative enterprises. In this paper, a cloud model is constructed for transaction-based ...

  20. 78 FR 10690 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  1. 76 FR 27377 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  2. 75 FR 44842 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  3. 78 FR 32011 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  4. 77 FR 7660 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  5. 77 FR 68886 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  6. 78 FR 71038 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  7. 76 FR 67791 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  8. 76 FR 49836 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  9. 76 FR 5250 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  10. 77 FR 49864 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  11. 75 FR 74769 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation with an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation with an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  12. 75 FR 22679 - List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... in, or cooperation with, an international boycott (within the meaning of section 999(b)(3) of the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary List of Countries Requiring Cooperation With an International Boycott In accordance with section 999(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Department...

  13. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE COMPETITIVE COOPERATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Liparteliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive cooperation model of regional travel agencies and travel market participants is considered. Evaluation of the model using mathematical and statistical methods was carried out. Relationship marketing provides a travel company certain economic advantages.

  14. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  15. Complex transition to cooperative behavior in a structured population model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miranda

    Full Text Available Cooperation plays an important role in the evolution of species and human societies. The understanding of the emergence and persistence of cooperation in those systems is a fascinating and fundamental question. Many mechanisms were extensively studied and proposed as supporting cooperation. The current work addresses the role of migration for the maintenance of cooperation in structured populations. This problem is investigated in an evolutionary perspective through the prisoner's dilemma game paradigm. It is found that migration and structure play an essential role in the evolution of the cooperative behavior. The possible outcomes of the model are extinction of the entire population, dominance of the cooperative strategy and coexistence between cooperators and defectors. The coexistence phase is obtained in the range of large migration rates. It is also verified the existence of a critical level of structuring beyond that cooperation is always likely. In resume, we conclude that the increase in the number of demes as well as in the migration rate favor the fixation of the cooperative behavior.

  16. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual

  17. Regional cooperation and environmental justice in transportation planning in Ohio : a regional models of cooperation peer exchange summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    This report highlights key themes identified at the Regional Cooperation and Environmental Justice in Transportation Planning in Ohio Peer Exchange held on December 15, 2015 in Columbus, Ohio. The Regional Models of Cooperation Initiative, whic...

  18. 45 CFR 303.107 - Requirements for cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (d) Specify the financial arrangements including budget estimates, covered expenditures, methods of... requirements and limitations; (e) Specify the kind of records that must be maintained and the appropriate Federal, State and local reporting and safeguarding requirements; and (f) Specify the dates on which the...

  19. Modeling the cooperative and competitive contagions in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yun-Bei; Chen, J. J.; Li, Zhi-hong

    2017-10-01

    The wide adoption of social media has increased the interaction among different pieces of information, and this interaction includes cooperation and competition for our finite attention. While previous research focus on fully competition, this paper extends the interaction to be both "cooperation" and "competition", by employing an IS1S2 R model. To explore how two different pieces of information interact with each other, the IS1S2 R model splits the agents into four parts-(Ignorant-Spreader I-Spreader II-Stifler), based on SIR epidemic spreading model. Using real data from Weibo.com, a social network site similar to Twitter, we find some parameters, like decaying rates, can both influence the cooperative diffusion process and the competitive process, while other parameters, like infectious rates only have influence on the competitive diffusion process. Besides, the parameters' effect are more significant in the competitive diffusion than in the cooperative diffusion.

  20. Cooperativity concepts in protein binding models--problems of cooperativity definition, detection, identification and measuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbler, E

    1977-12-01

    Cooperativity in protein-ligand binding cannot yet be treated as a urinary phenomenon (neither in investigating nor in modelling), although imaginable to rest upon some few general principles only. Knowledge of atomic details of protein-ligand interactions is still limited. Instead of a physico-chemical explanation and definition of cooperativity, a series of schematic concept has been established throughout the literature. Some dominating or merely observable features are isolated and intermixed with plausibly invented mechanistic details. These cooperativity concepts are put together and partly generalized here. From comparing these concepts with the state of binding theory on the one hand and with the nature of measured binding data on the other, some problems of understanding cooperative effects and of detecting, measuring and identifying them are pointed out. For special cases, suitable criteria and measures are recommended and graphic and mathematical techniques discussed. The limited significance and generality of current cooperativity terms is emphasized. Some different levels of understanding have to be distinguished.

  1. A model of human cooperation in social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Social dilemmas are situations in which collective interests are at odds with private interests: pollution, depletion of natural resources, and intergroup conflicts, are at their core social dilemmas. Because of their multidisciplinarity and their importance, social dilemmas have been studied by economists, biologists, psychologists, sociologists, and political scientists. These studies typically explain tendency to cooperation by dividing people in proself and prosocial types, or appealing to forms of external control or, in iterated social dilemmas, to long-term strategies. But recent experiments have shown that cooperation is possible even in one-shot social dilemmas without forms of external control and the rate of cooperation typically depends on the payoffs. This makes impossible a predictive division between proself and prosocial people and proves that people have attitude to cooperation by nature. The key innovation of this article is in fact to postulate that humans have attitude to cooperation by nature and consequently they do not act a priori as single agents, as assumed by standard economic models, but they forecast how a social dilemma would evolve if they formed coalitions and then they act according to their most optimistic forecast. Formalizing this idea we propose the first predictive model of human cooperation able to organize a number of different experimental findings that are not explained by the standard model. We show also that the model makes satisfactorily accurate quantitative predictions of population average behavior in one-shot social dilemmas.

  2. Incentive Model Based on Cooperative Relationship in Sustainable Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the cooperative relationship between owners and contractors in sustainable construction projects, as well as the synergistic effects created by cooperative behaviors, a cooperative incentive model was developed using game theory. The model was formulated and analyzed under both non-moral hazard and moral hazard situations. Then, a numerical simulation and example were proposed to verify the conclusions derived from the model. The results showed that the synergistic effect increases the input intensity of one party’s resource transfer into the increase of marginal utility of the other party, thus the owner and contractor are willing to enhance their levels of effort. One party’s optimal benefit allocation coefficient is positively affected by its own output efficiency, and negatively affected by the other party’s output efficiency. The effort level and expected benefits of the owner and contractor can be improved by enhancing the cooperative relationship between the two parties, as well as enhancing the net benefits of a sustainable construction project. The synergistic effect cannot lower the negative effect of moral hazard behaviors during the implementation of sustainable construction projects. Conversely, the higher levels of the cooperative relationship, the wider the gaps amongst the optimal values under both non-moral hazard and moral hazard situations for the levels of effort, expected benefits and net project benefits. Since few studies to date have emphasized the effects of cooperative relationship on sustainable construction projects, this study constructed a game-based incentive model to bridge the gaps. This study contributes significant theoretical and practical insights into the management of cooperation amongst stakeholders, and into the enhancement of the overall benefits of sustainable construction projects.

  3. Cooperative cognitive radio networking system model, enabling techniques, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Bin; Mark, Jon W

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief examines the active cooperation between users of Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networking (CCRN), exploring the system model, enabling techniques, and performance. The brief provides a systematic study on active cooperation between primary users and secondary users, i.e., (CCRN), followed by the discussions on research issues and challenges in designing spectrum-energy efficient CCRN. As an effort to shed light on the design of spectrum-energy efficient CCRN, they model the CCRN based on orthogonal modulation and orthogonally dual-polarized antenna (ODPA). The resource allocation issues are detailed with respect to both models, in terms of problem formulation, solution approach, and numerical results. Finally, the optimal communication strategies for both primary and secondary users to achieve spectrum-energy efficient CCRN are analyzed.

  4. Modelling Cooperative Work at a Medical Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork, and the modelling of work processes at a medical department, this paper considers some of the opportunities and challenges involved in working with models in a complex work setting. The paper introduces a flexible modelling tool to CSCW, called the DCR Portal...

  5. A simple model of bipartite cooperation for ecological and organizational networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Uzzi, Brian

    2009-01-22

    In theoretical ecology, simple stochastic models that satisfy two basic conditions about the distribution of niche values and feeding ranges have proved successful in reproducing the overall structural properties of real food webs, using species richness and connectance as the only input parameters. Recently, more detailed models have incorporated higher levels of constraint in order to reproduce the actual links observed in real food webs. Here, building on previous stochastic models of consumer-resource interactions between species, we propose a highly parsimonious model that can reproduce the overall bipartite structure of cooperative partner-partner interactions, as exemplified by plant-animal mutualistic networks. Our stochastic model of bipartite cooperation uses simple specialization and interaction rules, and only requires three empirical input parameters. We test the bipartite cooperation model on ten large pollination data sets that have been compiled in the literature, and find that it successfully replicates the degree distribution, nestedness and modularity of the empirical networks. These properties are regarded as key to understanding cooperation in mutualistic networks. We also apply our model to an extensive data set of two classes of company engaged in joint production in the garment industry. Using the same metrics, we find that the network of manufacturer-contractor interactions exhibits similar structural patterns to plant-animal pollination networks. This surprising correspondence between ecological and organizational networks suggests that the simple rules of cooperation that generate bipartite networks may be generic, and could prove relevant in many different domains, ranging from biological systems to human society.

  6. 77 FR 74634 - Department of Commerce Pre-Award Notification Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE [Docket No.: 121115633-2633-01] Department of Commerce Pre-Award Notification Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements AGENCY: Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice revises and updates the Department of Commerce (DOC) Pre-Award Notification...

  7. Overcoming barriers to development of cooperative medical decision support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Donna L; Cohen, Maurice E

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to automate the medical decision making process have been underway for the at least fifty years, beginning with data-based approaches that relied chiefly on statistically-based methods. Approaches expanded to include knowledge-based systems, both linear and non-linear neural networks, agent-based systems, and hybrid methods. While some of these models produced excellent results none have been used extensively in medical practice. In order to move these methods forward into practical use, a number of obstacles must be overcome, including validation of existing systems on large data sets, development of methods for including new knowledge as it becomes available, construction of a broad range of decision models, and development of non-intrusive methods that allow the physician to use these decision aids in conjunction with, not instead of, his or her own medical knowledge. None of these four requirements will come easily. A cooperative effort among researchers, including practicing MDs, is vital, particularly as more information on diseases and their contributing factors continues to expand resulting in more parameters than the human decision maker can process effectively. In this article some of the basic structures that are necessary to facilitate the use of an automated decision support system are discussed, along with potential methods for overcoming existing barriers.

  8. Requirements for Medical Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The development of tailor-made domain-specific modeling languages is sometimes desirable in medical informatics. Naturally, the development of such languages should be guided. The purpose of this article is to introduce a set of requirements for such languages and show their application in analyzing and comparing existing modeling languages. Design: The requirements arise from the practical experience of the authors and others in the development of modeling languages in both general informatics and medical informatics. The requirements initially emerged from the analysis of information modeling techniques. The requirements are designed to be orthogonal, i.e., one requirement can be violated without violation of the others. Results: The proposed requirements for any modeling language are that it be “formal” with regard to syntax and semantics, “conceptual,” “expressive,” “comprehensible,” “suitable,” and “executable.” The requirements are illustrated using both the medical logic modules of the Arden Syntax as a running example and selected examples from other modeling languages. Conclusion: Activity diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language, task structures for work flows, and Petri nets are discussed with regard to the list of requirements, and various tradeoffs are thus made explicit. It is concluded that this set of requirements has the potential to play a vital role in both the evaluation of existing domain-specific languages and the development of new ones. PMID:11230383

  9. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  10. Requirements Validation: Execution of UML Models with CPN Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ricardo J.; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Oliveira, Sérgio

    2007-01-01

    Requirements validation is a critical task in any engineering project. The confrontation of stakeholders with static requirements models is not enough, since stakeholders with non-computer science education are not able to discover all the inter-dependencies between the elicited requirements. Even...... requirements, where the system to be built must explicitly support the interaction between people within a pervasive cooperative workflow execution. A case study from a real project is used to illustrate the proposed approach....

  11. Coexistence of two species in a strongly coupled cooperating model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    In this paper, the cooperating two-species Lotka-Volterra model is discussed. We study the existence of solutions to a elliptic system with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our results show that this problem possesses at least one coexistence state if the birth rates are big and self...

  12. "A model co-operative country": Irish-Finnish co-operative contacts at the turn of the twentieth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilson, Mary

    2017-01-01

    the Pellervo Society, to promote rural cooperation, in 1899. He noted that Ireland’s ‘tragic history’, its struggle for national self-determination and the introduction of co-operative dairies to tackle rural poverty, seemed to offer a useful example for Finnish reformers. This article explores the exchanges...... that even before the First World War it was Finland, not Ireland, that had begun to be regarded as ‘a model co-operative country’....

  13. Cooperation Models, Motivation and Objectives behind Farm–School Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    people and their ability to understand the food system. Thus, efforts are made to promote food literacy through strengthening of farm–school links. The case-study research from Denmark investigates existing cooperation arrangements in farm–school collaboration and the underlying motivation of the farmers...... propose more generic collaboration models of farm–school collaboration to characterize the field: from short-term, informal cooperation involving just a farmer and a teacher to longer-term and closer collaboration involving several teachers, farms, schools or other stakeholders from a foodscapes approach...

  14. A hydrodynamic model for cooperating solidary countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Roberto; Di Mauro, Marco; Falzarano, Angelo; Naddeo, Adele

    2017-07-01

    The goal of international trade theories is to explain the exchange of goods and services between different countries, aiming to benefit from it. Albeit the idea is very simple and known since ancient history, smart policy and business strategies need to be implemented by each subject, resulting in a complex as well as not obvious interplay. In order to understand such a complexity, different theories have been developed since the sixteenth century and today new ideas still continue to enter the game. Among them, the so called classical theories are country-based and range from Absolute and Comparative Advantage theories by A. Smith and D. Ricardo to Factor Proportions theory by E. Heckscher and B. Ohlin. In this work we build a simple hydrodynamic model, able to reproduce the main conclusions of Comparative Advantage theory in its simplest setup, i.e. a two-country world with country A and country B exchanging two goods within a genuine exchange-based economy and a trade flow ruled only by market forces. The model is further generalized by introducing money in order to discuss its role in shaping trade patterns. Advantages and drawbacks of the model are also discussed together with perspectives for its improvement.

  15. A Game-Theoretic Model to Analyze Value Creation with Simultaneous Cooperation and Competition of Supply Chain Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising trend in supplying chain management to employ simultaneous cooperation and competition (coopetition among supply chain partners as an efficient strategy to create value. There exist, however, few models which analyze coopetitive situations mathematically. Cooperative game theory is the common tool in analyzing cooperative situations. However, the term “cooperative” in “cooperative game theory” is absolutely misleading since it ultimately leads to competition analysis and ignores the internal structure of the cooperation. Coopetition, however, results in structural transformations in players. Therefore, we require a mathematical modeling approach which takes into account the internal structural changes due to cooperation among competitors. In so doing, in this paper we propose, we assume that those parameters of each firm’s profit function are subject to transformation by cooperation as a function of cooperation level so as to determine the right level of cooperation and production of firms while considering technical cooperation between them. Furthermore, we demonstrate the results of applying the idea to a supply chain situation where two similar suppliers participate. We conclude that under intuitive conditions coopetition strategy is superior to the pure competitive relationship between the suppliers in terms of profitability which validates the previous empirical results mathematically.

  16. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  17. Requirements for effective modelling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.

    1997-01-01

    As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.

  18. Regional cooperation and bike/ped and transit connections : a regional models of cooperation peer exchange summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report summarizes the presentations, key themes, and recommendations identified at a Regional Models of Cooperation peer exchange on October 24, 2016 in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Utah Transit Authority hosted peers from the Los Angeles Metropoli...

  19. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Conventional software applications are usually operated on a platform similar to the one on which they were developed and tested. Wireless application development, on the other hand, is more challenging because applications are developed on one platform (like UNIX or Windows) and deployed on a to...... - Wireless application programming models - Testing and deploying wireless applications - Applying the Service-Oriented Architecture - Web services for mobile devices - Securing wireless applications and service...... on a totally different platform like a mobile phone or a BlackBerry device. While wireless applications can be much smaller than conventional desktop applications, developers should think in the small in terms of the devices on which the applications will run and the environment in which they will operate...... instead of the amount of code to be written. This tutorial will help participants understand the different technologies that can be used to develop wireless applications for handheld wireless devices. Participants will acquire knowledge about wireless programming techniques in general and Java programming...

  20. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Control and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Pengkai

    Recent advances in computational power have made it possible to do expensive online computations for control systems. It is becoming more realistic to perform computationally intensive optimization schemes online on systems that are not intrinsically stable and/or have very small time constants. Being one of the most important optimization based control approaches, model predictive control (MPC) has attracted a lot of interest from the research community due to its natural ability to incorporate constraints into its control formulation. Linear MPC has been well researched and its stability can be guaranteed in the majority of its application scenarios. However, one issue that still remains with linear MPC is that it completely ignores the system's inherent nonlinearities thus giving a sub-optimal solution. On the other hand, if achievable, nonlinear MPC, would naturally yield a globally optimal solution and take into account all the innate nonlinear characteristics. While an exact solution to a nonlinear MPC problem remains extremely computationally intensive, if not impossible, one might wonder if there is a middle ground between the two. We tried to strike a balance in this dissertation by employing a state representation technique, namely, the state dependent coefficient (SDC) representation. This new technique would render an improved performance in terms of optimality compared to linear MPC while still keeping the problem tractable. In fact, the computational power required is bounded only by a constant factor of the completely linearized MPC. The purpose of this research is to provide a theoretical framework for the design of a specific kind of nonlinear MPC controller and its extension into a general cooperative scheme. The controller is designed and implemented on quadcopter systems.

  1. A survey of game-theoretic models of cooperative advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Zaccour, G.

    2014-01-01

    The paper surveys the literature on cooperative advertising in marketing channels (supply chains) using game theoretic methods. During the last decade, in particular, this literature has expanded considerably and has studied static as well as dynamic settings. The survey is divided into two main...... parts. The first one deals with simple marketing channels having one supplier and one reseller only. The second one covers marketing channels of a more complex structure, having more than one supplier and/or reseller. In the first part we find that a number of results carry over from static to dynamic...... problems of cooperative advertising also shows some similarities. The second part shows that models incorporating horizontal interaction on either or both layers of the supply chain are much less numerous than those supposing its absence. Participation rates in co-op advertising programs depend on inter...

  2. A Trust-Based Model for Security Cooperating in Vehicular Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VCC is a computing paradigm which consists of vehicles cooperating with each other to realize a lot of practical applications, such as delivering packages. Security cooperation is a fundamental research topic in Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC. Because of the existence of malicious vehicles, the security cooperation has become a challenging issue in VCC. In this paper, a trust-based model for security cooperating, named DBTEC, is proposed to promote vehicles’ security cooperation in VCC. DBTEC combines the indirect trust estimation in Public board and the direct trust estimation in Private board to compute the trust value of vehicles when choosing cooperative partners; a trustworthy cooperation path generating scheme is proposed to ensure the safety of cooperation and increase the cooperation completion rates in VCC. Extensive experiments show that our scheme improves the overall cooperation completion rates by 6~7%.

  3. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  4. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE JIGSAW DALAM PEMBELAJARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syarifuddin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In formal educational institutions such as schools, educational success can be seen from the results of student’s learning in academic achievement. The quality and success of student’s learning is strongly influenced by the ability and accuracy of teachers in choosing and using teaching methods. If Traditional learning model is compared to a more modern model this will results  in less student’s involvement in learning activities. Students’ Activities were only just sitting, being silent, listening, recording and memorizing. It was also found out that the  students were not participated in learning activities which made them quickly get bored and lazy . Under these conditions, It is needed to have learning-oriented alternative to the students so that students can learn on their own to find out information, connect the topics they have learned in everyday life, and can interact with both  teachers and their peers  in a fun and friendly atmosphere.  One of the alternatives that can be used as educational experts have suggested is jigsaw cooperative learning type, which means the exchange of teams of experts. Kata Kunci: Models of learning cooperative learning, jigsaw

  5. Diversity of hysteresis in a fully cooperative coinfection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jorge P.; Liang, Yu-Hao; Huang, Yu-Jhe; Juang, Jonq

    2018-02-01

    We propose a fully cooperative coinfection model in which singly infected individuals are more likely to acquire a second disease than susceptible ones and doubly infected individuals are also assumed to be more contagious than singly infected ones. The dynamics of such a fully cooperative coinfection model is investigated through the well-mixed approach. In particular, discontinuous outbreak transitions from the disease free state or the low prevalence state to the high prevalence state can be separately observed as a disease transmission rate crosses a threshold αo from the below when the epidemic is still in the early stages. Moreover, discontinuous eradications from the high prevalence state to the low prevalence or disease free state are also separately seen as the transmission rate reaches a threshold α e ( constitute three types of hysteresis, where only one type has been identified before. Complete characterization of these three types of hysteresis in terms of parameters measuring the uniformity of the model is both analytically and numerically provided.

  6. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physics of human cooperation: experimental evidence and theoretical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angel

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, many physicists have used evolutionary game theory combined with a complex systems perspective in an attempt to understand social phenomena and challenges. Prominent among such phenomena is the issue of the emergence and sustainability of cooperation in a networked world of selfish or self-focused individuals. The vast majority of research done by physicists on these questions is theoretical, and is almost always posed in terms of agent-based models. Unfortunately, more often than not such models ignore a number of facts that are well established experimentally, and are thus rendered irrelevant to actual social applications. I here summarize some of the facts that any realistic model should incorporate and take into account, discuss important aspects underlying the relation between theory and experiments, and discuss future directions for research based on the available experimental knowledge.

  8. PREMISES OF TEACHER COLLABORATION: THEORETICAL REFLECTIONS ABOUT REQUIREMENTS THAT UNDERLY THE EXPANSION OF COOPERATIVITY IN TEACHING STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Lengert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more we talk about teamwork, collective work, finally, cooperation as a necessary competence in almost all professional advice. Many educational institutions have joined in the pursuit of expanding cooperation among their teachers, with the intention of caring for the workplace, but mainly to improve the quality of education. However, the cooperative initiatives often face difficulties, unless those involved have knowledge of the extensive causes that impede or facilitate higher or lower levels of cooperation. This gap will be focused in the present article, discussing nine assumptions that underlie the possibility of expanding cooperation among teachers. Being aware of the assumptions, it is possible to instrumentalize future empirical researchs, but also create ways to manage the requirements at responsibility of teachers and schools.

  9. Dialogues on cancer survivorship: a new model of international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kevin; Mattioli, Vittorio

    2013-06-01

    The authors describe the rationale and background of the present supplement to Cancer intended to stimulate a dialogue among researchers from Europe and North America regarding important issues faced by cancer survivors. Through jointly written articles addressing various aspects of cancer survivorship, each manuscript reports on the similarities, disparities, and problems viewed from the point of view of each author's respective continent. The supplement is meant to create a springboard for increased collaboration and aid in the development of a shared care model to improve the quality of cancer care, both during and after the completion of primary treatment. We hope that this effort may represent a new model of international cooperation, which is fruitful not only for the field of scientific research but also for identifying and sharing new approaches to the care and management of cancer survivorship issues, ultimately bringing improvements to quality of life of the growing population of cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-min Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from cooperative entity layer, ability layer and relative layer we research team formation and cooperative mechanism, and discuss how to optimize relative action sets during the evolution. The dynamic evolution model of robot team and cooperative relationships between robot teams proposed and described in this paper can not only generalize the robot team as a whole, but also depict the dynamic evolving process quantitatively. Users can also make the prediction of the cooperative relationship and the action of the robot team encountering new demands based on this model.

  11. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-qin Li

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from cooperative entity layer, ability layer and relative layer we research team formation and cooperative mechanism, and discuss how to optimize relative action sets during the evolution. The dynamic evolution model of robot team and cooperative relationships between robot teams proposed and described in this paper can not only generalize the robot team as a whole, but also depict the dynamic evolving process quantitatively. Users can also make the prediction of the cooperative relationship and the action of the robot team encountering new demands based on this model.

  12. Eph receptor interclass cooperation is required for the regulation of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurek, Aleksandra; Genander, Maria; Kundu, Parag; Catchpole, Timothy; He, Xiao; Strååt, Klas; Sabelström, Hanna; Xu, Nan-Jie; Pettersson, Sven; Henkemeyer, Mark; Frisén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Cancer often arises by the constitutive activation of mitogenic pathways by mutations in stem cells. Eph receptors are unusual in that although they regulate the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells in many adult organs, they typically fail to transform cells. Multiple ephrins and Eph receptors are often co-expressed and are thought to be redundant, but we here describe an unexpected dichotomy with two homologous ligands, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2, regulating specifically migration or proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. We demonstrate that the combined activity of two different coexpressed Eph receptors of the A and B class assembled into common signaling clusters in response to ephrin-B2 is required for mitogenic signaling. The requirement of two different Eph receptors to convey mitogenic signals identifies a new type of cooperation within this receptor family and helps explain why constitutive activation of a single receptor fails to transform cells. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 have largely non-overlapping functions in the intestinal stem cell niche. • Ephrin-B1 regulates cell positioning and ephrin-B2 regulates cell proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. • EphA4/B2 receptor cooperation in response to ephrin-B2 binding is obligatory to convey mitogenic signals in the intestine. • EphA4 facilitates EphB2 phosphorylation in response to ephrin-B2 in SW480 adenocarcinoma cells. • Ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 induce phosphorylation and degradation of the EphB2 receptor with different kinetics.

  13. Eph receptor interclass cooperation is required for the regulation of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurek, Aleksandra; Genander, Maria [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kundu, Parag [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Catchpole, Timothy [Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390 (United States); He, Xiao; Strååt, Klas; Sabelström, Hanna [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Xu, Nan-Jie [Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390 (United States); Pettersson, Sven [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); The National Cancer Centre, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore); Henkemeyer, Mark [Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390 (United States); Frisén, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.frisen@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-10-15

    Cancer often arises by the constitutive activation of mitogenic pathways by mutations in stem cells. Eph receptors are unusual in that although they regulate the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells in many adult organs, they typically fail to transform cells. Multiple ephrins and Eph receptors are often co-expressed and are thought to be redundant, but we here describe an unexpected dichotomy with two homologous ligands, ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2, regulating specifically migration or proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. We demonstrate that the combined activity of two different coexpressed Eph receptors of the A and B class assembled into common signaling clusters in response to ephrin-B2 is required for mitogenic signaling. The requirement of two different Eph receptors to convey mitogenic signals identifies a new type of cooperation within this receptor family and helps explain why constitutive activation of a single receptor fails to transform cells. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 have largely non-overlapping functions in the intestinal stem cell niche. • Ephrin-B1 regulates cell positioning and ephrin-B2 regulates cell proliferation in the intestinal stem cell niche. • EphA4/B2 receptor cooperation in response to ephrin-B2 binding is obligatory to convey mitogenic signals in the intestine. • EphA4 facilitates EphB2 phosphorylation in response to ephrin-B2 in SW480 adenocarcinoma cells. • Ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 induce phosphorylation and degradation of the EphB2 receptor with different kinetics.

  14. Modeling Interprovincial Cooperative Energy Saving in China: An Electricity Utilization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world faces great challenges from climate change and environmental pollution, China urgently requires energy saving, emission reduction, and carbon reduction programmes. However, the non-cooperative energy saving model (NCESM, the simple regulation mode that is China’s main model for energy saving, is not beneficial for optimization of energy and resource distribution, and cannot effectively motivate energy saving at the provincial level. Therefore, we propose an interprovincial cooperative energy saving model (CESM from the perspective of electricity utilization, with the object of maximizing the benefits from electricity utilization of the cooperation union based on achieving the energy saving goals of the union as a whole. The CESM consists of two parts: (1 an optimization model that calculates the optimal quantities of electricity consumption for each participating province to meet the joint energy saving goal; and (2 a model that distributes the economic benefits of the cooperation among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CESM to the case of an interprovincial union of Shanghai, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Gansu in China. The results, based on the data from 2001–2014, show that cooperation can significantly increase the benefits of electricity utilization for each province in the union. The total benefits of the union from utilization of electricity increased 38.38%, or 353.98 billion CNY, while the benefits to Shanghai, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Gansu were 200.28, 58.37, 57.11, and 38.22 billion CNY respectively greater under the CESM than the NCESM. The implementation of the CESM provides the provincial governments not only a flexible and incentive way to achieve short-term goals, but also a feasible and effective path to realize long-term energy saving strategies. To test the impact of different parameter values on the results of the CESM, a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Some policy

  15. Bystander killing of cancer requires the cooperation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells during the effector phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schietinger, Andrea; Philip, Mary; Liu, Rebecca B; Schreiber, Karin; Schreiber, Hans

    2010-10-25

    Cancers frequently evade cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated destruction through loss or down-regulation of tumor antigens and antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex molecules. Therefore, we have concentrated our efforts on immunological strategies that destroy nonmalignant stromal cells essential for the survival and growth of cancer cells. In this study, we developed a non-T cell receptor transgenic, immunocompetent tumor model to determine whether tumor-bearing hosts' own immune systems could eliminate cancer cells through stromal targeting and what role CD4(+) T cells play alongside CD8(+) T cells in this process. We found that aggressive cancers could be eradicated by T cell targeting of tumor stroma. However, successful elimination required the cooperation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells not only during the induction phase but also during the effector phase in the tumor microenvironment, implying a new role for CD4(+) T cells that has not been previously described. Our study demonstrates the potential of stromal targeting as a cancer immunotherapy and suggests that successful anticancer strategies must facilitate cooperation between CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at the right times and the right places.

  16. Models in cooperative game theory crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2005-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in coperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The propertie

  17. A Descriptive Model of Robot Team and the Dynamic Evolution of Robot Team Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-qin; Shuai, Lan; Cheng, Xian-yi; Tang, Zhen-min; Yang, Jing-yu

    2006-01-01

    At present, the research on robot team cooperation is still in qualitative analysis phase and lacks the description model that can quantitatively describe the dynamical evolution of team cooperative relationships with constantly changeable task demand in Multi-robot field. First this paper whole and static describes organization model HWROM of robot team, then uses Markov course and Bayesian theorem for reference, dynamical describes the team cooperative relationships building. Finally from c...

  18. Modelling cooperation of industrial robots as multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banas, W.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Sekala, A.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, more and more often in a cell is more than one robot, there is also a dual arm robots, because of this cooperation of two robots in the same space becomes more and more important. Programming robotic cell consisting of two or more robots are currently performed separately for each element of the robot and the cell. It is performed only synchronization programs, but no robot movements. In such situations often placed industrial robots so they do not have common space so the robots are operated separately. When industrial robots are a common space this space can occupy only one robot the other one must be outside the common space. It is very difficult to find applications where two robots are in the same workspace. It was tested but one robot did not do of movement when moving the second and waited for permission to move from the second when it sent a permit - stop the move. Such programs are very difficult and require a lot of experience from the programmer and must be tested separately at the beginning and then very slowly under control. Ideally, the operator takes care of exactly one robot during the test and it is very important to take special care.

  19. Modelling of cooperating robotized systems with the use of object-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Hryniewicz, P.

    2015-11-01

    Today's robotized manufacturing systems are characterized by high efficiency. The emphasis is placed mainly on the simultaneous work of machines. It could manifest in many ways, where the most spectacular one is the cooperation of several robots, during work on the same detail. What's more, recently a dual-arm robots are used that could mimic the manipulative skills of human hands. As a result, it is often hard to deal with the situation, when it is necessary not only to maintain sufficient precision, but also the coordination and proper sequence of movements of individual robots’ arms. The successful completion of this task depends on the individual robot control systems and their respective programmed, but also on the well-functioning communication between robot controllers. A major problem in case of cooperating robots is the possibility of collision between particular links of robots’ kinematic chains. This is not a simple case, because the manufacturers of robotic systems do not disclose the details of the control algorithms, then it is hard to determine such situation. Another problem with cooperation of robots is how to inform the other units about start or completion of part of the task, so that other robots can take further actions. This paper focuses on communication between cooperating robotic units, assuming that every robot is represented by object-based model. This problem requires developing a form of communication protocol that the objects can use for collecting the information about its environment. The approach presented in the paper is not limited to the robots and could be used in a wider range, for example during modelling of the complete workcell or production line.

  20. ICADS: A cooperative decision making model with CLIPS experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Jens; Myers, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative decision making model is described which is comprised of six concurrently executing domain experts coordinated by a blackboard control expert. The focus application field is architectural design, and the domain experts represent consultants in the area of daylighting, noise control, structural support, cost estimating, space planning, and climate responsiveness. Both the domain experts and the blackboard were implemented as production systems, using an enhanced version of the basic CLIPS package. Acting in unison as an Expert Design Advisor, the domain and control experts react to the evolving design solution progressively developed by the user in a 2-D CAD drawing environment. A Geometry Interpreter maps each drawing action taken by the user to real world objects, such as spaces, walls, windows, and doors. These objects, endowed with geometric and nongeometric attributes, are stored as frames in a semantic network. Object descriptions are derived partly from the geometry of the drawing environment and partly from knowledge bases containing prototypical, generalized information about the building type and site conditions under consideration.

  1. Elements of a Computational Model of Cooperative Response Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheikes, Brant A; Webber, Bonnie L

    1989-01-01

    If natural language question-answering (NLQA) systems are to be truly effective and useful, they must respond to queries cooperatively, recognizing and accommodating in their replies a questioner's goals, plans, and needs...

