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Sample records for models relating sweetness

  1. Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Park, Jin-Hee; Lim, Juyun

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener with various functional properties, compared to other sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, rebaudioside A), over a wide range of sweetness commonly found in foods and beverages (3% to 20% sucrose [w/v]). A total of 34 subjects evaluated aqueous solutions of the 5 sweeteners for the perceived intensities of sweetness, bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations, and sweet aftertaste, using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale. The relationship between the physical concentrations of the sweeteners and their perceived sweetness (that is, psychophysical functions) was derived to quantify the relative sweetness and potency of the sweeteners. The results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities (bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations). Out of the 5 sweeteners tested, rebaudioside A was the only sweetener with notable bitterness and chemical-like sensations, which became progressively intense with increasing concentration (P sweeteners (tagatose, erythritol, sucrose) had similar sweetness growth rates (slopes > 1), whereas the high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, rebaudioside A) yielded much flatter sweetness functions (slopes sweeteners to sucrose was highly concentration dependent. Consequently, sweetness potencies of other sweeteners varied across the concentrations tested, ranging from 0.50 to 0.78 for erythritol, 220 to 1900 for sucralose, and 300 to 440 for rebaudioside A, while tagatose was estimated to be approximately 0.90 times as potent as sucrose irrespective of concentration. The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener, compared to other sweeteners. Study results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities over a wide range of

  2. Sweet Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-11-01

    Readers wanting to nibble some sweet stuff can find a sizable collection of Journal articles via an online search with "sugar" in the title field. The papers cover topics varying from structure and nomenclature, demonstrations, and experiments for laboratories at all levels, to the history and technology of commercial sugar production. A separate search using the title word "sweet" locates additional articles covering all types of sweeteners and models relating sweetness to chemical structure.

  3. The twisted relation between Pnu and SWEET transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähme, Michael; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary relation between sugar and vitamin transporters from the SWEET and Pnu families is un- clear. They have similar 3D structures, but differ in the topology of their secondary structure elements, and lack significant sequence similarity. Here we analyze the structures and sequences of

  4. Cancer-preventive Properties of an Anthocyanin-enriched Sweet Potato in the APCMIN Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Khalid; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Philpott, Martin; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2017-09-01

    Anthocyanin-rich foods and preparations have been reported to reduce the risk of life-style related diseases, including cancer. The SL222 sweet potato, a purple-fleshed cultivar developed in New Zealand, accumulates high levels of anthocyanins in its storage root. We examined the chemopreventative properties of the SL222 sweet potato in the C57BL/6J-APC MIN/+ (APC MIN ) mouse, a genetic model of colorectal cancer. APC MIN and C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=160) were divided into four feeding groups consuming diets containing 10% SL222 sweet potato flesh, 10% SL222 sweet potato skin, or 0.12% ARE (Anthocyanin rich-extract prepared from SL222 sweet potato at a concentration equivalent to the flesh-supplemented diet) or a control diet (AIN-76A) for 18 weeks. At 120 days of age, the mice were anaesthetised, and blood samples were collected before the mice were sacrificed. The intestines were used for adenoma enumeration. The SL222 sweet potato-supplemented diets reduced the adenoma number in the APC MIN mice. These data have significant implications for the use of this sweet potato variant in protection against colorectal cancer.

  5. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  6. The Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET): development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Many smokers believe that smoking helps them to control their weight, and concerns about weight gain can interfere with smoking cessation. As researchers typically assess general weight concerns, a measure specific to smoking-related weight concerns is needed. The Smoking-related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) was created by generating items from 4 content domains: Hunger, Craving, Overeating, and Body Image. Female undergraduate smokers (N = 280) rated their postcessation weight gain concern and completed the SWEET, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26, Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), and Body Shape Questionnaire. Factor analysis of the initial items suggested a 4-factor solution, suggesting 4 subscales: Smoking to suppress appetite, smoking to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and withdrawal-related appetite increases. Based on these results, the SWEET subscales were revised and shortened. The resulting 10-item SWEET showed excellent internal consistency (total α = .94; mean α = .86) and evidence of validity by predicting smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns (ps < .05). Smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns were significantly predicted by the SWEET while controlling for existing measures of postcessation weight gain concern. The SWEET appears to be a reliable and valid measure of tendencies to smoke in response to body image concern and nicotine withdrawal and as a way to control appetite and overeating.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui

    2012-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  8. The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Ashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.

  9. Analysis of Traits Related to Weed Competitiveness in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia de Leon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weed management in sweet corn can be costly; genetic improvements in sweet corn competitiveness may reduce this expense. Competitive ability can exist as weed suppressive ability (WSA, or crop tolerance (CT. Previous studies in corn have found year of hybrid release, maturity, plant height, leaf angle and leafiness may affect WSA, while hybrid era, maturity, and plant height may affect CT. However, many of these studies were limited to very few genotypes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of phenomorphological traits on sweet corn competitiveness and the inheritance of these traits. An incomplete half-diallel from seven historic sweet corn inbred lines of varying morphologies was evaluated in a split-block randomized complete block design in three environments. Forage sorghum was interplanted in half of the blocks to act as a model weed. Significant differences among hybrids were generally found for both phenomorphological traits and traits measuring WSA and CT, such as sorghum biomass and yield stability, respectively. Crop plant height was most predictive of WSA and CT. In this set of genotypes, competitive ability may be passed with reasonable fidelity from parent to offspring, suggesting that sweet corn could be bred for competitive ability.

  10. Preferences for salty and sweet tastes are elevated and related to each other during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Finkbeiner, Susana; Lipchock, Sarah V; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Reed, Danielle R

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if salty and sweet taste preferences in children are related to each other, to markers of growth, and to genetic differences. We conducted a 2-day, single-blind experimental study using the Monell two-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method to determine taste preferences. The volunteer sample consisted of a racially/ethnically diverse group of children, 5-10 years of age (n = 108), and their mothers (n = 83). After excluding those mothers who did not meet eligibility and children who did not understand or comply with study procedures, the final sample was 101 children and 76 adults. The main outcome measures were most preferred concentration of salt in broth and crackers; most preferred concentration of sucrose in water and jelly; reported dietary intake of salty and sweet foods; levels of a bone growth marker; anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, and percent body fat; and TAS1R3 (sweet taste receptor) genotype. Children preferred higher concentrations of salt in broth and sucrose in water than did adults, and for both groups, salty and sweet taste preferences were significantly and positively correlated. In children, preference measures were related to reported intake of sodium but not of added sugars. Children who were tall for their age preferred sweeter solutions than did those that were shorter and percent body fat was correlated with salt preference. In mothers but not in children, sweet preference correlated with TAS1R3 genotype. For children, sweet and salty taste preferences were positively correlated and related to some aspects of real-world food intake. Complying with recommendations to reduce added sugars and salt may be more difficult for some children, which emphasizes the need for new strategies to improve children's diets.

  11. Preferences for salty and sweet tastes are elevated and related to each other during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine if salty and sweet taste preferences in children are related to each other, to markers of growth, and to genetic differences. METHODS: We conducted a 2-day, single-blind experimental study using the Monell two-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method to determine taste preferences. The volunteer sample consisted of a racially/ethnically diverse group of children, 5-10 years of age (n = 108, and their mothers (n = 83. After excluding those mothers who did not meet eligibility and children who did not understand or comply with study procedures, the final sample was 101 children and 76 adults. The main outcome measures were most preferred concentration of salt in broth and crackers; most preferred concentration of sucrose in water and jelly; reported dietary intake of salty and sweet foods; levels of a bone growth marker; anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, and percent body fat; and TAS1R3 (sweet taste receptor genotype. RESULTS: Children preferred higher concentrations of salt in broth and sucrose in water than did adults, and for both groups, salty and sweet taste preferences were significantly and positively correlated. In children, preference measures were related to reported intake of sodium but not of added sugars. Children who were tall for their age preferred sweeter solutions than did those that were shorter and percent body fat was correlated with salt preference. In mothers but not in children, sweet preference correlated with TAS1R3 genotype. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: For children, sweet and salty taste preferences were positively correlated and related to some aspects of real-world food intake. Complying with recommendations to reduce added sugars and salt may be more difficult for some children, which emphasizes the need for new strategies to improve children's diets.

  12. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, P M; Maliepaard, C; Tikunov, Y; Haanstra, J P W; Bovy, A G; Visser, R G F

    2012-05-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In-silico prediction of sweetness using structure-activity relationship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anukrati; Gajula, Kishore; Gupta, Rakesh; Rai, Beena

    2018-07-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models appear to be an ideal tool for quick screening of promising candidates from a vast library of molecules, which can then be further designed, synthesized and tested using a combination of rigorous first principle simulations, such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and experiments. In this study, QSAR models have been built with an extensive dataset of 487 compounds to predict the sweetness potency relative to sucrose (ranging 0.2-220,000). The whole dataset was randomly split into training and test sets in a 70:30 ratio. The models were developed using Genetic Function Approximation (R test 2  = 0.832) and Artificial Neural Network (R test 2  = 0.831). Our models thus offer a convenient route for fast screening of molecules prior to synthesis and testing. Additionally, this study can supplement a molecular modelling approach to improve binding of molecules with sweet taste receptors, leading to design of novel sweeteners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth/no growth models for Zygosaccharomyces rouxii associated with acidic, sweet intermediate moisture food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    The most notorious spoilage organism of sweet intermediate moisture foods (IMFs) is Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which can grow at low water activity, low pH and in the presence of organic acids. Together with an increased consumer demand for preservative free and healthier food products with less...... sugar and fat and a traditionally long self-life of sweet IMFs, the presence of Z. rouxii in the raw materials for IMFs has made assessment of the microbiological stability a significant hurdle in product development. Therefore, knowledge on growth/no growth boundaries of Z. rouxii in sweet IMFs...... is important to ensure microbiological stability and aid product development. Several models have been developed for fat based, sweet IMFs. However, fruit/sugar based IMFs, such as fruit based chocolate fillings and jams, have lower pH and aw than what is accounted for in previously developed models...

  15. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Zuo, Ruijuan; Abad, Jorge; Xu, Donglin; Bao, Gaili; Li, Ruhui

    2012-12-01

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in sweet potato virus disease complexes worldwide. Identification and detection of these viruses are complicated by high similarity among their genomic sequences, frequent occurrence as mixed infections and low titer in many sweet potato cultivars. A one-tube multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG and SPV2. Four specific forward primers unique to each virus and one reverse primer based on the region conserved in all four viruses were selected and used in the assay. The mRT-PCR assay was optimized for primer concentration and cycling conditions. It was tested using sweet potato plants infected naturally with one to four target viruses and then evaluated using field samples collected from southwestern China. The mRT-PCR assay is reliable and sensitive as a simple, rapid and cost-effective method to detect these pathogens in sweet potato. This assay will be useful to quarantine and certification programs and virus surveys when large numbers of samples are tested. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Water relations of cucumber, tomato, and sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behboudian, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ever increasing importance of water as a critical resource for agricultural production has encouraged more research on water relations in recent years. Most attention has been paid to field crops and less information is available for horticultural crops, especially vegetables. The

  17. Investigating the Skoog-Miller Model for Organogenesis Using Sweet Potato Root Explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which groups of students in a plant tissue culture course worked together to test application of the Skoog-Miller model (developed by Skoog and Miller in regeneration of tobacco experiments to demonstrate organogenesis) to sweet potato root explants. (ZWH)

  18. A model linking video gaming, sleep quality, sweet drinks consumption and obesity among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, O; Romashkin, A; Morrison, K M

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing need to curb paediatric obesity. The aim of this study is to untangle associations between video-game-use attributes and obesity as a first step towards identifying and examining possible interventions. Cross-sectional time-lagged cohort study was employed using parent-child surveys (t1) and objective physical activity and physiological measures (t2) from 125 children/adolescents (mean age = 13.06, 9-17-year-olds) who play video games, recruited from two clinics at a Canadian academic children's hospital. Structural equation modelling and analysis of covariance were employed for inference. The results of the study are as follows: (i) self-reported video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime is related to greater abdominal adiposity (waist-to-height ratio) and this association may be mediated through reduced sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index); and (ii) self-reported average video-game session duration is associated with greater abdominal adiposity and this association may be mediated through higher self-reported sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and reduced sleep quality. Video-game play duration in the 4-h window before bedtime, typical video-game session duration, sweet drinks consumption while playing video games and poor sleep quality have aversive associations with abdominal adiposity. Paediatricians and researchers should further explore how these factors can be altered through behavioural or pharmacological interventions as a means to reduce paediatric obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Sugar Accumulation in Leaves of Arabidopsis sweet11/sweet12 Double Mutants Enhances Priming of the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gebauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In compatible interactions, biotrophic microbial phytopathogens rely on the supply of assimilates by the colonized host tissue. It has been found in rice that phloem localized SWEET sucrose transporters can be reprogrammed by bacterial effectors to establish compatibility. We observed that sweet11/sweet12 double mutants, but not single mutants, exhibited increased resistance toward the fungal hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum (Ch, both in the biotrophic and the necrotrophic colonization phase. We therefore investigated if the phloem localized transporters AtSWEET11 and AtSWEET12 represent additive susceptibility factors in the interaction of Arabidopsis with Ch. AtSWEET12-YFP fusion protein driven by the endogenous promoter strongly accumulated at Ch infection sites and in the vasculature upon challenge with Ch. However, susceptibility of sweet12 single mutants to Ch was comparable to wild type, indicating that the accumulation of AtSWEET12 at Ch infection sites does not play a major role for compatibility. AtSWEET12-YFP reporter protein was not detectable at the plant–pathogen interface, suggesting that AtSWEET12 is not targeted by Ch effectors. AtSWEET11-YFP accumulation in pAtSWEET11:AtSWEET11-YFP plants were similar in Ch infected and mock control leaves. A close inspection of major carbohydrate metabolism in non-infected control plants revealed that soluble sugar and starch content were substantially elevated in sweet11/sweet12 double mutants during the entire diurnal cycle, that diurnal soluble sugar turnover was increased more than twofold in sweet11/sweet12, and that accumulation of free hexoses and sucrose was strongly expedited in double mutant leaves compared to wild type and both single mutants during the course of Ch infection. After 2 days of treatment, free and conjugated SA levels were significantly increased in infected and mock control leaves of sweet11/sweet12 relative to all other genotypes, respectively. Induced

  20. Growth/no growth models for Zygosaccharomyces rouxii associated with acidic, sweet intermediate moisture food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvig, C L; Kristiansen, R M; Nielsen, D S

    2015-01-02

    The most notorious spoilage organism of sweet intermediate moisture foods (IMFs) is Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which can grow at low water activity, low pH and in the presence of organic acids. Together with an increased consumer demand for preservative free and healthier food products with less sugar and fat and a traditionally long self-life of sweet IMFs, the presence of Z. rouxii in the raw materials for IMFs has made assessment of the microbiological stability a significant hurdle in product development. Therefore, knowledge on growth/no growth boundaries of Z. rouxii in sweet IMFs is important to ensure microbiological stability and aid product development. Several models have been developed for fat based, sweet IMFs. However, fruit/sugar based IMFs, such as fruit based chocolate fillings and jams, have lower pH and aw than what is accounted for in previously developed models. In the present study growth/no growth models for acidified sweet IMFs were developed with the variables aw (0.65-0.80), pH (2.5-4.0), ethanol (0-14.5% (w/w) in water phase) and time (0-90 days). Two different strains of Z. rouxii previously found to show pronounced resistance to the investigated variables were included in model development, to account for strain differences. For both strains data sets with and without the presence of sorbic acid (250 ppm on product basis) were built. Incorporation of time as an exploratory variable in the models gave the possibility to predict the growth/no growth boundaries at each time between 0 and 90 days without decreasing the predictive power of the models. The influence of ethanol and aw on the growth/no growth boundary of Z. rouxii was most pronounced in the first 30 days and 60 days of incubation, respectively. The effect of pH was almost negligible in the range of 2.5-4.0. The presence of low levels of sorbic acid (250 ppm) eliminated growth of both strains at all conditions tested. The two strains tested have previously been shown to have

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    W. Limtrakarn; P. Boonmongkol; A. Chompupoung; K. Rungprateepthaworn; J. Kruenate; P. Dechaumphai

    2012-01-01

    Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor ...

  2. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    plant for sequencing in 2009 promoting it as a C4 model plant. Among the very diverse genetic resources available for sorghum, sweet sorghum plants; amassing large quantities of juice-rich and sugar-rich stem, grain and vegetative biomass; have been enlightened as bioenergy crop as it can produced from...... a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using...... in Denmark using a panel of genetic and genomic tools. A large bi-parental QTL mapping study was carried out by using several mapping populations progenies, derived from a cross between a sweet and grain sorghum and they were grown and phenotyped in China and Denmark. The genetic map used for this bi...

  3. Multiple biological functions of sporamin related to stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2012-01-01

    The initial investigation of the nature of the proteins in the tuber of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) revealed a globulin-designated "ipomoein," which was reported by Jones and Gersdorff, (1931). Later, "ipomoein" was renamed "sporamin" and was found to be a major storage protein that accounted for over 80% of the total protein in the tuberous root. To date, sporamin has been studied by a series of biochemical and molecular approaches. The first purification of sporamin into two major fractions, A and B, was successfully completed in 1985. Several characteristics of the protein, such as the diversification of the nucleotide sequences in the gene family, the protein structure, the biological functions of storage, defense, inhibitory activity and ROS scavenging, were identified. In the past decade, sporamin was classified as a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor, and its insect-resistance capability has been examined in transgenic tobacco and cauliflower plants, indicating the multiple functions of this protein has evolved to facilitate the growth and development of sweet potato. Sporamin is constitutively expressed in the tuberous root and is not normally expressed in the stem or leaves. However, this protein is expressed systemically in response to wounding and other abiotic stresses. These dual expression patterns at the transcriptional level revealed that the complex regulatory mechanism of sporamin was modulated by environmental stresses. The versatile functions of sporamin make this storage protein a good research model to study molecular evolution, regulatory mechanisms and physiological functions in plants. This review summarizes and discusses recent approaches and future perspectives in agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  5. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Limtrakarn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor variation of temperature inside the greenhouse. The measured temperature data were used as the boundary conditions for the CFD analysis. A new greenhouse model with two-step roof shape was designed and the air flow behavior was simulated by using CFD. Regarding CFD results the air flow rate of the new model is about 39% higher than that of old model. The maximum temperature of the new model is lower than that of the old one. The sweet paper growths in both greenhouse models were measured and compared. Results show that the new model obtains 4°C lower maximum temperature in day time, 97% in number and 90% in weight higher the first grade pepper productivity than the old one.

  7. Modelling of the aqueous debittering process of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvajal-Larenas, F.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the process of lupin debittering by soaking, cooking and washing in water using a newly designed hydroagitator. The effect on alkaloids content, solids in the product, final weight, processing time and water and energy consumption were expressed in a mathematical model for

  8. Analysis of Traits Related to Weed Competitiveness in Sweet Corn ( Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jared P. Zystro; Natalia de Leon; William F. Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Weed management in sweet corn can be costly; genetic improvements in sweet corn competitiveness may reduce this expense. Competitive ability can exist as weed suppressive ability (WSA), or crop tolerance (CT). Previous studies in corn have found year of hybrid release, maturity, plant height, leaf angle and leafiness may affect WSA, while hybrid era, maturity, and plant height may affect CT. However, many of these studies were limited to very few genotypes. The objective of this study was to ...

  9. Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Martín; Messing, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thin-layer drying characteristics of sweet potato slices and mathematical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2011-03-01

    The effect of blanching and drying temperature (50, 60 and 70°C) on drying kinetics and rehydration ratio of sweet potatoes was investigated. It was observed that both the drying temperature and blanching affected the drying time and rehydration ratio. The logarithmic model showed the best fit to experimental drying data. The values of effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy ranged from 9.32 × 10-11 to 1.75 × 10-10 m2/s, and 22.7-23.2 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Role of Endocannabinoids on Sweet Taste Perception, Food Preference, and Obesity-related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarragon, Ernesto; Moreno, Juan José

    2017-12-25

    The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome has increased significantly in the past decades, reaching epidemic levels and therefore becoming a major health issue worldwide. Chronic overeating of highly palatable foods is one of the main responsible aspects behind overweight. Food choice is driven by food preference, which is influenced by environmental and internal factors, from availability to rewarding properties of food. Consequently, the acquisition of a dietary habit that may lead to metabolic alterations is the result of a learning process in which many variables take place. From genetics to socioeconomic status, the response to food and how this food affects energy metabolism is heavily influenced, even before birth. In this work, we review how food preference is acquired and established, particularly as regards sweet taste; towards which flavors and tastes we are positively predisposed by our genetic background, our early experience, further lifestyle, and our surroundings; and, especially, the role that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays in all of this. Ultimately, we try to summarize why this system is relevant for health purposes and how this is linked to important aspects of eating behavior, as its function as a modulator of energy homeostasis affects, and is affected by, physiological responses directly associated with obesity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamics of the interaction of sweeteners and lactisole with fullerenols as an artificial sweet taste receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Wu, Wen; Zhang, Wei-Bin; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2011-09-01

    The thermodynamics of the mimetic interaction of lactisole and sweeteners with fullerenols as a synthetic sweet receptor model was elucidated by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) technique. The presence of lactisole resulted in great differences in thermodynamics of the sweeteners binding with fullerenols in which lactisole led to much more entropy contribution to the free energy compared with the interaction of sweeteners with fullerenols. Two interaction equilibrium states were found in ITC titration profiles and competitive binding of lactisole and sweeteners with fullerenols was disclosed. Our results indicated that the larger value of the ratio of two equilibrium constant K1/K2, the more effectively lactisole inhibited the sweetness of the sweetener. The combined results of sensory evaluation and ITC thermodynamics revealed that introducing a synthetic receptor model to interact with the sweeteners and inhibitors helps to understand the inhibition mechanism and the thermodynamic basis for the initiation of sweetness inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does viscosity have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenstein, Cai V S; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Fischer, Markus

    2015-03-15

    The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPa s). The ranges of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess and perceived viscosity (P-values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sweepoviruses Cause Disease in Sweet Potato and Related Ipomoea spp.: Fulfilling Koch's Postulates for a Divergent Group in the Genus Begomovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Promesa’, were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus. PMID:22073314

  16. Sweepoviruses cause disease in sweet potato and related Ipomoea spp.: fulfilling Koch's postulates for a divergent group in the genus begomovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena P Trenado

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV, Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV. Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06 of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, 'Beauregard' and 'Promesa', were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus.

  17. Plant nutrient deficiencies and related tissue composition of the sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, J.A.; Ahmad, N.

    The visual symptoms which appear in sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, under conditions of deficiency of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium and iron are described. These symptoms were produced by growth of two node cuttings in sand culture. Results of tissue analysis for three harvests during the growth period are also presented. 7 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Reinders, M.J.; Hiller, S.; Guardia, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents

  19. Changes in carbohydrate levels and relative water content (RWC) to distinguish dormancy phases in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Heiko; Blanke, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Perennial trees require chilling, i.e. a period of cold temperature in the winter, for flowering next spring; sweet cherry is particularly prone to lack of chilling. The objective of this study is to identify possible transition points to clearly distinguish dormancy phases by relating carbohydrate and relative water content (RWC) in reproductive buds to concomitant chilling fulfilment. This contribution proposes the use of four transition points between the dormancy phases and their characterization in terms of carbohydrates, water contents in combination with chilling values and may allow upscaling to other dormancy studies in trees; two groups of cherry varieties were defined based on their different initial sorbitol and starch level in the autumn. The first separation between para- and (deep) d-endo-dormancy is characterized as a transition from a decrease (variety group 1) or a constant level (variety group 2) to a sharp increase in hexoses and sorbitol and a drop of starch content. The second transition point (d-endo- to f-endo-dormancy) is characterized as the changes in both hexoses (increase) and starch (decrease) terminate and ca. 650 Chilling Hours (CH), i.e. insufficient chilling in the concomitant forcing experiment with cut branches. This third transition point (f-endo- to eco-dormancy) was characterized by ca. 1000 CH, the minimum chilling requirement and restrained flowering (cut branches). The fourth transition point (forcing initiation) marked an increase in water content at ca. 1550 CH, optimum chilling for cherry and coincided with natural flowering. A ratio of hexoses (glucose plus fructose) to starch content (dormancy) and a ratio of 14-20:1 typical for endo-dormancy, whereas the release from dormancy was associated with a decline to less than 10:1 at the end of winter (eco-dormancy). To our knowledge, this is the first time that transition points are identified based on constituents (carbohydrates and relative water content) in floral buds

  20. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  1. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  2. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes

  3. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  4. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N.; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C. I.; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2017-01-01

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual?s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20?40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste percept...

  5. Modelling the mid-infrared drying of sweet potato: kinetics, mass and heat transfer parameters, and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I.; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the drying kinetics, mass and heat transfer characteristics of sweet potato slices (0.4-0.6 cm thickness) during drying based on mid-infrared experimental set-up (intensity of 1100-1400 W/m2). Thin layer drying models were used to evaluate the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices. Two analytical models (Fick's diffusion model, and Dincer and Dost model) were used to study the mass transfer behaviour of sweet potato slices with and without shrinkage during mid-infrared drying. The heat transfer flux between the emitter and sweet potato slices was also investigated. Results demonstrated that an increase in infrared intensity from 1100 W/m2 to 1400 W/m2 resulted in increased in average radiation heat flux by 3.4 times and a 15% reduction in the overall drying time. The two-term exponential model was found to be the best in predicting the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices during mid-infrared drying. The specific heat consumption varied from 0.91-4.82 kWh/kg. The effective moisture diffusivity with and without shrinkage using the Fick's diffusion model varied from 2.632 × 10-9 to 1.596 × 10-8 m2/s, and 1.24 × 10-8 to 2.4 × 10-8 m2/s using Dincer and Dost model, respectively. The obtained values of mass transfer coefficient, Biot number and activation energy varied from 5.99 × 10-6 to 1.17 × 10-5 m/s, 0.53 to 2.62, and 12.83 kJ/mol to 34.64 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained for Biot number implied the existence of simultaneous internal and external resistances. The findings further explained that mid-infrared intensity of 1100 W/m2 did not significantly affect the quality of sweet potato during drying, demonstrating a great potential of applying low intensity mid-infrared radiation in the drying of agricultural crops.

  6. Development of a robust and validated 2D-QSPR model for sweetness potency of diverse functional organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Probir Kumar; Roy, Kunal

    2018-02-01

    In the present report, we have developed a predictive QSPR model using only easily computable two-dimensional (2D) descriptors from diverse classes of sweetening agents to find out the key structural properties which regulate their sweet potency. The available data set was curated to remove salts, mixtures and compounds without having a definite structure. A k-fold double cross validation technique was employed for variable selection prior to development of the final model. The final model was developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis and selected based on a mean absolute error (MAE) based criteria for the validation sets. The model was validated extensively using different internal and external validation strategies in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. This work presented development of a validated quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model obtained from k-fold double cross-validation technique in order to find out the key structural information required to enhance the sweet potency of the molecules. Finally, we have designed and proposed 13 new molecules based on the insights obtained from the QSPR model. The designed compounds showed good in silico predicted sweetness potency with acceptable ADMET profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Salivary leptin and TAS1R2/TAS1R3 polymorphisms are related to sweet taste sensitivity and carbohydrate intake from a buffet meal in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Keast, Russell S J; Roura, Eugeni

    2017-11-01

    The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control). A period of 1 h after the preload, participants were offered a buffet meal consisting of foods varying in taste (sweet or non-sweet) and fat content. Subjective measures included hunger/fullness and SSS for sweetness. Saliva and buccal cells were collected to measure leptin level and to study the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 specific SNP, respectively. Salivary leptin concentrations were significantly higher in LS than HS participants (P<0·05). In addition, HS showed stronger sweet SSS compared with LH participants (P<0·05), and consumed less carbohydrate (% energy) and more non-sweet foods than LS (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). Alleles from each TAS1R2 locus (GG compared with AA alleles of rs12033832, and CT/CC compared with TT alleles of rs35874116) were related to higher consumption of carbohydrates (% energy) and higher amount of sweet foods, respectively (P<0·05). In contrast, no associations were found for the TAS1R3 alleles. These results contribute to understand the links between taste sensitivity, macronutrient appetite and food consumption.