  2. An interprovincial cooperative game model for air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhao, Laijun; Fan, Longzhen; Qian, Ying

    2015-07-01

    The noncooperative air pollution reduction model (NCRM) that is currently adopted in China to manage air pollution reduction of each individual province has inherent drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a cooperative air pollution reduction game model (CRM) that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distribute the economic benefit of the cooperation (i.e., pollution reduction cost saving) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CRM to the case of SO2 reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China. The results, based on the data from 2003-2009, show that cooperation helps lower the overall SO2 pollution reduction cost from 4.58% to 11.29%. Distributed across the participating provinces, such a cost saving from interprovincial cooperation brings significant benefits to each local government and stimulates them for further cooperation in pollution reduction. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed using the year 2009 data to test the parameters' effects on the pollution reduction cost savings. China is increasingly facing unprecedented pressure for immediate air pollution control. The current air pollution reduction policy does not allow cooperation and is less efficient. In this paper we developed a cooperative air pollution reduction game model that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distributes the cooperation gains (i.e., cost reduction) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. The empirical case shows that such a model can help improve efficiency in air pollution reduction. The result of the model can serve as a reference for Chinese government

  3. TEAM-like workshops in related areas: cooperation in modeling for competitive industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    The TEAM Workshops originated from problems in fusion research. Based on recent observations regarding automotive modeling, the author asks whether TEAM-like workshops, and the accompanying cooperation among modelers, are of value in areas of economic competition

  4. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  5. The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.

  6. Building partner cooperation between teachers and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Steh, Barbara; Kalin, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in whic...

  7. Discussion of Sino-Foreign Cooperation Models for Higher Vocational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwen

    2014-01-01

    Sino-foreign cooperation, now an important part of Chinese education, plays a significant role in the development of Chinese higher education. This article analyzes models for Sino-foreign cooperative education, using Xuzhou Institute of Architectural Technology as an example, exploring some successful experience and practices for vocational…

  8. Which Cooperative Ownership Model Performs Better? A Financial-Decision Aid Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Benos, T.; Doumpos, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article the financial/ownership structures of agribusiness cooperatives are analyzed to examine whether new cooperative models perform better than the more traditional ones. The assessment procedure introduces a new financial decision-aid approach, which is based on data-analysis techniques

  9. A model of cooperation: the Pact op Zuid information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Spierings

    2010-06-01

    Welzijnsorganisaties, onderzoekinstellingen, overheidsinstellingen en woningcorporaties zijn alle potentiële partners in stedelijke herstructureringsprogramma’s. Het combineren van de belangen van deze organisaties vormt een interessante managementuitdaging. Ook is het een uitdaging om een informatiesysteem te ontwikkelen dat tegemoet komt aan de informatiebehoefte van alle partners, zowel de afzonderlijke organisaties, als het collectief. Dit artikel zal deze uitdaging van informatiemanagement bespreken, door een case study naar cooperative knowledge production te presenteren. De case study heeft betrekking op het Rotterdamse stedelijk investeringssprogramma “Pact op Zuid”, een programma waarin tussen 2006 en 2016 1.5 miljard euro wordt geïnvesteerd in stedelijk gebied met 190.000 inwoners. Dit artikel geeft allereerst inzicht in literatuur over innovatieconfiguraties en lerende netwerken, concepten die belangrijk zijn om de complexiteit van stedelijke renovatie en cooperative knowledge production te begrijpen. Het bespreekt eveneens hoe cooperative knowledge production binnen Pact op Zuid plaatsvond.

  10. SRC: A Model of Industry-University Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Ralph K., III; Phillips, D. Howard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC), a non-profit research cooperative designed to conduct research in the field of integrated circuits, principally in U.S. universities, with membership restricted to U.S.-owned companies. Analyzes SRC's impact on the U.S. educational system. (TW)

  11. Cooperation in stochastic inventory models with continuous review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chessa, Michela; Timmer, Judith B.

    Consider multiple companies that continuously review their inventories and face Poisson demand. We study cooperation strategies for these companies and analyse if there exist allocations of the joint cost such that any company has lower costs than on its own; such allocations are called stable cost

  12. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers. PMID:26912662

  13. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-05-06

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cooperative Problem-Based Learning (CPBL: A Practical PBL Model for a Typical Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiyah Mohd-Yusof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an inductive learning approach that uses a realistic problem as the starting point of learning. Unlike in medical education, which is more easily adaptable to PBL, implementing PBL in engineering courses in the traditional semester system set-up is challenging. While PBL is normally implemented in small groups of up to ten students with a dedicated tutor during PBL sessions in medical education, this is not plausible in engineering education because of the high enrolment and large class sizes. In a typical course, implementation of PBL consisting of students in small groups in medium to large classes is more practical. However, this type of implementation is more difficult to monitor, and thus requires good support and guidance in ensuring commitment and accountability of each student towards learning in his/her group. To provide the required support, Cooperative Learning (CL is identified to have the much needed elements to develop the small student groups to functional learning teams. Combining both CL and PBL results in a Cooperative Problem-Based Learning (CPBL model that provides a step by step guide for students to go through the PBL cycle in their teams, according to CL principles. Suitable for implementation in medium to large classes (approximately 40-60 students for one floating facilitator, with small groups consisting of 3-5 students, the CPBL model is designed to develop the students in the whole class into a learning community. This paper provides a detailed description of the CPBL model. A sample implementation in a third year Chemical Engineering course, Process Control and Dynamics, is also described.

  15. NMR study of the cooperative behavior of thermotropic model polypeptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurková, Dana; Kříž, Jaroslav; Rodríguez-Cabello, J. C.; Arias, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2007), s. 186-194 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500604 Grant - others:Spanish Ministry of Science and Culture (ES) A002/02; MAT2000-1764-C02; MAT2001-1853-C02-01; MAT2003- Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : thermotropic polymers * cooperativity * synthetic polypeptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.557, year: 2007

  16. Comparison of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy running models between outsourcing cooperation and rental cooperation conducted in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Kuang; Ko, Ming-Chung; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Kai; Shia, Ben-Chang; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to compare the cost and effectiveness between two different running models for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), including the outsourcing cooperation model (OC) and the rental cooperation model (RC). Between January 1999 and December 2005, we implemented OC for the SWL, and from January 2006 to October 2011, RC was utilized. With OC, the cooperative company provided a machine and shared a variable payment with the hospital, according to treatment sessions. With RC, the cooperative company provided a machine and received a fixed rent from the hospital. We calculated the cost of each treatment session, and evaluated the break-even point to estimate the lowest number of treatment sessions to make the balance between revenue and cost every month. Effectiveness parameters, including the stone-free rate, the retreatment rate, the rate of additional procedures and complications, were evaluated. Compared with OC there were significantly less treatment sessions for RC every month (42.6±7.8 vs. 36.8±6.5, p=0.01). The cost of each treatment session was significantly higher for OC than for RC (751.6±20.0 USD vs. 684.7±16.7 USD, p=0.01). The break-even point for the hospital was 27.5 treatment sessions/month for OC, when the hospital obtained 40% of the payment, and it could be reduced if the hospital got a greater percentage. The break-even point for the hospital was 27.3 treatment sessions/month for RC. No significant differences were noticed for the stone-free rate, the retreatment rate, the rate of additional procedures and complications. Our study revealed that RC had a lower cost for every treatment session, and fewer treatment sessions of SWL/month than OC. The study might provide a managerial implication for healthcare organization managers, when they face a situation of high price equipment investment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Modeling the role of negative cooperativity in metabolic regulation and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot C Bush

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of enzymes display cooperativity in binding ligand molecules, and such effects have an important impact on metabolic regulation. This is easiest to understand in the case of positive cooperativity. Sharp responses to changes in metabolite concentrations can allow organisms to better respond to environmental changes and maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, despite the fact that negative cooperativity is almost as common as positive, it has been harder to imagine what advantages it provides. Here we use computational models to explore the utility of negative cooperativity in one particular context: that of an inhibitor binding to an enzyme. We identify several factors which may contribute, and show that acting together they can make negative cooperativity advantageous.

  18. Meta-requirements that Model Change

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Prakash

    2010-01-01

    One of the common problems encountered in software engineering is addressing and responding to the changing nature of requirements. While several approaches have been devised to address this issue, ranging from instilling resistance to changing requirements in order to mitigate impact to project schedules, to developing an agile mindset towards requirements, the approach discussed in this paper is one of conceptualizing the delta in requirement and modeling it, in order t...

  19. SISL and SIRL: Two knowledge dissemination models with leader nodes on cooperative learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yumei; Man, Jiayu; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Cooperative learning is one of the most effective teaching methods, which has been widely used. Students' mutual contact forms a cooperative learning network in this process. Our previous research demonstrated that the cooperative learning network has complex characteristics. This study aims to investigating the dynamic spreading process of the knowledge in the cooperative learning network and the inspiration of leaders in this process. To this end, complex network transmission dynamics theory is utilized to construct the knowledge dissemination model of a cooperative learning network. Based on the existing epidemic models, we propose a new susceptible-infected-susceptible-leader (SISL) model that considers both students' forgetting and leaders' inspiration, and a susceptible-infected-removed-leader (SIRL) model that considers students' interest in spreading and leaders' inspiration. The spreading threshold λcand its impact factors are analyzed. Then, numerical simulation and analysis are delivered to reveal the dynamic transmission mechanism of knowledge and leaders' role. This work is of great significance to cooperative learning theory and teaching practice. It also enriches the theory of complex network transmission dynamics.

  20. Eco-innovation and technological cooperation in cassava processing companies: structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cunico

    Full Text Available Abstract The generation of wealth, sustained by productive activities of agro-industries, leads to the production of wastes and uses natural resources, interfering in the environmental pillar of sustainability. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cassava processing companies generate eco-innovations by means of technological cooperation, and the degree of participation of agents in these interactions. The quantitative method used the structural equation modeling for data analyses. The results indicated a relationship between technological cooperation and the generation of eco-innovation. The model developed showed the significance between variables and exposed the main aspects that generate eco-innovation from technological cooperation. A cooperation process allows a reduction in the burning of fossil fuels, reducing the emission of methane gas, which aggravates the greenhouse effect, also reducing odor, and ultimately, providing financial gains to agribusiness.

  1. Requirements for clinical information modelling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Jódar-Sánchez, Francisco; Kalra, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    This study proposes consensus requirements for clinical information modelling tools that can support modelling tasks in medium/large scale institutions. Rather than identify which functionalities are currently available in existing tools, the study has focused on functionalities that should be covered in order to provide guidance about how to evolve the existing tools. After identifying a set of 56 requirements for clinical information modelling tools based on a literature review and interviews with experts, a classical Delphi study methodology was applied to conduct a two round survey in order to classify them as essential or recommended. Essential requirements are those that must be met by any tool that claims to be suitable for clinical information modelling, and if we one day have a certified tools list, any tool that does not meet essential criteria would be excluded. Recommended requirements are those more advanced requirements that may be met by tools offering a superior product or only needed in certain modelling situations. According to the answers provided by 57 experts from 14 different countries, we found a high level of agreement to enable the study to identify 20 essential and 21 recommended requirements for these tools. It is expected that this list of identified requirements will guide developers on the inclusion of new basic and advanced functionalities that have strong support by end users. This list could also guide regulators in order to identify requirements that could be demanded of tools adopted within their institutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In Praise of a Model but Not Its Conclusions: Commentary on Cooper, Catmur, and Heyes (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertenthal, Bennett I.; Scheutz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cooper et al. (this issue) develop an interactive activation model of spatial and imitative compatibilities that simulates the key results from Catmur and Heyes (2011) and thus conclude that both compatibilities are mediated by the same processes since their single model can predict all the results. Although the model is impressive, the…

  3. Realistic Mathematics Learning Using Cooperative Strategy Model in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyana

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a realistic mathematics learning model using cooperative strategy. This study applies research and development approach conducted at Junior High School "Laboratorium," State University of Malang. The implementation of this model is conducted through five stages: 1) previous study phase; 2) model planning phase;…

  4. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Richard C

    2010-09-12

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare 'parcelling' to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking 'beyond the dyad'. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained 'intelligent' birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own.

  5. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  6. EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER USING SIMULATION MEDIA PHET AND ACTIVITIES TOWARD STUDENT RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Mawaddah Lubis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the differences in learning outcomes of students taught by cooperative learning model NHT using simulation PhET and conventional learning, analyzing the differences in learning outcomes of students who have high activity and low activity, as well as the  interaction between learning model with the level of student activity in  influencing the outcome students learn physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this study were students of class X SMK Tritech Informatika Medan. The tests were used to obtain the data is in the form of multiple choice. Test requirements have been carried out in the form of normality and homogeneity, which showed that the normal data and homogeneous. The data were analyzed using Anova analysis of two paths. The results showed that: The physics learning outcomes of students who use cooperative learning model NHT using PhET simulations media is better than students who use conventional learning models. The physics learning outcomes of students who have high learning activities is better than students who have Low learning activities. There is an interaction between cooperative learning model NHT PhET simulations using the media and the level of learning activity in influencing student learning outcomes. Average increase learning outcomes in the control class is greater than the experimental class.

  7. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit m...

  8. The blackboard model - A framework for integrating multiple cooperating expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an artificial intelligence (AI) architecture known as the blackboard model is examined as a framework for designing and building distributed systems requiring the integration of multiple cooperating expert systems (MCXS). Aerospace vehicles provide many examples of potential systems, ranging from commercial and military aircraft to spacecraft such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station. One such system, free-flying, spaceborne telerobots to be used in construction, servicing, inspection, and repair tasks around NASA's Space Station, is examined. The major difficulties found in designing and integrating the individual expert system components necessary to implement such a robot are outlined. The blackboard model, a general expert system architecture which seems to address many of the problems found in designing and building such a system, is discussed. A progress report on a prototype system under development called DBB (Distributed BlackBoard model) is given. The prototype will act as a testbed for investigating the feasibility, utility, and efficiency of MCXS-based designs developed under the blackboard model.

  9. Contact-based model for strategy updating and evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chen, Zengqiang

    2016-06-01

    To establish an available model for the astoundingly strategy decision process of players is not easy, sparking heated debate about the related strategy updating rules is intriguing. Models for evolutionary games have traditionally assumed that players imitate their successful partners by the comparison of respective payoffs, raising the question of what happens if the game information is not easily available. Focusing on this yet-unsolved case, the motivation behind the work presented here is to establish a novel model for the updating of states in a spatial population, by detouring the required payoffs in previous models and considering much more players' contact patterns. It can be handy and understandable to employ switching probabilities for determining the microscopic dynamics of strategy evolution. Our results illuminate the conditions under which the steady coexistence of competing strategies is possible. These findings reveal that the evolutionary fate of the coexisting strategies can be calculated analytically, and provide novel hints for the resolution of cooperative dilemmas in a competitive context. We hope that our results have disclosed new explanations about the survival and coexistence of competing strategies in structured populations.

  10. Evolution of International Research Cooperation models in the Contemporary Foreign Policy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovsky I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the principle models of international research and academic cooperation. The author divides international academic cooperation into periods and analyses the evolution of the connection between foreign policy and international cooperation in education and research aimed at raising the prestige and improving the position of a state in the international arena. The author focuses on the non-linear nature of periods stemming from the fact that different states are characterized by different (non-linear time cycles resulting from the differences in cultural and historical backgrounds and dissimilar foreign policy contents and formats. Through comparing a variety of foreign policy approaches (including that of the Russian Federation, the author answers the question about the contribution of universities to the development of mechanisms of cooperation and mutual understanding in the modern world — a world increasingly influenced by information and communication technologies.

  11. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza

    2011-07-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the licensed (primary) users of the shared spectrum band. In particular, we first consider that the cognitive (secondary) user\\'s communication is assisted by an intermediate relay that implements the decode-and-forward (DF) technique onto the secondary user\\'s relayed signal to help with communication between the corresponding source and the destination nodes. In this context, we obtain first-order statistics pertaining to the first- and second-hop transmission channels, and then, we investigate the end-to-end performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative relaying system under resource constraints defined to assure that the primary QoS is unaffected. Specifically, we investigate the overall average bit error rate (BER), ergodic capacity, and outage probability of the secondary\\'s communication subject to appropriate constraints on the interference power at the primary receivers. We then consider a general scenario where a cluster of relays is available between the secondary source and destination nodes. In this case, making use of the partial relay selection method, we generalize our results for the single-relay scheme and obtain the end-to-end performance of the cooperative spectrum-sharing system with a cluster of L available relays. Finally, we examine our theoretical results through simulations and comparisons, illustrating the overall performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative system and quantify its advantages for different operating scenarios and conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabia's model of integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaibi, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the foundations and emergence in 1981 of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which consists of six traditional Arab Gulf states (the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait). It finds the GCC to be a unique case among twentieth-century integrative schemes. The study also identifies and analyzes relevant local, regional, and international forces. Among the local forces are traditional religio-political systems, economic dependence on a depletable resource, and the presence of a large number of foreign residents. On the regional level, this study takes into consideration such issues as the Arab League, Arab Nationalism, and the Islamic revolutionary movement in Iran. On the international level, the influence of the superpowers and the major industrialized nations on the emergence and future of the GCC Community are analyzed. Throughout the past decade there has been a growing scholarly interest in the Gulf region. In preparation for this study, the author relied heavily on the literature generated by this new research, as well as on documents and official publications, mostly in Arabic. A survey was conducted among a limited number of GCC graduate students during the summer of 1983. In addition, interviews with selected members of the GCC Secretariat-General and various member-state officials were conducted during a research trip in the region in the spring of 1984.

  13. A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively.

  14. PENGARUH MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENT (TGT TERHADAP KECERDASAN INTERPERSONAL PADA MATA PELAJARAN IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari anti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal intelligence is one of the goals in elementary school education. Interpersonal intelligence is a key element in the adaptation of children in their social relationships. SDN Kebon Jeruk 11 Pagi West Jakarta found a number of 19 students of 30 children (63% have barriers Interpersonal intelligence. Quantitative Research with One Shot Case Study Experiment using sample saturated with size 30 in research influence influence model cooperative learning type Teams Games Tournament (TGT to interpersonal intelligence. The results of this study prove that: The more effective the steps of cooperative learning model type TGT done then the better the interpersonal intelligence. So in this research result that model Cooperative Learning type Teams Games Tournament (TGT have positive effect to interpersonal intelligence.

  15. Interorganizational Knowledge Division Decision Model Based on Cooperative Innovation of Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within interorganizational cooperative innovation of construction supply chain system, the achievement of project value-adding could be reflected by several factors, such as project-based organizational effect level, and the relationship between project cooperative innovation objectives. In this paper, based on the assumption of equal cooperation between project-based organizations, we selected the knowledge cooperation between the owner and contractor in construction supply chain system as research object. From the perspective of maximizing project value-adding and the relationship of effort cost between knowledge input and innovation stage in consideration, we established the knowledge collaborative incentive model for interorganizational cooperative innovation of construction supply chain system and proposed the first-order and second-order approaches. Then we conducted the digital simulation and example analysis, its results showed that if the owner has the capability to achieve project value-adding in knowledge cooperation, he would adopt a part commissioned way. Otherwise, a fully commissioned way would be better.

  16. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  17. Emergence of competition and cooperation in an evolutionary resource war model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamantia, Fabio

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a simple punishment scheme in the 'great fish war' model with many players. An imitative process regulates how a coalition of cooperators is dynamically updated over time. An intuitive effect of adding sanctions is that they could enlarge the possible sustainable coalitions. However, the evolution toward full cooperation can be sustained by a punishment scheme provided that a critical mass of agents enforces cooperation at the beginning of the game. Moreover, we show the presence of thresholds in sanctions or in the cost for punishing such that if these thresholds are trespassed then dramatic reductions in the resource level and in the agents' welfare may occur as a consequence of free riding effects. We show by some examples that these phenomena are due to the presence of tipping points in the model.

  18. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and Students' Motivation toward Physics Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…

  19. A University-Industry Cooperation Model for Small and Medium Enterprises: The Case of Chengdu KEDA Optoelectronic Technology Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shanzhong; Ferreira, Fernando A. F.; Zheng, He

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we develop a firm-dominated incremental cooperation model. Following the critical review of current literature and various cooperation models, we identified a number of strengths and shortcomings that form the basis for our framework. The objective of our theoretical model is to contribute to overcome the existing gap within…

  20. Decentralized Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Multiple Vehicles Subject to Communication Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat A. Izadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The decentralized model predictive control (DMPC of multiple cooperative vehicles with the possibility of communication loss/delay is investigated. The neighboring vehicles exchange their predicted trajectories at every sample time to maintain the cooperation objectives. In the event of a communication loss (packet dropout, the most recent available information, which is potentially delayed, is used. Then the communication loss problem changes to a cooperative problem when random large communication delays are present. Such large communication delays can lead to poor cooperation performance and unsafe behaviors such as collisions. A new DMPC approach is developed to improve the cooperation performance and achieve safety in the presence of the large communication delays. The proposed DMPC architecture estimates the tail of neighbor's trajectory which is not available due to the large communication delays for improving the performance. The concept of the tube MPC is also employed to provide the safety of the fleet against collisions, in the presence of large intervehicle communication delays. In this approach, a tube shaped trajectory set is assumed around the trajectory of the neighboring vehicles whose trajectory is delayed/lost. The radius of tube is a function of the communication delay and vehicle's maneuverability (in the absence of model uncertainty. The simulation of formation problem of multiple vehicles is employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Dynamical role of the degree of intraspecific cooperation: A simple model for prebiotic replicators and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontich, Ernest; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-05-01

    We present a simple mean field model to analyze the dynamics of competition between two populations of replicators in terms of the degree of intraspecific cooperation (i.e., autocatalysis) in one of these populations. The first population can only replicate with Malthusian kinetics while the second one can reproduce with Malthusian or autocatalytic replication or with a combination of both reproducing strategies. The model consists of two coupled, nonlinear, autonomous ordinary differential equations. We investigate analytically and numerically the phase plane dynamics and the bifurcation scenarios of this ecologically coupled system, focusing on the outcome of competition for several degrees of intraspecific cooperation, σ, in the second population of replicators. We demonstrate that the dynamics of both populations can not be governed by a limit cycle, and also that once cooperation is considered, the topology of phase space does not allow for coexistence. Even for low values of the degree of intraspecific cooperation, for large enough autocatalytic replication rates, the second population of replicators is able to outcompete the first one, having a wide basin of attraction in state space. We characterize the same power law dependence between the outcompetition extinction times, τ, and the degree of intraspecific cooperation for both populations, given by τ˜ciσ-1. Our results suggest that, under some kinetic conditions, the appearance of autocatalysis might be favorable in a population of replicators growing with Malthusian kinetics competing with another population also reproducing exponentially.

  2. Lantibiotic transporter requires cooperative functioning of the peptidase domain and the ATP binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Mami; Sasaki, Makoto; Nagao, Jun-ichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-04-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide antibiotics that contain unusual amino acids such as dehydro and lanthionine residues. Nukacin ISK-1 is a class II lantibiotic, whose precursor peptide (NukA) is modified by NukM to form modified NukA. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter NukT is predicted to cleave off the N-terminal leader peptide of modified NukA and secrete the mature peptide. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that NukT has an N-terminal peptidase domain (PEP) and a C-terminal ATP binding domain (ABD). Previously, in vitro reconstitution of NukT has revealed that NukT peptidase activity depends on ATP hydrolysis. Here, we constructed a series of NukT mutants and investigated their transport activity in vivo and peptidase activity in vitro. Most of the mutations of the conserved residues of PEP or ABD resulted in failure of nukacin ISK-1 production and accumulation of modified NukA inside the cells. NukT(N106D) was found to be the only mutant capable of producing nukacin ISK-1. Asn(106) is conserved as Asp in other related ABC transporters. Additionally, an in vitro peptidase assay of NukT mutants demonstrated that PEP is on the cytosolic side and all of the ABD mutants as well as PEP (with the exception of NukT(N106D)) did not have peptidase activity in vitro. Taken together, these observations suggest that the leader peptide is cleaved off inside the cells before peptide secretion; both PEP and ABD are important for NukT peptidase activity, and cooperation between these two domains inside the cells is indispensable for proper functioning of NukT.

  3. Lantibiotic Transporter Requires Cooperative Functioning of the Peptidase Domain and the ATP Binding Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Mami; Sasaki, Makoto; Nagao, Jun-ichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide antibiotics that contain unusual amino acids such as dehydro and lanthionine residues. Nukacin ISK-1 is a class II lantibiotic, whose precursor peptide (NukA) is modified by NukM to form modified NukA. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter NukT is predicted to cleave off the N-terminal leader peptide of modified NukA and secrete the mature peptide. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that NukT has an N-terminal peptidase domain (PEP) and a C-terminal ATP binding domain (ABD). Previously, in vitro reconstitution of NukT has revealed that NukT peptidase activity depends on ATP hydrolysis. Here, we constructed a series of NukT mutants and investigated their transport activity in vivo and peptidase activity in vitro. Most of the mutations of the conserved residues of PEP or ABD resulted in failure of nukacin ISK-1 production and accumulation of modified NukA inside the cells. NukT(N106D) was found to be the only mutant capable of producing nukacin ISK-1. Asn106 is conserved as Asp in other related ABC transporters. Additionally, an in vitro peptidase assay of NukT mutants demonstrated that PEP is on the cytosolic side and all of the ABD mutants as well as PEP (with the exception of NukT(N106D)) did not have peptidase activity in vitro. Taken together, these observations suggest that the leader peptide is cleaved off inside the cells before peptide secretion; both PEP and ABD are important for NukT peptidase activity, and cooperation between these two domains inside the cells is indispensable for proper functioning of NukT. PMID:21303905

  4. Dynamics modelling and Hybrid Suppression Control of space robots performing cooperative object manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, P.; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics modelling and control of multi-body space robotic systems composed of rigid and flexible elements is elaborated here. Control of such systems is highly complicated due to severe under-actuated condition caused by flexible elements, and an inherent uneven nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, developing a compact dynamics model with the requirement of limited computations is extremely useful for controller design, also to develop simulation studies in support of design improvement, and finally for practical implementations. In this paper, the Rigid-Flexible Interactive dynamics Modelling (RFIM) approach is introduced as a combination of Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods, in which the motion equations of rigid and flexible members are separately developed in an explicit closed form. These equations are then assembled and solved simultaneously at each time step by considering the mutual interaction and constraint forces. The proposed approach yields a compact model rather than common accumulation approach that leads to a massive set of equations in which the dynamics of flexible elements is united with the dynamics equations of rigid members. To reveal such merits of this new approach, a Hybrid Suppression Control (HSC) for a cooperative object manipulation task will be proposed, and applied to usual space systems. A Wheeled Mobile Robotic (WMR) system with flexible appendages as a typical space rover is considered which contains a rigid main body equipped with two manipulating arms and two flexible solar panels, and next a Space Free Flying Robotic system (SFFR) with flexible members is studied. Modelling verification of these complicated systems is vigorously performed using ANSYS and ADAMS programs, while the limited computations of RFIM approach provides an efficient tool for the proposed controller design. Furthermore, it will be shown that the vibrations of the flexible solar panels results in disturbing forces on the base which may produce undesirable errors

  5. A cooperative strategy for parameter estimation in large scale systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Egea, Jose A; Banga, Julio R

    2012-06-22

    Mathematical models play a key role in systems biology: they summarize the currently available knowledge in a way that allows to make experimentally verifiable predictions. Model calibration consists of finding the parameters that give the best fit to a set of experimental data, which entails minimizing a cost function that measures the goodness of this fit. Most mathematical models in systems biology present three characteristics which make this problem very difficult to solve: they are highly non-linear, they have a large number of parameters to be estimated, and the information content of the available experimental data is frequently scarce. Hence, there is a need for global optimization methods capable of solving this problem efficiently. A new approach for parameter estimation of large scale models, called Cooperative Enhanced Scatter Search (CeSS), is presented. Its key feature is the cooperation between different programs ("threads") that run in parallel in different processors. Each thread implements a state of the art metaheuristic, the enhanced Scatter Search algorithm (eSS). Cooperation, meaning information sharing between threads, modifies the systemic properties of the algorithm and allows to speed up performance. Two parameter estimation problems involving models related with the central carbon metabolism of E. coli which include different regulatory levels (metabolic and transcriptional) are used as case studies. The performance and capabilities of the method are also evaluated using benchmark problems of large-scale global optimization, with excellent results. The cooperative CeSS strategy is a general purpose technique that can be applied to any model calibration problem. Its capability has been demonstrated by calibrating two large-scale models of different characteristics, improving the performance of previously existing methods in both cases. The cooperative metaheuristic presented here can be easily extended to incorporate other global and

  6. A cooperative strategy for parameter estimation in large scale systems biology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villaverde Alejandro F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models play a key role in systems biology: they summarize the currently available knowledge in a way that allows to make experimentally verifiable predictions. Model calibration consists of finding the parameters that give the best fit to a set of experimental data, which entails minimizing a cost function that measures the goodness of this fit. Most mathematical models in systems biology present three characteristics which make this problem very difficult to solve: they are highly non-linear, they have a large number of parameters to be estimated, and the information content of the available experimental data is frequently scarce. Hence, there is a need for global optimization methods capable of solving this problem efficiently. Results A new approach for parameter estimation of large scale models, called Cooperative Enhanced Scatter Search (CeSS, is presented. Its key feature is the cooperation between different programs (“threads” that run in parallel in different processors. Each thread implements a state of the art metaheuristic, the enhanced Scatter Search algorithm (eSS. Cooperation, meaning information sharing between threads, modifies the systemic properties of the algorithm and allows to speed up performance. Two parameter estimation problems involving models related with the central carbon metabolism of E. coli which include different regulatory levels (metabolic and transcriptional are used as case studies. The performance and capabilities of the method are also evaluated using benchmark problems of large-scale global optimization, with excellent results. Conclusions The cooperative CeSS strategy is a general purpose technique that can be applied to any model calibration problem. Its capability has been demonstrated by calibrating two large-scale models of different characteristics, improving the performance of previously existing methods in both cases. The cooperative metaheuristic presented here

  7. Modeling requirements for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Mecham, D.C.; Hagrman, D.L.; Johnson, R.W.; Murray, P.E.; Slater, C.E.; Marwil, E.S.; Weaver, R.A.; Argyle, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    This document outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to (1) help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclide and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, (2) help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and (3) help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results therefrom

  8. Model of the co-operative trade alliance for independent retail networks in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the contribution is proposal of the model of co-operative trade alliance for independent trade alliances with fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG in Czech Republic. Reason of the choice of this topic is sustain of variety of retail formats in Czech market in connection with position small and medium sized trade firms in comparison with transnational trade chains. Independent trade firms face to much bigger competitors operating supermarkets and hypermarkets, namely not even in size of sales area, width and depth of the assortment but also in possibility of negotiation of more profitable trade conditions with their suppliers. Effort of these independent trade firms, which operate mostly just in local or maximally regional market, is then mutual co-operation in form of consumer co-operatives, associations, alliances and networks. These groupings then mainly through common trade negotiation and purchase get for much more advantageous delivery and payment conditions from their suppliers. Besides they can participate in mutual financing of using of promotion instruments. Partial aim of the paper is investigation of opinion and willingness of Czech trade alliances with FMCG to utilize the opportunity of mutual co-operation in common trade alliance. Next partial goal is identification of the factors affecting formation of joint co-operative grouping and its structure, eventually definition of entry conditions which should be fulfilled by individual members.The system approach will be used to realize the given objective. This approach appears as the most suitable in consideration of anticipated structure and character of supposed model. The result will be then proposal of model of mutual co-operation between individual trade alliances.

  9. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  10. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Ji-zehn, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE (ISSN 1009-3095, Monthly) 2004 Vol. 5 No. 3 p.358-364 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and educationDE BOER Sirp J.1, QIU Ji-zhen 2(1International

  11. Emergent behaviors of the Schrödinger-Lohe model on cooperative-competitive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyungjin; Ha, Seung-Yeal; Kim, Dohyun

    2017-12-01

    We present several sufficient frameworks leading to the emergent behaviors of the coupled Schrödinger-Lohe (S-L) model under the same one-body external potential on cooperative-competitive networks. The S-L model was first introduced as a possible phenomenological model exhibiting quantum synchronization and its emergent dynamics on all-to-all cooperative networks has been treated via two distinct approaches, Lyapunov functional approach and the finite-dimensional reduction based on pairwise correlations. In this paper, we further generalize the finite-dimensional dynamical systems approach for pairwise correlation functions on cooperative-competitive networks and provide several sufficient frameworks leading to the collective exponential synchronization. For small systems consisting of three and four quantum subsystem, we also show that the system for pairwise correlations can be reduced to the Lotka-Volterra model with cooperative and competitive interactions, in which lots of interesting dynamical patterns appear, e.g., existence of closed orbits and limit-cycles.

  12. Model predictive control for cooperative control of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Somasundar; Alamdari, Seyed Amin Sajadi; Dentler, Jan; Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Voos, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The problem of Orbital Manipulation of Passive body is discussed here. Two scenarios including passive object rigidly attached to robotic servicers and passive body attached to servicers through manipulators are discussed. The Model Predictive Control (MPC) technique is briefly presented and successfully tested through simulations on two cases of position control of passive body in the orbit.