  8. Eating sweet foods habit and other factors that related to obesity on civil pilot in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risnandar Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Background: Obesity in pilot can cause sudden incapacity in flight. This study is purposed to determine factors that affecting obesity on civil pilot in Indonesia. Methods: Cross-sectional design amongst male civil pilots who conducted periodic medical examinations in April 2016 at Aviation Medical Center. Data was collected for this study included demographic characteristics, occupation, habit of eating sweet foods, exercise and family history of obesity. Pilot was categorized as obese I when BMI: 25.0- 29.9 kg/m2 and obese II when BMI: > 30.0 kg/m2. The habit of eating sweet foods was categorized into four categories: almost never, 1-3 times/week, 4-5 times/week, and almost every day. Data was analyzed by Cox regression with constant timing. Results: From 644 pilot’s data that had been collected, 256 data were qualified for the criteria of analysis. 55 pilots (21.48% were obese II. Habit of eating sweet foods and marital status were the dominant factors that associated with risk of obese II. As compared to subject who never consumed sweet foods, subject who consumed sweet foods 1-3 times/week had a lower risk of 50% to experience obese II [RRa = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.85; p = 0.011]; subject who consumed sweet foods 4-5 times/week had a lower risk of 68% to experience obese II [RRa = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.83; p = 0.020]. In comparison with subject who was not married, married subject had a lower risk of 38% to experience obese II [RRa = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.99; p = 0.046]. Conclusion: The habit of eating sweet foods & marital status are affecting the risk of obese II among obese civil pilot in Indonesia. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:134-139 Keywords: Obese, habit of eating sweet foods, Indonesian civil pilots.     

  9. Modeling the incidence of citrus canker in leaves of the sweet orange variety ‘Pera’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle da Silva Pompeu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is one of the most important diseases of citrus. The use of resistant genotypes plays an important role in the management and control of the disease and is the most environmentally sustainable approach to disease control. Citrus canker incidence was recorded in an experiment on nine genotypes of the sweet orange variety ‘Pera’ grafted on four rootstocks. The experiment was started in 2010 and the incidence of citrus canker on the leaves was recorded on a quarterly basis. The incidence data from the experiment were analyzed using a zero-inflated Beta regression model (RBIZ, which is the appropriate method to describe data with large numbers of zeros. Based on the residual analysis, the data fit the model well. The discrete component of the explanatory variable, rootstock, was not significant as a factor affecting the onset of disease, in contrast with the continuous component, genotype, which was significant in explaining the incidence of citrus canker.

  10. Sweet taste in man: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, B; Brewer, M S

    2008-08-01

    A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sweet taste has profound significance for the food industry as well as for consumers. Understanding the mechanism by which sweet taste is elicited by saccharides, peptides, and proteins will assist science and industry in their search for sweet substances with fewer negative health effects. The original AH-B theories have been supplanted by detailed structural models. Recent identification of the human sweet receptor as a dimeric G-protein coupled receptor comprising T1R2 and T1R3 subunits has greatly increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in sweet molecule binding and sweet taste transduction. This review discusses early theories of the sweet receptor, recent research of sweetener chemoreception of nonprotein and protein ligands, homology modeling, the transduction pathway, the possibility of the sweet receptor functioning allosterically, as well as the implications of allelic variation.

  11. [Dynamical examination of auditory event-related potentials P300 and sympathetic skin response in people with insomia of Sweet Dream Capsule therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Ning; Zhang, Ling-Ju; Liang, Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Xiong-Chao; Yuan, Min; Liu, Yang

    2004-08-01

    To observe the change of auditory event-related potentials (P300) and sympathetic skin response (SSR) in people with insomia of Sweet Dream Capsule therapy. 30 patients meeting criteria for primary insomnia and 30 healthy volunteers with age matching controls were selected for the study. P300 and SSR were measured before treatment of Sweet Dream Capsule and at week 4 , 8 of the therapeutic course. That the change of P300 and SSR before and after treatment and their relations with PSQI were studied. Compared with those of normal controls, both P300 latency and SSR latency were prolonged while amplitude was decreased in patients with insomnia (P insomia of Sweet Dream Capsule therapy while SSR im proves significantly, and PSQI scores are ameliorated too.

  12. Modeling of mass transfer performance of hot-air drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Aishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the transfer characteristics of the sweet potato drying process, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was applied to study the influences of drying temperature, hot air velocity and thickness of sweet potato slice on the drying process. The experimental data of moisture ratio of sweet potato slices were used to fit the mathematical models, and the effective diffusion coefficients were calculated. The result showed that temperature, velocity and thickness influenced the drying process significantly. The Logarithmic model showed the best fit to experimental drying data for temperature and the Wang and Singh model were found to be the most satisfactory for velocity and thickness. It was also found that, with the increase of temperature from 60 to 80°C, the effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 2.962×10-10 to 4.694×10-10 m2×s-1, and it fitted the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy was 23.29 kJ×mol-1; with the increase of hot air velocity from 0.423 to 1.120 m×s-1, the values of effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 2.877×10-10 to 3.760×10-10 m2•s-1; with the increase of thickness of sweet potato slice from 0.002 m to 0.004 m, the values of effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 3.887×10-10 to 1.225×10-9 m2•s-1.

  13. High-fat diet-related stimulation of sweetness desire is greater in women than in men despite high vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    To examine the effects of lunches with different dietary energy densities on food preferences between genders. Randomized crossover study. Participants were administered the following packed test meals once weekly on a specified day during six sessions: control (150 g of rice with a sautéed beef entrée containing 40 g of raw beef and 240 g of vegetables), high-meat/low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat/low-vegetable, high-fat and high-fat/low-vegetable meals. Subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using visual analogue scales. University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan. Sixty-five men and sixty-five women matched by age and BMI. Men showed significantly stronger desires for salty and fatty foods after meals (Psweetness from 2 h after the low-vegetable meal, and increasing fat content under high-vegetable conditions caused a significant stimulated sweetness desire in women more than in men (Psweetness desire was stronger in women (P=0.024), whereas no significant differences in sweetness desire were shown between genders after another low-energy-density control meal with 150 g of rice. Men had significantly stronger desires for salty and fatty foods, whereas women preferred sweet food after meals. The sweetness desire in women was stimulated by increasing fat content, even with a high vegetable intake. Low rice intake in a low-energy-density diet also caused a relative stimulation of sweetness desire in women.

  14. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2013-09-03

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched several electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2013), combined with handsearches. No language restrictions were used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sweet potato with a placebo or a comparator intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently selected the trials and extracted the data. We evaluated risk of bias by assessing randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria: these investigated a total of 140 participants and ranged from six weeks to five months in duration. All three studies were performed by the same trialist. Overall, the risk of bias of these trials was unclear or high. All RCTs compared the effect of sweet potato preparations with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at three to five months with 4 g/day sweet potato preparation compared to placebo (mean difference -0.3% (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -0.04); P = 0.02; 122 participants; 2 trials). No serious adverse effects were reported. Diabetic complications and morbidity, death from any cause, health-related quality of life, well-being, functional outcomes and costs were not investigated. There is insufficient evidence about the use of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to improvement in trial methodology

  15. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  16. Modeling of fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract based on modified ADM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    of fermentative hydrogen production from the extractable sugars of sweet sorghum biomass. Kinetic parameters for sugars’ consumption and yield coefficients of acetic, propionic and butyric acid production were estimated using the experimental data obtained from the steady states of a CSTR. Batch experiments were...

  17. Determinants of sweet potato value addition among smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important food security promoted crop in Nigeria. The recognition of its relative health benefits has resulted in fresh consumption as well as the utilization of processed products such as sweet potato chips, fries and pre-cut, flour, and pureed sweet potatoes. This study examined the determinants of sweet ...

  18. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  19. Organic acid bioavailability from banana and sweet potato using an in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabboh-Jourdan, Houda; Valla, Fanny; Epriliati, Indah; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Organic acids from plant food have been shown to play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases (osteoporosis, obesity), inherent to western diets, but little is known about their bioavailability in the small intestine, information that needs to be determined in order to quantify likely effects on human health. An in vitro model of human digestion was carried out, comprising simulated oral, gastric and pancreatic digestion followed by an in vitro model of small intestine absorption using Caco-2 cell monolayers. As models for fruits and vegetables, freeze-dried or raw samples of banana and sweet potato were used. Organic acids have been found to be slowly released from the food matrix during simulated digestion of both banana and sweet potato, either raw or after freeze-drying. In the Caco-2 cell assay, malic and oxalic acids were absorbed more than citric acid. Oxalic and citric acids, but not malic acid, were transported across the cell monolayer. The release and uptake of major organic acids from model fruits and vegetables using established in vitro simulation processes was not quantitative and varied with acid type. Partial uptake is consistent with a dual nutritional role for organic acids as alkalinising agents (fraction which is taken up) and as modulators of large intestinal function (fraction which is not taken up in the small intestine). Studies of in vivo digestive release and uptake are needed in order to identify the contribution of organic acids to the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables.

  20. Sweetness prediction of natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Casciuc, Iuri; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    Based on the most exhaustive database of sweeteners with known sweetness values, a new quantitative structure-activity relationship model for sweetness prediction has been set up. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of sweeteners in the database indicates that the structure of most potent sweeteners combines a hydrophobic scaffold functionalized by a limited number of hydrogen bond sites (less than 4 hydrogen bond donors and 10 acceptors), with a moderate molecular weight ranging from 350 to 450g·mol -1 . Prediction of sweetness, bitterness and toxicity properties of the largest database of natural compounds have been performed. In silico screening reveals that the majority of the predicted natural intense sweeteners comprise saponin or stevioside scaffolds. The model highlights that their sweetness potency is comparable to known natural sweeteners. The identified compounds provide a rational basis to initiate the design and chemosensory analysis of new low-calorie sweeteners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advanced propagation systems for biomass species: a model system based on sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantliffe, D.J. (Florida Univ., Gainseville, FL (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    A method for somatic embryo production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The first step of somatic embryogenesis was to obtain embryogenic callus from 0.2 mm apical domes with 1-2 leaf primordia on medium containing 10 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Selective proliferation of embryogenic callus has been obtained on solid media containing 10 [mu]M 2,4-D and 1 [mu]M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and in liquid media containing 5 [mu]M 2,4-D. The fraction of suspension cultures larger than 710 [mu]M was commonly used to produce embryos. Cultures were recultured every 2 weeks in liquid media and every 6 weeks on agar media. The formation of embryos was triggered by transferring embryogenic calli or cell aggregates from nutrient media containing 2,4-D to fresh media without 2,4-D. Late torpedo and cotyledonary stage embryos had the highest potential for plant formation. The automated production of synthetic seed in combination with fluid drilling technology could render economically feasible the production of sweet potato for biomass. (author)

  2. Sweetness potency and sweetness synergism of sweeteners in milk and coffee systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hye; Chung, Seo-Jin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the presence of sweetness synergism in milk and instant coffee systems. It consists of three parts: 1) modeling concentration-sweetness intensity curves of sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, xylose, tagatose and erythritol); 2) measuring the sweetness potencies of sweeteners compared to sucrose at wide concentration range; and 3) investigating the presence of sweetness synergisms in binary sweetener mixtures. The panelists evaluated sweetness and other sensory characteristics of sweeteners using descriptive analysis. Based on the modeled curve derived from step 1, the concentration of each sweetener with sweetness intensity equal to 2.5% or 2.8% sucrose was calculated for milk and coffee systems, respectively. For the sweetness synergism study, one type of intense sweetener was mixed with one type of bulk sweetener, each eliciting 2.5% or 2.8% equi-sweetness to sucrose, and compared with 5% sucrose added to a milk system or 5.6% sucrose added to a coffee system. The sweetness potencies of bulk sweeteners generally increased whereas the sweetness potencies of intense sweeteners decreased as the concentration increased. The binary sweetener mixtures mostly showed additivity in milk and suppression in coffee system rather than synergism when the concentration dependent nature of sweetness potency for each sweetener was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-03-01

    Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95. Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Assignation of sweet cherry selections to 3 taste groupings based on perceived sweetness and sourness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Carolyn F; Chauvin, Maite A; Whiting, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Providing consumers with basic taste properties of sweet cherries at point of purchase would allow consumers to make purchase decisions based on fruit's intrinsic sensory attributes. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict taste-grouping assignation of cherries into the following categories: (1) low sweetness/high sourness, (2) balance between sweetness and sourness, and (3) high sweetness/low sourness. A sensory panel (n = 10) was trained to recognize sweetness and sourness in 5 cultivars of sweet cherries and assign a taste grouping based on the perceived balance of sweetness and sourness. Four of these same cultivars were then evaluated for sweetness and sourness by a consumer panel (n = 117) and instrumentally for titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids concentration (SSC). Results showed that for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars, the sweetness/sourness balance of the cherries was not significantly different as evaluated instrumentally or by the trained panel. However, the balance determined by the consumer and the trained panel was different for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars (P sweetness and sourness, a multinomial logit model was developed to predict the assignation of cherry taste grouping. The likelihood of group assignment depended on both the perceived sweetness and sourness of the cherry, with taste groupings agreed upon for 3 of 5 sweet cherry cultivars. As previous studies have indicated a positive relationship between cherry sweetness and sourness to consumer acceptance, these groupings show promise for assisting consumers in cherry selection at the point of purchase. The prediction models proposed in this study suggest that both sweetness and sourness are important in the cherry characterization and the ratio between the 2 attributes may be appropriate for making taste-grouping assignments. These groupings may then be used to provide additional sensory information to consumers to assist them in cherry selection at the point of

  5. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large majority of animals (94% preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation-the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self

  6. Subthreshold olfactory stimulation can enhance sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Morgenegg, C; Ali, S; Martin, N

    2007-03-01

    The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest and the lowest sweetness-enhancing properties, respectively. Second, the impact on sweetness of the 2 odorants was investigated at subthreshold concentrations. A system delivering a continuous liquid flow at the same sucrose level, but with varying odorant concentrations, was used. At a subthreshold level, ethyl butyrate but not maltol significantly enhanced the sweetness of the sucrose solution. This study highlights that olfactory perception induced by odorants at a subthreshold level can significantly modulate taste perception. Finally, contrary to results observed with ethyl butyrate at suprathreshold levels, at subthreshold levels, the intensity of sweetness enhancement was not proportional to ethyl butyrate concentration.

  7. Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P A; Bridges, J R; Wicklund, R

    2010-03-01

    The agonist-receptor-transducer model of D. Ennis is applied to beverage formulations sweetened with high fructose corn syrup, sucralose, and other high-potency sweeteners, confirming the utility of the model, and supports the growing volume of evidence for multiple binding sites on the sweetness receptor. The model is further simplified to require less parameters for other sweetener blend systems whenever potency information is available for the single sweeteners.

  8. Sweet Sorghum Genetic Diversity and Association Mapping for Brix and Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth C. Murray

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum [ (L. Moench], like its close relative, sugarcane ( spp., has been selected to accumulate high levels of edible sugars in the stem. Sweet sorghums are tall and produce high biomass in addition to sugar. Little has been documented about the genetic relationships and diversity within sweet sorghums and how sweet sorghums relate to grain sorghum racial types. In this study, a diverse panel of 125 sorghums (mostly sweet was successfully genotyped with 47 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 322 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Using both distance-based and model-based methods, we identified three main genetic groupings of sweet sorghums. Based on observed phenotypes and known origins we classified the three groups as historical and modern syrup, modern sugar/energy types, and amber types. Using SSR markers also scored in an available large grain sorghum germplasm panel, we found that these three sweet groupings clustered with kafir/bicolor, caudatum, and bicolor types, respectively. Using the information on population structure and relatedness, association mapping was performed for height and stem sugar (brix traits. Three significant associations for height were detected. Two of these, on chromosomes 9 and 6, support published QTL studies. One significant association for brix, on chromosome 1, 12kb from a glucose-6-phosphate isomerase homolog, was detected.

  9. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  10. Sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness among Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazawa, Kazuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness. The participants were 59 Japanese undergraduate students. Men preferred sweeter coffee than women, while both men and women showed almost the same preference for acidic beverage sweetness. The sex difference in preferences for coffee sweetness may be related to coffee-drinking habits.

  11. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  12. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  13. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extractin a two stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 οn the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were e...

  14. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness they are no......Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness...... they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  15. Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis: ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.

  16. Sweetness and light: perspectives for rodent models of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avner, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a major disease affecting primarily young children with an incidence in Western societies of around 0.3% by 20 years of age. Although both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disease aetiology, the precise nature of both the genetic and environmental contribution to human disease onset and progression remains poorly defined. Despite showing some differences from human T1D, rodent models for T1D (Leiter and von Herrath, 2004; von Herrath and Nepom, 2009) and, in particular the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse (Atkinson and Leiter, 1999; Kikutani and Makino, 1992), have provided important insights into the disease process, even if they have not yet allowed definitive identification of many of the genetic factors involved in the process. The recent isolation of germline-competent embryonic stem (ES) cells from the NOD mouse strain, and from the rat, will greatly facilitate the functional analysis of T1D in the mouse, and open up the possibility of improved exploitation of rat T1D models. This important technological breakthrough has the potential to remove bottlenecks from the identification of T1D genes, allowing the underlying metabolic pathways to be established and facilitating evaluation of the eventual role of the human homologues in the disease process. The current status and perspectives for an improved mechanistic understanding of the disease process will be addressed.

  17. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, Joseph A.; Miller, J. Corey; Little, Randall D.; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Coble, Keith H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  18. Association of TAS2R38 variants with sweet food intake in children aged 1-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, Ingrid; Grote, Veit; Rzehak, Peter; Xhonneux, Annick; Verduci, Elvira; Stolarczyk, Anna; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-12-01

    We aimed at studying whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 gene are associated with energy intake from sweet tasting foods, total energy and macronutrient intake and body weight in children. Children (n = 691) from five European countries were genotyped for the first variant site rs713598 of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. Three-day dietary records were obtained yearly from one to six years of age. Foods were categorized in sweet and non-sweet-tasting. Mixed models were used to describe group differences in food and nutrient intake and BMI z-score over time. TAS2R38 genotype was related to energy intake from sweet tasting foods: Children with PP and PA genotype consumed an average 83 kJ/d (95% CI 21 to 146; p = 0.009) more sweet tasting foods than children with AA genotype and a mean 56 kJ/d (95% CI 15 to 98; p = 0.007) more energy from energy dense sweet products. Intake of sweet tasting foods was lower in girls than boys and differed between countries. TAS2R38 genotype was not associated with the intake of energy, macronutrients, sugar, single food groups and BMI z-score. Despite many other factors influencing food preference and intake in children, actual intake of sweet food items is associated with TAS2R38 genotype. Children with PP or PA genotype consume more (energy dense) sweet tasting foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Critical Function of Sucrose Metabolism Related-Enzymes in Starch Accumulation in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Luo, Kai; Lu, Huixiang; Liu, Yingying; Dong, Jie; Wang, Xin; Lv, Changwen; Wang, Jichun; Lu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    The starch properties of the storage root (SR) affect the quality of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). Although numerous studies have analyzed the accumulation and properties of starch in sweet potato SRs, the transcriptomic variation associated with starch properties in SR has not been quantified. In this study, we measured the starch and sugar contents and analyzed the transcriptome profiles of SRs harvested from sweet potatoes with high, medium, and extremely low starch contents, at five developmental stages [65, 80, 95, 110, and 125 days after transplanting (DAP)]. We found that differences in both water content and starch accumulation in the dry matter affect the starch content of SRs in different sweet potato genotypes. Based on transcriptome sequencing data, we assembled 112336 unigenes, and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, and revealed the transcriptional regulatory network controlling starch and sucrose metabolism in sweet potato SRs. Correlation analysis between expression patterns and starch and sugar contents suggested that the sugar-starch conversion steps catalyzed by sucrose synthase (SuSy) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) may be essential for starch accumulation in the dry matter of SRs, and IbβFRUCT2, a vacuolar acid invertase, might also be a key regulator of starch content in the SRs. Our results provide valuable resources for future investigations aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms determining the starch properties of sweet potato SRs.

  20. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  1. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  4. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 units and 0.003 units respectively. Furthermore ... Key words: Sweet potato, value addition, Heckman two-stage model, Kwara State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... governments to focus on the whole value chain from production to markets.

  5. Sweetness and food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A; Johnson, Susan L; Bellisle, France

    2012-06-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children's diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth.

  6. PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN JAGUNG MANIS BERDASARKAN KANDUNGAN TOTAL PADATAN TERLARUT DENGAN MODEL ARRHENIUS (Shelf Life Estimation of Sweet Corn Based on Its Total Soluble Solid by Using Arrhenius Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Khatir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn has short shelf life at room temperature storage in the tropical countries (28-33°C. The quality deterioration of sweet corn can be determined by the decrease of its sugar content. The study aimed to estimate the shelf life of sweet corn based on the reduction of its total soluble solid (TSS by using Arrhenius model. The samples were prepared from fresh harvested corn stored for 10 days at 3 different temperatures of 5, 15 and 28 °C. Total soluble solid (TSS were analyzed every day by using abbe refractrometer. Organoleptic analysis was used by using hedonic scales from 1 to 7. The analysis was conducted until respondents had graded the samples at score 5 (dislike slightly, 6 (dislike and approaches can be used to calculate the shelf life of sweet corn. The acceleration factor for the TSS degradation at null approach, it was estimated that if the sweet corn were stored at temperature of 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5°C, the shelf temperatures, the shelf life of sweet corn would be 3.7, 4.5, 5.6, 6.8, 8.4, and 10.3 days. In conclusion, the shelf life predictions of sweet corn were valid well with the experimental results. Keywords: Sweet corn, shelf life, total soluble solid   ABSTRAK Umur simpan jagung manis relatif singkat apalagi kalau disimpan pada suhu ruang di negara-negara tropis (28-32°C. Kerusakan jagung manis dapat diindikasikan dengan penurunan kandungan gulanya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menduga umur simpan jagung manis berdasarkan reaksi penurunan kandungan total padatan terlarutnya (TPT dengan pendekatan model Arrhenius. Jagung manis segar yang baru siap panen segera disimpan selama 10 hari pada 3 kombinasi suhu yaitu 5, 15 dan 28°C. Setiap hari dilakukan analisis kandungan TPT dengan . Uji organoleptik dilakukan dengan skala hedonik 1-7. Proses pengamatan dihentikan apabila responden telah memberikan nilai 5 (agak tidak suka, 6 (tidak suka dan 7 (sangat tidak suka. Pendekatan model Arrhenius dilakukan dengan dua

  7. Structural basis for the facilitative diffusion mechanism by SemiSWEET transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongchan; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Keitaro; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    SWEET family proteins mediate sugar transport across biological membranes and play crucial roles in plants and animals. The SWEETs and their bacterial homologues, the SemiSWEETs, are related to the PQ-loop family, which is characterized by highly conserved proline and glutamine residues (PQ-loop motif). Although the structures of the bacterial SemiSWEETs were recently reported, the conformational transition and the significance of the conserved motif in the transport cycle have remained elusive. Here we report crystal structures of SemiSWEET from Escherichia coli, in the both inward-open and outward-open states. A structural comparison revealed that SemiSWEET undergoes an intramolecular conformational change in each protomer. The conserved PQ-loop motif serves as a molecular hinge that enables the ‘binder clip-like’ motion of SemiSWEET. The present work provides the framework for understanding the overall transport cycles of SWEET and PQ-loop family proteins.

  8. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  9. Resistance to Ditylenchus destructor Infection in Sweet Potato by the Expression of Small Interfering RNAs Targeting unc-15, a Movement-Related Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Wei, Zhaorong; Zhang, Min; Ma, Peiyong; Liu, Guiling; Zheng, Jianli; Guo, Xiaoding; Zhang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Stem nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) is one of most serious diseases that limit the productivity and quality of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance for food security and nutrition improvement. Hence, there is a global demand for developing sweet potato varieties that are resistant to the disease. In this study, we have investigated the interference of stem nematode infectivity by the expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in transgenic sweet potato that are homologous to the unc-15 gene, which affects the muscle protein paramyosin of the pathogen. The production of double-stranded RNAs and siRNAs in transgenic lines with a single transgene integration event was verified by Northern blot analysis. The expression of unc-15 was reduced dramatically in stem nematodes collected from the inoculated storage roots of transgenic plants, and the infection areas of their storage roots were dramatically smaller than that of wild-type (WT). Compared with the WT, the transgenic plants showed increased yield in the stem nematode-infested field. Our results demonstrate that the expression of siRNAs targeting the unc-15 gene of D. destructor is an effective approach in improving stem nematode resistance in sweet potato, in adjunct with the global integrated pest management programs.

  10. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  11. Advances in functional use of sweet potato, [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sandra L; Sanders, Sheila A

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as Sweet potato chips and fries, Sweet potato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from Sweet potato. The majority of recent patents fall under the category of ornamental products and alternative food products, with only a few fuel ethanol products. Figure 1 shows the major categories of patented alternative products from Sweet potato.

  12. Sandwich or sweets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly...... foods (sandwich and sweets) on visual analogue scales, as well as implicit approach–avoidance tendencies and implicit positive–negative associations with two variants of the recoding-free Implicit Association Tests (IAT-RFs). At first, all participants (N = 108) unwrapped, smelled, and explicitly judged...... the two foods, then all watched a video clip (during which half of the participants were allowed to eat the sandwich but not the sweets), and finally they all performed the two indirect measurements. Thus, desire for the foods was experimentally manipulated between participants. We hypothesized...

  13. Glucose and Mannose: A Link between Hydration and Sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys, N H; Bruni, F; Imberti, S; McLain, S E; Ricci, M A

    2017-08-24

    Glucose and mannose have a different degree of sweetness, implying different affinity to the sweet taste receptor. While the receptor structure is still undefined, there are several geometrical models for their binding mechanism. A detailed study of the hydration structure of sugars with known degree of sweetness is bound to provide information on the accuracy of such models. Our neutron diffraction study on the hydration of glucose and mannose show that both α- and β-glucose form strong hydrogen bonds with water, and that the steric hindrance of their first hydration shell matches the receptor geometrical model. The α-anomer of mannose has a similar, well-defined first hydration shell, but with fewer and weaker hydrogen bonds compared to glucose. Conversely, the hydration shell of β-mannose (reported as bitter) does not match the receptor geometrical model. These findings suggest a link between the hydration shell of sugars and their degree of sweetness.

  14. Simulation of Soil Water content and Nitrate under Different Fertigation Strategies for Sweet Pepper in Isfahan by EU-ROTATE-N Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    forough fazel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World's population growth and limited water resources and needing to more food production led to interest farmers to use nitrogen fertilizer more than soil requires and subsequently Nitrate leaching causes groundwater and environmental pollution. Therefore, researches has concentrated on improvement of nitrogen use efficiency, which numerical simulation is the effective solutions to optimize the management of water and fertilizer in the field in order to achieve the maximal yield and minimal nitrate pollution of soil, groundwater and drainage in water deficiency crisis condition. For this reason, the evaluation of new user friendly models in correct estimation of soil moisture and nitrogen content distribution and recognition of water and solutes movement in the soil and choosing the best management option for increasing productivity and economic performance and also reduction of nitrate pollution of soil and ground water source with the least limitations and high accuracy is necessary. The Eu-Rotate-N model has been developed for simulation of nitrogen use and specifically for optimization of nitrogen use in variation of vegetables in a wide range of conditions, which without the need to calibration has presented satisfactory results in many areas. So this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Eu-Rate-N model in assessment of moisture and nitrogen distribution and yield under different nitrogen fertigation management for pepper plant. Materials and Methods: Sweet pepper was planted at density of 8.33plant per m2 in a row planting method. 150kg per hectare per year of fertilizer was used during the season. Crop yield, soil water and nitrogen content were measured on a regular basis. The treatments consisted of three fertilizer level: zero (N0, the ratio of ammonium to nitrate 20:80 (N1 and 40:60 (N2, which was conducted in a completely randomized block with three replications in Isfahan. Irrigation based on daily

  15. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p sweet potato flour replacements, respectively. Flow behavior index of wheat flour treatments containing fractions of sweet potato flour were fitted in a shear thinning model. Quality indices of pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  17. Acquired hedonic and sensory characteristics of odours: influence of sweet liker and propylthiouracil taster status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Prescott, John; Gould, Natalie J

    2009-08-01

    Repeated pairings of novel food-related odours with sweet tastes can result in enduring changes in sweetness of the odour alone, but have less consistent effects on odour liking. Variation in ability to taste propylthiouracil (PROP) might account for this, since PROP supertasters (ST) have been reported both to experience stronger sweetness intensity and to be more likely to dislike sweetness than do PROP nontasters (NT). Alternatively, individual differences in liking for sweetness may transfer to sweet-paired odours independently of PROP sensitivity. To explore this, evaluations of sucrose, saccharin, and PROP solutions were used to classify 92 volunteers as either sweet likers or dislikers and as PROP ST, NT, or medium tasters (MT). Changes in pleasantness of odours that had been paired with the taste of saccharin increased in sweet likers but decreased in dislikers. Odour sweetness increased regardless of PROP taster or sweet liker status. PROP ST rated saccharin as more bitter than did other taster groups and also showed greater increases in acquired bitterness of the saccharin-paired odour. Overall, these data suggest that individual differences in evaluation of saccharin reliably predict subsequent changes in evaluation of saccharin-paired odours, with hedonic changes corresponding with liking for sweet tastes and sensory changes reflecting differences in sensory quality between PROP taster groups.