  13. B-lineage transcription factors and cooperating gene lesions required for leukemia development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijchon, E.J.H.; Havinga, J.; Leeuwen, F.N. van; Scheijen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into B lymphocytes requires the concerted action of specific transcription factors, such as RUNX1, IKZF1, E2A, EBF1 and PAX5. As key determinants of normal B-cell development, B-lineage transcription factors are frequently deregulated in hematological

  14. 26 CFR 1.521-1 - Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations; requirements for exemption under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the sale of whose goods such proceeds result, whether or not such patrons are members of the... which has capital stock will not for such reason be denied exemption (i) if the dividend rate of such... application for exemption. The association will be required to show that the ownership of its capital stock...

  15. Principles and models of a co-operative systems of a supervision aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penalva, J.M.; Brezillon, P.; Minault, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the functioning principles and the necessary models for a cooperative system of supervision aid (SCAS) used for a high-automated workshop. A meta-system of supervision is made up of the operator and the SCAS. The SCAS can operate under 2 different modes: wakefulness and cooperation. On the first one the behaviours of the process and the operator is observed and analysed. On the second one, it helps to solve the problems occurred by the operator. (TEC). 3 refs

  16. Exploring the cooperative regimes in an agent-based model: indirect reciprocity vs. selfish incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, H.

    2003-08-01

    The self-organization in cooperative regimes in a simple mean-field version of a model based on “selfish” agents which play the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game is studied. The agents have no memory and use strategies not based on direct reciprocity nor “tags”. Two variables are assigned to each agent k at time t, measuring its capital C( k; t) and its probability of cooperation p( k; t). At each time step t a pair of agents interact by playing the PD game. These two agents update their probability of cooperation p( k; t) as follows: they compare the profits they made in this interaction δC( k; t) with an estimator ε( k; t) and, if δC( k; t)⩾ ε( k; t), agent i increases its p( k; t) while if δC( k; t)punishment)-are analyzed. It turns out that for all these 24 possibilities, after a transient, the system self-organizes into a stationary state with average equilibrium probability of cooperation p¯∞= constant>0 . Depending on the payoff matrix, there are different equilibrium states characterized by their average probability of cooperation and average equilibrium per capita income ( p¯∞, δC¯∞) .

  17. A Meta-Model of Inter-Organisational Cooperation for the Transition to a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ruggieri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a circular economy bodes well for a future of environmentally sustainable growth and economic development. The implications and advantages of a shift to a circular economy have been extensively demonstrated by the literature on the subject. What has not been sufficiently investigated is how this paradigm can be enabled through the inter-organisational cooperation among different business enterprises. In order to illustrate this point, in this paper we aim to contribute to the circular economy debate by describing and discussing such a meta-model of inter-organisational cooperation. The present study is therefore based on the analysis of three cases from an equal number of industries, from which we identified factors of potential impact for the stimulation of cooperation in a circular economy perspective. Last, but not least, we discuss the relations between the case studies and try to formulate all possible implications for both managers and research.

  18. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and the guidelines of the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, H

    2012-04-01

    The International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) is an international tripartite cooperation programme that brings together regulatory authorities and industry representatives from the European Union, Japan and the United States, with Australia, New Zealand and Canada as observers. VICH aims to improve international coordination and cooperation to achieve greater harmonisation of the requirements for veterinary product registration in the regions concerned. VICH develops harmonised data requirements, i.e., standards for the scientific studies on quality, safety and efficacy that are required to obtain a marketing authorisation for a veterinary medicinal product. It does this by publishing guidelines that provide uniform and consistent guidance for sponsors to follow in developing data for application dossiers as well as for post-marketing safety monitoring of veterinary medicinal products. Of the 49 VICH guidelines that have been developed so far, two guidelines in particular address issues related to antimicrobial resistance.

  20. Requirements and international co-operation in nuclear safety for evolutionary light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles of safety are now well known and implemented world-wide, leading to a situation of harmonisation in accordance with the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Future reactors are expected not only to meet current requirements but to go beyond the safety level presently accepted. To this end, technical safety requirements, as defined by the IAEA document Safety Fundamentals, need be duly considered in the design, the risks to workers and population must be decreased, a stable, transparent and objective regulatory process, including an international harmonisation with respect to licensing of new reactors, must be developed, and the issue of public acceptance must be addressed. Well-performing existing installations are seen as a prerequisite for an improved public acceptability; there should be no major accidents, the results from safety performance indicators must be unquestionable, and compliance with internationally harmonised criteria is essential. Economical competitiveness is another factor that influences the acceptability; the costs for constructing the plant, for its operation and maintenance, for the fuel cycle, and for the final decommissioning are of paramount importance. Plant simplification, longer fuel cycles, life extension are appealing options, but safety will have first priority. The IAEA can play an important role in this field, by providing peer reviews by teams of international experts and assistance to Member States on the use of its safety standards. (author)

  1. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent’s limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent’s cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent’s view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved. PMID:26727504

  2. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    Full Text Available Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  3. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  4. Cooperative credit banks and regional growth: creation of a local development model and analysis of the «G. Toniolo» Cooperative Credit Bank in San Cataldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cermelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has called into question not only the banking systems, but also the development model. Cooperative credit banks have returned to occupy a central role, demonstrating with his broad background that another way of providing financial services can exist. In Italy, cooperative credit banks are principal players in the banking economic system. One of those banks is the «G. Toniolo», which has become over the years a reference in the local banking system.Received: 07.06.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  5. Network Modelling of Transboundary Cooperation between Russian and Belarusian Regional Enterprises: the case of the Kaliningrad and Grodno Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivchenko Vladislav

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of a new process within Russian-Belarusian-Kazakh integration — interregional transborder cooperation. Network modelling is suggested as a mechanism for its regulation. The authors present a network model of transborder cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus based on the case of the Kaliningrad and Grodno regions. The model is developed on the basis of the well-known and widely accepted PERT. It covers the three main stages of the whole transborder cooperation process identified in the case of the two regions — the Kaliningrad and Grodno: organisational and analytical support, methodological and technological support, and the development of a complex cooperation programme. The working version of the model includes approximately 150 events. As to its purpose, it is a representation of a well-balanced established international coordination programme of transboundary cooperation at a level of two regions.

  6. Cooperative Learning--A Double-Edged Sword: A Cooperative Learning Model for Use with Diverse Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Although very little research has been done on cooperative learning (CL) in New Zealand, international research is positive about the educational benefits of working in culturally diverse groups. This paper presents the findings of a research project examining New Zealand experiences with CL in multicultural groups. Data were collected via surveys…

  7. [Cooperation model between an university clinic and a peripheral paediatric surgical department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, M L; Engelmann, C; Bottländer, M; Dziuba, M; Ure, B M

    2008-12-01

    The lack of young physicians in Germany, who are willing to train in surgery, is caused by several factors. Due to the demographic development and the specialisation in paediatric surgery in university institutions, attracting trained paediatric surgeons became difficult for non-specialised rural paediatric surgical departments, which is often also complicated by economic pressures. Strategies, such as cooperation between hospitals or departments, are required. We present a mid-term analysis of the first paediatric surgical cooperation between a university clinic and a rural paediatric surgical department in Lower Saxony. The Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hannover Medical School (MHH), is a university centre with a case load of about 1,700 surgical procedures per year with a case mix index (CMI) of 1.3. The Department of Paediatric Surgery, St. Bernward Hospital Hildesheim (BK), is a peripheral institution with about 1,200 surgical procedures per year and a CMI of 0.5. A cooperation project was inaugurated in October, 2004, between the two departments. The aim of the cooperation was to support the head of the paediatric surgical department at the BK by rotating trained paediatric surgeons from the MHH. Simultaneously, it was planned to offer attractive conditions for research at MHH for participating surgeons. The cooperation further included sufficient economic cover of 1.5 posts for rotating medical staff by the BK. Three trained paediatric surgeons have so far been included in the rotation programme between the two cooperating paediatric surgical departments. The rotating medical staff costs were covered by the BK. Over a period of 2.5 years, MHH surgeons performed about 50 % of all surgical procedures at BK, while undertaking two-thirds of on-call duties there. Analysis of academic research revealed 3 accomplished experimental and 4 clinical studies, as well as 10 published articles. The paediatric surgical cooperation was rated as a success by the rotating

  8. Model for prioritization of regional strategies within the technical cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da

    2017-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Cooperation Program is the main mechanism through which services are provided to its member states to help them build, strengthen and maintain their capabilities in the safe use of nuclear technology in support of socio-economic development. The technical cooperation program operates in four geographical regions, each regional program helps Member States to meet their specific needs, taking into account existing capacities and different operating conditions. The technical cooperation regions are Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Developing activities together with the technical cooperation program we have the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL), which involves the majority of the members of the International Atomic Energy Agency of that region, for Technical Cooperation. All ARCAL's work is guided by the Regional Strategic Profile, which identifies the needs and problems of the region that require support projects. In the technical meeting of the Regional Strategic Profile, the needs and problems that are analyzed through indexes associated with severity, urgency, extension, relevance and difficulty are listed by different thematic areas. To these indexes, values are established by the technical staff on a continuous scale between 1 and 5. From these values an expression is used to arrive at a priority number for the needs and problems. In the face of many criticisms associated with similar approaches, such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Timing, Trend and Impact Matrix, the aim of this thesis is to propose a methodological approach that can assist in the prioritization of investments of technical cooperation projects and programs that take into account the budget available and the technical and strategic visions of the parties involved. For this, the Probabilistic

  9. Designing Leadership models in a Three Level Unlimited Supply Chain: Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnehad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of supply chain management, has faced with many challenges and problems. Although a comprehensive model of supply chain issues, has not been explained, we have to indicate that issues such as reviewing the theoretical foundations of information systems, marketing, financial management, logistical and organizational relations have been considered by many researchers. The objective of supply chain management is to improve various activities and components to increase overall supply chain system benefits. In order to achieve the overall objectives, many contradictions may occur between the components and different levels of supply chain and the contradictions that these disorders over time, result in decreased strength and competitiveness of the supply chain. Such conflicts, like marketing costs (advertising, pricing and inventory can occur during the supply chain life cycle. A Game Theory approach with respect to property is the appropriate tool for collaboration in the supply chain. This tool is used for collaborative making in any kind of supply chain such as cooperative supply chain and non-cooperative supply chain. In the present study and assuming a lack of cooperation between different levels of a supply chain, a dynamic game with complete information has been generated. In addition identifying appropriate leaders of various levels of the supply chain is considered. Non-Cooperative dynamic game mode (Stackelberg Game, for each of the three levels of supply chain including retailers, suppliers and manufacturers are modeled. Depending on the bargaining power and its position in the market, any level of supply chain can make a leader of the following rule. In the present study, the equilibrium model to play Stackelberg game may be led by a leader or leading players and ultimately identifying and modeling the appropriate unlimited three level supply chain are determined.

  10. Effects of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Learning Model on the English Learning Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiwinarto, Hadiwinarto; Novianti, Novianti

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed at describing the effects of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) learning model on the reading and writing skills of junior high school students in learning English. This research applied one group pretest-posttest design. Data were collected by using tests and analized by using descriptive analysis and t-test. The result showed that: the average score for reading skill before the experiment was 50.00 and the average score for reading skill after the ...

  11. Patient-centered care requires a patient-oriented workflow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Hanauer, David A; Johnson, Sharon; Aarts, Jos; Zheng, Kai; Haque, Saira N

    2013-06-01

    Effective design of health information technology (HIT) for patient-centered care requires consideration of workflow from the patient's perspective, termed 'patient-oriented workflow.' This approach organizes the building blocks of work around the patients who are moving through the care system. Patient-oriented workflow complements the more familiar clinician-oriented workflow approaches, and offers several advantages, including the ability to capture simultaneous, cooperative work, which is essential in care delivery. Patient-oriented workflow models can also provide an understanding of healthcare work taking place in various formal and informal health settings in an integrated manner. We present two cases demonstrating the potential value of patient-oriented workflow models. Significant theoretical, methodological, and practical challenges must be met to ensure adoption of patient-oriented workflow models. Patient-oriented workflow models define meaningful system boundaries and can lead to HIT implementations that are more consistent with cooperative work and its emergent features.

  12. Dynamic modeling of dual-arm cooperating manipulators based on Udwadia–Kalaba equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dual-arm cooperating manipulators subject to a certain constraint brought about by the desired trajectory and geometric constraint show high nonlinearity and coupling in their dynamic characteristic. Therefore, it is hard to build dynamical equation with traditional Lagrange equation. The Udwadia–Kalaba equation presents a new idea of dynamic modeling of multi-body systems. However, the dynamic modeling of the unconstrained systems still depends on the traditional Lagrange equation and is quite tedious for dual-arm cooperating manipulators. A generalized dynamical equation of multi-link planar manipulators is thus presented and proven to make modeling conveniently. The constraint relationship is established from a new perspective, and the dynamical equation of dual-arm cooperating manipulator subject to the desired trajectory is acquired with the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. The simple approach overcomes the disadvantage of obtaining dynamical equation from traditional Lagrange equation by Lagrange multiplier. The simulation results of varying law of the joint angles and the motion path of the bar prove that the dynamical equation established by this method conforms to reality.

  13. A new model in teaching undergraduate research: A collaborative approach and learning cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Pamela V; McClellan, Lynx Carlton; Jarosinski, Judith M

    2016-05-01

    Forming new, innovative collaborative approaches and cooperative learning methods between universities and hospitals maximize learning for undergraduate nursing students in a research course and provide professional development for nurses on the unit. The purpose of this Collaborative Approach and Learning Cooperatives (CALC) Model is to foster working relations between faculty and hospital administrators, maximize small group learning of undergraduate nursing students, and promote onsite knowledge of evidence based care for unit nurses. A quality improvement study using the CALC Model was implemented in an undergraduate nursing research course at a southern university. Hospital administrators provided a list of clinical concerns based on national performance outcome measures. Undergraduate junior nursing student teams chose a clinical question, gathered evidence from the literature, synthesized results, demonstrated practice application, and developed practice recommendations. The student teams developed posters, which were evaluated by hospital administrators. The administrators selected several posters to display on hospital units for continuing education opportunity. This CALC Model is a systematic, calculated approach and an economically feasible plan to maximize personnel and financial resources to optimize collaboration and cooperative learning. Universities and hospital administrators, nurses, and students benefit from working together and learning from each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Disturbing Factors on Cooperation in Logistics Outsourcing Performance: The Empirical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Križman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the research results of a study conducted in the Slovene logistics market of conflicts and opportunism as disturbing factors while examining their impact on cooperation in logistics outsourcing performance. Relationship variables are proposed that directly or indirectly affect logistics performance and conceptualize the hypotheses based on causal linkages for the constructs. On the basis of extant literature and new argumentations that are derived from in-depth interviews of logistics experts, including providers and customers, the measurement and structural models are empirically analyzed. Existing measurement scales for the constructs are slightly modified for this analysis. Purification testing and measurement for validity and reliability are performed. Multivariate statistical methods are utilized and hypotheses are tested. The results show that conflicts have a significantly negative impact on cooperation between customers and logistics service providers (LSPs, while opportunism does not play an important role in these relationships. The observed antecedents of logistics outsourcing performance in the model account for 58.4% of the variance of the goal achievement and 36.5% of the variance of the exceeded goal. KEYWORDS: logistics outsourcing performance; logistics customer–provider relationships; conflicts and cooperation in logistics outsourcing; PLS path modelling

  15. Stochastic models (cooperative and non-cooperative) for NMR analysis of the hetero-association of aromatic molecules in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evstigneev, Maxim P. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)], E-mail: max_evstigneev@mail.ru; Davies, David B. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Veselkov, Alexei N. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2006-01-25

    Stochastic cooperative (STOCH-C) and non-cooperative (STOCH-NC) models have been developed for NMR analysis of the hetero-association of aromatic compounds in solution, in order to take into account all physically meaningful association reactions of molecules in which there are no limitations on the lengths of the aggregates and complexes. These algorithmical approaches are compared with previously published basic (BASE) and generalized (GEN) analytical statistical thermodynamical models of hetero-association of biologically active aromatic molecules using the same sets of published NMR data measured under the same solution conditions (0.1 M phosphate buffer, pD = 7.1, T = 298 K). It is shown that, within experimental errors, the BASE analytical model may be used to describe molecular systems characterized by relatively small contributions of hetero-association reactions, whereas the GEN model may be applied to hetero-association reactions of any aromatic compound with different self-association properties. The STOCH-C computational algorithm enabled the effect on hetero-association of the interactions of molecules with different cooperativity parameters of self-association to be estimated for the first time and it is proposed that the algorithm for the stochastic models has great potential for detailed investigation and understanding of the interactions of aromatic molecules in solution.

  16. Stochastic models (cooperative and non-cooperative) for NMR analysis of the hetero-association of aromatic molecules in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstigneev, Maxim P.; Davies, David B.; Veselkov, Alexei N.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic cooperative (STOCH-C) and non-cooperative (STOCH-NC) models have been developed for NMR analysis of the hetero-association of aromatic compounds in solution, in order to take into account all physically meaningful association reactions of molecules in which there are no limitations on the lengths of the aggregates and complexes. These algorithmical approaches are compared with previously published basic (BASE) and generalized (GEN) analytical statistical thermodynamical models of hetero-association of biologically active aromatic molecules using the same sets of published NMR data measured under the same solution conditions (0.1 M phosphate buffer, pD = 7.1, T = 298 K). It is shown that, within experimental errors, the BASE analytical model may be used to describe molecular systems characterized by relatively small contributions of hetero-association reactions, whereas the GEN model may be applied to hetero-association reactions of any aromatic compound with different self-association properties. The STOCH-C computational algorithm enabled the effect on hetero-association of the interactions of molecules with different cooperativity parameters of self-association to be estimated for the first time and it is proposed that the algorithm for the stochastic models has great potential for detailed investigation and understanding of the interactions of aromatic molecules in solution

  17. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  18. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  19. Designing Cooperative Learning in the Science Classroom: Integrating the Peer Tutoring Small Investigation Group (PTSIG) within the Model of the Six Mirrors of the Classroom Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Khalil, Mahmood; Ron, Salit

    2013-01-01

    The model of the six mirrors of the classroom and its use in teaching biology in a cooperative learning mode were implemented in high school classrooms. In this study we present: a) The model of the six mirrors of the classroom (MSMC). b) Cooperative learning settings: 1. The Group Investigation; 2. The Jigsaw Method; and 3. Peer Tutoring in Small…

  20. Integrated modelling requires mass collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    The need for sustainable solutions to the world’s problems is self evident; the challenge is to anticipate where, in the environment, economy or society, the proposed solution will have negative consequences. If we failed to realise that the switch to biofuels would have the seemingly obvious result of reduced food production, how much harder will it be to predict the likely impact of policies whose impacts may be more subtle? It has been clear for a long time that models and data will be important tools for assessing the impact of events and the measures for their mitigation. They are an effective way of encapsulating knowledge of a process and using it for prediction. However, most models represent a single or small group of processes. The sustainability challenges that face us now require not just the prediction of a single process but the prediction of how many interacting processes will respond in given circumstances. These processes will not be confined to a single discipline but will often straddle many. For example, the question, “What will be the impact on river water quality of the medical plans for managing a ‘flu pandemic and could they cause a further health hazard?” spans medical planning, the absorption of drugs by the body, the spread of disease, the hydraulic and chemical processes in sewers and sewage treatment works and river water quality. This question nicely reflects the present state of the art. We have models of the processes and standards, such as the Open Modelling Interface (the OpenMI), allow them to be linked together and to datasets. We can therefore answer the question but with the important proviso that we thought to ask it. The next and greater challenge is to deal with the open question, “What are the implications of the medical plans for managing a ‘flu pandemic?”. This implies a system that can make connections that may well not have occurred to us and then evaluate their probable impact. The final touch will be to

  1. The Effectiveness of MURDER Cooperative Model towards Students' Mathematics Reasoning Ability and Self Concept of Ten Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofan Tri Prasetiyo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the effectiveness of MURDER cooperative model towards students’ mathematics reasoning ability and self concept of ten grade. Population of this research were students of MIA ten grade Senior High School 1 Kebumen in the academic year 2016/1017. Sampling technique using simple random sampling technique. The data collected by the method of documentation, test methods, observation methods, and questionnaire methods. The analyzed of data are used completeness test and average different test. The results showed that: (1 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model have completed individual and classical study completeness; (2 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than mathematics reasoning ability of students that following ekspository learning; (3 self concept of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than self concept of students that following ekspository learning.

  2. Cooperative interval games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we study cooperative interval games, a generalized model of cooperative games in which worth of every coalition corresponds with a closed interval representing all possible outcomes of their cooperation. We give a brief introduction into classical cooperative games, interval analysis and finally introduction to cooperative interval games with focus on selections, that is on all possible outcomes of interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based ...

  3. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri Karlı; Abdulbaki Bilgiç; Yusuf Çelik

    2006-01-01

    Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expec...

  4. Allocation of control rights in the PPP Project: a cooperative game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Feng, Jingchun; Yang, Shengtao

    2017-06-01

    Reasonable allocation of control rights is the key to the success of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. PPP are services or ventures which are financed and operated through cooperation between governmental and private sector actors and which involve reasonable control rights sharing between these two partners. After professional firm with capital and technology as a shareholder participating in PPP project firms, the PPP project is diversified in participants and input resources. Meanwhile the allocation of control rights of PPP project tends to be complicated. According to the diversification of participants and input resources of PPP projects, the key participants are divided into professional firms and pure investors. Based on the cost of repurchase of different input resources in markets, the cooperative game relationship between these two parties is analyzed, on the basis of which the allocation model of the cooperative game for control rights is constructed to ensure optimum allocation ration of control rights and verify the share of control rights in proportion to the cost of repurchase.

  5. Dual-Model Reverse CKF Algorithm in Cooperative Navigation for USV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most promising research directions, cooperative location with high precision and low-cost IMU is becoming an emerging research topic in many positioning fields. Low-cost MEMS/DVL is a preferred solution for dead-reckoning in multi-USV cooperative network. However, large misalignment angles and large gyro drift coexist in low-cost MEMS that leads to the poor observability. Based on cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithm that has access to high accuracy and relative small computation, dual-model filtering scheme is proposed. It divides the whole process into two subsections that cut off the coupling relations and improve the observability of MEMS errors: it first estimates large misalignment angle and then estimates the gyro drift. Furthermore, to improve the convergence speed of large misalignment angle estimated in the first subsection, “time reversion” concept is introduced. It uses a short period time to forward and backward several times to improve convergence speed effectively. Finally, simulation analysis and experimental verification is conducted. Simulation and experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the cooperative navigation performance.

  6. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  7. Predictive Models for the Free Energy of Hydrogen Bonded Complexes with Single and Cooperative Hydrogen Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskikh, Marta; Madzhidov, Timur; Solov'ev, Vitaly; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report QSPR modeling of the free energy ΔG of 1 : 1 hydrogen bond complexes of different H-bond acceptors and donors. The modeling was performed on a large and structurally diverse set of 3373 complexes featuring a single hydrogen bond, for which ΔG was measured at 298 K in CCl 4 . The models were prepared using Support Vector Machine and Multiple Linear Regression, with ISIDA fragment descriptors. The marked atoms strategy was applied at fragmentation stage, in order to capture the location of H-bond donor and acceptor centers. Different strategies of model validation have been suggested, including the targeted omission of individual H-bond acceptors and donors from the training set, in order to check whether the predictive ability of the model is not limited to the interpolation of H-bond strength between two already encountered partners. Successfully cross-validating individual models were combined into a consensus model, and challenged to predict external test sets of 629 and 12 complexes, in which donor and acceptor formed single and cooperative H-bonds, respectively. In all cases, SVM models outperform MLR. The SVM consensus model performs well both in 3-fold cross-validation (RMSE=1.50 kJ/mol), and on the external test sets containing complexes with single (RMSE=3.20 kJ/mol) and cooperative H-bonds (RMSE=1.63 kJ/mol). © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nuclear energy research initiative, an overview of the cooperative program for the risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2000-01-01

    EPRI sstudies have shown that nuclear plant capital costs will have to decrease by about 35% to 40% to be competitive with fossil-generated electricity in the Unite States. Also, the ''first concrete'' to fuel load construction schedule will have to be decreased to less than 40 months. Therefore, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiate the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) and ABB CENP proposed a cooperative program with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Duke Engineering and Services (DE and S) to begin an innovative research effort to drastically cut the cost of new nuclear power plant construction for the U. S. de-regulated market place. This program was approved by the DOE through three separate but coordinated ''cooperative agreements.'' They are the ''Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants'' (Risk-Informed NPP), the ''Smart Nuclear Power Plant Program'' (Smart-NPP), and ''Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test'' (DPCIT) Program. DOE funded the three cooperative agreements at a level of $2.6 million for the first year of the program. Funding for the complete program is durrently at a level $6.9 million, however, ABB CENP and all partners anticipate that the scope of the NERI program will be increased as a result of the overall importance of NERI to the U. S. Government. The Risk-Informed NPP program, which is aimed at revising costly regularory and design requirements without reducing overall plant safety, has two basic tasks: ''development of Risk-Informed Methods'' and ''strengthening the Reliability Database.'' The overall objective of the first task is to develop a scientific, risk-informed approach for identifying and simplifying deterministic industry standards, regulatory requirements, and safety systems that do not significantly contribute to nuclear power plant reliability and safety. The second basic task is to develop a means for strengthening the reliability database

  9. PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN PERISTIWA ALAM DENGAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE INSIDE OUTSIDE CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Sunarsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPA dengan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe inside outside circle untuk dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kognitif dan menumbuhkan kemampuan komunikasi ilmiah siswa yang valid materi peristiwa alam. Uji coba skala terbatas dilakukan di SDN 02 Ambowetan. Uji coba skala luas kelas eksperimen SDN 01 Ambowetan VA, sedangkan kelas kontrol SDN 01 Ambowetan VB. Desain uji coba penelitian ini nonequivalent control group design. Prosedur pengembangan dan penelitian dikembangkan mengacu model pengembangan Dick dan Carry terdiri 4 tahap yaitu define, design, develop, dan disseminate. Hasil penelitian diperoleh pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran menerapkan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe inside outside circle berupa silabus, RPP, bahan ajar, lembar tes formatif, lembar observasi kemampuan komunikasi ilmiah, dan angket respon siswa valid, efektif, dan praktis diterapkan dalam pembelajaran IPA kelas V sekolah dasar materi peristiwa alam. Perangkat pembelajaran valid dengan nilai skor validitas akhir 3,43. Perangkat pembelajaran efektif terlihat peningkatan hasil uji N-gain menunjukkan hasil 0,50 pada klasifikasi tingkat sedang dan prosentase kemampuan ilmiah kelas eksperimen hasil sebesar 82%. Kriteria praktis dari nilai angket menunjukkan respon siswa kelas eksperimen lebih tinggi dibandingkan kelas kontrol (73% > 67 %.Purpose of this study is produce device the learning cooperative learning type inside outside circle to improve cognitive ability students and foster communication skills scientific a valid on material natural events. Trials limited scale in the SDN 02 Ambowetan. Trials wide scale for experimental class in the SDN 01 Ambowetan 5A, while the control class SDN 01 Ambowetan 5B. Design wide scale nonequivalent control group design. Procedures the development and developed research Dick and Carry consisting of 4 stage define, design, develop, and disseminate

  10. Cluster Cooperation in Wireless-Powered Sensor Networks: Modeling and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A wireless-powered sensor network (WPSN consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP, a near cluster and the corresponding far cluster is investigated in this paper. These sensors are wireless-powered and they transmit information by consuming the harvested energy from signal ejected by the HAP. Sensors are able to harvest energy as well as store the harvested energy. We propose that if sensors in near cluster do not have their own information to transmit, acting as relays, they can help the sensors in a far cluster to forward information to the HAP in an amplify-and-forward (AF manner. We use a finite Markov chain to model the dynamic variation process of the relay battery, and give a general analyzing model for WPSN with cluster cooperation. Though the model, we deduce the closed-form expression for the outage probability as the metric of this network. Finally, simulation results validate the start point of designing this paper and correctness of theoretical analysis and show how parameters have an effect on system performance. Moreover, it is also known that the outage probability of sensors in far cluster can be drastically reduced without sacrificing the performance of sensors in near cluster if the transmit power of HAP is fairly high. Furthermore, in the aspect of outage performance of far cluster, the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the direct transmission scheme without cooperation.

  11. Cluster Cooperation in Wireless-Powered Sensor Networks: Modeling and Performance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Weizhan

    2017-09-27

    A wireless-powered sensor network (WPSN) consisting of one hybrid access point (HAP), a near cluster and the corresponding far cluster is investigated in this paper. These sensors are wireless-powered and they transmit information by consuming the harvested energy from signal ejected by the HAP. Sensors are able to harvest energy as well as store the harvested energy. We propose that if sensors in near cluster do not have their own information to transmit, acting as relays, they can help the sensors in a far cluster to forward information to the HAP in an amplify-and-forward (AF) manner. We use a finite Markov chain to model the dynamic variation process of the relay battery, and give a general analyzing model for WPSN with cluster cooperation. Though the model, we deduce the closed-form expression for the outage probability as the metric of this network. Finally, simulation results validate the start point of designing this paper and correctness of theoretical analysis and show how parameters have an effect on system performance. Moreover, it is also known that the outage probability of sensors in far cluster can be drastically reduced without sacrificing the performance of sensors in near cluster if the transmit power of HAP is fairly high. Furthermore, in the aspect of outage performance of far cluster, the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the direct transmission scheme without cooperation.

  12. Modelo de requisitos e componentes técnicos para a formação e gerência de redes de cooperação entre empresas da construção civil Technician components and requirements model for the formation and management of cooperation networks among civil construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Vancim Frachone Neves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A indústria da Construção Civil possui um modo de operação semelhante ao das organizações virtuais, mas de forma não estruturada, deixando de proporcionar vantagens competitivas. Para tanto, o artigo propõe um Modelo de Requisitos e Componentes Técnicos, baseado na metodologia EKD (Enterprise Knwoledge Development, para auxiliar a formação e gerência de redes entre empresas da construção civil. Para a elaboração do modelo proposto, foi conduzida uma análise dos projetos internacionais mais relevantes no setor da construção além de estudo de casos contendo sete obras a fim de detectar seus objetivos e pontos falhos a serem reestruturados e adaptados para a indústria da construção civil brasileira. Não obstante, o modelo proposto baseou-se em uma adaptação das melhores práticas de uma arquitetura de referência para redes. Como resultado, a proposição viabiliza uma visão clara dos requisitos necessários, explora a necessidade de intensa comunicação e troca de informações, além de contribuir com pesquisas futuras no que tange a um futuro desenvolvimento de sistema de informação direcionado para este segmento econômico.The operational method of civil construction can be analyzed by the outlook of virtual organizations, however not yet structuralized, hence not providing competitive advantages. Thus, this article considers a Technical Components and Requirements Model, based on EKD methodology (Enterprise Knowledge Development, to assist in the formation and management of networks in civil construction companies. For the elaboration of the considered model, an analysis of the most important international construction projects was conducted, in addition to a case study from seven construction projects in order to detect their goals and defective points, to then be reorganized and adapted to the Brazilian civil construction industry. Moreover, the considered model was also based on an adaptation of reference

  13. From requirements to Java in a snap model-driven requirements engineering in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Smialek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a coherent methodology for Model-Driven Requirements Engineering which stresses the systematic treatment of requirements within the realm of modelling and model transformations. The underlying basic assumption is that detailed requirements models are used as first-class artefacts playing a direct role in constructing software. To this end, the book presents the Requirements Specification Language (RSL) that allows precision and formality, which eventually permits automation of the process of turning requirements into a working system by applying model transformations and co

  14. [Cooperation in Public Health: Formative Evaluation of the Model Project "Regional Health Conferences" in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Stühler, K

    2017-08-01

    Aim of the study: Health conferences offer opportunities for better cooperation and coordination in local health management. The aim of the explorative evaluation study was to assess structures, processes and results of "Regional Health Conferences (RGK)" in 3 model regions, to inform about potential for development and to test their transferability to other regions. Method: After the model project had been up and running for 18 months (08/2013 to 12/2014), a survey of 80 participants of the RGK in 3 regions was conducted, based on a semi-standardized questionnaire. The response rate was 90%. The results were complemented by document analysis and an additional survey of the managers of the RGK. Results: The 3 RGK were established with their agencies and 13 working groups on health care. Almost all participants felt that the number of members was appropriate and that the main stakeholders were represented. According to a large part of the respondents, the majority actively took part in the RGK and usually everyone had the equal opportunity to propose a topic. Although almost half of the respondents reported conflicts, the atmosphere was constructive for 3-quarters of them. Nearly all the interviewees confirmed the importance of a chairman and a manager of the agency, as well as the positive influence of the moderator. Almost everyone agreed that RGK are suited to improve health care and cooperation. From the participants' point of view, the main problems were identified; 94% of the respondents agreed that the previous work could be regarded as successful and 91% were satisfied or rather satisfied with the processes of the RGK. The level of satisfaction was similar among the three model regions, but it varied among the member groups; 98% of the interviewees would also take part in the future. Conclusion: According to this survey, RGK are an appropriate platform for coordination, exchange und cooperation of stakeholders and a good instrument for cooperation. In

  15. Modeling uncertainty in requirements engineering decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Maynard-Zhang, Pedrito; Kiper, James D.