  18. dbSWEET: An Integrated Resource for SWEET Superfamily to Understand, Analyze and Predict the Function of Sugar Transporters in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2018-04-14

    SWEET (Sweet Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins have been recently discovered and form one of the three major families of sugar transporters. Homologs of SWEET are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial SWEET homologs have three transmembrane segments forming a triple-helical bundle (THB) and the functional form is dimers. Eukaryotic SWEETs have seven transmembrane helical segments forming two THBs with a linker helix. Members of SWEET homologs have been shown to be involved in several important physiological processes in plants. However, not much is known regarding the biological significance of SWEET homologs in prokaryotes and in mammals. We have collected more than 2000 SWEET homologs from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For each homolog, we have modeled three different conformational states representing outward open, inward open and occluded states. We have provided details regarding substrate-interacting residues and residues forming the selectivity filter for each SWEET homolog. Several search and analysis options are available. The users can generate a phylogenetic tree and structure-based sequence alignment for selected set of sequences. With no metazoan SWEETs functionally characterized, the features observed in the selectivity filter residues can be used to predict the potential substrates that are likely to be transported across the metazoan SWEETs. We believe that this database will help the researchers to design mutational experiments and simulation studies that will aid to advance our understanding of the physiological role of SWEET homologs. This database is freely available to the scientific community at http://bioinfo.iitk.ac.in/bioinfo/dbSWEET/Home. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Importance of taste in maintaining homeostasis and pathological impact of orosensory reflexes distraction in relation to sweet taste after non-caloric sweeteners consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, Jana; Gál, Břetislav; Smilek, Pavel; Kostřica, Rom

    2014-01-01

    Taste signals and their reflexes have important signalling function in nature. They protect organism against toxic substances in food with help of taste aversion, they help to cope nutrition deficiencies through taste preferences, on the other hand, they act in many postprandial reflexes to maintain energy homeostasis. It is well-known that sweet taste is important oro-sensory stimulus for mammals. It acts as predictor of caloric food intake even before its entry into stomach and circulation. Taste and other oro-sensory signals from oral cavity affect not only the intake regulation, but also influence hormonal, neural and metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. The aim is to utilize effectively food energy and prevent energy instability of organism. Oro-sensory reflexes mediated by taste cells develop naturally from the first contact with sweet breast milk in infancy. It has been proven that the attenuation of reflexes due to the use of artificial sweeteners that don´t bring any caloric value to human body leads to hormonal and energetic dysregulation of organism and may contribute to metabolic syndrome.

  20. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  1. Proteomic approach reveals that starch degradation contributes to anthocyanin accumulation in tuberous root of purple sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Pan, Dezhuo; Lv, Xiaojie; Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Zhimin; Huang, Chunmei; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-30

    A comparative proteomic approach was carried out to investigate anthocyanin biosynthesis in the tuberous roots of yellow sweet potato (YSP) and purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars. More than 800 proteins were reproducibly detected through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), of which 50 proteins with 39 more and 11 less accumulated in PSP were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Most of the analyzed proteins are annotated to be involved in starch metabolism and glycolysis. The more abundant starch phosphorylase (SP) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) in PSP promoted the synthesis of precursors for anthocyanin synthesis. The results implied that starch degradation provided abundant substrates for anthocyanin biosynthesis in tuberous roots of PSP. 24kDa vacuolar protein (VP24) is related to anthocyanin transport and accumulation in vacuoles. Vacuole-associated annexin protein, VCaB42, is correlated with tonoplast biogenesis. Synergistic action of the two proteins is probably involved in the microautophagy and the intravacuolar trapping of anthocyanins. Interestingly, both VCaB42 and VP24 were more accumulated in PSP, suggesting that anthocyanins generated in the cytosol were transported into and became stored in the vacuoles of PSP. The present study provides new insights into the mechanism of tuberous root-specific anthocyanin accumulation in PSP. Sweet potato ranks as the seventh most important crop worldwide. Purple sweet potato, a special sweet potato cultivar, has been extensively investigated because large amounts of anthocyanin accumulate in its tuberous roots. Anthocyanin is well known for its free radical-scavenging activity and beneficial effects on human health. Its biosynthetic pathway has been well characterized in model plants. Although large-scale systematic studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in sweet potato, information on the

  2. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  3. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Patrick T; Sagiv, Sharon K; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A; Britton, Julie A; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2009-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1,434 cases and 1,440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire, which included 11 items pertaining to consumption of sweets (sweet beverages, added sugars, and various desserts) in the previous year. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we estimated the association between consumption of sweets and breast cancer. Consumption of a food grouping that included dessert foods, sweet beverages, and added sugars was positively associated with breast cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest to the lowest quartile: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.61]. The OR was slightly higher when only dessert foods were considered (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.23-1.96). The association with desserts was stronger among pre-menopausal women (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.32-3.04) than post-menopausal women (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07-1.83), although the interaction with menopause was not statistically significant. Our study indicates that frequent consumption of sweets, particularly desserts, may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These results are consistent with other studies that implicate insulin-related factors in breast carcinogenesis.

  4. Cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmological models in general relativity. B B PAUL. Department of Physics, Nowgong College, Nagaon, Assam, India. MS received 4 October 2002; revised 6 March 2003; accepted 21 May 2003. Abstract. LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceler- ation parameter as variable.

  5. Sweet potato for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-115 days (7.2 t/hectare) and at 210-230 days (9.6 ton/hectare) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-115 to 210-230 days the means starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/hectare but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period.

  6. Epistemology and Rosen's Modeling Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Rosen's modeling relation is embedded in Popper's three worlds to provide an heuristic tool for model building and a guide for thinking about complex systems. The utility of this construct is demonstrated by suggesting a solution to the problem of pseudo science and a resolution of the famous Bohr-Einstein debates. A theory of bizarre systems is presented by an analogy with entangled particles of quantum mechanics. This theory underscores the poverty of present-day computational systems (e.g., computers) for creating complex and bizarre entities by distinguishing between mechanism and organism

  7. Thermal Diffusivity of Sweet Potato Flour Measured Using Dickerson Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Tastra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipmoea batatas I. is one the carbohydrate sources in indonesia that can be used both for food and industry purposes. To support the utilization of sweet potato as flour, it is imperative to develop a drying system that can improve its quality. A preliminary study using an improved variety, namely Sari, was conducted to determine its floure thermal diffusivity ( , an imprortant parameter in developing drying process. The experiment was run according to Dickerson method using sweet potato flour at different levels of moisture content (5.05-5.97% wet basis and temperatures (23.7 -40.9 oC this method used an apparatus based on transient heat transfer condition requiring only a time- temperature data. At the levels of moisture and temperature studied, the thermal diffusivity of sweet potato flour could be expressed using a linear regression model, = 10-9 M.T + 9X 10-9( R2=0.9779. the average value of the thermal diffusivity sweet potato flour was 1.72 x 10-7 m2/s at a moisture level of 5.51 % wet basis and temperature of 29.58 oC. Similar studies are needed for different varieties or cultivars of sweet potato as well at a wide range of moisture content and temperature content and temperature levels.

  8. Persuasion, Politeness and Relational Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Świątek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Politeness Theory, just like Grice’s Cooperative Principle, points out that pragmatic analysis of language behaviour has to be grounded in extra-linguistic facts of social (or even biological nature. Additionally, despite the slightly misleading label, Politeness Theory provides a sound methodology to explain some persuasive as well as politeness phenomena. In the same vein, the so called Relational Model Theory provides another theoretical framework for the explanation of persuasive phenomena and persuasive language. Both Relational Model Theory and Politeness Theory show that persuasion is also to be understood as a rational response to not-so-rational social and biological needs. In the article an attempt is made to compare the two theories focusing on their explanatory power in reference to language choices aiming at enhancing the persuasive potential of a language message.

  9. Acral manifestations of Sweet syndrome (neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Tüzün, Yalçın

    Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hand (NDH) is a rare localized variant of the syndrome, originally described two decades ago by Strutton et al. The lesions of NDH and Sweet syndrome are similar, as indicated in the first report of NDH. Both diagnoses are characterized by an acute onset of fever, leukocytosis, and tender, erythematous infiltrated plaques. There are also bullae and ulceration in NDH, in contrast to Sweet syndrome, in which bullae are quite uncommon, especially at the early stages. Similar to Sweet syndrome, the majority of NDH patients are women (69%). Patients with NDH present with fever, peripheral neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and/or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level, but at a significantly lower rate than those in Sweet syndrome (33%). Similar to Sweet syndrome, NDH has been associated with the following conditions: Malignancies (particularly hematological [21%], most common of which is acute myelogenous leukemia, but many other malignancies as well), inflammatory bowel disease (19%), medication and vaccination-related eruptions, bacterial and viral infections, rheumatologic diseases, and others. The clues to the diagnosis of NDH are the same as for Sweet syndrome. Awareness of this diagnosis is important not only to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical therapy and to expediently initiate the administration of steroids for this highly responsive dermatosis, but also to conduct an appropriate workup to exclude associated diseases, especially malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structure of Mabinlin II: a novel structural type of sweet proteins and the main structural basis for its sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Feng; Jiang, Peihua; Zhu, De-Yu; Hu, Yonglin; Max, Marianna; Wang, Da-Cheng

    2008-04-01

    The crystal structure of a sweet protein Mabinlin II (Mab II) isolated from the mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl. grown in Southern China has been determined at 1.7A resolution by the SIRAS method. The Mab II 3D structure features in an "all alpha" fold mode consisting of A- and B-chains crosslinked by four disulfide bridges, which is distinct from all known sweet protein structures. The Mabinlin II molecule shows an amphiphilic surface, a cationic face (Face A) and a neutral face (Face B). A unique structural motif consisting of B54-B64 was found in Face B, which adopts a special sequence, NL-P-NI-C-NI-P-NI, featuring four [Asn-Leu/Ile] units connected by three conformational-constrained residues, thus is called the [NL/I] tetralet motif. The experiments for testing the possible interactions of separated A-chain and B-chain and the native Mabinlin II to the sweet-taste receptor were performed through the calcium imaging experiments with the HEK293E cells coexpressed hT1R2/T1R3. The result shows that hT1R2/T1R3 responds to both the integrated Mabinlin II and the individual B-chain in the same scale, but not to A-chain. The sweetness evaluation further identified that the separated B-chain can elicit the sweetness alone, but A-chain does not. All data in combination revealed that the sweet protein Mabinlin II can interact with the sweet-taste receptor hT1R2/T1R3 to elicit its sweet taste, and the B-chain with a unique [NL/I] tetralet motif is the essential structural element for the interaction with sweet-taste receptor to elicit the sweetness, while the A-chain may play a role in gaining a long aftertaste for the integrate Mabinlin II. The findings reported in this paper will be advantage for understanding the diversity of sweet proteins and engineering research for development of a unique sweetener for the food and agriculture based on the Mabinlin II structure as a native model.

  11. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  12. Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Canopy Photosynthesis Modeling Using 3D Plant Architecture and Light Ray-Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Joon Woo; Ahn, Tae In; Shin, Jong Hwa; Park, Kyung Sub; Son, Jung Eek

    2016-01-01

    Canopy photosynthesis has typically been estimated using mathematical models that have the following assumptions: the light interception inside the canopy exponentially declines with the canopy depth, and the photosynthetic capacity is affected by light interception as a result of acclimation. However, in actual situations, light interception in the canopy is quite heterogenous depending on environmental factors such as the location, microclimate, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. It is important to apply these factors in an analysis. The objective of the current study is to estimate the canopy photosynthesis of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with an analysis of by simulating the intercepted irradiation of the canopy using a 3D ray-tracing and photosynthetic capacity in each layer. By inputting the structural data of an actual plant, the 3D architecture of paprika was reconstructed using graphic software (Houdini FX, FX, Canada). The light curves and A/C i curve of each layer were measured to parameterize the Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) model. The difference in photosynthetic capacity within the canopy was observed. With the intercepted irradiation data and photosynthetic parameters of each layer, the values of an entire plant's photosynthesis rate were estimated by integrating the calculated photosynthesis rate at each layer. The estimated photosynthesis rate of an entire plant showed good agreement with the measured plant using a closed chamber for validation. From the results, this method was considered as a reliable tool to predict canopy photosynthesis using light interception, and can be extended to analyze the canopy photosynthesis in actual greenhouse conditions.