    2005-01-01

    One inherent characteristic of requrements engineering is a lack of certainty during this early phase of a project. Nevertheless, decisions about requirements must be made in spite of this uncertainty. Here we describe the context in which we are exploring this, and some initial work to support elicitation of uncertain requirements, and to deal with the combination of such information from multiple stakeholders.

  16. Towards Extending Forward Kinematic Models on Hyper-Redundant Manipulator to Cooperative Bionic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Lakhal, Othman; Merzouki, Rochdi

    2017-01-01

    Forward Kinematics is a stepping stone towards finding an inverse solution and subsequently a dynamic model of a robot. Hence a study and comparison of various Forward Kinematic Models (FKMs) is necessary for robot design. This paper deals with comparison of three FKMs on the same hyper-redundant Compact Bionic Handling Assistant (CBHA) manipulator under same conditions. The aim of this study is to project on modeling cooperative bionic manipulators. Two of these methods are quantitative methods, Arc Geometry HTM (Homogeneous Transformation Matrix) Method and Dual Quaternion Method, while the other one is Hybrid Method which uses both quantitative as well as qualitative approach. The methods are compared theoretically and experimental results are discussed to add further insight to the comparison. HTM is the widely used and accepted technique, is taken as reference and trajectory deviation in other techniques are compared with respect to HTM. Which method allows obtaining an accurate kinematic behavior of the CBHA, controlled in the real-time.

  17. China's Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme: a type of health insurance or a type of health cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    The Cooperative Medical Scheme (CMS) was popular in rural China in the 1960s and 1970s, having garnered praise from the World Bank and World Health Organization as an unprecedented example of a successful health care model in a low-income developing country. However, the CMS almost collapsed in the 1980s. Based on its historical origins and main activities, we think the CMS functioned as a health cooperative rather than a health insurance scheme. Perhaps, however, the importance to the CMS of cooperation between institutions has been overestimated. Overlooked, yet equally important, has been the cooperation between health workers and farmers to target health-related risk factors associated with agricultural work and ways of life. The 'cooperative' character of the CMS includes two aspects: cooperative institutions and cooperative behaviour. Although the CMS collapsed in China, similar schemes are flourishing elsewhere in the world. In the future, in-depth analysis of these schemes is required.

  18. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  19. Switched Cooperative Driving Model towards Human Vehicle Copiloting Situation: A Cyberphysical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly automated and intelligent vehicles can lead to the reduction of driver workload. However, it also causes the out-of-the-loop problem to drivers, which leaves drivers handicapped in their ability to take over manual operations in emergency situations. This contribution puts forth a new switched driving strategy to avoid some of the negative consequences associated with out-of-the-loop performance by having drivers assume manual control at periodic intervals. To minimize the impact of the transitions between automated and manual driving on traffic operations, a switched cooperative driving model towards human vehicle copiloting situation is proposed by considering the vehicle dynamics and the realistic intervehicle communication in a cyberphysical view. The design method of the switching signal for the switched cooperative driving model is given based on the Lyapunov stability theory with the comprehensive consideration of platoon stability and human factors. The good agreement between simulation results and theoretical analysis illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked with a nati......Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...... for students and lecturers due to quality and design of the courses. Biographical information Camusa Hatt (caha@phmetropol.dk) M.A., Associate Professor, Metropolitan University College. Having years of experience developing, implementing and evaluating interprofessional education and knowing challenges...... and potentials in IPE by heart, the author has a keen interest in the development of shared knowledge and pedagogical facilitation of IPE/IPC. Recent projects and publications within the field include activities funded by the OPALL project, the Danish Regional Capital City and the European Social Fund...

  1. Transformational leadership in the consumer service workgroup: competing models of job satisfaction, change commitment, and cooperative conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses the effects of transformational leadership on cooperative conflict resolution (management) by evaluating several alternative models related to the mediating role of job satisfaction and change commitment. Samples of data from customer service personnel in Taiwan were analyzed. Based on the bootstrap sample technique, an empirical study was carried out to yield the best fitting model. The procedure of hierarchical nested model analysis was used, incorporating the methods of bootstrapping mediation, PRODCLIN2, and structural equation modeling (SEM) comparison. The analysis suggests that leadership that promotes integration (change commitment) and provides inspiration and motivation (job satisfaction), in the proper order, creates the means for cooperative conflict resolution.

  2. Neuro-Fuzzy Prediction of Cooperation Interaction Profile of Flexible Road Train Based on Hybrid Automaton Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjanovic-Mehmedovic Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of traffic information is important in many applications in relation to Intelligent Transport systems (ITS, since it reduces the uncertainty of future traffic states and improves traffic mobility. There is a lot of research done in the field of traffic information predictions such as speed, flow and travel time. The most important research was done in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS. The goal of this paper is to introduce the novel cooperation behaviour profile prediction through the example of flexible Road Trains useful road cooperation parameter, which contributes to the improvement of traffic mobility in Intelligent Transportation Systems. This paper presents an approach towards the control and cooperation behaviour modelling of vehicles in the flexible Road Train based on hybrid automaton and neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS prediction of cooperation profile of the flexible Road Train. Hybrid automaton takes into account complex dynamics of each vehicle as well as discrete cooperation approach. The ANFIS is a particular class of the ANN family with attractive estimation and learning potentials. In order to provide statistical analysis, RMSE (root mean square error, coefficient of determination (R2 and Pearson coefficient (r, were utilized. The study results suggest that ANFIS would be an efficient soft computing methodology, which could offer precise predictions of cooperative interactions between vehicles in Road Train, which is useful for prediction mobility in Intelligent Transport systems.

  3. Effects of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Learning Model on the English Learning Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwinarto Hadiwinarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at describing the effects of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC learning model on the reading and writing skills of junior high school students in learning English. This research applied one group pretest-posttest design. Data were collected by using tests and analized by using descriptive analysis and t-test. The result showed that: the average score for reading skill before the experiment was 50.00 and the average score for reading skill after the experiment was 65.58. On the other hand, the average score for writing skill before the experiment was 38.21 and the average score for writing skill after experiment was 58.05. The implementation of CIRC learning model had very significant effects on the English reading and writing skills of the junior high school students.

  4. Going the extra mile - creating a co-operative model for supporting patient and public involvement in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Adele

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Chief Medical Officer and Director General of Research and Development commissioned a review of patient and public involvement in the National Institute for Health Research. The report on this review, entitled 'Going the Extra Mile' was published in March, 2015. It described the bold goal of expecting all people using health and social care, and increasing numbers of the public, to be aware of and choosing to be involved in research. This requires more effort to build public awareness of research and better support for the public and researchers to do patient and public involvement in research. The author has created a new way of providing support for patient and public involvement based on co-operation between organisations. Termed 'share-banking', this model pools limited resources across organisations to deliver a regional programme of support activities for patient and public involvement over the long term. This includes helping organisations to share and learn from each other to avoid 're-inventing wheels' (where separate organisations each develop the same thing from the beginning). The 'Going the Extra Mile' report recommends that local organisations should work together to deliver public involvement activities across a region. 'Share-banking' should help fulfil this recommendation. The 'Going the Extra Mile' final report opened with the ambition to increase the public's awareness, participation and involvement in research. It stated the need for public and researchers to be better supported to do public involvement. A new co-operative model, termed 'share-banking', has been developed whereby organisations pool limited resources to create and sustain support for patient and public involvement in research. This should fulfil the 'Going the Extra Mile' report's recommendation to take a collaborative, cross-organisational and regional approach to public involvement.

  5. Proposed Requirements-driven User-scenario Development Protocol for the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Car, N.; Percivall, G.; Allen, D.; Fitch, P. G.; Baumann, P.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) is designed to foster a global community to collaborate on e-infrastructure challenges. One of the deliverables is an implementation plan to address global data infrastructure interoperability challenges and align existing domestic and international capabilities. Work package three (WP3) of the CRA focuses on the harmonization of global data infrastructure for sharing environmental data. One of the subtasks under WP3 is the development of user scenarios that guide the development of applicable deliverables. This paper describes the proposed protocol for user scenario development. It enables the solicitation of user scenarios from a broad constituency, and exposes the mechanisms by which those solicitations are evaluated against requirements that map to the Belmont Challenge. The underlying principle of traceability forms the basis for a structured, requirements-driven approach resulting in work products amenable to trade-off analyses and objective prioritization. The protocol adopts the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a top level framework. User scenarios are developed within RM-ODP's "Enterprise Viewpoint". To harmonize with existing frameworks, the protocol utilizes the conceptual constructs of "scenarios", "use cases", "use case categories", and use case templates as adopted by recent GEOSS Architecture Implementation Project (AIP) deliverables and CSIRO's eReefs project. These constructs are encapsulated under the larger construct of "user scenarios". Once user scenarios are ranked by goodness-of-fit to the Belmont Challenge, secondary scoring metrics may be generated, like goodness-of-fit to FutureEarth science themes. The protocol also facilitates an assessment of the ease of implementing given user scenario using existing GEOSS AIP deliverables. In summary, the protocol results in a traceability graph that can be extended to coordinate

  6. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  7. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibberd, K.E. [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 (Australia); Dunning, C. [Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent (United Kingdom); Links, J. [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: jrl@maths.uq.edu.au

    2006-08-07

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrodinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrodinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.

  8. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, K. E.; Dunning, C.; Links, J.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrödinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrödinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.

  9. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibberd, K.E.; Dunning, C.; Links, J.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrodinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrodinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane

  10. REQUIREMENTS PARTICLE NETWORKS: AN APPROACH TO FORMAL SOFTWARE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS MODELLING

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Vatanawood; Wanchai Rivepiboon

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to software functional requirements modelling using requirements particle networks is presented. In our approach, a set of requirements particles is defined as an essential tool to construct a visual model of software functional requirements specification during the software analysis phase and the relevant formal specification is systematically generated without the experience of writing formal specification. A number of algorithms are presented to perform these for...

  11. Building traceable Event-B models from requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhammash, Eman; Butler, Michael; Fathabadi, Asieh Salehi; Cîrstea, Corina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bridging the gap between informal requirements and formal specifications is a key challenge in systems engineering. Constructing appropriate abstractions in formal models requires skill and managing the complexity of the relationships between requirements and formal models can be difficult. In this paper we present an approach that aims to address the twin challenges of finding appropriate abstractions and managing traceability between requirements and models. Our approach is based o...

  12. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10 6 compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases. Copyright

  13. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model Script and Think-Pair-Share to Critical Thinking Skills, Social Attitude and Learning Outcomes Cognitive Biology of multiethnic High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didimus Tanah Boleng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis   Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model

  14. Non-local interaction via diffusible resource prevents coexistence of cooperators and cheaters in a lattice model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruce Borenstein

    Full Text Available Many cellular populations cooperate through the secretion of diffusible extracellular resources, such as digestive enzymes or virulence factors. Diffusion of these resources leads to long-range intercellular interactions, creating the possibility of cooperation but also the risk of exploitation by non-producing neighbors. In the past, considerable attention has been given to game-theoretic lattice models of intercellular cooperation. In these models, coexistence is commonly observed between cooperators (corresponding to resource producers and cheaters (corresponding to nonproducers. However, these models consider only interactions between direct competitors. We find that when individuals are allowed to interact non-locally through the diffusion of a shared resource coexistence between cooperators and cheaters is lost. Instead, we find population dynamics similar to simple competition, either neutral or biased, with no balancing selection that would favor coexistence. Our results highlight the importance of an accurate treatment of diffusion of shared resources and argue against the generality of the conclusions of game-theoretic lattice models.

  15. Organizational cooperation in teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2005-01-01

    Teleradiology requires cooperation between participating parties, but it cannot be assumed that such cooperation will work well. A survey was carried out of 12 radiology departments in Norway which used picture archiving and communication systems in connection with teleradiology. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 26 out of 29 resource persons (response rate 90%). The respondents identified 17 issues of importance for cooperation in teleradiology. None of the problems with cooperation seem large enough to prevent effective teleradiology cooperation in future. For organizations planning teleradiology of a larger volume, the cooperation issue is important. It is recommended that managers lead change processes in their organizations where the different issues of importance to cooperation are treated and the right measures are taken to realize the full potential of teleradiology. For telemedicine, it is important that future research includes investigations on cooperation for the different applications.

  16. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODELS TYPE GROUP INVESTIGATION AND KINESTHETIC STYLE LEARNING TO SCIENCE PHYSICS SKILL PROCESS ON STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriutami Kholila Mora Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: to determine differences in the physics skills of students with learning model Cooperative Group Investigation using concept maps and Direct Instruction teaching model, to determine differences in the physical skills of students who have high Kinesthetic Learning Styles and Learning Styles low, to determine the interaction between Models of Learning and Kinesthetic Learning Styles toward physical process skills of students. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied learning models Cooperative Group Investigation using Concept Maps as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction model. The instrument used in this study is physics instrument science process skills in narrative form as many as 13 questions and instrument kinesthetic learning style questionnaire that has been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: there are differences in physical science process skills students are taught by Cooperative Group Investigation learning model using Concept Maps and Direct Instruction teaching model. There are differences in physical science process skills of students who have kinesthetic learning styles and students who have low kinesthetic learning style. Interaction between learning models Cooperative Group Investigation using Concept Maps and kinesthetic learning styles in influencing the physical science process skills of students.

  17. Application of the business model Canvas in Microenterprises from Partners of the Savings and Credit Cooperative Luz del Valle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Monroy Espinosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Luz del Valle" Savings and Credit Cooperative is a financial institution with five thousand microentrepreneurial partners who have business units. These business units, generally informal, do not have a defined organizational structure or adequate management tools, which influences in the presence of economic problems such as arrears and non-payment of contracted obligations, mainly as a result of a low level of sales. Due to this situation, it is important for cooperatives to support their partners in finding solutions. This is part of the cooperative principles and values of mutual aid, social responsibility and education, training and information for its members, team leaders, managers and employees; these universal principles established by the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA are considered by the savings and credit cooperative "Luz del Valle" as strategies to accompany its partners in the development and growth of their business units. The cooperative organizes a Christmas Fair annually, where 60 microentrepreneurs participate. This event was the opportunity to develop, together with the Metropolitan University of Ecuador, a project that, in its first phase, trained in the formulation of strategies based on the application of the Business Model Canvas; the teaching of this tool, which allows creating, capturing and providing value for clients, was supported by the university community and the program of linkage with society that develops the aforementioned institution; the evaluation of the impact and the economic results are contemplated in a second phase.

  18. Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...... describe an incremental approach to requirements validation and systems modelling. Formal modelling facilitates a high degree of automation: it serves for validation and traceability. The foundation for our approach are requirements that are structured according to the WRSPM reference model. We provide...... a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements...

  19. Computational modeling of the hematopoietic erythroid-myeloid switch reveals insights into cooperativity, priming, and irreversibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Chickarmane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell lineage choices are decided by genetic networks that are turned ON/OFF in a switch-like manner. However, prior to lineage commitment, genes are primed at low expression levels. Understanding the underlying molecular circuitry in terms of how it governs both a primed state and, at the other extreme, a committed state is of relevance not only to hematopoiesis but also to developmental systems in general. We develop a computational model for the hematopoietic erythroid-myeloid lineage decision, which is determined by a genetic switch involving the genes PU.1 and GATA-1. Dynamical models based upon known interactions between these master genes, such as mutual antagonism and autoregulation, fail to make the system bistable, a desired feature for robust lineage determination. We therefore suggest a new mechanism involving a cofactor that is regulated as well as recruited by one of the master genes to bind to the antagonistic partner that is necessary for bistability and hence switch-like behavior. An interesting fallout from this architecture is that suppression of the cofactor through external means can lead to a loss of cooperativity, and hence to a primed state for PU.1 and GATA-1. The PU.1-GATA-1 switch also interacts with another mutually antagonistic pair, C/EBPalpha-FOG-1. The latter pair inherits the state of its upstream master genes and further reinforces the decision due to several feedback loops, thereby leading to irreversible commitment. The genetic switch, which handles the erythroid-myeloid lineage decision, is an example of a network that implements both a primed and a committed state by regulating cooperativity through recruitment of cofactors. Perturbing the feedback between the master regulators and downstream targets suggests potential reprogramming strategies. The approach points to a framework for lineage commitment studies in general and could aid the search for lineage-determining genes.

  20. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  1. Extending enterprise architecture modelling with business goals and requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsman, W.; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    The methods for enterprise architecture (EA), such as The Open Group Architecture Framework, acknowledge the importance of requirements modelling in the development of EAs. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. The current modelling

  2. Formal Requirements Modeling for Simulation-Based Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Otter, Martin; Thuy, Nguyen; Bouskela, Daniel; Buffoni, Lena; Elmqvist, Hilding; Fritzson, Peter; Garro, Alfredo; Jardin, Audrey; Olsson, Hans; Payelleville, Maxime; Schamai, Wladimir; Thomas, Eric; Tundis, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal on how to model formal requirements in Modelica for simulation-based verification. The approach is implemented in the open source Modelica_Requirements library. It requires extensions to the Modelica language, that have been prototypically implemented in the Dymola and Open-Modelica software. The design of the library is based on the FOrmal Requirement Modeling Language (FORM-L) defined by EDF, and on industrial use cases from EDF and Dassault Aviation. It uses...

  3. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  4. Outdoor Program Models: Placing Cooperative Adventure and Adventure Education Models on the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Steven P.

    In two articles on outdoor programming models, Watters distinguished four models on a continuum ranging from the common adventure model, with minimal organizational structure and leadership control, to the guide service model, in which leaders are autocratic and trips are highly structured. Club programs and instructional programs were in between,…

  5. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF MULTILEVEL SYSTEM OF CONSUMER COOPERATION IN UKRAINE, ITS INFORMATIONAL COMPLIANCE WITH MODERN EUROPEAN REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan KOSHKAROV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 120 countries use the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and the International Accounting Standards (IAS. The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU obliges Ukraine to European convergence of accounting. Since 2012, for some entities it has been introduced compulsory, but for others - is that self-application of IFRS and INBO. This trend coincides with the imperative necessity of the consumer cooperation of Ukraine to reform its information system as a key component of its effective management and successful implementation of the controlling. It is proposed to start reforming with the introduction of MSFS and IAS.

  6. Extending enterprise architecture modelling with business goals and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, Wilco; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten

    2011-02-01

    The methods for enterprise architecture (EA), such as The Open Group Architecture Framework, acknowledge the importance of requirements modelling in the development of EAs. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. The current modelling techniques for EA focus on the products, services, processes and applications of an enterprise. In addition, techniques may be provided to describe structured requirements lists and use cases. Little support is available however for modelling the underlying motivation of EAs in terms of stakeholder concerns and the high-level goals that address these concerns. This article describes a language that supports the modelling of this motivation. The definition of the language is based on existing work on high-level goal and requirements modelling and is aligned with an existing standard for enterprise modelling: the ArchiMate language. Furthermore, the article illustrates how EA can benefit from analysis techniques from the requirements engineering domain.

  7. Guidelines to assist rural electric cooperatives to fulfill the requirements of Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA for cogeneration and small power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    These guidelines were designed to assist National Rural Electric Cooperative Association staff and consultants involved in the implementation of Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The guidelines were structured to meet anticipated use as: a self-contained legal, technical and economic reference manual helpful in dealing with small power producers and cogenerators; a roadmap through some of the less obvious obstacles encountered by utilities interacting with small power producers and cogenerators; a starting point for those utilities who have not yet formulated specific policies and procedures, nor developed rates for purchasing power from small power producers and cogenerators; a discussion vehicle to highlight key issues and increase understanding in workshop presentations to rural electric cooperatives; and an evolutionary tool which can be updated to reflect changes in the law as they occur. The chapters in these Guidelines contain both summary information, such as compliance checklists, and detailed information, such as cost rate calculations, on regulatory requirements, operational considerations, and rate considerations. The appendices contain more specific material, e.g. rural electric cooperative sample policy statements. (LCL)

  8. Building Partner Cooperation between Teachers and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Šteh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in which all of those involved are respected and recognised in their efforts to achieve common goals.The second part presents the findings of an empirical study carried out on a representative sample of Slovene primary schools. Teachers (N = 467 and parents (N = 1,690 were asked to express their pinions about the need for mutual cooperation, their view of each other when fulfilling their respective roles, and where they perceive the main obstacles to mutual cooperation. It became evident that teachers and parents have doubts about each other’s competence. This does not form a solid base on which to establish and build the necessary partner relationship, and along with it mutual cooperation. Yet both groups to a large extent agree that teacher-parent cooperation is both necessary and useful. This gives rise to the question as to how to ensure that schools adopt policies promotingopportunities for better understanding, for building quality mutualrelations and for parents to become more actively involved.

  9. Using cognitive modeling for requirements engineering in anesthesiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, C; le Feber, J

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive modeling is a complexity reducing method to describe significant cognitive processes under a specified research focus. Here, a cognitive process model for decision making in anesthesiology is presented and applied in requirements engineering. Three decision making situations of

  10. Modeling Domain Variability in Requirements Engineering with Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapouchnian, Alexei; Mylopoulos, John

    Various characteristics of the problem domain define the context in which the system is to operate and thus impact heavily on its requirements. However, most requirements specifications do not consider contextual properties and few modeling notations explicitly specify how domain variability affects the requirements. In this paper, we propose an approach for using contexts to model domain variability in goal models. We discuss the modeling of contexts, the specification of their effects on system goals, and the analysis of goal models with contextual variability. The approach is illustrated with a case study.

  11. Paternity-parasitism trade-offs: a model and test of host-parasite cooperation in an avian conspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bruce E; Hochachka, Wesley M; Eadie, John M

    2002-06-01

    Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of conspecific brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing access to the host nest in exchange for copulations. We develop a cost-benefit model to explore the conditions under which such host-parasite cooperation might occur. When the brood parasite does not have a nest of her own, the only benefit to the host male is siring some of the parasitic eggs (quasi-parasitism). Cooperation with the parasite is favored when the ratio of host male paternity of his own eggs relative to his paternity of parasitic eggs exceeds the cost of parasitism. When the brood parasite has a nest of her own, a host male can gain additional, potentially more important benefits by siring the high-value, low-cost eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. Under these conditions, host males should be even more likely to accept parasitic eggs in return for copulations with the parasitic female. We tested these predictions for American coots (Fulica americana), a species with a high frequency of conspecific brood parasitism. Multilocus DNA profiling indicated that host males did not sire any of the parasitic eggs laid in host nests, nor did they sire eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. We used field estimates of the model parameters from a four-year study of coots to predict the minimum levels of paternity required for the costs of parasitism to be offset by the benefits of mating with brood parasites. Observed levels of paternity were significantly lower than those predicted under a variety of assumptions, and we reject the hypothesis that host males cooperated with parasitic females. Our model clarifies the specific costs and benefits that influence host-parasite cooperation and, more generally

  12. β-catenin is required for prostate development and cooperates with Pten loss to drive invasive carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Francis

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of male death in the Western world, but few frequent genetic alterations that drive prostate cancer initiation and progression have been identified. β-Catenin is essential for many developmental processes and has been implicated in tumorigenesis in many tissues, including prostate cancer. However, expression studies on human prostate cancer samples are unclear on the role this protein plays in this disease. We have used in vivo genetic studies in the embryo and adult to extend our understanding of the role of β-Catenin in the normal and neoplastic prostate. Our gene deletion analysis revealed that prostate epithelial β-Catenin is required for embryonic prostate growth and branching but is dispensable in the normal adult organ. During development, β-Catenin controls the number of progenitors in the epithelial buds and regulates a discrete network of genes, including c-Myc and Nkx3.1. Deletion of β-Catenin in a Pten deleted model of castration-resistant prostate cancer demonstrated it is dispensable for disease progression in this setting. Complementary overexpression experiments, through in vivo protein stabilization, showed that β-Catenin promotes the formation of squamous epithelia during prostate development, even in the absence of androgens. β-Catenin overexpression in combination with Pten loss was able to drive progression to invasive carcinoma together with squamous metaplasia. These studies demonstrate that β-Catenin is essential for prostate development and that an inherent property of high levels of this protein in prostate epithelia is to drive squamous fate differentiation. In addition, they show that β-Catenin overexpression can promote invasive prostate cancer in a clinically relevant model of this disease. These data provide novel information on cancer progression pathways that give rise to lethal prostate disease in humans.

  13. Developing Algebra Structure Module and Model of Cooperative Learning Helping Concept Map Media for Improving Proofing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafari

    2017-01-01

    This research was purposed to develop module and learning model and instrument of proofing ability in algebra structure through cooperative learning with helping map concept media for students of mathematic major and mathematics education in State University and Private University in North Sumatra province. The subject of this research was the…

  14. Kinky Choices, Dictators and Split Might : A Non-Cooperative Model for Household Consumption and Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van der Wiel, K.M.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    It is unlikely that husbands and wives always agree on exactly what public goods to buy. Nor do they necessarily agree on how many hours to work with obvious consequences for the household budget. We therefore model consumption and labor supply behavior of a couple in a non-cooperative setting by

  15. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL GROUP INVESTIGATION TOWARD LEARNING OUTCOMES PHYSICS VIEWED FROM LOGICAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research to determine: the results of physics learning with cooperative learning model type group investigation and conventional learning, learning outcomes physics that has the ability to think logically above average and the ability to think logically below the average as well as the interaction model of cooperative learning type group investigation and the ability to think logically in influencing the outcomes of learning physics. This research is quasi experimental. Technique that used to gain a sample is random cluster sampling. The instrument used is the science process skills test and test critical thinking skills.The results showed that: the learning outcomes of physics with cooperative learning model type group investigation better than conventional learning, learning outcomes physics that has the ability to think logically above average better than students who have the ability to think logically is below average and there is no interaction among cooperative learning model type group investigation and logical thinking skills in influencing the outcomes of learning physics.

  16. The Implementation of Cooperative Learning Model "Number Heads Together" ("NHT") in Improving the Students' Ability in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Mayong; Rajab, Andi Aryani

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at describing the implementation of cooperative learning model of (NHT) at student of SMPN 2 Maros. The method used was a classroom action research in two cycles. Data were collected using the test for the quantitative and non-test for the qualitative by employing observation, field note, student's workbook, student's reflection…

  17. Is the Ownership Structure Model a Decisive Determinant of Co-Operatives' Financial Success? A Financial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Kuikman, J.; Doumpos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, the financial/ownership structures of agribusiness co-operatives (co-ops) are analyzed in order to examine whether new co-op models perform better than the more traditional ones. The assessment procedure introduces a new financial decision-aid approach, which is based on

  18. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  19. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models

  20. A Model for Cooperative Advertising and Pricing Decisions in Manufacturer-Retailer Supply Chain with Discount: A Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kazemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinating the supply chain is among the most important subjects that is extensively addressed in the related literature. If a supply chain is to be coordinated, it is equivalent to say that we must solve a problem related to competition and cooperation. The game theory is obviously one of the most effective methods to solve such problems, in which the players of the supply chain are assumed to engage in cooperative and non-cooperative games. The current study aims to coordinate a two-level supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. This will be achieved using cooperative advertisement along with pricing decisions such that the manufacturer offers a price discount to the retailer and the demand is affected by pricing and advertisement. Cooperative advertisement is a coordinated effort made by all the members of the supply chain to increase the customer demand, in which the retailer does the local advertisement and the manufacturer pays for a portion or all the costs of the retailer advertisement. We consider two models for manufacturer-retailer relation using the game theory: the manufacturer-Stackelberg and the retailer-Stackelberg games with asymmetric power distribution.

  1. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies

  2. Capabilities and requirements for modelling radionuclide transport in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, R.W.; Piper, D.

    1989-02-01

    This report gives an overview of geosphere flow and transport models suitable for use by the Department of the Environment in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal sites. An outline methodology for geosphere modelling is proposed, consisting of a number of different types of model. A brief description of each of the component models is given, indicating the purpose of the model, the processes being modelled and the methodologies adopted. Areas requiring development are noted. (author)

  3. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  4. Transfer of conflict and cooperation from experienced games to new games: a connectionist model of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible n × n normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both—the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a strategically heterogeneous

  5. AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN JAPAN - A MODEL FOR COOPERATIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Japan's agriculture provides only a part from the population's needs, in caloric terms Japan must impute 60% of foods. Arable land are few, but are worked very performant, rice being the main crop together with cotton, citrus, sugarcane, wheat, potato, soybean, sugar beet, other vegetables. Widely is practiced sericulture and fisheries, Japan being one of the leading producers of silk from the world and having over 600 ports specialized for fishing. Japanese agriculture has remained behind the industry and services, this trend being manifested after the very high economic growth from 1960-1970. The main focus of the movements from the Japanese cooperative system is represented by the creation of large specialized farms through the replacing of the traditional ones. The most important task of agricultural cooperatives from Japan is meeting the consumption needs of its members. Integrated leadership of Japanese cooperatives of farmers act at all levels, primary, at prefecture level and at national level. Contractual relationships play a decisive role in the integration of Japanese farmers. In Japan there are about 840 agricultural cooperatives very well organized with a balanced planning and efficiently conducted, agricultural cooperative MIKABI being the most developed, mainly focused on the production of mandarins. In Japan there are three large distribution centers of agricultural products, 29 distribution markets controlled by the prefecture and 1,000 local markets. Organization of cooperatives is the pyramid system on three levels: local, prefecture and national (National Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives.

  6. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  7. The Spanish HIV BioBank: a model of cooperative HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel; de Las Cuevas, Natividad; Jiménez, José Luis; Gallego, Jorge; Gómez, Coral; Prieto, Cristina; Serramía, Ma Jesús; Lorente, Raquel; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Angeles

    2009-03-09

    The collection of samples from HIV-infected patients is the beginning of the chain of translational research. To carry out quality research that could eventually end in a personalized treatment for HIV, it is essential to guarantee the availability, quality and traceability of samples, under a strict system of quality management. The Spanish HIV BioBank was created with the objectives of processing, storing and providing distinct samples from HIV/AIDS patients, categorized according to strictly defined characteristics, free of charge to research projects. Strict compliance to ethical norms is always guaranteed. At the moment, the HIV BioBank possesses nearly 50,000 vials containing different prospective longitudinal study sample types. More than 1,700 of these samples are now used in 19 national and international research projects. The HIV BioBank represents a novel approach to HIV research that might be of general interest not only for basic and clinical research teams working on HIV, but also for those groups trying to establish large networks focused on research on specific clinical problems. It also represents a model to stimulate cooperative research among large numbers of research groups working as a network on specific clinical problems. The main objective of this article is to show the structure and function of the HIV BioBank that allow it to very efficiently release samples to different research project not only in Spain but also in other countries.

  8. The Spanish HIV BioBank: a model of cooperative HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of samples from HIV-infected patients is the beginning of the chain of translational research. To carry out quality research that could eventually end in a personalized treatment for HIV, it is essential to guarantee the availability, quality and traceability of samples, under a strict system of quality management. Methods The Spanish HIV BioBank was created with the objectives of processing, storing and providing distinct samples from HIV/AIDS patients, categorized according to strictly defined characteristics, free of charge to research projects. Strict compliance to ethical norms is always guaranteed. Results At the moment, the HIV BioBank possesses nearly 50,000 vials containing different prospective longitudinal study sample types. More than 1,700 of these samples are now used in 19 national and international research projects. Conclusion The HIV BioBank represents a novel approach to HIV research that might be of general interest not only for basic and clinical research teams working on HIV, but also for those groups trying to establish large networks focused on research on specific clinical problems. It also represents a model to stimulate cooperative research among large numbers of research groups working as a network on specific clinical problems. The main objective of this article is to show the structure and function of the HIV BioBank that allow it to very efficiently release samples to different research project not only in Spain but also in other countries.

  9. Relative Performance Payment in Cooperatives – A Model-Theoretical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zieseniss, Roland; Kuehl, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Governing the cooperatives’ management by payment systems turns out to be a non-trivial problem due to the specific characteristics of the legal structure. Evaluating the management’s performance is complicated by the business relations between members and their cooperative. A relative performance payment can make a significant contribution to the reduction of target inconsistencies between the members and the management of cooperatives. It is based on the idea that for evaluating the perform...

  10. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  11. Requirements Traceability and Transformation Conformance in Model-Driven Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Almeida, João; van Eck, Pascal; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    The variety of design artefacts (models) produced in a model-driven design process results in an intricate rela-tionship between requirements and the various models. This paper proposes a methodological framework that simplifies management of this relationship. This frame-work is a basis for tracing

  12. MODEL OF COOPERATION OF THE SYSTEM OF STAFF EDUCATION FOR INDUSTRY – CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATIONAL CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata PRADELA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education of staff for industry in Poland is carried out in vocational education system in schools, responsible for education of qualified workers and in system of technical universities, responsible for engineering education. This article concentrates on aspects of education of qualified workers. There is presented model of cooperation insitution responsible for vocational education for industry on the basis of concept of educational cluster. The first part of the article describes aims and determinants of cluster formulation. The second – model of structure of educational cluster, particularly: stakeholders of cluster (potential participants of cluster, scope of cooperation, information flows and stakeholders’ activities. The last part of article discusses possibilities of implementati on the model: (a by creation educational strategies and (b by caring out projects concentrated on particular problem.