  13. Sugar intake from sweet food and beverages, common mental disorder and depression: prospective findings from the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, Anika; Shipley, Martin J; Llewellyn, Clare H; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-07-27

    Intake of sweet food, beverages and added sugars has been linked with depressive symptoms in several populations. Aim of this study was to investigate systematically cross-sectional and prospective associations between sweet food/beverage intake, common mental disorder (CMD) and depression and to examine the role of reverse causation (influence of mood on intake) as potential explanation for the observed linkage. We analysed repeated measures (23,245 person-observations) from the Whitehall II study using random effects regression. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires, mood using validated questionnaires. Cross-sectional analyses showed positive associations. In prospective analyses, men in the highest tertile of sugar intake from sweet food/beverages had a 23% increased odds of incident CMD after 5 years (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) independent of health behaviours, socio-demographic and diet-related factors, adiposity and other diseases. The odds of recurrent depression were increased in the highest tertile for both sexes, but not statistically significant when diet-related factors were included in the model (OR 1.47; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.22). Neither CMD nor depression predicted intake changes. Our research confirms an adverse effect of sugar intake from sweet food/beverage on long-term psychological health and suggests that lower intake of sugar may be associated with better psychological health.

  14. Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-07-27

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species-selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species-dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds.

  15. Enhancement of sweetness intensity in gels by inhomogeneous distribution of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Model systems consisting of layers of mixed agar/gelatin gel were used to investigate the effect of the spatial distribution of sucrose on perceived sweetness intensity. 2-Alternative forced choice tests were performed with consumers to compare the sweetness of layered samples with an inhomogeneous

  16. Sweetness and Food Preference123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Bellisle, France

    2012-01-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children’s diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth. PMID:22573785

  17. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  18. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  19. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starch phosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  20. Integration of Sweet Taste and Metabolism Determines Carbohydrate Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria Geraldine; Babbs, Richard Keith; Patel, Barkha; Fobbs, Wambura; Kroemer, Nils B; Garcia, Elizabeth; Yeomans, Martin R; Small, Dana M

    2017-08-21

    Post-ingestive signals related to nutrient metabolism are thought to be the primary drivers of reinforcement potency of energy sources. Here, in a series of neuroimaging and indirect calorimetry human studies, we examine the relative roles of caloric load and perceived sweetness in driving metabolic, perceptual, and brain responses to sugared beverages. Whereas caloric load was manipulated using the tasteless carbohydrate maltodextrin, sweetness levels were manipulated using the non-nutritive sweetener sucralose. By formulating beverages that contain different amounts of maltodextrin+sucralose, we demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load, metabolic response, and reinforcement potency, which is driven in part by the extent to which sweetness is proportional to caloric load. In particular, we show that (1) lower-calorie beverages can produce greater metabolic response and condition greater brain response and liking than higher-calorie beverages and (2) when sweetness is proportional to caloric load, greater metabolic responses are observed. These results demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load and reward and describe an unanticipated role for sweet taste in regulating carbohydrate metabolism, revealing a novel mechanism by which sugar-sweetened beverages influence physiological responses to carbohydrate ingestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival analysis of flower and fruit abortion in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain a crop growth model that can simulate inter- and intra-plant variation in fruit set, fruit abortion times in sweet pepper were analysed by means of survival analysis. Survival analysis is a statistical technique dealing with the timing of events. The Cox proportional hazards model

  2. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  3. Sweetness intensity in low-carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odake, S

    2001-05-01

    The carbonation perception and sweetness perception were investigated under the presence of low level of carbondioxide less than 1.0 gas volume. Carbonation perception decreased linearly as carbonation level decreased. Sweetness perception showed inconsistency by means of evaluation methods: Triangle difference test led the result showing carbonation became a hindrance for sweetness perception. However, the measurement for the sweetness degree expressed by panellists in four categories 'not sweet', 'perhaps sweet', 'probably sweet' and 'definitely sweet', and the measurement for the points of subjective equality revealed that carbonation had no influence on sweetness perception. Commercially produced beverages whose irritation stimuli were stronger showed almost the same sweetness intensities (= perceived concentration of sucrose/actual concentration of sucrose) at approximately 0.7 regardless of various flavours. A weaker stimulus beverage, without strong flavour, showed higher sweetness intensity at 0.9. Some weaker stimuli beverages, which contained strong lemon flavour and soluble fibre, showed less sweetness intensities of 0.62-0.68 than the high-stimuli products.

  4. Suppression of reproductive characteristics of the invasive plant Mikania micrantha by sweet potato competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Liu, Shufang; Yang, Yanxian; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2016-06-20

    As a means of biologically controlling Mikania micrantha H.B.K. in Yunnan, China, the influence of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] on its reproductive characteristics was studied. The trial utilized a de Wit replacement series incorporating six ratios of sweet potato and M. micrantha plants in 25 m(2) plots over 2 years. Budding of M. micrantha occurred at the end of September; flowering and fruiting occurred from October to February. Flowering phenology of M. micrantha was delayed (P sweet potato. Reproductive allocation, reproductive investment and reproductive index of M. micrantha were significantly reduced (P sweet potato densities. Apidae bees, and Calliphoridae or Syrphidae flies were the most abundant visitors to M. micrantha flowers. Overall flower visits decreased (P sweet potato increased. Thus the mechanism by which sweet potato suppressed sexual reproduction in M. micrantha was essentially two-fold: causing a delay in flowering phenology and reducing pollinator visits. The number, biomass, length, set rate, germination rate, and 1000-grain dry weight of M. micrantha seeds were suppressed (P sweet potato competition. With proportional increases in sweet potato, sexual and asexual seedling populations of M. micrantha were significantly reduced (P sweet potato. These results suggest that sweet potato significantly suppresses the reproductive ability of the invasive species M. micrantha, and is a promising alternative to traditional biological control and other methods of control. Planting sweet potato in conjunction with other control methods could provide a comprehensive strategy for managing M. micrantha. The scenario of controlling M. micrantha by utilizing a crop with a similar growth form may provide a useful model for similar management strategies in other systems.

  5. Design and evaluation of new analogs of the sweet protein brazzein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D Eric; Cragin, Tiffany; Jin, Zheyuan; Rumbley, Jon N; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-10-01

    We have previously modeled the interaction of the sweet protein brazzein with the extracellular domains of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we describe the application of that model to the design of 12 new highly potent analogs of brazzein. Eight of the 12 analogs have higher sweetness potency than wild-type brazzein. Results are consistent with our brazzein-receptor interaction model. The model predicts binding of brazzein to the open form of T1R2 in the T1R2-T1R3 heterodimer.

  6. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  7. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y. Q.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  8. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  9. Iron Bioavailability and Provitamin A from Sweet Potato- and Cereal-Based Complementary Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2015-09-18

    Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP) ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP) ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix) and a commercial cereal (Cerelac ® ), using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols), and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose) was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac ® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac ® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.

  10. SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.

  11. A Clinical Report of Localized Itching After Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Seok-woo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is to report the percentage of localized itching which occurred, when we injected to patients with Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV. Methods : We investigated 374 patients who had injected with Sweet BV in our clinic from February 15. 2009 to April 30, 2010. We checked the number and percentage of patients who occured localized itching on injection area. Then we analyzed those according to times in treatment, the body parts of injection and treatment dosage. Results and Conclusion : Localized itching was lower by 1.60% in the first treatment with Sweet BV. However localized itching was 12.83% in the whole course of treatment, which showed a similar incidence of 13% in Bee Venom. Therefore it can be interpreted that Sweet BV may help suppress the immune responses such as itching in the initial treatment, but the occurrence of local immune responses of Sweet BV may be similar to that of Bee Venom in continued treatment. We suppose that we should be careful of the occurrence of local immune responses as Bee Venom at least until the fourth treatment in clinical application with Sweet BV, although localized itching did not occur in the first treatment. Also we should be careful of treatment with Sweet BV in body parts, such as wrist, hand, chest and abdominal, because the percentage of localized itching was relatively high in those parts.

  12. Integrative View of the Diversity and Evolution of SWEET and SemiSWEET Sugar Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET and SemiSWEET are recently characterized families of sugar transporters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively. SemiSWEETs contain 3 transmembrane helices (TMHs, while SWEETs contain 7. Here, we performed sequence-based comprehensive analyses for SWEETs and SemiSWEETs across the biosphere. In total, 3,249 proteins were identified and ≈60% proteins were found in green plants and Oomycota, which include a number of important plant pathogens. Protein sequence similarity networks indicate that proteins from different organisms are significantly clustered. Of note, SemiSWEETs with 3 or 4 TMHs that may fuse to SWEET were identified in plant genomes. 7-TMH SWEETs were found in bacteria, implying that SemiSWEET can be fused directly in prokaryote. 15-TMH extraSWEET and 25-TMH superSWEET were also observed in wild rice and oomycetes, respectively. The transporters can be classified into 4, 2, 2, and 2 clades in plants, Metazoa, unicellular eukaryotes, and prokaryotes, respectively. The consensus and coevolution of amino acids in SWEETs were identified by multiple sequence alignments. The functions of the highly conserved residues were analyzed by molecular dynamics analysis. The 19 most highly conserved residues in the SWEETs were further confirmed by point mutagenesis using SWEET1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results proved that the conserved residues located in the extrafacial gate (Y57, G58, G131, and P191, the substrate binding pocket (N73, N192, and W176, and the intrafacial gate (P43, Y83, F87, P145, M161, P162, and Q202 play important roles for substrate recognition and transport processes. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for understanding the diversity, classification, and evolution of SWEETs and SemiSWEETs using large-scale sequence analysis and further show that gene duplication and gene fusion are important factors driving the evolution of SWEETs.

  13. Time to first fracture affects sweetness of gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the breakdown behaviour on sweetness intensity of gelled model foods. Emulsion-filled gelatine/agar gels varying mainly in fracture strain (eF) were used. The fracture strain was modified by changing either the ratio between gelatine and agar

  14. The SWEET gene family in Hevea brasiliensis - its evolution and expression compared with four other plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jin-Lei; Xiao, Xiao-Hu; Qi, Ji-Yan; Fang, Yong-Jun; Tang, Chao-Rong

    2017-12-01

    SWEET proteins play an indispensable role as a sugar efflux transporter in plant development and stress responses. The SWEET genes have previously been characterized in several plants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of this gene family in the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis . There are 36 members of the SWEET gene family in this species, making it one of the largest families in plant genomes sequenced so far. Structure and phylogeny analyses of these genes in Hevea and in other species demonstrated broad evolutionary conservation. RNA-seq analyses revealed that SWEET2, 16, and 17 might represent the main evolutionary direction of SWEET genes in plants. Our results in Hevea suggested the involvement of HbSWEET1a , 2e , 2f , and 3b in phloem loading, HbSWEET10a and 16b in laticifer sugar transport , and HbSWEET9a in nectary-specific sugar transport. Parallel studies of RNA-seq analyses extended to three other plant species ( Manihot esculenta , Populus trichocarpa , and Arabidopsis thaliana ) produced findings which implicated MeSWEET10a, 3a, and 15b in M. esculenta storage root development, and the involvement of PtSWEET16b and PtSWEET16d in P. trichocarpa xylem development. RT-qPCR results further revealed that HbSWEET10a, 16b, and 1a play important roles in phloem sugar transport. The results from this study provide a foundation not only for further investigation into the functionality of the SWEET gene family in Hevea, especially in its sugar transport for latex production, but also for related studies of this gene family in the plant kingdom.

  15. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison analysis showed that DNA-A sequence of JS1 isolate was closely related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of 97.0% and DNA-A of Y338 showed highest sequence identity at 97.8% with an isolate of SPLCV from China. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  16. Rating of Sweetness by Molar Refractivity and Ionization Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A quantitative structure activity relationship study of 31 sucrose derivatives and 30 guanidine derivatives has been undertaken. Their sweetness values, relative to sucrose (RS), have been taken from literature. The study has been made with the help of. CAChe Pro software by using eight descriptors,viz.electron affinity, ...

  17. growth and yield responses of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    batatas L. Lam) varieties viz TIS 87/0087 and TIS 8164 to time of potassium (K) fertilizer application in a humid forest zone of .... relative humidity of 75 -85 % . ..... CIP, Lima. Edmond, J.B. 1971. Sweet potato production, processing and marketing. Avi Publishers,. Westport, Connecticut. FAO, 2004. (Food and Agricultural ...

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied.

  19. Plant-growth regulators alter phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality in Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Talei, Daryush; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Mohamed, Mahmud Tengku Muda; Puteh, Adam; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan A

    2016-05-28

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is one of the most important consumed crops in many parts of the world because of its economic importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. With the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) as our model, we investigated the exogenous effects of three plant-growth regulators methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA) on major phytochemicals in relation to phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Specifically, we investigated the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and total β-carotene content (TCC). Individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Antioxidant activities of treated plants were evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and a β-carotene bleaching assay. Anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. TPC, TFC, TAC, and TCC and antioxidant activities were substantially increased in MeJA-, SA-, and ABA-treated plants. Among the secondary metabolites identified in this study, MeJA application significantly induced production of quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Luteolin synthesis was significantly induced by SA application. Compared with control plants, MeJA-treated sweet potato exhibited the highest PAL activity, followed by SA and ABA treatment. The high DPPH activity was observed in MeJA followed by SA and ABA, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.40, 3.0, and 3.40 mg/mL compared with α-tocopherol (1.1 mg/mL). Additionally, MeJA-treated sweet potato showed the highest β-carotene bleaching activity, with an IC50 value of 2.90 mg/mL, followed by SA (3.30 mg/mL), ABA (3.70 mg/mL), and control plants (4.5 mg/mL). Extracts of sweet potato root treated

  20. Síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2006-10-01

    : idiopathic, parainflammatory, paraneoplastic, drug-induced, and pregnancy-related. Twenty percent of cases are associated with malignancies; 85% out of them involve hematologic alignancies and the remaining 15%, solid tumors. A series of seven cases of Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms which were diagnosed from 2002 to 2006 is presented. Six cases were related to oncohematologic diseases and one to solid tumors. These results highlight the importance of the diagnosis of the syndrome, since it may predict tumor relapse or underlying disease progression. The timely use of diagnostic and treatment methods may improve the quality of life of these patients. The fact that oncology patients take multiple medications (a colony-stimulating factor which may be associated with the onset of this entity must also be considered in excluding possible causes.

  1. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  2. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-16

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.  Created: 11/16/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/16/2009.

  3. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD. Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M. Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100% and specificity (100%. If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and Sweet potato virus G from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Caroline A.; Rossato, Maurício; Melo, Fernando L.; Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, Potyvirus species in sweet potatoes have been detected mostly by serology. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Potyvirus species, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus strain (SPFMV-UNB-01) and Sweet potato virus G strain (SPVG-UNB-01).