  13. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  14. Commonsense Psychology and the Functional Requirements of Cognitive Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Andrew S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychological theories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike...

  15. Requirements engineering for cross-sectional information chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, U; Cruel, E; Gök, M; Garthaus, M; Zimansky, M; Remmers, H; Rienhoff, O

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of literature on requirements engineering, little is known about engineering very generic, innovative and emerging requirements, such as those for cross-sectional information chains. The IKM health project aims at building information chain reference models for the care of patients with chronic wounds, cancer-related pain and back pain. Our question therefore was how to appropriately capture information and process requirements that are both generally applicable and practically useful. To this end, we started with recommendations from clinical guidelines and put them up for discussion in Delphi surveys and expert interviews. Despite the heterogeneity we encountered in all three methods, it was possible to obtain requirements suitable for building reference models. We evaluated three modelling languages and then chose to write the models in UML (class and activity diagrams). On the basis of the current project results, the pros and cons of our approach are discussed.

  16. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a spreadsheet decision support model that can be used by combat engineer platoon and company commanders in determining the material requirements and estimated costs...

  17. Hybriding CMMI and requirement engineering maturity and capability models

    OpenAIRE

    Buglione, Luigi; Hauck, Jean Carlo R.; Gresse von Wangenheim, Christiane; Mc Caffery, Fergal

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Estimation represents one of the most critical processes for any project and it is highly dependent on the quality of requirements elicitation and management. Therefore, the management of requirements should be prioritised in any process improvement program, because the less precise the requirements gathering, analysis and sizing, the greater the error in terms of time and cost estimation. Maturity and Capability Models (MCM) represent a good tool for assessing the status of ...

  18. Generic skills requirements (KSA model) towards future mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generic Skills is a basic requirement that engineers need to master in all areas of Engineering. This study was conducted throughout the peninsular Malaysia involving small, medium and heavy industries using the KSA Model. The objectives of this study are studying the level of requirement of Generic Skills that need to be ...

  19. Sequence characteristics required for cooperative binding and efficient in vivo titration of the replication initiator protein DnaA in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Atlung, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region, which contains two DnaA boxes, R5 and R6 with one misfit to the consensus TT(A)/(T)TNCACA, are as efficient in in vivo titration of the DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replication-inactivated oriC region with its eight DnaA boxes. Three additional Dna......A boxes around the promoter proximal R5 DnaA box were identified and shown by mutational analysis to be necessary for the cooperative binding of DnaA required for titration. These four DnaA boxes are located in the same orientation and with a spacing of two or three base-pairs. The cooperative binding...... was eliminated by insertion of half a helical turn between any of the DnaA boxes. Titration strongly depends on the presence and orientation of the promoter distal R6 DnaA box located 104 bp upstream of the R5 box as well as neighbouring sequences downstream of R6. Titration depends on the integrity of a 43 bp...

  20. Using model fish to study the biological mechanisms of cooperative behaviour: A future for translational research concerning social anxiety disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Carvalho, Tamires Dos Santos; Maximino, Caio

    2018-03-02

    Human societies demand of its composing members the development of a wide array of social tools and strategies. A notable example is human outstanding ability to cooperate with others, in all its complex forms, depicting the reality of a highly demanding social framework in which humans need to be integrated as to attain physical and mental benefits. Considering the importance of social engagement, it's not entirely unexpected that most psychiatric disorders involve some disruption of normal social behaviour, ranging from an abnormal absence to a significant increase of social functioning. It is however surprising that knowledge on these social anxiety disorders still remains so limited. Here we review the literature focusing on the social and cooperative toolbox of 3 fish model species (cleaner fishes, guppies and zebrafish) which are amenable systems to test for social disorders. We build on current knowledge based on ethological information, arising from studies on cooperative behaviour in cleanerfishes and guppies, while profiting from the advantages of the intense use of zebrafish, to create novel paradigms aiming at the major socio-cognitive modules/dimensions in fish species. This focus may enable the discovery of putative conserved endpoints which are relevant for research into social disorders. We suggest that cross-species, cross-domain, functional and genetic approaches could provide a wider array of information on the neurobiological bases of social and cooperative behaviour, crucial to understanding the neural bases of social disorders and key to finding novel avenues towards treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Communicating in Collectivistic Culture: Relationship between Interdependent Self-Construal and Cooperative Communication in Cross-Cultural Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo Pin Lick Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper proposes that when companies have expanded their business and operation throughout the Asian countries, the success or failure of a company abroad depends on how effectively its business negotiators can apply their cross-cultural communication skills in a new cultural environment. At the forefront of this change is interdependent self-construal, which stands as communication medium on interaction goals (international business negotiation outcome in collectivistic culture. The international trade may bring about a lot in terms of cross-cultural communication and international business negotiation, but adopting cooperative communication in the international business negotiations will create more integrative agreements between the international business negotiators. Many scholars believe that if both parties have similarities in communication styles, it will lead to positive interaction (cooperative communication that contributes to cooperation and influences the interaction goals (negotiation outcome. This paper offers critical insight into the theoretical link between interdependent selfconstrual and interaction goals. The proposed cross-cultural communication model uses interdependent self-construal and cooperative communication to understand when collectivistic business negotiators develop relationships that promotes positive interaction goals (negotiation outcome.

  2. Assessing Space Exploration Technology Requirements as a First Step Towards Ensuring Technology Readiness for International Cooperation in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Satoh, Maoki; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Neumann, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Advancing critical and enhancing technologies is considered essential to enabling sustainable and affordable human space exploration. Critical technologies are those that enable a certain class of mission, such as technologies necessary for safe landing on the Martian surface, advanced propulsion, and closed loop life support. Others enhance the mission by leading to a greater satisfaction of mission objectives or increased probability of mission success. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce mass and cost. Many space agencies have studied exploration mission architectures and scenarios with the resulting lists of critical and enhancing technologies being very similar. With this in mind, and with the recognition that human space exploration will only be enabled by agencies working together to address these challenges, interested agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) have agreed to perform a technology assessment as an important step in exploring cooperation opportunities for future exploration mission scenarios. "The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" was developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Since the fall of 2008, several International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon. They have identified technologies considered critical and enhancing of sustainable space exploration. Technologies such as in-situ resource utilization, advanced power generation/energy storage systems, reliable dust resistant mobility systems, and closed loop life support systems are important examples. Similarly, agencies such as NASA, ESA, and Russia have studied Mars exploration missions and identified critical technologies. They recognize that human and robotic precursor missions to destinations such as LEO, moon, and near earth objects provide opportunities to demonstrate the

  3. Regional technical cooperation model project, IAEA - RER/2/2004 ''quality control and quality assurance for nuclear analytical techniques'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical laboratory should produce high quality analytical data through the use of analytical measurements that is accurate, reliable and adequate for the intended purpose. This objective can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner under a planned and documented quality system of activities. It is well-known that serious deficiencies can occur in laboratory operations when insufficient attention is given to the quality of the work. It requires not only a thorough knowledge of the laboratory's purpose and operation, but also the dedication of the management and operating staff to standards of excellence. Laboratories employing nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques are sometimes confronted with performance problems which prevent them from becoming accepted and respected by clients, such as industry, government and regulatory bodies, and from being eligible for contracts. The International Standard ISO 17025 has been produced as the result of extensive experience in the implementation of ISO/IEC Guide 25:1990 and EN 45001:1989, which replaces both of them now. It contains all of the requirements that testing and calibration laboratories must meet if they wish to demonstrate that they operate a quality system that is technically competent, and are able to generate technically valid results. The use of ISO 17025 should facilitate cooperation between laboratories and other bodies to assist in the exchange of information and experience, and in the harmonization of standards and procedures. IAEA model project RER/2/004 entitled 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Nuclear Analytical Techniques' was initiated in 1999 as a Regional TC project in East European countries to assist Member State laboratories in the region to install a complete quality system according to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. 12 laboratories from 11 countries plus the Agency's Laboratories in Seibersdorf have been selected as participants to undergo exercises and training with the

  4. 45 CFR 264.30 - What procedures exist to ensure cooperation with the child support enforcement requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the child support enforcement requirements? 264.30 Section 264.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OTHER ACCOUNTABILITY PROVISIONS What Specific Rules Apply...

  5. Fuzzy bilevel programming with multiple non-cooperative followers: model, algorithm and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hua; Huang, Hu; Ralescu, Dan A.; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    In centralized decision problems, it is not complicated for decision-makers to make modelling technique selections under uncertainty. When a decentralized decision problem is considered, however, choosing appropriate models is no longer easy due to the difficulty in estimating the other decision-makers' inconclusive decision criteria. These decision criteria may vary with different decision-makers because of their special risk tolerances and management requirements. Considering the general differences among the decision-makers in decentralized systems, we propose a general framework of fuzzy bilevel programming including hybrid models (integrated with different modelling methods in different levels). Specially, we discuss two of these models which may have wide applications in many fields. Furthermore, we apply the proposed two models to formulate a pricing decision problem in a decentralized supply chain with fuzzy coefficients. In order to solve these models, a hybrid intelligent algorithm integrating fuzzy simulation, neural network and particle swarm optimization based on penalty function approach is designed. Some suggestions on the applications of these models are also presented.

  6. Models for cooperative games with fuzzy relations among the agents fuzzy communication, proximity relation and fuzzy permission

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Losada, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction to cooperative game theory and a practice-oriented reference guide to new models and tools for studying bilateral fuzzy relations among several agents or players. It introduces the reader to several fuzzy models, each of which is first analyzed in the context of classical games (crisp games) and subsequently in the context of fuzzy games. Special emphasis is given to the value of Shapley, which is presented for the first time in the context of fuzzy games. Students and researchers will find here a self-contained reference guide to cooperative fuzzy games, characterized by a wealth of examples, descriptions of a wide range of possible situations, step-by-step explanations of the basic mathematical concepts involved, and easy-to-follow information on axioms and properties.

  7. Intention recognition, commitment and their roles in the evolution of cooperation from artificial intelligence techniques to evolutionary game theory models

    CERN Document Server

    Han, The Anh

    2013-01-01

    This original and timely monograph describes a unique self-contained excursion that reveals to the readers the roles of two basic cognitive abilities, i.e. intention recognition and arranging commitments, in the evolution of cooperative behavior. This book analyses intention recognition, an important ability that helps agents predict others’ behavior, in its artificial intelligence and evolutionary computational modeling aspects, and proposes a novel intention recognition method. Furthermore, the book presents a new framework for intention-based decision making and illustrates several ways in which an ability to recognize intentions of others can enhance a decision making process. By employing the new intention recognition method and the tools of evolutionary game theory, this book introduces computational models demonstrating that intention recognition promotes the emergence of cooperation within populations of self-regarding agents. Finally, the book describes how commitment provides a pathway to the evol...

  8. Perangkat Pembelajaran Model Cooperative Scripts Untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep dan Mengeliminasi Miskonsepsi IPA pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka Indriani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran IPA di Sekolah Dasar model Cooperative Scripts dengan 4D modifikasi yang bertujuan untuk mengeliminasi Miskonsepsi pemahaman konsep IPA pada pokok bahasan materi sistem pernapasan. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif dan deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perangkat pembelajaran valid, keterlaksanaan pembelajaran baik (3.97, kegiatan berpusat pada murid aktif. Hasil tes pemahaman konsep siswa dianalisis dengan N-gain menunjukkan pemahaman konsep IPA siswa meningkat (0.65 begitu pula dengan eliminasi Miskonsepsi siswa, sejalan dengan hasil penilaian afektif siswa menunjukkan hasil yang baik (3.9. Simpulan penelitian ini, bahwa perangkat pembelajaran IPA model Cooperative Scripts layak, dapat meningkatkan dan berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap eliminasi Miskonsepsi pemahaman konsep IPA siswa di Sekolah Dasar. 

  9. Interactive effect of co-operative learning model and learning goals of students on academic achievement of students in mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Shefali Pandya *

    2011-01-01

    The study seeks to ascertain whether co-operative learning model is equally effective for students with mastery and performance goals. The study uses quasi-experimental and factorial design for conducting the experiment. The experiment was conducted on 153 students of standard IX studying in schools affiliated to the SSC Board and with English as the medium of instruction. It has used two tools, namely, achievement test in mathematics and learning goals inventory both developed by the researc...

  10. Modeling and performance analysis of cooperative communications in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a network comprised of a primary user and a secondary user with the latter having cognitive radio capabilities. The secondary node uses the empty slots of the primary user to transmit its own traffic as well as to relay the primary\\'s traffic in a cooperative fashion. Taking a queuing theory approach, we find the probability generating functions of the numbers of packets in the queues of the primary and secondary users. Subsequently, we determine a number of performance measures such as the average queues\\' lengths, average packet transmission delays and secondary user\\'s queue surcharge due to cooperation. The numerical results along with the simulations show the importance of controlling the number of primary user packets admitted by the secondary user for cooperation and its impacts on the other performance measures. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  12. TLR9 is required for MAPK/NF-κB activation but does not cooperate with TLR2 or TLR6 to induce host resistance to Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Túlio; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Pereira, Guilherme de Sousa; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Splitter, Gary; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2016-05-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence, leading to undulant fever in humans and abortion in domestic animals. B. abortus is recognized by several pattern-recognition receptors triggering pathways during the host innate immune response. Therefore, here, we determined the cooperative role of TLR9 with TLR2 or TLR6 receptors in sensing Brucella Furthermore, we deciphered the host innate immune response against B. abortus or its DNA, emphasizing the role of TLR9-MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. TLR9 is required for the initial host control of B. abortus, but this TLR was dispensable after 6 wk of infection. The susceptibility of TLR9(-/-)-infected animals to Brucella paralleled with lower levels of IFN-γ produced by mouse splenocytes stimulated with this pathogen compared with wild-type cells. However, no apparent cooperative interplay was observed between TLR2-TLR9 or TLR6-TLR9 receptors to control infection. Moreover, B. abortus or its DNA induced activation of MAPK/NF-κB pathways and production of IL-12 and TNF-α by macrophages partially dependent on TLR9 but completely dependent on MyD88. In addition, B. abortus-derived CpG oligonucleotides required TLR9 to promote IL-12 and TNF-α production by macrophages. By confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that TLR9 redistributed and colocalized with lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 upon Brucella infection. Thus, B. abortus induced TLR9 traffic, leading to cell signaling activation and IL-12 and TNF-α production. Although TLR9 recognized Brucella CpG motifs, our results suggest a new pathway of B. abortus DNA-activating macrophages independent of TLR9. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Business Process Simulation: Requirements for Business and Resource Models

    OpenAIRE

    Audrius Rima; Olegas Vasilecas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is to provide easily understandable graphical representation of business process. Thus BPMN is widely used and applied in various areas one of them being a business process simulation. This paper addresses some BPMN model based business process simulation problems. The paper formulate requirements for business process and resource models in enabling their use for business process simulation.

  14. Business Process Simulation: Requirements for Business and Resource Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN is to provide easily understandable graphical representation of business process. Thus BPMN is widely used and applied in various areas one of them being a business process simulation. This paper addresses some BPMN model based business process simulation problems. The paper formulate requirements for business process and resource models in enabling their use for business process simulation.

  15. An informatics model for tissue banks – Lessons learned from the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in molecular biology and growing requirements from biomarker validation studies have generated a need for tissue banks to provide quality-controlled tissue samples with standardized clinical annotation. The NCI Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR is a distributed tissue bank that comprises four academic centers and provides thousands of clinically annotated prostate cancer specimens to researchers. Here we describe the CPCTR information management system architecture, common data element (CDE development, query interfaces, data curation, and quality control. Methods Data managers review the medical records to collect and continuously update information for the 145 clinical, pathological and inventorial CDEs that the Resource maintains for each case. An Access-based data entry tool provides de-identification and a standard communication mechanism between each group and a central CPCTR database. Standardized automated quality control audits have been implemented. Centrally, an Oracle database has web interfaces allowing multiple user-types, including the general public, to mine de-identified information from all of the sites with three levels of specificity and granularity as well as to request tissues through a formal letter of intent. Results Since July 2003, CPCTR has offered over 6,000 cases (38,000 blocks of highly characterized prostate cancer biospecimens, including several tissue microarrays (TMA. The Resource developed a website with interfaces for the general public as well as researchers and internal members. These user groups have utilized the web-tools for public query of summary data on the cases that were available, to prepare requests, and to receive tissues. As of December 2005, the Resource received over 130 tissue requests, of which 45 have been reviewed, approved and filled. Additionally, the Resource implemented the TMA Data Exchange Specification in its TMA program and created a

  16. Regional cooperation for European seas: Governance models in support of the implementation of the MSFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Raakjaer, J.; Leeuwen, van J.; Hoof, van L.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    During the implementation process of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), Member States are expected to cooperate and coordinate at the regional sea level as wells as arrange stakeholder involvement. However, the MSFD does not specify any governing structures to do so. The aim of this

  17. Developing Global Standards Framework and Quality Integrated Models for Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khampirat, Buratin; McRae, Norah

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative and Work-integrated Education (CWIE) programs have been widely accepted as educational programs that can effectively connect what students are learning to the world of work through placements. Because a global quality standards framework could be a very valuable resource and guide to establishing, developing, and accrediting quality…

  18. Is Cooperative Memory Special? The Role of Costly Errors, Context, and Social Network Size When Remembering Cooperative Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Winke

    2017-10-01

    require excellent memory. Thus, modeling the evolution of cooperation requires an understanding of both the social environment in which agents interact and the cognitive capabilities of these agents.

  19. Principles and models of a co-operative systems of a supervision aid; SCAS: principes et modeles d`un systeme cooperatif d`assistance a la supervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, J.M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Cases, E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Brezillon, P. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Minault, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the functioning principles and the necessary models for a cooperative system of supervision aid (SCAS) used for a high-automated workshop. A meta-system of supervision is made up of the operator and the SCAS. The SCAS can operate under 2 different modes: wakefulness and cooperation. On the first one the behaviours of the process and the operator is observed and analysed. On the second one, it helps to solve the problems occurred by the operator. (TEC). 3 refs.

  20. Building a Narrative Based Requirements Engineering Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Hall, Tracy; Barker, Trevor

    This paper presents a narrative-based Requirements Engineering (RE) mediation model to help RE practitioners to effectively identify, define, and resolve conflicts of interest, goals, and requirements. Within the SPI community, there is a common belief that social, human, and organizational issues significantly impact on the effectiveness of software process improvement in general and the requirements engineering process in particularl. Conflicts among different stakeholders are an important human and social issue that need more research attention in the SPI and RE community. By drawing on the conflict resolution literature and IS literature, we argue that conflict resolution in RE is a mediated process, in which a requirements engineer can act as a mediator among different stakeholders. To address socio-psychological aspects of conflict in RE and SPI, Winslade and Monk (2000)'s narrative mediation model is introduced, justified, and translated into the context of RE.

  1. International cooperation in healthcare: model of IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo Association for congenital heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigiola, Alessandro; Moussaidi, Nadia; Giamberti, Alessandro; Pomé, Giuseppe; Isgrò, Giuseppe; Youssef, Tammam; Reali, Matteo; Varrica, Alessandro; Nuri, Halkawt A; Cirri, Silvia; Carminati, Mario; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Ferrari, Roberto; Ranucci, Marco

    2016-04-28

    Cooperation activity in training programmes promoted by IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo Association is a model of cooperation between people as an alternative intervention in promoting the right to healthcare, especially offering programmes of training and medical care on cardiovascular and congenital heart disease. This new strategy, implemented in several developing countries, has absolutely contributed to the improvement of the medical services concerning the diagnostic and surgical approach in the treatment of paediatric and adult cardiovascular disease. To strengthen this kind of activity, both IRCCS Policlinico San Donato and Bambini Cardiopatici nel Mondo have introduced a global perspective aiming at the realization of surgical missions 'in situ', building new cardiac surgery units in collaboration with the local partners, which are mainly university hospitals. They, furthermore, support financially the scholarship and accommodation in favour of medical and paramedical staff.

  2. Modelling Security Requirements Through Extending Scrum Agile Development Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Minahi

    2016-01-01

    Security is today considered as a basic foundation in software development and therefore, the modelling and implementation of security requirements is an essential part of the production of secure software systems. Information technology organisations are moving towards agile development methods in order to satisfy customers' changing requirements in light of accelerated evolution and time restrictions with their competitors in software production. Security engineering is considered difficult...

  3. Energy sector integration for low carbon development in Greater Mekong sub-region: Towards a model of South-South cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yongping

    2010-09-15

    The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) in Southeast Asia has embarked on a roadmap of power interconnection and expanded energy sector cooperation. An Asian development bank committed study using Model of Energy Supply Systems Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) assessed the impacts of various scenarios, the results indicate that GMS integration will help these countries to achieve low carbon and sustainable development. The article suggests that the experience of GMS cooperation be made a model for South-South cooperation in the global effort to fight climate change.

  4. Model-based human reliability analysis: prospects and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Chang, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    Major limitations of the conventional methods for human reliability analysis (HRA), particularly those developed for operator response analysis in probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) of nuclear power plants, are summarized as a motivation for the need and a basis for developing requirements for the next generation HRA methods. It is argued that a model-based approach that provides explicit cognitive causal links between operator behaviors and directly or indirectly measurable causal factors should be at the core of the advanced methods. An example of such causal model is briefly reviewed, where due to the model complexity and input requirements can only be currently implemented in a dynamic PSA environment. The computer simulation code developed for this purpose is also described briefly, together with current limitations in the models, data, and the computer implementation

  5. China’s Higher Education Engagement with Africa: A Different Partnership and Cooperation Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth King

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the nature of China’s educational partnerships with Africa? This chapter examines China’s investment in human resource development in Africa, especially in higher education, through several programmes including long- and short-term training of Africans in China, Confucius Institutes, stand-alone projects, and the 20+20 scheme for higher education cooperation between China and Africa. It investigates several apparent differences between China’s aid discourse and practice and those of traditional Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD donors. It asks how the enduring continuity of China’s discourse on mutual benefit and common good in educational aid can be explained. Can what looks like a one-way partnership in terms of financing really, in fact, be symmetrical?

  6. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.

  7. Critical Business Requirements Model and Metrics for Intranet ROI

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Jacoby, Grant A.

    2005-01-01

    Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-30. This research provides the first theoretical model, the Intranet Efficiency and Effectiveness Model (IEEM), to measure intranet overall value contributions based on a corporation’s critical business requirements by applying a balanced baseline of metrics and conversion ratios linked to key business processes of knowledge workers, IT managers and business decision makers -- in effect, closing the gap of understanding...

  8. Cooperating with machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Jacob W; Oudah, Mayada; Tennom; Ishowo-Oloko, Fatimah; Abdallah, Sherief; Bonnefon, Jean-François; Cebrian, Manuel; Shariff, Azim; Goodrich, Michael A; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-16

    Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions. Here, we develop an algorithm that combines a state-of-the-art reinforcement-learning algorithm with mechanisms for signaling. We show that this algorithm can cooperate with people and other algorithms at levels that rival human cooperation in a variety of two-player repeated stochastic games. These results indicate that general human-machine cooperation is achievable using a non-trivial, but ultimately simple, set of algorithmic mechanisms.

  9. Evolution of global cooperation driven by risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2012-05-01

    Globalization facilitates our communication with each other, while it magnifies problems such as overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced climate change. Thus people all over the world are involved in a global social dilemma which calls for worldwide cooperation to reduce the risks of these extreme events and disasters. A collective target (threshold) is required to prevent such events. Everyone may lose their wealth once their total individual contributions fail to reach the threshold. To this end, we establish a model of threshold public goods games in a group-structured population and investigate its evolutionary process. We study multilevel public goods games with defectors, local cooperators, and global cooperators and are primarily concerned with how the global cooperative behavior evolves. We find that, compared with the standard public goods games, the strategy of global cooperation accounts for a bigger proportion in the stationary distribution of threshold public goods games. On the other hand, the fixation time of the global cooperation strategy is greatly shortened with increase of the probability of disaster striking. Therefore, global risks induced by the threshold can effectively promote global cooperation in environmental investment and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Discussion on school-enterprise cooperation talent cultivation model for restaurant food safety major

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-hua LI; Li-ping MA

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant food safety school aims to cultivate high-skilled talents with professional ethics and professional quality for various food and beverage industries. They not only grasp basic knowledge and comprehensive vocational ability of restaurant food safety management, nutrition guidance and food matching, management and administration of catering industry but also adapt to the development of modern hotel and catering industry. Based on continuous exploration and cooperative experience with...

  11. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  12. Under new auspices: transition process and cooperation models in the French-German energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diechtl, Franca; Fischer, Severin

    2015-06-01

    Cooperation on energy matters has been a matter of priority in Franco-German consultations for some time. Not only is close coordination advisable due to the geographic proximity of Europe's two largest national energy markets. Their growing degree of economic (and energy) integration makes it necessary. The significance of energy policy for industrial policy on both sides of the Rhine is unmistakable. While policy approaches in the two countries' energy sectors have differed in the past and in some ways continue to do so, this has not diminished the topic's relevance or lessened the importance of cross-border cooperation. What is new is that both states are now pursuing the same goal: energy transformation (known as Energiewende, or 'transition energetique', depending on which side of the Rhine you are on). There are therefore plenty of good reasons to strive for closer cooperation on matters of energy policy and, in doing so, help bridge some of the gaps in the sputtering Franco-German relationship. (authors)

  13. Structural and reactivity models for copper oxygenases: cooperative effects and novel reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Company, Anna; Costas, Miquel

    2015-08-18

    Dioxygen is widely used in nature as oxidant. Nature itself has served as inspiration to use O2 in chemical synthesis. However, the use of dioxygen as an oxidant is not straightforward. Its triplet ground-state electronic structure makes it unreactive toward most organic substrates. In natural systems, metalloenzymes activate O2 by reducing it to more reactive peroxide (O2(2-)) or superoxide (O2(-)) forms. Over the years, the development of model systems containing transition metals has become a convenient tool for unravelling O2-activation mechanistic aspects and reproducing the oxidative activity of enzymes. Several copper-based systems have been developed within this area. Tyrosinase is a copper-based O2-activating enzyme, whose structure and reactivity have been widely studied, and that serves as a paradigm for O2 activation at a dimetal site. It contains a dicopper center in its active site, and it catalyzes the regioselective ortho-hydroxylation of phenols to catechols and further oxidation to quinones. This represents an important step in melanin biosynthesis and it is mediated by a dicopper(II) side-on peroxo intermediate species. In the present accounts, our research in the field of copper models for oxygen activation is collected. We have developed m-xylyl linked dicopper systems that mimick structural and reactivity aspects of tyrosinase. Synergistic cooperation of the two copper(I) centers results in O2 binding and formation of bis(μ-oxo)dicopper(III) cores. These in turn bind and ortho-hydroxylate phenolates via an electrophilic attack of the oxo ligand over the arene. Interestingly the bis(μ-oxo)dicopper(III) cores can also engage in ortho-hydroxylation-defluorination of deprotonated 2-fluorophenols, substrates that are well-known enzyme inhibitors. Analysis of Cu2O2 species with different binding modes show that only the bis(μ-oxo)dicopper(III) cores can mediate the reaction. Finally, the use of unsymmetric systems for oxygen activation is a field

  14. Exploiting structure in cooperative Bayesian games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliehoek, F.A.; Whiteson, S.; Spaan, M.T.J.; de Freitas, N.; Murphy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative Bayesian games (BGs) can model decision-making problems for teams of agents under imperfect information, but require space and computation time that is exponential in the number of agents. While agent independence has been used to mitigate these problems in perfect information settings,

  15. Outage analysis of selective cooperation in underlay cognitive networks with fixed gain relays and primary interference modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-09-01

    Selective cooperation is a well investigated technique in non-cognitive networks for efficient spectrum utilization and performance improvement. However, it is still a nascent topic for underlay cognitive networks. Recently, it was investigated for underlay networks where the secondary nodes were able to adapt their transmit power to always satisfy the interference threshold to the primary users. This is a valid assumption for cellular networks but many non-cellular devices have fixed transmit powers. In this situation, selective cooperation poses a more challenging problem and performs entirely differently. In this paper, we extend our previous work of selective cooperation based on either hop\\'s signal to noise ratio (SNR) with fixed gain and fixed transmit power relays in an underlay cognitive network. This work lacked in considering the primary interference over the cognitive network and presented a rather idealistic analysis. This paper deals with a more realistic system model and includes the effects of primary interference on the secondary transmission. We first derive end-to-end signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) expression and the related statistics for a dual-hop relay link using asymptotic and approximate approaches. We then derive the statistics of the selected relay link based on maximum end-to-end SINR among the relays satisfying the interference threshold to the primary user. Using this statistics, we derive closed form asymptotic and approximate expressions for the outage probability of the system. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is concluded that selective cooperation in underlay cognitive networks performs better only in low to medium SNR regions. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  17. Models of protein and amino acid requirements for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein supply and requirements by ruminants have been studied for more than a century. These studies led to the accumulation of lots of scientific information about digestion and metabolism of protein by ruminants as well as the characterization of the dietary protein in order to maximize animal performance. During the 1980s and 1990s, when computers became more accessible and powerful, scientists began to conceptualize and develop mathematical nutrition models, and to program them into computers to assist with ration balancing and formulation for domesticated ruminants, specifically dairy and beef cattle. The most commonly known nutrition models developed during this period were the National Research Council (NRC in the United States, Agricultural Research Council (ARC in the United Kingdom, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA in France, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO in Australia. Others were derivative works from these models with different degrees of modifications in the supply or requirement calculations, and the modeling nature (e.g., static or dynamic, mechanistic, or deterministic. Circa 1990s, most models adopted the metabolizable protein (MP system over the crude protein (CP and digestible CP systems to estimate supply of MP and the factorial system to calculate MP required by the animal. The MP system included two portions of protein (i.e., the rumen-undegraded dietary CP - RUP - and the contributions of microbial CP - MCP as the main sources of MP for the animal. Some models would explicitly account for the impact of dry matter intake (DMI on the MP required for maintenance (MPm; e.g., Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System - CNCPS, the Dutch system - DVE/OEB, while others would simply account for scurf, urinary, metabolic fecal, and endogenous contributions independently of DMI. All models included milk yield and its components in estimating MP required for lactation

  18. EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE STAD JUST-IN TIME BASED ON THE RESULTS OF LEARNING TEACHING PHYSICS COURSE IN PHYSICS SCHOOL IN PHYSICS PROGRAM FACULTY UNIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Febri Sudarma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was aimed to determine: (1 Students’ learning outcomes that was taught with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method and STAD cooperative learning method (2 Students’ outcomes on Physics subject that had high learning activity compared with low learning activity. The research sample was random by raffling four classes to get two classes. The first class taught with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method, while the second class was taught with STAD cooperative learning method. The instrument used was conceptual understanding that had been validated with 7 essay questions. The average gain values of students learning results with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method 0,47 higher than average gain values of students learning results with STAD cooperative learning method. The high learning activity and low learning activity gave different learning results. In this case the average gain values of students learning results with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method 0,48 higher than average gain values of students learning results with STAD cooperative learning method. There was interaction between learning model and learning activity to the physics learning result test in students

  19. A novel mouse model identifies cooperating mutations and therapeutic targets critical for chronic myeloid leukemia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotopoulos, George; van der Weyden, Louise; Osaki, Hikari; Rust, Alistair G.; Gallipoli, Paolo; Meduri, Eshwar; Horton, Sarah J.; Chan, Wai-In; Foster, Donna; Prinjha, Rab K.; Pimanda, John E.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Vassiliou, George S.; Koschmieder, Steffen; Adams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of highly selective ABL-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, TKIs are only efficacious in the chronic phase of the disease and effective therapies for TKI-refractory CML, or after progression to blast crisis (BC), are lacking. Whereas the chronic phase of CML is dependent on BCR-ABL, additional mutations are required for progression to BC. However, the identity of these mutations and the pathways they affect are poorly understood, hampering our ability to identify therapeutic targets and improve outcomes. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that allows identification of mechanisms of BC progression in an unbiased and tractable manner, using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis on the background of chronic phase CML. Our BC model is the first to faithfully recapitulate the phenotype, cellular and molecular biology of human CML progression. We report a heterogeneous and unique pattern of insertions identifying known and novel candidate genes and demonstrate that these pathways drive disease progression and provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Our model greatly informs the biology of CML progression and provides a potent resource for the development of candidate therapies to improve the dismal outcomes in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26304963

  20. The effect of integrating cooperative learning into 5E inquiry learning model on interpersonal skills of high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholphuet, Preedaporn; Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Khumwong, Pinit; Praphairaksit, Nalena

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of integrating cooperative learning into 5E inquiry learning model on interpersonal skills of high school students. Two 10th grade classrooms consisting of 63 students were obtained by purposive sampling then one was assigned as an experimental and the other as a control group. The cooperative learning was integrated into 5E inquiry model for the experimental group in addition to the normal 5E inquiry model in the control group. A 5-level rating scale questionnaire was used for data collection both before and after the experiment. Furthermore, a descriptive journal from each student was added to the study after the researchers realized a significant difference in the teamwork skill of each group. Data from questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results showed that the experimental group had a significantly higher score of interpersonal skills when compared to the control group (pgroups. The journals of the students showed the difference of working preference among two group. It could conclude that the learning intervention enhanced team working in 5 aspects including time management, the outcome of the work, the process of the work and the attitude of the students. The students in the experimental group demonstrated more creative ideas and were more likely to listen to other student ideas. The students in experimental group were less competitive and were more open in sharing and helping others. In conclusion, the addition of cooperative learning in to the usual 5E inquiry learning, not only help the students to achieve the knowledge but also help develop good interpersonal skills.

  1. Cooperative Metabolism in a Three-Partner Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis Revealed by Metabolic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankrah, Nana Y D; Luan, Junbo; Douglas, Angela E

    2017-08-01

    An important factor determining the impact of microbial symbionts on their animal hosts is the balance between the cost of nutrients consumed by the symbionts and the benefit of nutrients released back to the host, but the quantitative significance of nutrient exchange in symbioses involving multiple microbial partners has rarely been addressed. In this study on the association between two intracellular bacterial symbionts, " Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and " Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa," and their animal host, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci , we apply metabolic modeling to investigate host-symbiont nutrient exchange. Our in silico analysis revealed that >60% of the essential amino acids and related metabolites synthesized by " Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" are utilized by the host, including a substantial contribution of nitrogen recycled from host nitrogenous waste, and that these interactions are required for host growth. In contrast, " Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" retains most or all of the essential amino acids and B vitamins that it is capable of synthesizing. Furthermore, " Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" suppresses host growth in silico by competition with " Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" for multiple host nutrients, by suppressing " Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" growth and metabolic function, and also by consumption of host nutrients that would otherwise be allocated to host growth. The interpretation from these modeling outputs that " Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" is a nutritional parasite could not be inferred reliably from gene content alone but requires consideration of constraints imposed by the structure of the metabolic network. Furthermore, these quantitative models offer precise predictions for future experimental study and the opportunity to compare the functional organization of metabolic networks in different symbioses. IMPORTANCE The metabolic functions of unculturable intracellular bacteria with much reduced

  2. Atmospheric disturbance modelling requirements for flying qualities applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Flying qualities are defined as those airplane characteristics which govern the ease or precision with which the pilot can accomplish the mission. Some atmospheric disturbance modelling requirements for aircraft flying qualities applications are reviewed. It is concluded that some simplifications are justified in identifying the primary influence on aircraft response and pilot control. It is recommended that a universal environmental model be developed, which could form the reference for different applications. This model should include the latest information on winds, turbulence, gusts, visibility, icing and precipitation. A chosen model would be kept by a national agency and updated regularly by feedback from users. A user manual is believed to be an essential part of such a model.

  3. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling/ Transport and Dynamics in Torodial Fusion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanck, Dalton D.

    2010-01-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Extended MHD Modeling, DE-FC02-06ER54870, for the period 7/1/06 to 2/15/08. Principal results for this period are: 1. Development of a model for computational modeling for the primitive form of the extended MMD equations. This was reported as Phys. Plasmas 13, 058103 (2006). 2. Comparison between the NIMROD and M3D codes for simulation of the nonlinear sawtooth crash in the CDXU tokamak. This was reported in Phys. Plasmas 14, 056105 (2006). 3. Demonstration of 2-fluid and gyroviscous stabilization of interchange modes using computational extended MHD models. This was reported in Phys. Rev. Letters 101, 085005 (2008). Each of these publications is attached as an Appendix of this report. They should be consulted for technical details.

  4. PENGARUH MODEL COOPERATIVE CLASS EXPERIMENT (CCE TIPE TEAM GAMES TOURNAMENT(TGT PADA KBK DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Mahda Akhmad Sa'idun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pembelajaran yang masih menggunakan metode konvensional menyebabkan pencapaian kompetensi matapelajaran kimia masih tergolong rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Model Cooperative Class Experiment (CCE tipe Team Games Tournament (TGT pada KBK dan Hasil Be/ajar siswa SMA topik reaksi redoks. Penentuan sampel menggunakan teknik cluster random sampling dan menghasikan siswa kelas X8 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas X7 sebagai kelas kontrol. Metode yang digunakan dalam pengambilan data adalah dokumentasi, tes dalam bentuk pilihan ganda dan essay berupa open-ended questions serta observasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hasil analisis data tes KBK yaitu pencapaian kelima subindikator KBK pada kelas eksperimen mencapai rata-rata 73, 75% yang berarti siswa dapat mengembangkan KBK dengan kriteria baik, sedangkan kelas kontrol dengan rata-rata 64,68% dalam kriteria KBK cukup. Dari hasil analisis, diperoleh rb 0,51 dengan besarnya kontribusi 26,29%. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran Model Cooperative Class Experiment (CCE Tipe Team Games Tournament (TGT berpengaruh pada KBK dan hasil be/ajar siswa suatu SMA di Semarang pada pokok materi redoks dengan kontribusi sebesar 26,29%.Learning with the conventional method make competency achievement in chemistry subject is still low. This study aimed to determine the effect of Model Cooperative Class Experiment (CCE type Team Games Tournament (TGT on CBC and Learning Outcomes on high school students in the topic of redox reactions. Sample determination was using cluster random sampling technique, class X8 grade students is as the experimental class and X7 class is as control class. The method used in data collection is documentation, in the form of multiple choice test and an essay in the form of open-ended questions and observations. The results showed that analysis of CBC data test achieved fifth subindikator CBC in the experimental class gained an

  5. Information Models, Data Requirements, and Agile Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Dan; Ritschel, Bernd; Hardman, Sean; Joyner, Ron

    2015-04-01

    The Planetary Data System's next generation system, PDS4, is an example of the successful use of an ontology-based Information Model (IM) to drive the development and operations of a data system. In traditional systems engineering, requirements or statements about what is necessary for the system are collected and analyzed for input into the design stage of systems development. With the advent of big data the requirements associated with data have begun to dominate and an ontology-based information model can be used to provide a formalized and rigorous set of data requirements. These requirements address not only the usual issues of data quantity, quality, and disposition but also data representation, integrity, provenance, context, and semantics. In addition the use of these data requirements during system's development has many characteristics of Agile Curation as proposed by Young et al. [Taking Another Look at the Data Management Life Cycle: Deconstruction, Agile, and Community, AGU 2014], namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. For example customers can be satisfied through early and continuous delivery of system software and services that are configured directly from the information model. This presentation will describe the PDS4 architecture and its three principle parts: the ontology-based Information Model (IM), the federated registries and repositories, and the REST-based service layer for search, retrieval, and distribution. The development of the IM will be highlighted with special emphasis on knowledge acquisition, the impact of the IM on development and operations, and the use of shared ontologies at multiple governance levels to promote system interoperability and data correlation.

  6. Human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes cooperatively regulate prostate tumor growth in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michael D; Harui, Airi

    2015-01-01

    The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating TIL. The immune system in NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice was reconstituted by the co-administration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or subsets (CD4+ or CD8+) and autologous human dendritic cells (DC), and animals simultaneously challenged by implanting human prostate cancer cells (PC3 line). Tumor growth was evaluated over time and the phenotype of recovered splenocytes and TIL characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Serum levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines were also assessed. A tumor-bearing huPBL-NSG model was established in which human leukocytes reconstituted secondary lymphoid organs and promoted the accumulation of TIL. These TIL exhibited a unique phenotype when compared to splenocytes with a predominance of CD8+ T cells that exhibited increased expression of CD69, CD56, and an effector memory phenotype. TIL from huPBL-NSG animals closely matched the features of TIL recovered from primary human prostate cancers. Human cytokines were readily detectible in the serum and exhibited a different profile in animals implanted with PBL alone, tumor alone, and those reconstituted with both. Immune reconstitution slowed but could not eliminate tumor growth and this effect required the presence of CD4+ T cell help. Simultaneous implantation of human PBL, DC and tumor results in a huPBL-NSG model that recapitulates the development of human TIL and allows an assessment of tumor and immune system interaction that cannot be carried out in humans

  7. A model technical cooperation project on the marine radioactivity assessment in the Black Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.; Koese, A.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Guengoer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region is a wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project coded as RER/2/003 implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001.This multidisciplinay project was designed in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey)- to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies. The IAEA assisted laboratories in the region by providing expert services, training, equipment and materials (Goektepe et al., 1998; Osvath et al., 1997-2000)

  8. Discussion on school-enterprise cooperation talent cultivation model for restaurant food safety major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-hua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant food safety school aims to cultivate high-skilled talents with professional ethics and professional quality for various food and beverage industries. They not only grasp basic knowledge and comprehensive vocational ability of restaurant food safety management, nutrition guidance and food matching, management and administration of catering industry but also adapt to the development of modern hotel and catering industry. Based on continuous exploration and cooperative experience with enterprises, the author attempts to provide reference basis for the establishment of restaurant food safety major.

  9. Model-based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Fabian [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Engel, Dominik [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and – if feasible – an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

  10. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  11. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Bilbao, Sonia; Martín-Wanton, Tamara; Bastos, Joaquim; Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2017-03-11

    In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning.

  12. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Bilbao, Sonia; Martín-Wanton, Tamara; Bastos, Joaquim; Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning. PMID:28287468

  13. Facial emotion linked cooperation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia: a test on the Interpersonal Communication Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Yan Lu; Bond, Alyson J; Chan, Raymond Ck; Tam, Danny W H

    2011-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia consistently show deficits in facial affect perception and social behaviours. It is illusive to suggest that these deficits in facial affect perception cause poor social behaviours. The present research aims to study how facial affects influence ingratiation, cooperation and punishment behaviours of the patients. Forty outpatients with paranoid schizophrenia, 26 matched depressed patients and 46 healthy volunteers were recruited. After measurement of clinical symptoms and depression, their facial emotion recognition, neurocognitive functioning and the facial affects dependent cooperative behaviour were measured using a modified version of Mixed-Motive Game. The depressed control group showed demographic characteristics, depression levels and neurocognitive functioning similar to the schizophrenic group. Patients with schizophrenia committed significantly more errors in neutral face identification than the other two groups. They were significantly more punitive on the Mixed-Motive Game in the neutral face condition. Neutral face misidentification was a unique emotion-processing deficit in the schizophrenic group. Their increase in punitive behaviours in the neutral face condition might confuse their family members and trigger more expressed emotion from them, thus increasing the risk of relapse. Family members might display more happy faces to promote positive relationships with patients.

  14. Learning to cooperate for cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Sharan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning to learn cooperatively requires several changes for teachers and students: in their perception of learning, in their attitudes towards teaching and learning, and in their social and cognitive behaviors in class. This article presents some of the ways that decades of research and practice have developed to enable teachers and students to acquire and adjust to these changes. In the process of change teachers and students are interconnected and interdependent, and together carry out the steps needed to create an authentic cooperative classroom.

  15. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  16. PENGARUH MODEL COOPERATIVE CLASS EXPERIMENT (CCE TIPE TEAM GAMES TOURNAMENT (TGT PADA KBK DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Mahda Akhmad Sa’idun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning with the conventional method make competency achievement in chemistry subject is still low. This study aimed to determine the effect of Model Cooperative Class Experiment (CCE type Team Games Tournament (TGT on CBC and Learning Outcomes on high school students in the topic of redox reactions. Sample determination was using cluster random sampling technique, class X8 grade students is as the experimental class and X7 class is as control class. The method used in data collection is documentation, in the form of multiple choice test and an essay in the form of open-ended questions and observations. The results showed that analysis of CBC data test achieved fifth subindikator CBC in the experimental class gained an average of 73.75%, which means that students can develop CBC with good criterion, while the control class with an average of 64.68% in the CBC is sufficient criteria. The analysis data obtained rb 0.51 with the contribution of 26.29%. The results of this study concluded that the implementation of Cooperative Learning Model Class Experi ment (CCE Study Team Games Tournament (TGT type have signiffican effect on CBC and student learning outcomes in high school in Semarang on the redox subject with the contribution of 26.29%.

  17. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  18. Globalization and human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  19. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development......, business model development and financial development. The trinity requires time to get the specific insight on application for each SME. An enhanced contribution is made to the field of SMEs, to academia and to public bodies to understand the needed initiatives to support SMEs for innovation and growth...

  20. Analysis of Behavioral Economics in Crowdsensing: A Loss Aversion Cooperation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing incentive mechanisms of crowdsourcing construct the expected utility function based on the assumption of rational people in traditional economics. A large number of studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated the defects of the traditional utility function and introduced a new parameter called loss aversion coefficient to calculate individual utility when it suffers a loss. In this paper, combination of behavioral economics and a payment algorithm based on the loss aversion is proposed. Compared with usual incentive mechanisms, the node utility function is redefined by the loss aversion characteristic of the node. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can get a higher rate of cooperation with a lower payment price and has good scalability compared with the traditional incentive mechanism.

  1. Development of a model for organisation of and cooperation on home-based rehabilitation - an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, Sissel; Lippestad, Jan-W; Isaksen, Hanne; Werner, Anne

    2014-01-01

    To use general policy guidelines and staff experience of rehabilitation work in two boroughs in Oslo to develop a model for organisation and cooperation in home-based rehabilitation. The project was conducted as a collaboration between researchers and employees in the two boroughs. It was a practice-oriented study designed as an action research project combining knowledge generation and improvement of practice. Data were collected at seven meetings, and individual, qualitative interviews with a total of 24 persons were conducted in the period February 2010 to June 2011. Home-based rehabilitation occurred rarely in the boroughs, and this field received little attention. However, this project provided a broad discussion of rehabilitation involving all parts of the organisation of both boroughs. In the course of the project, researchers and borough staff together developed a model for the organisation of and cooperation on rehabilitation including a coordinating unit assigned the paramount responsibility for the rehabilitation and an interdisciplinary team organising the collaboration on the practical level. When implementing a model like this in primary health services, we recommend involving several levels and service locations of the borough staff in order to legitimise the model in the organisation. An increasing number of older people with chronic diseases in the Western world have caused increasing emphasis on rehabilitation in primary health care in patients' homes. This study has elucidated challenging framework conditions for rehabilitation work in two Norwegian boroughs. To reduce municipal challenges we propose a rehabilitation model with a coordinating unit with the paramount responsibility for rehabilitation, and an interdisciplinary team constituting a suitable structure for collaboration.

  2. The Qinshan phase III project-a successful model of sino-canadian cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, S.H.H.; Alikhan, S.; Gu Jun

    2005-01-01

    The Qinshan Phase III (CANDU) Project, the largest-scale cooperative project between China and Canada, was completed in 2003 well in advance of the schedule and 10% under budget. The Third Qinshan (Phase III) Nuclear Power Plant (TQNPP) was built in record times: Unit 1 achieved commercial operation on December 31, 2002 and Unit 2 on July 20, 2003, 43 days and 115 days ahead of schedule respectively. Improvements in design and construction methods allowed Unit 1 to be constructed in 51.5 months from First Concrete to Criticality - a record in China for nuclear power plants. The key factors are project management and project management tools, quality assurance, construction methods, electronic documentation with configuration control that provides up-to-date on-line information, CADDS design linked with material management and control. New design and construction techniques were introduced by combining conventional AECL practices with working experiences in China. The most advanced tools and techniques for achieving optimum construction quality, schedule and cost were used. Successful application of advanced project management methods and tools has benefited TQNPC in its subsequent plant operation, and the Chinese contractors in advancing their capabilities in future nuclear projects in China as well as enhancing their opportunities internationally. Excellent co-operation and teamwork within the integrated TQNPC/AECL Commissioning Team with well documented QA program, process and procedures also contributed to the remarkable success of the Project. AECL's initial assessment, based on lessons learned, showed that the project schedule could readily be reduced to 66 months and the capital costs reduced by 25% for a replication project. AECL is building on this experience and successful results of TQNPP in its Advanced CANDU Reactor TM (ACR TM ) ** design. (authors)

  3. Modelling human resource requirements for the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Ferry [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Flore, Massimo; Estorff, Ulrik von [Joint Research Center (JRC) (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    The European Human Resource Observatory for Nuclear (EHRO-N) provides the European Commission with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts in the EU-28 and the enlargement and integration countries based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The objective is to assess how the supply of experts for the nuclear industry responds to the needs for the same experts for present and future nuclear projects in the region. Complementary to the bottom-up approach taken by the EHRO-N team at JRC, a top-down modelling approach has been taken in a collaboration with NRG in the Netherlands. This top-down modelling approach focuses on the human resource requirements for operation, construction, decommissioning, and efforts for long term operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes the top-down methodology, the model input, the main assumptions, and the results of the analyses.

  4. Formal Requirements Modeling for Reactive Systems with Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon

    . This is important because it represents the identi cation of what is being designed (the reactive system), and what is given and being made assumptions about (the environment). The representation of the environment is further partitioned to distinguish human actors from non-human actors. This allows the modeler...... to addressing the problem of validating formal requirements models through interactive graphical animations is presented. Executable Use Cases (EUCs) provide a framework for integrating three tiers of descriptions of specifications and environment assumptions: the lower tier is an informal description...... to distinguish the modeling artifacts describing the environment from those describing the specifications for a reactive system. The formalization allows for clear identi cation of interfaces between interacting domains, where the interaction takes place through an abstraction of possibly parameterized states...

  5. Virtual expansion of the technical vision system for smart vehicles based on multi-agent cooperation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapukhina, Nina; Senchenko, Roman; Kamenov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    Road safety and driving in dense traffic flows poses some challenges in receiving information about surrounding moving object, some of which can be in the vehicle's blind spot. This work suggests an approach to virtual monitoring of the objects in a current road scene via a system with a multitude of cooperating smart vehicles exchanging information. It also describes the intellectual agent model, and provides methods and algorithms of identifying and evaluating various characteristics of moving objects in video flow. Authors also suggest ways for integrating the information from the technical vision system into the model with further expansion of virtual monitoring for the system's objects. Implementation of this approach can help to expand the virtual field of view for a technical vision system.

  6. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  7. Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department.

  8. Comparison of two different running models for the shock wave lithotripsy machine in Taipei City Hospital: self-support versus outsourcing cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yi; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Chen, Li-Kuei

    2009-10-01

    To compare two different running models including self-support and outsourcing cooperation for the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) machine in Taipei City Hospital, we made a retrospective study. Self-support means that the hospital has to buy an SWL machine and get all the payment from SWL. In outsourcing cooperation, the cooperative company provides an SWL machine and shares the payment with the hospital. Between January 2002 and December 2006, we used self-support for the SWL machine, and from January 2007 to December 2008, we used outsourcing cooperation. We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL, and the break-even point was the lowest number of treatment sessions of SWL to make balance of payments every month. Quality parameters including stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate were evaluated. When outsourcing cooperation was used, there were significantly more treatment sessions of SWL every month than when utilizing self-support (36.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 48.1 +/- 8.4, P = 0.03). The cost of SWL for every treatment session was significantly higher using self-support than with outsourcing cooperation (25027.5 +/- 1789.8 NT$ vs. 21367.4 +/- 201.0 NT$). The break-even point was 28.3 (treatment sessions) for self-support, and 28.4 for outsourcing cooperation, when the hospital got 40% of the payment, which would decrease if the percentage increased. No significant differences were noticed for stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate of SWL between the two running models. Besides, outsourcing cooperation had lower cost (every treatment session), but a greater number of treatment sessions of SWL every month than self-support.

  9. Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

    2008-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models

  10. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  11. Model Penentuan Nilai Target Functional Requirement Berbasis Utilitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucuk Nur Rosyidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a product design and development process, a designer faces a problem to decide functional requirement (FR target values. That decision is made under a risk since it is conducted in the early design phase using incomplete information. Utility function can be used to reflect the decision maker attitude towards the risk in making such decision. In this research, we develop a utility-based model to determine FR target values using quadratic utility function and information from Quality Function Deployment (QFD. A pencil design is used as a numerical example using quadratic utility function for each FR. The model can be applied for balancing customer and designer interest in determining FR target values.

  12. Requirements traceability in model-driven development: Applying model and transformation conformance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Almeida, João; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Eck, Pascal

    The variety of design artifacts (models) produced in a model-driven design process results in an intricate relationship between requirements and the various models. This paper proposes a methodological framework that simplifies management of this relationship, which helps in assessing the quality of

  13. UPAYA MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SEJARAH MELALUI MODEL COOPERATIVE TIPE PICTURE AND PICTURE KELAS XI SMA N I KELAM PERMAI KABUPATEN SINTANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Susanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available motivation in learning history through Cooperative models of type Picture and Picture in class XI SMA N 1 Kelam Permai Sintang District?” This study used action research (action research conducted through two cycles with each cycle stages are planning, action, observation, and reflection. And forms of research that action research (classroom action research. Subjects in this study were students of class XI IPS 3 Kelam Permai Sintang District academic year 2014/2015, amounting to 27 people and 1 subject teachers of history. Data were obtained through classroom observation and documentation of the results of the actions taken and the data about the image, with this action research will note an increase or decrease after the class actions do persiklus. Research result are (1 Students motivation before using the model type Cooperativ Picture and Picture in class XI sejarahdi learning SMA N 1 Kelam Permai Sintang District the percentage of student motivation 57.0% categorized enough this can be seen from the results of pre-action that researchers do. Student motivation before using the model Cooperative Picture and Picture type varies greatly, since most of the students' motivation is still arguably less, because students are more likely to still passive, busy with their own activities and are less motivated to learn, (2 Application of Cooperative models of type Picture and Picture in pemebalajaran history in class XI IPS 3 SMAN 1 Kelam Permai Sintang District has implemented optimally and effectively. It can be seen from the students' motivation where students are more active, the students were interested and enthusiastic to follow the teaching of history. Because learning Cooperative models of type Picture and Picture is a learning model that uses paired images or sorted into order logis, (3There is an increase in students' motivation in learning history in class XI SMA N 1 Kelam Permai Sintang. This is evident from the average value of student

  14. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  15. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  16. The police, social services and psychiatry cooperation in Denmark—A new model of working practice between governmental sectors. A description of the concept, process, practice and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Dorthe; Rasmussen, Mikael Flemming; Vitus, Kathrine

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 a new model of working practice between three public sectors, the local Police Department, Social Services and Psychiatry/Mental Health Services (PSP) was introduced in the municipality of Frederiksberg, Denmark. The aim of this cooperation was to enhance support to vulnerable citizens, who...... do not belong solely to one of the three sectors and thereby often get lost in the system. The PSP cooperation was introduced to ensure that relevant information concerning vulnerable citizens was shared between the three sectors and to improve collaboration between the sectors involved in order...... to provide the needed support to the individual citizen. Due to the success of the PSP cooperation in Frederiksberg, the PSP model was implemented by law in Denmark in 2009. In order to evaluate the model, a qualitative study based on structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations...

  17. Knock-in of a FLT3/ITD mutation cooperates with a NUP98-HOXD13 fusion to generate acute myeloid leukemia in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Sarah; Li, Li; Slape, Christopher; Nguyen, Bao; Novak, Rachel; Duffield, Amy; Huso, David; Desiderio, Stephen; Borowitz, Michael J; Aplan, Peter; Small, Donald

    2012-03-22

    Constitutive activation of FLT3 by internal tandem duplication (ITD) is one of the most common molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3/ITD mutations have also been observed in myelodysplastic syndrome patients both before and during progression to AML. Previous work has shown that insertion of an FLT3/ITD mutation into the murine Flt3 gene induces a myeloproliferative neoplasm, but not progression to acute leukemia, suggesting that additional cooperating events are required. We therefore combined the FLT3/ITD mutation with a model of myelodysplastic syndrome involving transgenic expression of the Nup98-HoxD13 (NHD13) fusion gene. Mice expressing both the FLT3/ITD and NHD13 transgene developed AML with 100% penetrance and short latency. These leukemias were driven by mutant FLT3 expression and were susceptible to treatment with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We also observed a spontaneous loss of the wild-type Flt3 allele in these AMLs, further modeling the loss of the heterozygosity phenomenon that is seen in human AML with FLT3-activating mutations. Because resistance to FLT3 inhibitors remains an important clinical issue, this model may help identify new molecular targets in collaborative signaling pathways.

  18. A GENERALIZATION OF TRADITIONAL KANO MODEL FOR CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Turisová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The theory of attractiveness determines the relationship between the technically achieved and customer perceived quality of product attributes. The most frequently used approach in the theory of attractiveness is the implementation of Kano‘s model. There exist a lot of generalizations of that model which take into consideration various aspects and approaches focused on understanding the customer preferences and identification of his priorities for a selling  product. The aim of this article is to outline another possible generalization of Kano‘s model.Methodology/Approach: The traditional Kano’s model captures the nonlinear relationship between reached attributes of quality and customer requirements. The individual attributes of quality are divided into three main categories: must-be, one-dimensional, attractive quality and into two side categories: indifferent and reverse quality. The well selling product has to contain the must-be attribute. It should contain as many one-dimensional attributes as possible. If there are also supplementary attractive attributes, it means that attractiveness of the entire product, from the viewpoint of the customer, nonlinearly sharply rises what has a direct positive impact on a decision of potential customer when purchasing the product. In this article, we show that inclusion of individual quality attributes of a product to the mentioned categories depends, among other things, also on costs on life cycle of the product, respectively on a price of the product on the market.Findings: In practice, we are often encountering the inclusion of products into different price categories: lower, middle and upper class. For a certain type of products the category is either directly declared by a producer (especially in automotive industry, or is determined by a customer by means of assessment of available market prices. To each of those groups of a products different customer expectations can be assigned

  19. Stochastic collusion and the power law of learning: a general reinforcement learning model of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A.

    2002-01-01

    Concerns about models of cultural adaptation as analogs of genetic selection have led cognitive game theorists to explore learning-theoretic specifications. Two prominent examples, the Bush-Mosteller stochastic learning model and the Roth-Erev payoff-matching model, are aligned and integrated as

  20. The police, social services and psychiatry cooperation in Denmark--a new model of working practice between governmental sectors. A description of the concept, process, practice and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestoft, D; Rasmussen, M F; Vitus, K; Kongsrud, L

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 a new model of working practice between three public sectors, the local Police Department, Social Services and Psychiatry/Mental Health Services (PSP) was introduced in the municipality of Frederiksberg, Denmark. The aim of this cooperation was to enhance support to vulnerable citizens, who do not belong solely to one of the three sectors and thereby often get lost in the system. The PSP cooperation was introduced to ensure that relevant information concerning vulnerable citizens was shared between the three sectors and to improve collaboration between the sectors involved in order to provide the needed support to the individual citizen. Due to the success of the PSP cooperation in Frederiksberg, the PSP model was implemented by law in Denmark in 2009. In order to evaluate the model, a qualitative study based on structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations, was performed in four selected municipalities in Denmark: Frederiksberg, Odense, Amager and Esbjerg. The evaluation was undertaken by the Danish National Centre for Social Research. It is concluded that the PSP cooperation draws attention to marginalized groups of citizens and helps to prevent social downfall and crime. Participants of the PSP cooperations further highlight positive changes in the cooperation between the involved sectors, which is thought to further improve the support to vulnerable citizens and thereby enhance both prevention and follow up of cases. Furthermore, the recommendations drawn from the evaluation are to adapt PSP cooperations to local conditions, avoid unnecessary red-tape, keep a constant focus on citizens' ethics, as well as involve the frontline workers in the individual sectors, i.e. those who are actually in contact with marginalized citizens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC: Models of Engagement with International Institutions in the Process of Regional Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Andreyevna Safonkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the global financial crisis in 2008 the Asia-Pacific region has become a main driver of global economic growth leaving behind the US and European economies. The regional integration processes and business environment improvement as a result of the multilateral regional fora`s activities, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC laid the foundation for such economic successes. In the process of regional governance the APEC engages with various international and regional organizations applying the models which help it to address its agenda demands in the best way. The article aims to explore what models of engagement with international and regional organizations the APEC forum applies in the process of regional governance; reasons and results of applying these models; track the evolution of engagement as well as assess the effectiveness of APEC`s engagement with international organizations in the context of shifting agenda. The research methods the author applied include qualitative and quantitative content analysis and comparative historical analysis. The official APEC documents adopted at the summits and ministerial meetings constituted the evidence base for the analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation has clearly organized agenda aimed at implementing primary goals on trade and investment liberalization and favorable business environment in the region. Accomplishing objectives of its agenda the APEC takes advantage of policy, finance and expert potential as well as instruments and mechanisms of the international organizations (model “governance through multilateral organizations”. The model of “catalytic influence” is applied by the APEC in very rare cases. APEC applies the model of “parallel treatment” when it establishes its own bodies. APEC uses the “core group” model when it defines the mission of its own bodies as well as gives mandates to the international

  2. Modeling the minimum enzymatic requirements for optimal cellulose conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Haan, R; Van Zyl, W H; Van Zyl, J M; Harms, T M

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of cellulose is achieved by the synergistic action of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases. Most cellulolytic microorganisms produce a varied array of these enzymes and the relative roles of the components are not easily defined or quantified. In this study we have used partially purified cellulases produced heterologously in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase our understanding of the roles of some of these components. CBH1 (Cel7), CBH2 (Cel6) and EG2 (Cel5) were separately produced in recombinant yeast strains, allowing their isolation free of any contaminating cellulolytic activity. Binary and ternary mixtures of the enzymes at loadings ranging between 3 and 100 mg g −1 Avicel allowed us to illustrate the relative roles of the enzymes and their levels of synergy. A mathematical model was created to simulate the interactions of these enzymes on crystalline cellulose, under both isolated and synergistic conditions. Laboratory results from the various mixtures at a range of loadings of recombinant enzymes allowed refinement of the mathematical model. The model can further be used to predict the optimal synergistic mixes of the enzymes. This information can subsequently be applied to help to determine the minimum protein requirement for complete hydrolysis of cellulose. Such knowledge will be greatly informative for the design of better enzymatic cocktails or processing organisms for the conversion of cellulosic biomass to commodity products. (letter)

  3. Human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes cooperatively regulate prostate tumor growth in a humanized mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Michael D; Harui, Airi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating ...

  4. Inducing peer pressure to promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the 'tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  5. Cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, D.J.; Jones, K.G.; Morrison, A.; Burdis, I.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing environmental constraints on the use of oil-based drilling fluids have prompted close cooperation between operators and service companies to maintain the technical performance of drilling fluids while reducing oil discharge. This paper describes how Amerada Hess Ltd. (AHL) and Intl. Drilling Fluids Ltd. (IDF) cooperated by extending laboratory developments into controlled field trials and how feedback from the field has allowed rapid progress toward performance and ecological goals. The authors developed a novel, oil-free, highly inhibitive water-based drilling fluid. The inhibition offered by this fluid approaches that offered by oil-based fluids. Second, the authors developed invert-emulsion and direct-emulsion fluids with low oil/water ratios for low oil-on-cuttings applications. The cooperative process improved the technical performance of these fluids demonstrably and reduced the oil on cuttings

  6. Designs for Cooperative Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Robin

    Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

  7. THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL GROUP INVESTIGATION AND MOTIVATION TOWARD PHYSICS LEARNING RESULTS MAN TANJUNGBALAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Febri Aristi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine: (1 Is there a difference in student's learning outcomes with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 Is there a difference in students' motivation with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model, (3 Is there an interaction between learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction to improve students' motivation in learning outcomes Physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The study population was a student of class XII Tanjung Balai MAN. Random sample selection is done by randomizing the class. The instrument used consisted of: (1 achievement test (2 students' motivation questionnaire. The tests are used to obtain the data is shaped essay. The data in this study were analyzed using ANOVA analysis of two paths. The results showed that: (1 there were differences in learning outcomes between students who used the physics model of Group Investigation learning compared with students who used the Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 There was a difference in student's learning outcomes that had a low learning motivation and high motivation to learn both in the classroom and in the classroom Investigation Group Direct Instruction. (3 There was interaction between learning models Instruction Direct Group Investigation and motivation to learn in improving learning outcomes Physics.

  8. A Multi-Scale Energy Demand Model suggests sharing Market Risks with Intelligent Energy Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  9. Characterization of positive solution to stochastic competitor-competitor-cooperative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study a randomized three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model with competitor-competitor-mutualist interaction. We show the existence, uniqueness, moment boundedness, stochastic boundedness and global asymptotic stability of positive global solutions for this stochastic model. Analytical results are validated by numerical examples.

  10. On agent cooperation : The relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  11. On agent cooperation : the relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  12. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... each other, their dilemmas, and their previous experience. This meant that they had each their perspective on ongoing praxis. Three observations from the collaboration in the control room are presented, one on stabilizing the function of an object, another on standardizing a procedure, and one...

  13. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  14. Monte Carlo simulation for statistical mechanics model of ion-channel cooperativity in cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Riza; Aydiner, Ekrem

    2009-03-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are key molecules for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in excitable cell membranes. The voltage-dependent switching of these channels between conducting and nonconducting states is a major factor in controlling the transmembrane voltage. In this study, a statistical mechanics model of these molecules has been discussed on the basis of a two-dimensional spin model. A new Hamiltonian and a new Monte Carlo simulation algorithm are introduced to simulate such a model. It was shown that the results well match the experimental data obtained from batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in the squid giant axon using the cut-open axon technique.