  5. Reconciling Conflicting Phylogenies in the Origin of Sweet Potato and Dispersal to Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rodríguez, Pablo; Carruthers, Tom; Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Weitemier, Kevin; Kronmiller, Brent; Ellis, David; Anglin, Noelle L; Longway, Lucas; Harris, Stephen A; Rausher, Mark D; Kelly, Steven; Liston, Aaron; Scotland, Robert W

    2018-04-23

    The sweet potato is one of the world's most widely consumed crops, yet its evolutionary history is poorly understood. In this paper, we present a comprehensive phylogenetic study of all species closely related to the sweet potato and address several questions pertaining to the sweet potato that remained unanswered. Our research combined genome skimming and target DNA capture to sequence whole chloroplasts and 605 single-copy nuclear regions from 199 specimens representing the sweet potato and all of its crop wild relatives (CWRs). We present strongly supported nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies demonstrating that the sweet potato had an autopolyploid origin and that Ipomoea trifida is its closest relative, confirming that no other extant species were involved in its origin. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast genomes shows conflicting topologies regarding the monophyly of the sweet potato. The process of chloroplast capture explains these conflicting patterns, showing that I. trifida had a dual role in the origin of the sweet potato, first as its progenitor and second as the species with which the sweet potato introgressed so one of its lineages could capture an I. trifida chloroplast. In addition, we provide evidence that the sweet potato was present in Polynesia in pre-human times. This, together with several other examples of long-distance dispersal in Ipomoea, negates the need to invoke ancient human-mediated transport as an explanation for its presence in Polynesia. These results have important implications for understanding the origin and evolution of a major global food crop and question the existence of pre-Columbian contacts between Polynesia and the American continent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic Reconnection with Sweet-Parker Characteristics in Two-dimensional Laboratory Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.; Hsu, S.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.; Yamada, M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection has been experimentally studied in a well-controlled, two-dimensional laboratory magnetohydrodynamic plasma. The observations are found to be both qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with a generalized Sweet-Parker model which incorporates compressibility, downstream pressure, and the effective resistivity. The latter is significantly enhanced over its classical values in the collisionless limit. This generalized Sweet-Parker model also applies to the case in which an unidirectional, sizable third magnetic component is present

  7. The Figure 8 Model of International Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sibayan, Jerome T

    2008-01-01

    .... The Figure 8 Model is presented first in a Cartesian format and then in geometrical form. This model is an intuitive idea based on a particular reading of history rather than a new international relations theory...

  8. Sweetness characterization of recombinant human lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Mami; Nakajima, Kana; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Udaka, Shigezo; Maehashi, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Lysozyme, a bacteriolytic enzyme, is widely distributed in nature and is a component of the innate immune system. It is established that chicken egg lysozyme elicits sweetness. However, the sweetness of human milk lysozyme, which is vital for combating microbial infections of the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants, has not been characterized. This study aimed to assess the elicitation of sweetness using recombinant mammalian lysozymes expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant human lysozyme (h-LZ) and other mammalian lysozymes of mouse, dog, cat and bovine milk elicited similar sweetness as determined using a sensory test, whereas bovine stomach lysozyme (bs-LZ) did not. Assays of cell cultures showed that h-LZ activated the human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3, whereas bs-LZ did not. Point mutations confirmed that the sweetness of h-LZ was independent of enzyme activity and substrate-binding sites, although acidic amino acid residues of bs-LZ played a significant role in diminishing sweetness. Therefore, we conclude that elicitation of sweetness is a ubiquitous function among all lysozymes including mammalian lysozymes. These findings may provide novel insights into the biological implications of T1R2/T1R3-activation by mammalian lysozyme in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, the function of lysozyme within species lacking the functional sweet taste receptor gene, such as cat, is currently unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Existing Model Metrics and Relations to Model Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohagheghi, Parastoo; Dehlen, Vegard

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents quality goals for models and provides a state-of-the-art analysis regarding model metrics. While model-based software development often requires assessing the quality of models at different abstraction and precision levels and developed for multiple purposes, existing work on model metrics do not reflect this need. Model size metrics are descriptive and may be used for comparing models but their relation to model quality is not welldefined. Code metrics are proposed to be ...

  10. Do People Eat the Pain Away? The Effects of Acute Physical Pain on Subsequent Consumption of Sweet-Tasting Food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E Darbor

    Full Text Available Sweet tasting foods have been found to have an analgesic effect. Therefore people might consume more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a pain or non-pain condition and their consumption of cheesecake was measured. Participants ate more cheesecake (a sweet-tasting food following a painful experience than a non-painful one. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a painful experience or a resource depleting experience (i.e., squeezing a handgrip and then were asked to taste test two foods, one sweet and one not sweet. Participants ate more sweet-tasting food following a painful experience than a non-painful or a resource-depleting experience. These differences were not present for consumption of non-sweet food. Further, habitual self-control predicted consumption of sweet-tasting food when in pain, with those lower in self-control particularly likely to eat more. Results suggest that people do eat more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain, particularly if they are not in the habit of controlling their impulses. These findings have implications for health given rising rates of obesity and pain-related diagnoses.

  11. Do People Eat the Pain Away? The Effects of Acute Physical Pain on Subsequent Consumption of Sweet-Tasting Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbor, Kathleen E; Lench, Heather C; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R

    2016-01-01

    Sweet tasting foods have been found to have an analgesic effect. Therefore people might consume more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a pain or non-pain condition and their consumption of cheesecake was measured. Participants ate more cheesecake (a sweet-tasting food) following a painful experience than a non-painful one. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a painful experience or a resource depleting experience (i.e., squeezing a handgrip) and then were asked to taste test two foods, one sweet and one not sweet. Participants ate more sweet-tasting food following a painful experience than a non-painful or a resource-depleting experience. These differences were not present for consumption of non-sweet food. Further, habitual self-control predicted consumption of sweet-tasting food when in pain, with those lower in self-control particularly likely to eat more. Results suggest that people do eat more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain, particularly if they are not in the habit of controlling their impulses. These findings have implications for health given rising rates of obesity and pain-related diagnoses.

  12. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet: systematic review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M; Tuorila, H; Bertenshaw, E J; de Graaf, C; Mela, D J

    2018-03-01

    There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration. This review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016051840, 24 November 2016.

  13. Respiratory activity of ‘Chelan’, ‘Bing’ and ‘Selah’ sweet cherries in relation to fruit traits at green, white-pink, red and mahogany ripening stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet cherry fruit development is subjectively sub-divided into four stages on the basis of exocarp color, which includes green, white-pink, red and mahogany stages. ‘Chelan’, ‘Bing’ and ‘Selah’, representing early-, mid- and late-season cultivars, respectively, and three different abscission-respon...

  14. Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Martin, Nicholas G; Rentería, Miguel E

    2016-10-01

    Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later). Finally, we used twin modeling and polygenic risk prediction analysis to investigate the genetic overlap between BMI and sweet taste perception. Our findings revealed that BMI in early adulthood was significantly associated with each of the sweet perception scores, with the strongest correlation observed in aspartame with r = 0.09 (p = .007). However, only limited evidence of association was observed between sweet taste perception and BMI that was measured at the same time (in adolescence), with the strongest evidence of association observed for glucose with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.06 (p = .029) and for aspartame with r = 0.06 (p = .035). We found a significant (p sweet taste perception in adolescence can be a potential indicator of BMI in early adulthood. This association is further supported by evidence of genetic overlap between the traits, suggesting that some BMI genes may be acting through biological pathways of taste perception.

  15. Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Tani, Fumito; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → X-ray crystallographic structure of sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. → The overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to that of thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the Cα atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. → The side chain of two critical residues, 67 and 82, for sweetness was modeled in two alternative conformations. → The flexibility and fluctuation of side chains at 67 and 82 seems to be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM. Here the X-ray crystallographic structure of one of its variants, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. Overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the Cα atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. Furthermore, the side chain of residue 67 in thaumatin II is highly disordered. Since residue 67 is one of two residues critical to the sweetness of thaumatin, the present results suggested that the critical positive charges at positions 67 and 82 are disordered and the flexibility and fluctuation of these side chains would be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors.

  16. Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Tetsuya, E-mail: t2masuda@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ohta, Keisuke; Tani, Fumito [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kitabatake, Naofumi [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} X-ray crystallographic structure of sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. {yields} The overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to that of thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the C{alpha} atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. {yields} The side chain of two critical residues, 67 and 82, for sweetness was modeled in two alternative conformations. {yields} The flexibility and fluctuation of side chains at 67 and 82 seems to be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM. Here the X-ray crystallographic structure of one of its variants, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. Overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the C{alpha} atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. Furthermore, the side chain of residue 67 in thaumatin II is highly disordered. Since residue 67 is one of two residues critical to the sweetness of thaumatin, the present results suggested that the critical positive charges at positions 67 and 82 are disordered and the flexibility and fluctuation of these side chains would be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors.

  17. Technical Feasibility and Comprehensive Sustainability Assessment of Sweet Sorghum for Bioethanol Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under dual pressures of energy and environmental security, sweet sorghum is becoming one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production. In the present study, the technical feasibility of sweet sorghum production was assessed in eight agricultural regions in China using the Sweet Sorghum Production Technique Maturity Model. Three top typical agricultural zones were then selected for further sustainability assessment of sweet sorghum production: Northeast China (NEC, Huang-Huai-Hai Basin (HHHB and Ganxin Region (GX. Assessment results demonstrated that NEC exhibited the best sustainable production of sweet sorghum, with a degree of technical maturity value of 0.8066, followed by HHHB and GX, with corresponding values of 0.7531 and 0.6594, respectively. Prospective economic profitability analysis indicated that bioethanol production from sweet sorghum was not feasible using current technologies in China. More efforts are needed to dramatically improve feedstock mechanization logistics while developing new bioethanol productive technology to reduce the total cost. This study provides insight and information to guide further technological development toward profitable industrialization and large-scale sweet sorghum bioethanol production.

  18. Share your Sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, ch...

  19. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet),

  20. New Sweet-Tasting Oleanane-Type Triterpenoid Saponins from "Tugancao" (Derris eriocarpa How).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Sun, Guo; Gu, Jian-Long; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2017-03-22

    With the aim to investigate the sweet-tasting compounds in Derris eriocarpa How (a substitute for licorice in "Zhuang" and "Dai" ethnopharmacy in Guangxi and Yunnan provinces of China) as well as to ascertain why the stem of D. eriocarpa can be used to substitute for licorice in the sweetness taste aspect, taste sensory-guided fractionation was conducted to isolate sweet constituents from the extract of D. eriocarpa. Four sweet-tasting triterpenoid saponins were obtained, including millettiasaponin A (1) and three new saponins named derrisaponins A-C (2-4). The sweetness potency was evaluated by a human sensory panel test. The sweetness intensities of compounds 1-4 were determined to be approximately 150, 80, 2, and 0.5 times relative to sucrose at the concentration of 1%, respectively, of which compounds 1 and 2, with a free carboxyl group at the C-30 position, showed more potent sweetness intensity. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed no acute toxic activity at doses of 250 and 400 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, assessed through caudal vein injection to ICR mice. The contents of the sweetest compounds in stems were analyzed quantitatively as 352.80 mg/kg for compound 1 and 1887.60 mg/kg for compound 2 performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  1. Prediction of sweetness and amino acid content in soybean crops from hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sildomar Takahashi; Minekawa, Yohei; Kosugi, Yukio; Akazawa, Tsuneya; Oda, Kunio

    Hyperspectral image data provides a powerful tool for non-destructive crop analysis. This paper investigates a hyperspectral image data-processing method to predict the sweetness and amino acid content of soybean crops. Regression models based on artificial neural networks were developed in order to calculate the level of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and nitrogen concentrations, which can be related to the sweetness and amino acid content of vegetables. A performance analysis was conducted comparing regression models obtained using different preprocessing methods, namely, raw reflectance, second derivative, and principal components analysis. This method is demonstrated using high-resolution hyperspectral data of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infrared acquired from an experimental field of green vegetable soybeans. The best predictions were achieved using a nonlinear regression model of the second derivative transformed dataset. Glucose could be predicted with greater accuracy, followed by sucrose, fructose and nitrogen. The proposed method provides the possibility to provide relatively accurate maps predicting the chemical content of soybean crop fields.

  2. Characterization of the modes of binding between human sweet taste receptor and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyoshi Masuda

    Full Text Available One of the most distinctive features of human sweet taste perception is its broad tuning to chemically diverse compounds ranging from low-molecular-weight sweeteners to sweet-tasting proteins. Many reports suggest that the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2-hT1R3, a heteromeric complex composed of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits belonging to the class C G protein-coupled receptor family, has multiple binding sites for these sweeteners. However, it remains unclear how the same receptor recognizes such diverse structures. Here we aim to characterize the modes of binding between hT1R2-hT1R3 and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds by functional analysis of a series of site-directed mutants and by molecular modeling-based docking simulation at the binding pocket formed on the large extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD of hT1R2. We successfully determined the amino acid residues responsible for binding to sweeteners in the cleft of hT1R2 ATD. Our results suggest that individual ligands have sets of specific residues for binding in correspondence with the chemical structures and other residues responsible for interacting with multiple ligands.