  15. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  16. A 2nd generation static model of greenhouse energy requirements (horticern) : a comparison with dynamic models

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L

    1989-01-01

    Optimisation of a greenhouse and its components requires a suitable model permitting precise determination of its energy requirements. Existing static models are simple but lack precision; dynamic models though more precise, are unsuitable for use over long periods and difficult to handle in practice. A theoretical study and measurements from the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed the development of new static model named "HORTICERN", precise and easy to use for predicting energy consumption and which takes into account effects of solar energy, wind and radiative loss to the sky. This paper compares the HORTICERN model with the dynamic models of Bot, Takakura, Van Bavel and Gembloux, and demonstrates that its precision is comparable; differences on average being less than 5%, it is independent of type of greenhouse (e.g. single or double glazing, Hortiplus, etc.) and climate. The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and is proving to be a powerful tool for greenhouse optimisation by research work...

  17. Cooperating Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A number of college and university consortia have embarked on international educational cooperation ventures, providing valuable experiences and benefits for faculty, students, alumni, and the community. For these programs to be effective, they must have high-level institutional support, equal opportunities to participate, effective marketing and…

  18. Co-operative models for HIV/AIDS sheltered housing in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Meltzer, Graham; Mullins, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The prevailing delivery model for public housing in South Africa consists of small single-family dwellings on subdivided stands. These suburbs of individual dwellings undermine extended families, which are the cultral norm in South Africa, particularly in rural areas. They will moreover be inadeq......The prevailing delivery model for public housing in South Africa consists of small single-family dwellings on subdivided stands. These suburbs of individual dwellings undermine extended families, which are the cultral norm in South Africa, particularly in rural areas. They will moreover...

  19. Linguistic Processing in a Mathematics Tutoring System: Cooperative Input Interpretation and Dialogue Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Magdalena; Buckley, Mark; Horacek, Helmut; Kruijff-Korbayová, Ivana; Pinkal, Manfred

    Formal domains, such as mathematics, require exact language to communicate the intended content. Special symbolic notations are used to express the semantics precisely, compactly, and unambiguously. Mathematical textbooks offer plenty of examples of concise, accurate presentations. This effective communication is enabled by interleaved use of formulas and natural language. Since natural language interaction has been shown to be an important factor in the efficiency of human tutoring [29], it would be desirable to enhance interaction with Intelligent Tutoring Systems for mathematics by allowing elements of mixed language combining the exactness of formal expressions with natural language flexibility.

  20. Co-operative models for HIV/AIDS sheltered housing in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Meltzer, Graham; Mullins, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The prevailing delivery model for public housing in South Africa consists of small single-family dwellings on subdivided stands. These suburbs of individual dwellings undermine extended families, which are the cultral norm in South Africa, particularly in rural areas. They will moreover...

  1. The Use of Cooperative Round Robin Discussion Model to Improve Students' Holistic Ability in TEFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Slamet; Ma'rifah, Ulfatul; Arifani, Yudhi

    2017-01-01

    This classroom action research is carried out within two cycles to breed a strategy on how a" Round Robin Discussion Learning Model" enhance students' critical thinking, presentation skills, confidence, and independent learning in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) class. Pop-up quiz, teacher made-tests, classroom…

  2. PENINGKATAN PRESTASI BELAJAR SISWA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA DENGAN PENERAPAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL JIGSAW PADA KELAS X IPA3 DI SMA NEGERI 1 PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Aswirna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of this Classroom Action Research is how Cooperative Learning Model Jigsaw should be implemented in the learning of Chemistry at Grade X, Scince 3 of Senior High School 1 Padang.  This study was done through the following stages such as Planning, Action, Observation, and Evaluation or Reflection.  The results show among other that some important aspects were improved.  The average score of each cycles show improvement in students’ mastery and total average of the three actions become 98 percent.  It can be concluded that Cooperative Learning through Jigsaw technique improved students’ achievement of the subject being investigated.

  3. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  4. Cooperative Rendezvous and Docking for Underwater Robots Using Model Predictive Control and Dual Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Johansen, Tor Arne; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of rendezvous and docking with visual constraints in the context of underwater robots with camera-based navigation. The objective is the convergence of the vehicles to a common point while maintaining visual contact. The proposed solution includes the design of a ...... of a distributed model predictive controller based on dual decomposition, which allows for optimization in a decentralized fashion. The proposed distributed controller enables rendezvous and docking between vehicles while maintaining visual contact....

  5. Designing Leadership models in a Three Level Unlimited Supply Chain: Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jaafarnehad; Ali Mohaghar; Mohammad Modarres Yazdi; Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2015-01-01

    The role and importance of supply chain management, has faced with many challenges and problems. Although a comprehensive model of supply chain issues, has not been explained, we have to indicate that issues such as reviewing the theoretical foundations of information systems, marketing, financial management, logistical and organizational relations have been considered by many researchers. The objective of supply chain management is to improve various activities and components to increase ove...

  6. Models and data requirements for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    It has been widely recognised for many years that the safety of the nuclear power generation depends heavily on the human factors related to plant operation. This has been confirmed by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. Both these cases revealed how human actions can defeat engineered safeguards and the need for special operator training to cover the possibility of unexpected plant conditions. The importance of the human factor also stands out in the analysis of abnormal events and insights from probabilistic safety assessments (PSA's), which reveal a large proportion of cases having their origin in faulty operator performance. A consultants' meeting, organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) was held at IIASA in Laxenburg, Austria, December 7-11, 1987, with the aim of reviewing existing models used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and of identifying the data required. The report collects both the contributions offered by the members of the Expert Task Force and the findings of the extensive discussions that took place during the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. The influence of deterministic and stochastic waiting time for triggering mortality and colonization events on the coexistence of cooperators and defectors in an evolutionary game model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YouHua Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, the coexistence of Prisoners' Dilemma game players (cooperators and defectors were explored in an individual-based framework with the consideration of the impacts of deterministic and stochastic waiting time (WT for triggering mortality and/or colonization events. For the type of deterministic waiting time, the time step for triggering a mortality and/or colonization event is fixed. For the type of stochastic waiting time, whether a mortality and/or colonization event should be triggered for each time step of a simulation is randomly determined by a given acceptance probability (the event takes place when a variate drawn from a uniform distribution [0,1] is smaller than the acceptance probability. The two strategies of modeling waiting time are considered simultaneously and applied to both quantities (mortality: WTm, colonization: WTc. As such, when WT (WTm and/or WTc is an integral >=1, it indicated a deterministically triggering strategy. In contrast, when 1>WT>0, it indicated a stochastically triggering strategy and the WT value itself is used as the acceptance probability. The parameter space between the waiting time for mortality (WTm-[0.1,40] and colonization (WTc-[0.1,40] was traversed to explore the coexistence and non-coexistence regions. The role of defense award was evaluated. My results showed that, one non-coexistence region is identified consistently, located at the area where 1>=WTm>=0.3 and 40>=WTc>=0.1. As a consequence, it was found that the coexistence of cooperators and defectors in the community is largely dependent on the waiting time of mortality events, regardless of the defense or cooperation rewards. When the mortality events happen in terms of stochastic waiting time (1>=WTm>=0.3, extinction of either cooperators or defectors or both could be very likely, leading to the emergence of non-coexistence scenarios. However, when the mortality events occur in forms of relatively long deterministic

  8. A Spatial Faithful Cooperative System Based on Mixed Presence Groupware Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Rui

    Traditional groupware platforms are found restrained and cumbersome for supporting geographically dispersed design collaboration. This paper starts with two groupware models, which are Single Display Groupware and Mixed Presence Groupware, and then discusses some of the limitations and argues how these limitations could possibly impair efficient communication among remote designers. Next, it suggests that the support for spatial faithfulness and Tangible User Interface (TUI) could help fill the gap between Face-to-Face (F2F) collaboration and computer-mediated remote collaboration. A spatial faithful groupware with TUI support is then developed to illustrate this concept.

  9. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M.; Pereira, Ivo F.; Fernandes, Ricardo; Praça, Isabel; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of an ontology allowing the communication between multi-agents systems. • Social welfare evaluation in different electricity markets. • Demonstration of the use of the proposed ontology between two multi-agents systems. • Strategic biding in electricity markets. • European electricity markets comparison. - Abstract: The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform provides the means for the exemplification of the usefulness of this ontology. A case study using the proposed multi-agent platform is presented, considering a scenario based on real data that simulates the European Electricity Market environment, and comparing its performance using different market mechanisms. The main goal is to demonstrate the advantages that the integration of various market models and simulation platforms have for the study of the electricity markets’ evolution

  10. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  11. Pore-scale modeling of capillary trapping in water-wet porous media: A new cooperative pore-body filling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruspini, L. C.; Farokhpoor, R.; Øren, P. E.

    2017-10-01

    We present a pore-network model study of capillary trapping in water-wet porous media. The amount and distribution of trapped non-wetting phase is determined by the competition between two trapping mechanisms - snap-off and cooperative pore-body filling. We develop a new model to describe the pore-body filling mechanism in geologically realistic pore-networks. The model accounts for the geometrical characteristics of the pore, the spatial location of the connecting throats and the local fluid topology at the time of the displacement. We validate the model by comparing computed capillary trapping curves with published data for four different water-wet rocks. Computations are performed on pore-networks extracted from micro-CT images and process-based reconstructions of the actual rocks used in the experiments. Compared with commonly used stochastic models, the new model describes more accurately the experimental measurements, especially for well connected porous systems where trapping is controlled by subtleties of the pore structure. The new model successfully predicts relative permeabilities and residual saturation for Bentheimer sandstone using in-situ measured contact angles as input to the simulations. The simulated trapped cluster size distributions are compared with predictions from percolation theory.

  12. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  13. Cooperativity in Molecular Dynamics Structural Models and the Dielectric Spectra of 1,2-Ethanediol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, T. M.

    2018-05-01

    Linear relationships are established between the experimental equilibrium correlation factor and the molecular dynamics (MD) mean value of the O-H···O bond angle and the longitudinal component of the unit vector of the mean statistical dipole moment of the cluster in liquid 1,2-ethanediol (12ED). The achievements of modern MD models in describing the experimental dispersion of the permittivity of 12ED by both continuous and discrete relaxation time spectra are analyzed. The advantage computer MD experiments have over dielectric spectroscopy for calculating relaxation time and determining the molecular diffusion mechanisms of the rearrangement of the network 12ED structure, which is more complex than water, is demonstrated.

  14. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform......The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models...

  15. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  16. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  17. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  18. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  19. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  20. Forgetting constrains the emergence of cooperative decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of cooperative behavior have focused on decision strategies that depend on a partner's last choices. The findings from this work assume that players accurately remember past actions. The kind of memory that these strategies employ, however, does not reflect what we know about memory. Here, we show that human memory may not meet the requirements needed to use these strategies. When asked to recall the previous behavior of simulated partners in a cooperative memory task, participants performed poorly, making errors in 10-24% of the trials. Participants made more errors when required to track more partners. We conducted agent-based simulations to evaluate how well cooperative strategies cope with error. These simulations suggest that, even with few errors, cooperation could not be maintained at the error rates demonstrated by our participants. Our results indicate that the strategies typically used in the study of cooperation likely do not reflect the underlying cognitive capacities used by humans and other animals in social interactions. By including unrealistic assumptions about cognition, theoretical models may have overestimated the robustness of the existing cooperative strategies. To remedy this, future models should incorporate what we know about cognition.

  1. Cooperative terrain model acquisition by two point-robots in planar polygonal terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Protopopescu, V.

    1994-11-29

    We address the model acquisition problem for an unknown terrain by a team of two robots. The terrain may be cluttered by a finite number of polygonal obstacles with unknown shapes and positions. The robots are point-sized and equipped with visual sensors which acquire all visible parts of the terrain by scanning from their locations. The robots communicate with each other via wireless connection. The performance is measured by the number of the sensor (scan) operations which are assumed to be the most time-consuming/expensive of all the robot operations. We employ the restricted visibility graph methods in a hierarchiacal setup. For terrains with convex obstacles, the sensing time can be halved compared to a single robot implementation. For terrains with concave corners, the performance of the algorithm depends on the number of concave regions and their depths. A hierarchical decomposition of the restricted visibility graph into 2-connected components and trees is considered. Performance for the 2-robot team is expressed in terms of sizes of 2-connected components, and the sizes and diameters of the trees. The proposed algorithm and analysis can be applied to the methods based on Voronoi diagram and trapezoidal decomposition.

  2. The More Supply Chain Control Power, the Better? A Comparison among Four Kinds of Cooperation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the parameter of supply chain control power into existing supply chain coordination models and explores the impacts of control power on the profits of manufacturer, retailer, and the overall supply chain under four modes of decision-making, including the decentralized decision-making dominated by manufacturer, the decentralized decision-making dominated by retailer, centralized decision-making, and Nash negotiation decision-making. Some significant conclusions are obtained. Firstly, supply chain control power does have great impact on the supply chain profits. The profit of the whole supply chain with centralized decision-making is higher than those of the other three modes, while the overall profit of supply chain with decentralized decision-making is superior to the profit when retailer and manufacturer dominate the supply chain together. Secondly, with decentralized decision-making, for manufacturer and retailer, it is beneficial to gain the control powers of the supply chain; however, control power has an optimal value, not the bigger, the better. Thirdly, under certain circumstances, order quantity will increase and the wholesale price will decrease when control power is transferred from manufacturer to retailer. In this case, the total profit of supply chain dominated by retailer will be greater than that dominated by manufacturer.

  3. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  4. The Navruz Project: Cooperative transboundary monitoring data sharing and modeling of water resources in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard David; Barber, David S.; Solodukhin, V.; Khazekhber, S.; Pozniak, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Alekhina, V.; Djuraev, Akram; Radyuk, R.; Suozzi, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase I of the project was initiated in 2000 with 15 sampling points in each of the four countries with sample analysis performed for over 100 parameters. Phase II of the project began in 2003 and expanded sampling to include at least 30 points in each country in an effort to characterize ''hot spots'' and to identify sources. Phase III of the project began in 2006 and will integrate decision support modeling with the existing monitoring. Overall, the project addresses four main goals: to create collaboration among Central Asian scientists and countries; to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and nonproliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, and agricultural activities, as well as radioactive contamination from a legacy of uranium mining and related activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia.

  5. PENGGUNAAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE PROBING PROMPTING BERBANTU MEDIA FLASH CARD TERHADAP HASIL BELAJARIPS TERPADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Diartini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the effect of learning probing prompting assisted flash card media to the learning outcomes of study of IPS integrated second semester class VII MTs Muhammadiyah Metro academic year 2016/2017.The population in this study is the students of class VII MTs Muhammadiyah Metro academic year 2016/2017 which amounted to 48 students. The sample used is class VIIB MTs Muhammadiyah Metro which amounts to 24 students as experiment class, while class VIIA become control class. This study aims to determine whether there is influence of the use of learning with Probing Prompting Helped Flash Card Media to the results of learning IPS integrated with the formula of simple linear regression. From the data analysis of the results of the study using simple linear regression formula with a significant level of 5% obtained tcount = 3.85 while ttable = 1.72 shows t count > ttable, so the hypothesis accepted, that there is a significant influence from the use of probing prompting model assisted flash card media on the learning outcomes of study of IPS integrated second semester class VII MTs Muhammadiyah Metro academic year 2016/2017. Keywords : Flash card, Learning outcomes, Probing prompting

  6. Risk and Cooperation: Managing Hazardous Fuel in Mixed Ownership Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. Paige; Charnley, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on plans and actions that cross ownership boundaries. Cooperation depends on people's beliefs and norms about reciprocity and perceptions of the risks and benefits of interacting with others. Using logistic regression tests on mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interviews with landowners, we examined the relationship between perceived wildfire risk and cooperation in the management of hazardous fuel by nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Oregon. We found that NIPF owners who perceived a risk of wildfire to their properties, and perceived that conditions on nearby public forestlands contributed to this risk, were more likely to have cooperated with public agencies in the past to reduce fire risk than owners who did not perceive a risk of wildfire to their properties. Wildfire risk perception was not associated with past cooperation among NIPF owners. The greater social barriers to private-private cooperation than to private-public cooperation, and perceptions of more hazardous conditions on public compared with private forestlands may explain this difference. Owners expressed a strong willingness to cooperate with others in future cross-boundary efforts to reduce fire risk, however. We explore barriers to cooperative forest management across ownerships, and identify models of cooperation that hold potential for future collective action to reduce wildfire risk.

  7. Validation of Power Requirement Model for Active Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Madsen, Anders Normann; Bjerregaard, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    The actual power requirement of an active loudspeaker during playback of music has not received much attention in the literature. This is probably because no single and simple solution exists and because a complete system knowledge from input voltage to output sound pressure level is required...

  8. Closed loop models for analyzing engineering requirements for simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Kleinman, D.

    1980-01-01

    A closed loop analytic model, incorporating a model for the human pilot, (namely, the optimal control model) that would allow certain simulation design tradeoffs to be evaluated quantitatively was developed. This model was applied to a realistic flight control problem. The resulting model is used to analyze both overall simulation effects and the effects of individual elements. The results show that, as compared to an ideal continuous simulation, the discrete simulation can result in significant performance and/or workload penalties.

  9. The Delta Cooperative Model: a Dynamic and Innovative Team-Work Activity to Develop Research Skills in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rios-Velazquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i student’s perception of the workshops’ effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student’s knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83%and 75%respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology.

  10. The Delta Cooperative Model: a Dynamic and Innovative Team-Work Activity to Develop Research Skills in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baez-Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i student’s perception of the workshops’ effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student’s knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83%and 75%respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology.

  11. Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.

  12. Cooperative Action of Multiple cis-Acting Elements Is Required for N-myc Expression in Branchial Arches: Specific Contribution of GATA3 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Éric; Beuret, Laurent; Cadrin-Girard, Jean-François; Carter, Marcelle; Roy, Sophie; Tremblay, Michel; Charron, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The precise expression of the N-myc proto-oncogene is essential for normal mammalian development, whereas altered N-myc gene regulation is known to be a determinant factor in tumor formation. Using transgenic mouse embryos, we show that N-myc sequences from kb −8.7 to kb +7.2 are sufficient to reproduce the N-myc embryonic expression profile in developing branchial arches and limb buds. These sequences encompass several regulatory elements dispersed throughout the N-myc locus, including an upstream limb bud enhancer, a downstream somite enhancer, a branchial arch enhancer in the second intron, and a negative regulatory element in the first intron. N-myc expression in the limb buds is under the dominant control of the limb bud enhancer. The expression in the branchial arches necessitates the interplay of three regulatory domains. The branchial arch enhancer cooperates with the somite enhancer region to prevent an inhibitory activity contained in the first intron. The characterization of the branchial arch enhancer has revealed a specific role of the transcription factor GATA3 in the regulation of N-myc expression. Together, these data demonstrate that correct N-myc developmental expression is achieved via cooperation of multiple positive and negative regulatory elements. PMID:20855530

  13. Required Collaborative Work in Online Courses: A Predictive Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Kellogg, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a predictive model that assesses whether a student will have greater perceived learning in group assignments or in individual work. The model produces correct classifications 87.5% of the time. The research is notable in that it is the first in the education literature to adopt a predictive modeling methodology using data…

  14. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Roberts

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of 'image scores' to summarize individuals' past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work.

  15. User Requirements Model for University Timetable Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Althunibat; Mohammad I. Muhairat

    2016-01-01

    Automated timetables are used to schedule courses, lectures and rooms in universities by considering some constraints. Inconvenient and ineffective timetables often waste time and money. Therefore, it is important to investigate the requirements and potential needs of users. Thus, eliciting user requirements of University Timetable Management System (TMS) and their implication becomes an important process for the implementation of TMS. On this note, this paper seeks to propose a m...

  16. The Modeling of Factors That Influence Coast Guard Manpower Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Requirements Determination process. Finally, sincere thanks, hugs, and kisses to my family. I appreciate your enduring patience and encouragement. I...allowances. To help clarify the process, Phase II has guiding principles and core assumptions that direct the Phase. Three of the four guiding principles are...analyst is determining for the first time what manpower is required. The second notable guiding principle is “MRD analysts shall identify and

  17. Cooperative effect of the attenuation determinants derived from poliovirus sabin 1 strain is essential for attenuation of enterovirus 71 in the NOD/SCID mouse infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Minetaro; Ami, Yasushi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological disorders. An attenuated EV71 strain [EV71(S1-3')] has been established in the cynomolgus monkey infection model; this strain contains the attenuation determinants derived from the type 1 poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin 1 [PV1(Sabin)], in the 5' nontranslated region (NTR), 3D polymerase, and 3' NTR. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the attenuation determinants of PV1(Sabin) on EV71 infection in a NOD/SCID mouse infection model. We isolated a mouse-adapted EV71 strain [EV71(NOD/SCID)] that causes paralysis of the hind limbs in 3- to 4-week-old NOD/SCID mice by adaptation of the virulent EV71(Nagoya) strain in the brains of NOD/SCID mice. A single mutation at nucleotide 2876 that caused an amino acid change in capsid protein VP1 (change of the glycine at position 145 to glutamic acid) was essential for the mouse-adapted phenotype in NOD/SCID mice. Next, we introduced attenuation determinants derived from PV1(Sabin) along with the mouse adaptation mutation into the EV71(Nagoya) genome. In 4-week-old mice, the determinants in the 3D polymerase and 3' NTR, which are the major temperature-sensitive determinants, had a strong effect on attenuation. In contrast, the effect of individual determinants was weak in 3-week-old NOD/SCID mice, and all the determinants were required for substantial attenuation. These results suggest that a cooperative effect of the attenuation determinants of PV1(Sabin) is essential for attenuated neurovirulence of EV71.

  18. Idea Sharing: Assessment in a Cooperative Learning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamah, Siti Mina

    2014-01-01

    With the trend to incorporate cooperative learning in the classroom practices, another mode of assessing students is required. In other words, how can a teacher enforce Individual Accountability and Positive Interdependence in assessing his or her students? This paper is intended to provide a model of assessing students who are accustomed to…

  19. Additivity or cooperativity: which model can predict the influence of simultaneous incorporation of two or more functionalities in a ligand molecule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasief, Nader N; Hangauer, David

    2015-01-27

    Predicting how binding affinity responds to ligand structural modifications in structure-activity relationship studies (SAR) is a major challenge in medicinal chemistry. This is particularly true when two or more of these modifications are carried out simultaneously. In this study, we present binding affinity data from several series of thermolysin inhibitors in which simultaneous structural modifications were investigated to determine whether they are cooperative or additive. Data revealed that, while additivity is at work in some cases, cooperativity is more commonly demonstrated. Cooperativity and additivity were then correlated with ligand descriptors, such as the spacing and the topological features of the modified groups, in a manner that may provide guidance as to when each model should be utilized. Cooperativity was particularly associated with contiguous groups and small unbranched hydrophobic side chain. Additivity, on the other hand, was associated with moderately distant hydrophobic group combinations and side chain branching. Such correlations can improve the predictability of SAR studies and can provide a starting point for additional investigations that may lead to further significant enhancements in the current scoring functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  1. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  2. The Application Effect of Learning Model Acquisition Concept Combined with Cooperative Learning STAD to the Learning Achievement, activeness, and Students Responses In Learning Chemistry Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Ridha Ilahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Pemerolehan Konsep Dipadu Pembelajaran Kooperatif STAD terhadap Prestasi Belajar, Keaktifan, dan Respon Siswa pada Pembelajaran Ikatan Kimia Abstract: This study aims to determine differences: (1 student achievement acquisition make use of the concept of combined learning model STAD cooperative learning and student achievement using model concepts in conventional learning acquisition; (2 active students use learning model acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning and student activity STAD learning model acquisition using the concept in the conventional learning; (3 The students 'response to the acquisition of the concept of combined learning STAD cooperative learning and students' response to the acquisition of learning concepts in conventional learning. This research uses descriptive research design and quasi-experimental design (quasy experiment design. Learning achievement data were collected using an objective test and reliability coefficient calculated by using SPSS 16 for windows Data recorded in the learning activity of students using observation sheet. Student response data to the learning model was obtained by questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically and descriptive. The results showed: (1 student achievement using learning model acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning STAD higher compared to student achievement using model concepts in conventional learning acquisition; (2 active students use learning model acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning STAD higher than students' active learning model acquisition using the concept in the conventional learning; (3 The students 'response to learning acquisition combined the concept of cooperative learning STAD is more positive than the students' response to the acquisition of learning concepts in conventional learning. Key Words: acquisition of concepts, STAD, chemical bonds   Abstrak: Penelitian ini

  3. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  4. Modelling Imperfect Product Line Requirements with Fuzzy Feature Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; van den Broek, P.M.; Weston, Nathan; Rashid, Awais

    In this article, we identify that partial, vague and conflicting information can severely limit the effectiveness of approaches that derive feature trees from textual requirement specifications. We examine the impact such imperfect information has on feature tree extraction and we propose the use of

  5. From requirement document to formal modelling and decomposition of control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganefard, Sanaz

    2014-01-01

    Formal modelling of control systems can help with identifying missing requirements and design flaws before implementing them. However, modelling using formal languages can be challenging and time consuming. Therefore intermediate steps may be required to simplify the transition from informal requirements to a formal model.In this work we firstly provide a four-stage approach for structuring and formalising requirements of a control system. This approach is based on monitored, controlled, mode...

  6. Diversity of Aerosol Optical Thickness in analysis and forecasting modes of the models from the International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Multi-Model Ensemble (ICAP-MME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P.

    2014-12-01

    With the emergence of global aerosol models intended for operational forecasting use at global numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers, the International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction (ICAP) was founded in 2010. One of the objectives of ICAP is to develop a global multi-model aerosol forecasting ensemble (ICAP-MME) for operational and basic research use. To increase the accuracy of aerosol forecasts, several of the NWP centers have incorporated assimilation of satellite and/or ground-based observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), the most widely available and evaluated aerosol parameter. The ICAP models are independent in their underlying meteorology, as well as aerosol sources, sinks, microphysics and chemistry. The diversity of aerosol representations in the aerosol forecast models results in differences in AOT. In addition, for models that include AOT assimilations, the diversity in assimilation methodology, the observed AOT data to be assimilated, and the pre-assimilation treatments of input data also leads to differences in the AOT analyses. Drawing from members of the ICAP latest generation of quasi-operational aerosol models, five day AOT forecasts and AOT analyses are analyzed from four multi-species models which have AOT assimilations: ECMWF, JMA, NASA GSFC/GMAO, and NRL/FNMOC. For forecast mode only, we also include the dust products from NOAA NGAC, BSC, and UK Met office in our analysis leading to a total of 7 dust models. AOT at 550nm from all models are validated at regionally representative Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and a data assimilation grade multi-satellite aerosol analysis. These analyses are also compared with the recently developed AOT reanalysis at NRL. Here we will present the basic verification characteristics of the ICAP-MME, and identify regions of diversity between model analyses and forecasts. Notably, as in many other ensemble environments, the multi model ensemble consensus mean outperforms all of the

  7. Implementation of cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach to understanding of mathematical concept student state junior high school in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Dian Mita; Hartono

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a difference in the ability of understanding the concept of mathematics between students who use cooperative learning model Student Teams Achievement Division type with Realistic Mathematic Education approach and students who use regular learning in seventh grade SMPN 35 Pekanbaru. This study was quasi experiments with Posttest-only Control Design. The populations in this research were all the seventh grade students in one of state junior high school in Pekanbaru. The samples were a class that is used as the experimental class and one other as the control class. The process of sampling is using purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data in this study using the documentation, observation sheets, and test. The test use t-test formula to determine whether there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts. Before the t-test, should be used to test the homogeneity and normality. Based in the analysis of these data with t0 = 2.9 there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts between experimental and control class. Percentage of students experimental class with score more than 65 was 76.9% and 56.4% of students control class. Thus be concluded, the ability of understanding mathematical concepts students who use the cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach better than students using the regular learning. So that cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach is well used in learning process.

  8. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  9. The Benefit of Ambiguity in Understanding Goals in Requirements Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Pedell, Sonja; Sterling, Leon

    2011-01-01

    of their research is to create technologies that support more flexible and meaningful social interactions, by combining best practice in software engineering with ethnographic techniques to model complex social interactions from their socially oriented life for the purposes of building rich socio...... ambiguity in the process of elicitation and analysis through the use of empirically informed quality goals attached to functional goals. The authors demonstrate the benefit of articulating a quality goal without turning it into a functional goal. Their study shows that quality goals kept at a high level...... of abstraction, ambiguous and open for conversations through the modelling process add richness to goal models, and communicate quality attributes of the interaction being modelled to the design phase, where this ambiguity is regarded as a resource for design....

  10. Holonic manufacturing scheduling: architecture, cooperation mechanism, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ling; Luh, Peter B.; Kyoya, Yuji

    1997-12-01

    A holonic manufacturing system (HMS) is a manufacturing system where key elements, such as machines, cells, factories, parts, products, persons, teams, etc., are modeled as 'holons' having autonomous and cooperative properties. The distributed decision authority, the cooperative nature, and the integration of physical and informational aspects of system elements or holons make the HMS a new manufacturing paradigm, with great potential for meeting today's agile manufacturing challenges. Critical issues to be investigated include how to define holons for a given problem context, what should be the appropriate system architecture, and how to design effective cooperation mechanisms among holons for overall system performance. In this paper, holonic scheduling is developed for a factory consisting of multiple cells. Holons are identified, and their relationships are delineated through a novel modeling of the interactions among cells. The cooperation mechanisms among holons are established based on the 'Lagrangian relaxation technique' of mathematical optimization, and cooperation across cells is performed without accessing individual cells' local information nor intruding on their decision authority. The holonic system developed also possesses structural recursivity, and this property, combined with the integrability of individual holons, enables high system extendibility. Numerical testing shows that the method can generate high quality schedules in a timely fashion, and has comparable computational requirements as compared to a single-level Lagrangian relaxation method. The method thus provides a theoretical foundation for guiding the cooperation among holons, leading to globally near-optimal performance.

  11. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  12. Comparative Cooperative Education: Evaluating Thai Models on Work-Integrated Learning, Using the German Duale Hochschule Baden-Wuerttemberg Model as a Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Karin; Pogrzeba, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The role of industry in the higher education system is becoming more prevalent, as universities integrate a practical element into their curricula. However, the level of development of cooperative education and work-integrated learning varies from country to country. In Germany, cooperative education and work-integrated learning has a long…

  13. Requirements and Problems in Parallel Model Development at DWD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schäattler

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 30 years after introducing the first computer model for weather forecasting, the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is developing the 4th generation of its numerical weather prediction (NWP system. It consists of a global grid point model (GME based on a triangular grid and a non-hydrostatic Lokal Modell (LM. The operational demand for running this new system is immense and can only be met by parallel computers. From the experience gained in developing earlier NWP models, several new problems had to be taken into account during the design phase of the system. Most important were portability (including efficieny of the programs on several computer architectures and ease of code maintainability. Also the organization and administration of the work done by developers from different teams and institutions is more complex than it used to be. This paper describes the models and gives some performance results. The modular approach used for the design of the LM is explained and the effects on the development are discussed.

  14. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  15. Mathematical Formulation Requirements and Specifications for the Process Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.; Moulton, D.; Pau, G.; Lipnikov, K.; Meza, J.; Lichtner, P.; Wolery, T.; Bacon, D.; Spycher, N.; Bell, J.; Moridis, G.; Yabusaki, S.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zyvoloski, G.; Andre, B.; Zheng, L.; Davis, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) is intended to be a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM program is aimed at addressing critical EM program needs to better understand and quantify flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. It will also address the long-term performance of engineered components including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities, in order to reduce uncertainties and risks associated with DOE EM's environmental cleanup and closure activities. Building upon national capabilities developed from decades of Research and Development in subsurface geosciences, computational and computer science, modeling and applied mathematics, and environmental remediation, the ASCEM initiative will develop an integrated, open-source, high-performance computer modeling system for multiphase, multicomponent, multiscale subsurface flow and contaminant transport. This integrated modeling system will incorporate capabilities for predicting releases from various waste forms, identifying exposure pathways and performing dose calculations, and conducting systematic uncertainty quantification. The ASCEM approach will be demonstrated on selected sites, and then applied to support the next generation of performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal and facility decommissioning across the EM complex. The Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC) Simulator is one of three thrust areas in ASCEM. The other two are the Platform and Integrated Toolsets (dubbed the Platform) and Site Applications. The primary objective of the HPC Simulator is to provide a flexible and extensible computational engine to simulate the coupled processes and flow scenarios described by the conceptual models developed using the ASCEM Platform. The graded and iterative approach to assessments naturally

  16. Pim2 cooperates with PML-RARalpha to induce acute myeloid leukemia in a bone marrow transplantation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi; Koschmieder, Steffen; Gelsing, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential role of Pim2 as a cooperative oncogene has been well described in lymphoma, its role in leukemia has remained largely unexplored. Here we show that high expression of Pim2 is observed in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To further characterize the cooperati...

  17. "Partners in Science": A Model Cooperative Program Introducing High School Teachers and Students to Leading-Edge Pharmaceutical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woska, Joseph R., Jr.; Collins, Danielle M.; Canney, Brian J.; Arcario, Erin L.; Reilly, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    "Partners in Science" is a cooperative program between Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and area high schools in the community surrounding our Connecticut campus. It is a two-phase program that introduces high school students and teachers to the world of drug discovery and leading-edge pharmaceutical research. Phase 1 involves…

  18. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  19. Modelling production of field crops and its requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Keulen, van H.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation models are being developed that enable quantitative estimates of the growth and production of the main agricultural crops under a wide range of weather and soil conditions. For this purpose, several hierarchically ordered production situations are distinguished in such a way that the

  20. Predicting Flu Season Requirements: An Undergraduate Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, Gary R., II; Braunstein Fierson, Janet L.; Wright, J. Adam

    2010-01-01

    This project was designed to be used in a freshman calculus class whose students had already been introduced to logistic functions and basic data modeling techniques. It need not be limited to such an audience, however; it has also been implemented in a topics in mathematics class for college upperclassmen. Originally intended to be presented in…

  1. Modelling of capital requirements in the energy sector: capital market access. Final memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Formal modelling techniques for analyzing the capital requirements of energy industries have been performed at DOE. A survey has been undertaken of a number of models which forecast energy-sector capital requirements or which detail the interactions of the energy sector and the economy. Models are identified which can be useful as prototypes for some portion of DOE's modelling needs. The models are examined to determine any useful data bases which could serve as inputs to an original DOE model. A selected group of models are examined which can comply with the stated capabilities. The data sources being used by these models are covered and a catalog of the relevant data bases is provided. The models covered are: capital markets and capital availability models (Fossil 1, Bankers Trust Co., DRI Macro Model); models of physical capital requirements (Bechtel Supply Planning Model, ICF Oil and Gas Model and Coal Model, Stanford Research Institute National Energy Model); macroeconomic forecasting models with input-output analysis capabilities (Wharton Annual Long-Term Forecasting Model, Brookhaven/University of Illinois Model, Hudson-Jorgenson/Brookhaven Model); utility models (MIT Regional Electricity Model-Baughman Joskow, Teknekron Electric Utility Simulation Model); and others (DRI Energy Model, DRI/Zimmerman Coal Model, and Oak Ridge Residential Energy Use Model).

  2. Mathematical Formulation Requirements and Specifications for the Process Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, C.; Moulton, D.; Pau, G.; Lipnikov, K.; Meza, J.; Lichtner, P.; Wolery, T.; Bacon, D.; Spycher, N.; Bell, J.; Moridis, G.; Yabusaki, S.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zyvoloski, G.; Andre, B.; Zheng, L.; Davis, J.

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) is intended to be a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM program is aimed at addressing critical EM program needs to better understand and quantify flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. It will also address the long-term performance of engineered components including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities, in order to reduce uncertainties and risks associated with DOE EM's environmental cleanup and closure activities. Building upon national capabilities developed from decades of Research and Development in subsurface geosciences, computational and computer science, modeling and applied mathematics, and environmental remediation, the ASCEM initiative will develop an integrated, open-source, high-performance computer modeling system for multiphase, multicomponent, multiscale subsurface flow and contaminant transport. This integrated modeling system will incorporate capabilities for predicting releases from various waste forms, identifying exposure pathways and performing dose calculations, and conducting systematic uncertainty quantification. The ASCEM approach will be demonstrated on selected sites, and then applied to support the next generation of performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal and facility decommissioning across the EM complex. The Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC) Simulator is one of three thrust areas in ASCEM. The other two are the Platform and Integrated Toolsets (dubbed the Platform) and Site Applications. The primary objective of the HPC Simulator is to provide a flexible and extensible computational engine to simulate the coupled processes and flow scenarios described by the conceptual models developed using the ASCEM Platform. The graded and iterative approach to assessments

  3. Requirements for Logical Models for Value-Added Tax Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are ubiquitous in commercial enterprises of all sizes and invariably need to account for the notion of value-added tax (VAT). The legal and technical difficulties in handling VAT are exacerbated by spanning a broad and chaotic spectrum of intricate country...... of the Danish VAT law in Web Ontology Language (OWL) and in Con¿git Product Modeling Language (CPML)....

  4. Single High Fidelity Geometric Data Sets for LCM - Model Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    triangles (.raw) to the native triangular facet file (.facet). The software vendors recommend the use of McNeil and Associates’ Rhinoceros 3D for all...surface modeling and export. Rhinoceros has the capability and precision to create highly detailed 3D surface geometry suitable for radar cross section... white before ending up at blue as the temperature increases [27]. IR radiation was discovered in 1800 but its application is still limited in

  5. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  7. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Waite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors, cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local

  8. Performance Requirements Modeling andAssessment for Active Power Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Thavlov, Anders; Tougaard, Janus Bundsgaard Mosbæk

    2017-01-01

    system operation, a reliable service delivery is required, yet it may not be appropriate to apply conventional performance requirements to new technologies and methods. The service performance requirements and assessment methods therefore need to be generalized and standardized in order to include future...... ancillary service sources. This paper develops a modeling method for ancillary services performance requirements, including performance and verification indices. The use of the modeling method and the indices is exemplified in two case studies....

  9. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisich, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  10. "Open Access" Requires Clarification: Medical Journal Publication Models Evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    While Arthroscopy journal is a traditional subscription model journal, our companion journal Arthroscopy Techniques is "open access." We used to believe open access simply meant online and free of charge. However, while open-access journals are free to readers, in 2017 authors must make a greater sacrifice in the form of an article-processing charge (APC). Again, while this does not apply to Arthroscopy, the APC will apply to Arthroscopy Techniques. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Formal Requirements Modeling with Executable Use Cases and Coloured Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, Joao Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents executable use cases (EUCs), which constitute a model-based approach to requirements engineering. EUCs may be used as a supplement to model-driven development (MDD) and can describe and link user-level requirements and more technical software specifications. In MDD, user-level requirements are not always explicitly described, since usually it is sufficient that one provides a specification, or platform-independent model, of the software that is to be developed. Th...

  12. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  13. Requirements for modeling airborne microbial contamination in space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Kokkonen, Eero; Lehtimäki, Matti; Pasanen, Pertti; Leys, Natalie; Kulmala, Ilpo

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols is one of the facets that affect indoor air quality, especially for people living in densely populated or confined habitats, and is associated to a wide range of health effects. Good indoor air quality is thus vital and a prerequisite for fully confined environments such as space habitats. Bioaerosols and microbial contamination in these confined space stations can have significant health impacts, considering the unique prevailing conditions and constraints of such habitats. Therefore, biocontamination in space stations is strictly monitored and controlled to ensure crew and mission safety. However, efficient bioaerosol control measures rely on solid understanding and knowledge on how these bioaerosols are created and dispersed, and which factors affect the survivability of the associated microorganisms. Here we review the current knowledge gained from relevant studies in this wide and multidisciplinary area of bioaerosol dispersion modeling and biological indoor air quality control, specifically taking into account the specific space conditions.

  14. An Evaluation Of The Co-Operative Business Model Within The Context Of The Global Reporting Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Marne du Toit; Pieter W. Buys

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability reporting, renowned as an instrument for businesses to communicate how they function more efficiently and responsibly within the social and physical environment, while simultaneously remaining profitable, has evolved in an up-and-coming trend by businesses. In addition, this leads to integrated reporting, which implies that a business’ strategy, performance, risk and sustainability are inseparable from one another. The International Year of Co-operatives (2012), ...

  15. The National Resource Library for Science and Technology in Sweden: A Nordic model of cooperating technology libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagar, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this presentation is to give a state-of-the-art report on the present situation of Nordic technology libraries, to elaborate on a plan for national resource libraries in Sweden, and to share how the Royal Institute of Technology Library in Stockholm (KTHB) has fostered a network of cooperating libraries in order to optimize government funding for the system of resource libraries.

  16. LOS PRINCIPIOS COOPERATIVOS FACILITADORES DE LA INNOVACIÓN: UN MODELO TEÓRICO/COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES FACILITATORS OF INNOVATION: A THEORETICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen MARCUELLO SERVÓS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un modelo teórico que permita poner de relieve cómo la profundización en los principios cooperativos puede ser un instrumento para lograr la supervivencia y la competitividad de la empresa cooperativa. Para ello, desde el ámbito de la dirección estratégica, vinculamos los principios cooperativos con las aportaciones que proporcionan la teoría del capital social. Consideramos que el cumplimiento de dichos principios genera capital social que es un activo intangible facilitador y activador de la capacidad de absorción del conocimiento por parte de la organización, y por tanto de la innovación./The aim of this study is to propose a theoretical model that allows to highlight how the deepening of the cooperative principles can be an instrument for achieving the survival and competitiveness of the cooperative enterprise. To do so, since the area of strategic direction, we link these principles with interesting contributions that provide the theory of social capital. We believe that compliance with the cooperative principles that generates social capital is an intangible asset facilitator and enabler of absorptive capacity of knowledge on the part of the organization, and therefore innovation.

  17. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by us...

  18. [Cooperation between private physician, regional hospital and oncologic center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungi, W F; Rohner, R C; Widmer, B

    1978-09-02

    Due to numerical, socio-psychological, economic and geographic factors, not all tumor patients can be followed exclusively by specialized oncologic institutions. Institutionalized, well organized cooperation between private physician, community hospital and regional cancer center is mandatory in affording every patient speedy and adequate investigation and treatment. One model of regional oncologic cooperation which has been realized successfully for some years now in Eastern Switzerland is presented. Decentralized oncologic consulting clinics open for in- and out-patients are the cornerstone of this system, which guarantees the same quality of management for the tumor patient in hospital or at home and requires the active participation of family doctors.

  19. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  20. MINIMAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, CLASSIFICATION, AND EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA (ALL) IN THE BFM FAMILY COOPERATIVE GROUP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERDOESVANDENBERG, A; BARTRAM, CR; BASSO, G; BENOIT, YCM; BIONDI, A; DEBATIN, KM; HAAS, OA; HARBOTT, J; KAMPS, WA; KOLLER, U; LAMPERT, F; LUDWIG, WD; NIEMEYER, CM; VANWERING, ER

    1992-01-01

    Minimal requirements and their rationale for the diagnosis and the response to treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were defined in the recently instituted "BFM-Family"-Group, in which the German, Austrian, Dutch, Italian, Belgian, French and Hungarian childhood leukemia study

  1. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  2. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  3. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30II accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30II/c-MYC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30 II protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30 II interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30 II and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30 II induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30 II in c-myc −/− HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30 II is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30 II inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30 II /c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30 II /c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30 II /c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30 II protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30 II is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30 II inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells

  4. On Early Conflict Identification by Requirements Modeling of Energy System Control Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Control systems are purposeful systems involving goal-oriented information processing (cyber) and technical (physical) structures. Requirements modeling formalizes fundamental concepts and relations of a system architecture at a high-level design stage and can be used to identify potential design...... issues early. For requirements formulation of control structures, cyber and physical aspects need to be jointly represented to express interdependencies, check for consistency and discover potentially conflicting requirements. Early identification of potential conflicts may prevent larger problems...... modeling for early requirements checking using a suitable modeling language, and illustrates how this approach enables the identification of several classes of controller conflict....

  5. A semi-automated approach for generating natural language requirements documents based on business process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aysolmaz, Banu; Leopold, Henrik; Reijers, Hajo A.; Demirörs, Onur

    2018-01-01

    Context: The analysis of requirements for business-related software systems is often supported by using business process models. However, the final requirements are typically still specified in natural language. This means that the knowledge captured in process models must be consistently

  6. Requirements-level semantics and model checking of object-oriented statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Jansen, D.N.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we define a requirements-level execution semantics for object-oriented statecharts and show how properties of a system specified by these statecharts can be model checked using tool support for model checkers. Our execution semantics is requirements-level because it uses the perfect

  7. Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Marvin A.

    A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

  8. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...

  9. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort.......This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  10. The entrenchment strategy of logistics service providers: Towards a sequential cooperation-competition process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Paché

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The logistics industry has been attracting the attention of researchers in management for several years. Their focus is increasingly on interorganisational relationships between logistics service providers and their customers, examining the modes of interaction occurring between them. An abundant literature emphasises the importance of cooperative strategies in the logistics industry, hinting that this is a dominant requirement, destined for inevitable development. This article presents a more qualified position and proposes that cooperative strategies are most likely a transition step between arm’s-length competition periods, and resorts to the entrenchment theory, imported from organisational finance, to propose a sequential cooperation-competition model.

  11. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  12. 40 CFR 35.6500 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Use of Recipient Employees (âforce Accountâ) Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6500 General.... Procurement Requirements Under a Cooperative Agreement ...

  13. Genetic modelling of PIM proteins in cancer: proviral tagging, cooperation with oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and carcinogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enara eAguirre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anticancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1 as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all 3 isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis.

  14. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  15. Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Cooperative Integrated Reading And Composition (CIRC Bermuatan Nilai Karakter terhadap Kemampuan Menulis Cerpen Siswa Kelas VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd. Jasri Ilham

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning of CIRC type with character values on short story seventh graders’ writing achievement at junior high school. In addition to that, a quantitative method with a quasi experimental design (pretest-posttest control group design was conducted. It turned out that there was a significant effect of using cooperative learning of CIRC type with character values on short story seventh graders’ writing achievement at State Senior High School 5 Muara Bungo in (1 developing theme (3,383 e” 2,0086, (2 using the language (2,533 e” 2,0086, (3 developing the background (2,469 e” 2,0086, (4 developing characters (2,319 e” 2,0086, (5 developing the plot (2,087 e” 2,0086, and (6 implementing character values in cooperative learning of CIRC type in writing short story ran well. The finding was corroborated by the mean of students’ character values (3,16 and was categorized as good. Key Words: writing learning, short story, CIRC cooperative learning, character value Abstrak: Tujuan penulisan artikel ini untuk mendeskripsikan pengaruh model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe CIRC bermuatan nilai karakter terhadap kemampuan menulis cerpen siswa kelas VII SMP. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif dengan rancangan kuasi eksperimen (quasi experimental dengan desain pretest-posttest control group design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe CIRC bermuatan nilai karakter terhadap kemampuan menulis cerpen siswa kelas VII SMPN 5 Muara Bungo; dalam (1 mengembangkan tema (3,383 e” 2,0086, (2 menggunakan bahasa (2,533 e” 2,0086, (3 mengembangkan latar (2,469 e” 2,0086, (4 mengembangkan penokohan (2,319 e” 2,0086, (5 mengembangkan alur (2,087 e” 2,0086, dan (6 pengimplentasian nilai karakter dalam pembelajaran kooperatif tipe CIRC dalam menulis cerpen terlaksana dengan baik. Hal ini terbuktikan

  16. Meta-Model and UML Profile for Requirements Management of Software and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpinen Tero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Software and embedded system companies today encounter problems related to requirements management tool integration, incorrect tool usage, and lack of traceability. This is due to utilized tools with no clear meta-model and semantics to communicate requirements between different stakeholders. This paper presents a comprehensive meta-model for requirements management. The focus is on software and embedded system domains. The goal is to define generic requirements management domain concepts and abstract interfaces between requirements management and system development. This leads to a portable requirements management meta-model which can be adapted with various system modeling languages. The created meta-model is prototyped by translating it into a UML profile. The profile is imported into a UML tool which is used for rapid evaluation of meta-model concepts in practice. The developed profile is associated with a proof of concept report generator tool that automatically produces up-to-date documentation from the models in form of web pages. The profile is adopted to create an example model of embedded system requirement specification which is built with the profile.

  17. Italy-Greece cooperation for transplantation of medically urgent Greek patients: is it an effective, efficient model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritore, D; Pretagostini, R; Di Ciaccio, P; Fiaschetti, P; Gabbrielli, F; Oliveti, A; Stabile, D; Ricci, A; Vaia, F; Nanni Costa, A

    2012-09-01

    In 2005 the Italian National Transplant Centre (CNT) signed a cooperation agreement with the Hellenic Transplant Organization (HTO) fostering the transfer and transplantation of urgent Greek liver patients at Italian transplantation centers. So as to not reduce access to transplantation for Italian patients, the agreement provided compensation for organs allocated to Greek transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to analyze the flow of patients from Greece to Italy and the number of received livers to consider the possibility to extend this kind of agreement to other countries, so that this should not penalize Italian recipients. The agreement provides the possibility for Greek patients affected by acute disease to be transferred to Italian transplantation centers participating in the agreement. Until 2008 livers transplanted into Greek recipients were returned through a preferential offer of surplus Greek organs, whereas from 2009 an obligation of payback was introduced. During the reviewed period requests for transfer, transferred patients, and number of patients who later underwent transplantation in Italy were 56, 26, and 23, respectively. Livers offered by the Greek organization that were accepted, transferred, and transplanted in Italy have been 82, 50, and 44, respectively. According to our analysis, the cooperation has had as positive impact for both Greece, which has difficulties transplanting urgent recipient because of the low number of donors, and for Italy, which is not penalized by the use of an organ in a Greek recipients, but is also rewarded for helpfulness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A model balancing cooperation and competition can explain our right-handed world and the dominance of left-handed athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Panaggio, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    An overwhelming majority of humans are right-handed. Numerous explanations for individual handedness have been proposed, but this population-level handedness remains puzzling. Here, we present a novel mathematical model and use it to test the idea that population-level hand preference represents a balance between selective costs and benefits arising from cooperation and competition in human evolutionary history. We use the selection of elite athletes as a test-bed for our evolutionary model and find evidence for the validity of this idea. Our model gives the first quantitative explanation for the distribution of handedness both across and within many professional sports. It also predicts strong lateralization of hand use in social species with limited combative interaction, and elucidates the absence of consistent population-level ‘pawedness’ in some animal species. PMID:22535700

  19. INTERFIRM COOPERATION AND INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When firms engage in cooperative efforts, interfirm relations get particular interest to be studied. A direct interlock occurs when an executive or director of one firm sits on the board of another firm, and an indirect interlock occurs when two firms have directors or executives who sit on the board of a third firm. The three commonly used theoretical models such as social network theory, learning theory, and theory of strategic choice are more relevant for the formation and management of interlocking directorates. Uncertainty, resource scarcity, mutual trust, dependency, etc. influence the formation of interlocking directorates. Consequently, interlocking directorates allow sharing of information and overall cooperation between partners through learning, collaboration, networking, and effective relationship, etc. Proper management of interlocking directorates requires communication and collaboration among partners that enhance exchange of knowledge and cooperation.

  20. Formation, “Gold Rule” for the cooperative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides López Labrada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Before the arising of the cooperative movement in the world, cooperation already existed. So, it is logical to affirm that there can be cooperation without cooperative movement. But there cannot be cooperative movement without cooperation, because cooperation is an indispensable premise for the existence of cooperative movement. Both the precursors of the cooperative movement and the classics of Marxism agreed on the necessity of cooperative formation. Lenin called socialism “the regime of cultured cooperators” and the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA contemplated the following, among the seven universal principles of the cooperative movement: education, formation and training of cooperative members, as one of the most important and strategic principles. They have been recognized as the golden rule of the cooperative movement. The changes occurred in Cuba (the existence and evolution of different types of cooperatives, the updating of the economic model, the dynamics of the agrarian sector and the opening of the cooperative movement towards other sectors of the National Economy fully justify the achievement of a cooperative culture, not only of cooperative members but also the actors that perform around cooperatives, the decision- makers and all society. Among the most significant proposals for the achievement of a cooperative culture in Cuba the following can be found: to integrate the different actors that participate in the cooperative formation by means of a national network for cooperative formation by identifying the training demand and training the people that should really implement the change, while building capacities of all the individuals involved in the cooperative movement in a direct or indirect way.

  1. Iran's Experience of Health Cooperatives as a Public-Private Partnership Model in Primary Health Care: A Comparative Study in East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nikniaz, Alireza; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Zakeri, Akram; Azami, Saber

    2012-01-01

    Iran started a new public-private partnership model in form of health coopera¬tives which is somehow different from other types of health cooperatives throughout the world. In this study we compared the performance and quality of health services in public health cen¬ters (PHCs) and cooperative health centers (CHCs). In this comparative study performance quality of two cohorts of public and coopera¬tive health centers were compared in several health service delivery programs over the time pe¬riod of 2001- 2002. Screening program: the rate of visited population during screening program was higher in CHCs. Maternal health care program: In some of studied programs CHCs had better results. Child health care: Most indicators were better or similar in CHCs. School health program and Health education: All indices were better or similar in CHCs. Environmental health: population based positive function was not significantly different for the population covered by CHCs compared to population covered by PHCs. Client and staff satisfaction as well as participation and attitudes of personnel towards management was better in CHCs. Mean annual cost per capita of the covered population by PHCs was higher. CHCs as a public private partnership model in Iran may deliver preventive health care services as effective as PHCs in many fields and even better in some areas.

  2. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe relationship between the financial structure of a marketing cooperative (MC) and the requirement of the domination of control by the members is analysed from a transaction costs perspective. A MC receives less favorable terms on outside equity than a conventional firm because the

  3. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a. ...

  4. The international cooperation for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Francisco; Soto, David

    1998-02-01

    This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme

  5. Linking nitrogen deposition to nitrate concentrations in groundwater below nature areas : modelling approach and data requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Wieggers, H.J.J.; Vries, de W.; Pul, van W.A.J.; Hoek, van den K.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the most suitable model and required model improvements to link atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other elements in the Netherlands to measurements of nitrogen and other elements in the upper groundwater. The deterministic model SMARTml was found to be the most suitable

  6. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  7. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on Local Wisdom of Bali for Physical Education, Sport and Health Subject in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, I. K.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the

  8. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  9. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers: Is rationalization the sole objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MASSOL, Olivier; TCHUNG-MING, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between 12 countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and belonging to the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study is more specifically focused on a scenario often raised: that of the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. As this is a standard transportation problem, we first assess the gains that may result from this cooperative approach using a simple static model calibrated on the year 2007. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - the per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements: core belonging and mono-tonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, coordination costs are considered and we determine the maximum amount that can be tolerated by such a cooperation. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (authors)

  10. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  11. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the ...

  12. Developing a Predictive Model for Unscheduled Maintenance Requirements on United States Air Force Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovich, Matthew D; Norton, J. D

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper develops one such method by using linear regression and time series analysis to develop a predictive model to forecast future year man-hour and funding requirements for unscheduled maintenance...

  13. Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2008). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology, 3(4), 404-423.

  14. Towards a framework for improving goal-oriented requirement models quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cares, Carlos; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Goal-orientation is a widespread and useful approach to Requirements Engineering. However, quality assessment frameworks focused on goal-oriented processes are either limited or remain on the theoretical side. Requirements quality initiatives range from simple metrics applicable to requirements documents, to general-purpose quality frameworks that include syntactic, semantic and pragmatic concerns. In some recent works, we have proposed a metrics framework for goal-oriented models, b...

  15. A manpower training requirements model for new weapons systems, with applications to the infantry fighting vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Kenehan, Douglas J.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis documents the methodology and parameters used in designing a manpower training requirements model for new weapons systems. This model provides manpower planners with the capability of testing alternative fielding policies and adjusting model parameters to improve the use of limited personnel resources. Use of the model is illustrated in a detailed analysis of the planned introduction of the Infantry Fighting Vehicle into t...

  16. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott

    2016-12-20

    The fates of "transboundary" environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a "tragedy of the commons," shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states' behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states' self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives.

  17. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The fates of “transboundary” environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a “tragedy of the commons,” shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states’ behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states’ self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives. PMID:27821746

  18. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  19. Fuel requirements for experimental devices in MTR reactors. A perturbation model for reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, A.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation in neutron absorbing devices, requiring high fast neutron fluxes in the core or high thermal fluxes in the reflector and flux traps, lead to higher density fuel and larger core dimensions. A perturbation model of the reactor core helps to estimate the fuel requirements. (orig.)

  20. Model-Based Requirements Analysis for Reactive Systems with UML Sequence Diagrams and Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a formal foundation for a specialized approach to automatically checking traces against real-time requirements. The traces are obtained from simulation of Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models of reactive systems. The real-time requirements are expressed in terms of a derivat...

  1. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Greek, Ray; Pippus, Annalea; Hansen, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive...

  2. State of the Art : Integrated Management of Requirements in Model-Based Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Thörn, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the background and future of research concerning integrated management of requirements in model-based software engineering. The focus is on describing the relevant topics and existing theoretical backgrounds that form the basis for the research. The report describes the fundamental difficulties of requirements engineering for software projects, and proposes that the results and methods of models in software engineering can help leverage those problems. Taking inspiration...

  3. A Hybrid Parallel Execution Model for Logic Based Requirement Specifications (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. P. Tsai

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that undiscovered errors in a requirements specification is extremely expensive to be fixed when discovered in the software maintenance phase. Errors in the requirement phase can be reduced through the validation and verification of the requirements specification. Many logic-based requirements specification languages have been developed to achieve these goals. However, the execution and reasoning of a logic-based requirements specification can be very slow. An effective way to improve their performance is to execute and reason the logic-based requirements specification in parallel. In this paper, we present a hybrid model to facilitate the parallel execution of a logic-based requirements specification language. A logic-based specification is first applied by a data dependency analysis technique which can find all the mode combinations that exist within a specification clause. This mode information is used to support a novel hybrid parallel execution model, which combines both top-down and bottom-up evaluation strategies. This new execution model can find the failure in the deepest node of the search tree at the early stage of the evaluation, thus this new execution model can reduce the total number of nodes searched in the tree, the total processes needed to be generated, and the total communication channels needed in the search process. A simulator has been implemented to analyze the execution behavior of the new model. Experiments show significant improvement based on several criteria.

  4. 76 FR 66325 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue... Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq... Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment (``Model- CFM'') has filed written...

  5. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    global environmental conference, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, was convened on 5 June 1972 in Stockholm. This day in June is now yearly celebrated as the World Environment Day. The motto of the Conference “Only One Earth,” was a revolutionary concept for its time, but is today...... well established as a starting point for international co-operation on the global scale. The 1972 conference led to the formation of the United Nations Environmental Programme, UNEP, and a series of other initiative on a national or regional level. One of them was the co-operation in the Baltic Sea......Pollution does not recognise borders. Many serious pollutants eventually pass national borders, are transboundary, and even spread globally. Protection of the environment therefore requires international cooperation. This was understood from the outset by the environmental movement. The first...

  6. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  7. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/18: Maritime Cooperation Between India and Pakistan: Building Confidence at Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDDIQA-AGHA,AYESHA

    2000-11-01

    This paper discusses ways in which the navies of both India and Pakistan can cooperate on issues of maritime and naval significance. Although the militaries and navies of the two countries have traditionally seen each other as rivals, international economic developments make cooperation imperative. South Asia requires an approach that can alter the existing hostile images and perceptions. This can be achieved through developing an incremental approach towards confidence building that would allow consistency and help build confidence gradually. The aim is to make confidence building a sustainable activity that would help transform hostile images and build cooperative and nonhostile relationships. This paper proposes a five-step model to suggest what the two navies can do jointly to build confidence, with the ultimate goal of naval arms control. The steps include (1) the Signaling Stage to initiate communication between the two navies, (2) the Warming-Up Stage to build confidence through nonmilitary joint ventures, (3) the Handshake Stage to build confidence between the two navies through military joint ventures, (4) the Problem-Solving Stage to resolve outstanding disputes, and (5) the Final Nod Stage to initiate naval arms control. This model would employ communication, navigation, and remote sensing technologies to achieve success.

  10. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart...

  11. Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD). A model for networking, cooperation, resource sharing, information exchange and regulation harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The focus of the talk will be to introduce the participants to the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD) and their proven methods for networking, information exchange, regulation development and standardization, and radiation protection guidance on emerging technologies. The presentation will describe how radiation control programs and staff from all 50 states in the US work collaboratively to ensure adequate radiation protection standards are uniformly applied throughout the country by pooling of resources and networking between all the states and the federal government, as well as with international members and partners. The products of CRCPD, such as the Suggested State Regulations along with other relevant informational documents, will be discussed along with how participants can access these products for use in their respective countries. CRCPD and its members represent a comprehensive radiation regulatory structure, covering all radiation sources and activities, (radioactive materials, licensing, registration, radioactive waste, x-ray, accelerators, emergency response, environmental monitoring, radon, and security). Networks are in place for all radiation issues. At the completion of this presentation, the participants will better understand a proven method to develop and implement a cooperative partnership with other countries. They will also gain knowledge on how to access CRCPD products that can be tailored for their own use and how to request technical assistance from membership. (author)

  12. Modelling a district heating system: Introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skoevde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power

  13. The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD): a model for networking, cooperation, information exchange and regulation harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilley, Debbie Bray

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will be to introduce to the participants the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD) and the proven methods used by this organization for networking, information exchange, regulation development and standardization, and radiation protection guidance on emerging technologies. The presentation will describe how radiation control programs and staff from all 50 states in the US work collaboratively to ensure adequate radiation protection standards are uniformly applied throughout the country through the pooling of resources and networking between all the states and the federal government, as well as with international members and partners. The products of CRCPD, such as the Suggested State Regulations along with other relevant informational documents, will be discussed along with how participants can access these products for use in their respective countries. CRCPD and its members represent a comprehensive radiation regulatory structure, covering radioactive materials, radioactive waste, X-ray, accelerators, emergency response, environmental monitoring, radon, and security. Networks are in place for all radiation issues. After the presentation, participants will better understand how to develop and implement a cooperative partnership with other countries. They will also know how to access our products that can be tailored for their own use. They will also be informed of how to contact CRCPD and request technical assistance from one of our 1000 members through our international outreach initiative. (author)

  14. Partners in Science: A Model Cooperative Program Introducing High School Teachers and Students to Leading-Edge Pharmaceutical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woska, Joseph R., Jr.; Collins, Danielle M.; Canney, Brian J.; Arcario, Erin L.; Reilly, Patricia L.

    2005-12-01

    Partners in Science is a cooperative program between Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and area high schools in the community surrounding our Connecticut campus. It is a two-phase program that introduces high school students and teachers to the world of drug discovery and leading-edge pharmaceutical research. Phase 1 involves a series of lectures, tours, and demonstrations given by scientists within our research and development division (R&D). Phase 2 involves the selection of a small group of participants to intern for the summer in a research laboratory, working side by side with a scientist within R&D. In this manuscript, the specific aims, goals, and development of the Partners in Science program are described, as well as the syllabus/agenda, the logistics surrounding the operation of the program, and our shared personal experiences with students and teachers who have participated. Some of the pitfalls/problems associated with the program will be presented, and finally, the future direction of the program including areas of improvement and expansion are described.

  15. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  16. Recent developments in cooperative control and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Murphey, Robert; Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several years, cooperative control and optimization has un­ questionably been established as one of the most important areas of research in the military sciences. Even so, cooperative control and optimization tran­ scends the military in its scope -having become quite relevant to a broad class of systems with many exciting, commercial, applications. One reason for all the excitement is that research has been so incredibly diverse -spanning many scientific and engineering disciplines. This latest volume in the Cooperative Systems book series clearly illustrates this trend towards diversity and creative thought. And no wonder, cooperative systems are among the hardest systems control science has endeavored to study, hence creative approaches to model­ ing, analysis, and synthesis are a must! The definition of cooperation itself is a slippery issue. As you will see in this and previous volumes, cooperation has been cast into many different roles and therefore has assumed many diverse meanings. P...

  17. Can cooperative behaviors promote evacuation efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to get insight into the question whether cooperative behaviors can promote the evacuation efficiency during an evacuation process. In this work, cooperative behaviors and evacuation efficiency have been examined in detail by using a cellular automata model with behavioral extension. The simulation results show that moderate cooperative behaviors can result in the highest evacuation efficiency. It is found that in a mixture of cooperative and competitive individuals, more cooperative people will lead to relatively high evacuation efficiency, and the larger subgroup will play a leading role. This work can also provide some new insights for the study of cooperative behaviors and evacuation efficiency which can be a scientific decision-making basis for emergency response involving large-scale crowd evacuation in emergencies.

  18. Farmers' reactions to the internationalisation of cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Ollila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study examined the extent to which farmer cooperatives enjoy social capital within their memberships as they become internationalised. The empirical basis was a survey of farmers in Finland. Findings from limited dependent variable regression models suggest that one group of farmers is loyal to the cooperative and opposes its foreign investments. A second and a third group have lower levels of social capital and switch membership status between multiple cooperatives or opt out of cooperatives. These farmers welcome international investment. This finding was more significant for individual farm types than the social capital-linked opposition to internationalisation. A general conclusion is that the internationalization of cooperatives seems affect the members’ trust in the cooperative differently. The increasing heterogeneity within the memberships may give rise to governance problems.

  19. Estimating required information size by quantifying diversity in random-effects model meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Thorlund, Kristian; Brok, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing awareness that meta-analyses require a sufficiently large information size to detect or reject an anticipated intervention effect. The required information size in a meta-analysis may be calculated from an anticipated a priori intervention effect or from...... an intervention effect suggested by trials with low-risk of bias. METHODS: Information size calculations need to consider the total model variance in a meta-analysis to control type I and type II errors. Here, we derive an adjusting factor for the required information size under any random-effects model meta......-trial variability and a sampling error estimate considering the required information size. D2 is different from the intuitively obvious adjusting factor based on the common quantification of heterogeneity, the inconsistency (I2), which may underestimate the required information size. Thus, D2 and I2 are compared...

  20. A Functional Model of Quality Assurance for Psychiatric Hospitals and Corresponding Staffing Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A model for quality assurance (QA) in psychiatric hospitals is described. Its functions (general QA, utilization review, clinical records, evaluation, management information systems, risk management, and infection control), subfunctions, and corresponding staffing requirements are reviewed. This model was designed to foster standardization in QA…