  3. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  4. Polymorphisms in sweet taste genes (TAS1R2 and GLUT2), sweet liking, and dental caries prevalence in an adult Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, Antonietta; Bevilacqua, Lorenzo; Pirastu, Nicola; Situlin, Roberta; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Gasparini, Paolo; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sweet taste genes and dental caries prevalence in a large sample of adults. In addition, the association between sweet liking and sugar intake with dental caries was investigated. Caries was measured by the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 647 Caucasian subjects (285 males and 362 females, aged 18-65 years), coming from six villages in northeastern Italy. Sweet liking was assessed using a 9-point scale, and the mean of the liking given by each individual to specific sweet food and beverages was used to create a sweet liking score. Simple sugar consumption was estimated by a dietary history interview, considering both added sugars and sugar present naturally in foods. Our study confirmed that polymorphisms in TAS1R2 and GLUT2 genes are related to DMFT index. In particular, GG homozygous individuals for rs3935570 in TAS1R2 gene (p value = 0.0117) and GG homozygous individuals for rs1499821 in GLUT2 gene (p value = 0.0273) showed higher DMFT levels compared to both heterozygous and homozygous for the alternative allele. Furthermore, while the relationship sugar intake-DMFT did not achieve statistical significance (p value = 0.075), a significant association was identified between sweet liking and DMFT (p value = 0.004), independent of other variables. Our study showed that sweet taste genetic factors contribute to caries prevalence and highlighted the role of sweet liking as a predictor of caries risk. Therefore, these results may open new perspectives for individual risk identification and implementation of target preventive strategies, such as identifying high-risk patients before caries development.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Gustatory, Homeostatic, Reward, and Memory Processing of Sweet Taste in the Metabolic Syndrome: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Aaron; Green, Erin; Haase, Lori; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Age affects the human taste system at peripheral and central levels. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors (e.g., abdominal obesity and hypertension) that co-occur, increase with age, and heighten risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cognitive decline. Little is known about how age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger state interact to influence how the brain processes information about taste. We investigated brain activation during the hedonic evaluation of a pleasant, nutritive stimulus (sucrose) within regions critical for taste, homeostatic energy regulation, and reward, as a function of the interactions among age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger condition. We scanned young and elderly adults, half with risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome twice: Once fasted overnight and once after a preload. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data indicated significant effects of age as well as interactive effects with metabolic syndrome and hunger condition. Age-related differences in activation were dependent on the hunger state in regions critical for homoeostatic energy regulation and basic as well as higher order sensory processing and integration. The effects of age and metabolic syndrome on activation in the insula, orbital frontal cortex, caudate, and the hypothalamus may have particularly important implications for taste processing, energy regulation, and dietary choices.

  6. Unveiling the Sweet Conformations of Ketohexoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, C.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; Daly, A. M.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The conformational behavior of ketohexoses D-Fructose, L-Sorbose, D-Tagatose and D-Psicose has been revealed from their rotational spectra. A broadband microwave spectrometer (CP-FTMW) has been used to rapidly acquire the rotational spectra in the 6 to 12 GHz frequency range. All observed species are stabilized by complicated intramolecular hydrogen-bonding networks. Structural motifs related to the sweetness of ketohexoses are revealed. G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, B. H. Pate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2008, 79, 053103. S. Mata, I. Peña, C. Cabezas, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91.

  7. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  8. Modulation of sweet preference by the actual and anticipated consequences of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley A; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that non-human animals exhibit an inverted-U pattern of sweet preference, with consumption increasing across moderate levels of sweetness and then declining for high levels of sweetness. In rodents, this pattern reflects an avoidance of the postingestive effects of consuming energy-dense sugar solutions (conditioned satiation). Here, we examined whether humans also adjust their preferences to compensate for the anticipated energy content/satiating outcomes of consuming sweetened foods. In two experiments (each N = 40), participants were asked to taste and imagine eating small (15 g) and large (250 g) portions of five novel desserts that varied in sweetness. Participants evaluated the desserts' expected satiety, expected satiation, and expected sickliness. A measure of estimated energy content was also derived using a computerized energy compensation test. This procedure was completed before and after consuming a standard lunch. Across both experiments, results confirmed that participants preferred a less sweet dessert when asked to imagine eating a large versus a small portion, and when rating the dessert in a fed versus fasted state. We also obtained evidence that participants anticipated more energy from the sweeter desserts (even in Experiment 2 when half of the participants were informed that the desserts were equated for energy content). However we found only partial evidence for anticipated satiation-expected sickliness was related systematically to increases in sweetness, but expected satiation and expected satiety were only weakly influenced. These findings raise questions about the role of sweetness in the control of food intake (in humans) and the degree to which 'sweet-calorie learning' occurs in complex dietary environments where sweetness may actually be a poor predictor of the energy content of foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability and use of sweet sorghum bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    With sweet sorghum production and subsequent accumulation of bagasse on the rise, it is important to look for novel uses for its by-products. Bagasse, the solid fibrous product left after sweet sorghum stalks are crushed to remove juice, is partially reapplied to the field to enhance subsequent cro...

  10. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  11. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-10-04

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity.

  12. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  13. Sweet Dream Liquid Chinese Medicine Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation through the ERK/CREB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xinyun; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Xiuhua; Han, Fang; Lv, Changjun; Zhang, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Sweet dream oral liquid (SDOL), a traditional Chinese herbal compound contains 17 traditional Chinese medicines. It has various pharmacological effects, such as improving brain dysfunction and increasing sleeping quality. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of SDOL-impaired hippocampus learning and memory-induced paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in rats. Sixty Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Before PSD, SDOL treatment group rats were intragastrically administered SDOL for 25 days at dose of 2.1, 4.2, and 8.4 mL/kg body weight per day. Normal control group, large platform control group, and PSD groups were treated with normal saline instead of SDOL. After 25 days treatment, PSD and SDOL groups were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 72 h. Then two behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory ability using the open field test and Morris water maze test. Expression of the c-fos, c-jun, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK), and p-CREB, p-ERK, and p-MEK in the hippocampus were also assayed by western blot. In this study, PSD decreased the levels of p-CREB, p-ERK, p-MEK, c-fos, and c-jun. However, SDOL treatment increased expressions of these proteins. Our results showed that SDOL improved 72-h PSD-induced cognitive impairment. These affects may be mediated by increasing the contents of c-fos, c-jun, and p-CREB/ERK signaling.

  14. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Cicero; Amorim,Edson Perito; Barbosa Neto,José Fernandes; Cardoso Filho,Julio Alves; Sereno,Maria Jane Cruz de Melo

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in various subspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This type was originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations of sweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this pre...

  15. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Maude Wheeler; Toda, Y.; Nakagita, T.; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, T.; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sens...

  16. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor deficient (db/db) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses of lean mice to sweet compounds were increased after administration of leptin antagonist (LA) but not affected by administration of cannabinoid receptor antagonist (AM251). db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme of endocannabinoids in taste cells. The effect of LA was gradually decreased and that of AM251 was increased during the course of obesity in DIO mice. These findings suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, is a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice and endocannabinoids become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1 : AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA

  17. Soybean (Glycine max) SWEET gene family: insights through comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Prince, Silvas; Nicander, Bjorn; Zhao, Mingzhe; Sonah, Humira; Song, Li; Lin, Li; Chaudhary, Juhi; Liu, Yang; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-07-11

    SWEET (MtN3_saliva) domain proteins, a recently identified group of efflux transporters, play an indispensable role in sugar efflux, phloem loading, plant-pathogen interaction and reproductive tissue development. The SWEET gene family is predominantly studied in Arabidopsis and members of the family are being investigated in rice. To date, no transcriptome or genomics analysis of soybean SWEET genes has been reported. In the present investigation, we explored the evolutionary aspect of the SWEET gene family in diverse plant species including primitive single cell algae to angiosperms with a major emphasis on Glycine max. Evolutionary features showed expansion and duplication of the SWEET gene family in land plants. Homology searches with BLAST tools and Hidden Markov Model-directed sequence alignments identified 52 SWEET genes that were mapped to 15 chromosomes in the soybean genome as tandem duplication events. Soybean SWEET (GmSWEET) genes showed a wide range of expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of public transcriptome data and expression profiling using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that a majority of the GmSWEET genes were confined to reproductive tissue development. Several natural genetic variants (non-synonymous SNPs, premature stop codons and haplotype) were identified in the GmSWEET genes using whole genome re-sequencing data analysis of 106 soybean genotypes. A significant association was observed between SNP-haplogroup and seed sucrose content in three gene clusters on chromosome 6. Present investigation utilized comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequencing approaches and provided a systematic description of soybean SWEET genes and identified putative candidates with probable roles in the reproductive tissue development. Gene expression profiling at different developmental stages and genomic variation data will aid as an important resource for the soybean research

  18. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  19. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2002-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,

  20. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. "Tainong 57"] starch improves insulin sensitivity in high-fructose diet-fed rats by ameliorating adipocytokine levels, pro-inflammatory status, and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Yen; Lai, Ming-Hoang; Hung, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-glycemic index (GI) sweet potato starch on adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory status, and insulin signaling in the high-fructose diet-induced insulin-resistant rat. We randomly divided 24 insulin-resistant rats and 16 normal rats into two groups fed a diet containing 575 g/kg of starch: a low-GI sweet potato starch (S) or a high-GI potato starch (P). The four experimental groups were labeled as follows: insulin-resistant P (IR-P), insulin-resistant S (IR-S), normal P (N-P) and normal S (N-S). After 4 wk on the experimental diets, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was conducted, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, and insulin signaling-related protein expression were measured. The homeostasis model assessment values were significantly lower in the IR-S than in the IR-P group, suggesting that insulin sensitivity was improved among sweet potato starch-fed rats. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, resistin, and retinol binding protein-4 were significantly lower in the IR-S versus the IR-P group, indicating an improvement of pro-inflammatory status in sweet potato starch-fed rats. The sweet potato starch diet also significantly enhanced the protein expression of phospho-Tyr-insulin receptor substrate-1 and improved the translocation of glucose transporter 4 in the skeletal muscle. Our results illustrated that sweet potato starch feeding for 4 wk can improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rats, possibly by improving the adipocytokine levels, pro-inflammatory status, and insulin signaling.

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with § 305...

  3. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady-states,...

  4. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady...

  5. Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture.

  6. Genetic diversity of sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between sweet potato leaf curl virus and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo Cheng; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, two sweet potato begomoviruses, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus (SPLCGV), were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweet potato begomoviruses have been identified in other parts of the world. In an effort to determine the genetic diversity and distribution of sweet potato begomoviruses in the U.S., we focused our efforts on molecular characterization of field-collected begomovirus isolates in two states: Mississippi and South Carolina. Using rolling-circle amplification, a total of 52 clones of the full genome were obtained. Initial inspection of alignments of the end sequences in these clones revealed a strong genetic diversity. Overall, 10 genotypes could be assigned. A majority of the isolates (50/52) in eight genotypes were shown to be closely related to SPLCV. A representative clone of each genotype was fully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, four genotypes from South Carolina with 91-92% sequence identity to the type member of SPLCV were considered a new strain, whereas four other genotypes from Mississippi with >95% sequence identity to SPLCV were considered variants. In addition, a member of a proposed new begomovirus species was identified after comparative sequence analysis of the isolate [US:SC:646B-9] from South Carolina with less than 89% sequence identity to any known begomovirus. Hence, the provisional name Sweet potato leaf curl South Carolina virus (SPLCSCV) is proposed. Moreover, a natural recombinant consisting of two distinct parental genomic sequences from SPLCV and SPLCGV was identified in the sample [US:MS:1B-3] from Mississippi. Two recombinant breakpoints were identified, one in the origin of replication and the other between C2 and C4. This knowledge about the genetic diversity of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato will likely have a major impact on PCR-based virus detection and on disease management practice through breeding

  7. A Hypersweet Protein: Removal of The Specific Negative Charge at Asp21 Enhances Thaumatin Sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Ojiro, Naoko; Murata, Kazuki; Mikami, Bunzo; Tani, Fumito; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2016-02-03

    Thaumatin is an intensely sweet-tasting protein that elicits sweet taste at a concentration of 50 nM, a value 100,000 times larger than that of sucrose on a molar basis. Here we attempted to produce a protein with enhanced sweetness by removing negative charges on the interacting side of thaumatin with the taste receptor. We obtained a D21N mutant which, with a threshold value 31 nM is much sweeter than wild type thaumatin and, together with the Y65R mutant of single chain monellin, one of the two sweetest proteins known so far. The complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin, derived from tethered docking in the framework of the wedge model, confirmed that each of the positively charged residues critical for sweetness is close to a receptor residue of opposite charge to yield optimal electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, the distance between D21 and its possible counterpart D433 (located on the T1R2 protomer of the receptor) is safely large to avoid electrostatic repulsion but, at the same time, amenable to a closer approach if D21 is mutated into the corresponding asparagine. These findings clearly confirm the importance of electrostatic potentials in the interaction of thaumatin with the sweet receptor.

  8. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: it's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-18

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Critically, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L. are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, Sweet potato virus C (SPVC, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV, have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95% incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.

  11. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  12. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with Sweet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sumita; Rytina, Ed; Sterling, Jane; Karas, J A; Aliyu, S H

    2012-10-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis has been associated with underlying infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease and certain medications. The infection agents associated with this include Streptococcus species, Yersinia species, Chlamydia species, Salmonella species and Helicobacter pylori. We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a 73-year-old woman following a 2 week course of severe gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Histological examination of skin lesions showed marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, composed of neutrophils and histiocytes. The patient was successfully treated with topical and systemic steroids. To date, this is the first case of Sweet's syndrome to be reported linked to Campylobacter species to our knowledge.

  13. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20-40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  14. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  15. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  16. Effect of Excessive Soil Moisture Stress on Sweet Sorghum: Physiological Changes and Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, F. L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potential bioenergy feedstock. Research explaining the response of sweet sorghum to excessive soil moisture (EM) stress at different growth stage is limited. To investigate the effect of EM stress on sweet sorghum antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation, biomass, quality, and ethanol production, an experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the National Sorghum Improvement Center, Shenyang, China. Sweet sorghum (cv. LiaoTian1) was studied in four irrigation treatments with a randomized block design method. The results showed that the protective enzyme, particularly the SOD, CAT and APX in it, was significantly affected by EM stress. EM stress deleteriously affected sweet sorghum growth, resulting in a remarkable reduction of aboveground biomass, stalk juice quality, stalk juice yield, and thus, decreased ethanol yield. EM stress also caused significant reduction in plant relative water content, which further decreased stalk juice extraction rate. Sweet sorghum grown under light, medium, and heavy EM treatments displayed 5, 19, and 30% fresh stalk yield reduction, which showed a significant difference compared to control. The estimated juice ethanol yield significantly declined from 1407 ha/sup -1/ (under optimum soil moisture) to 1272, 970, and 734 L ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  17. The effect of frequency of consumption of artificial sweeteners on sweetness liking by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, A; Duizer, L M

    2007-11-01

    Research into sweetness perception and preference thus far has demonstrated that sweetness preference is related not to the total sugar consumed by an individual but the amount of refined sugar ingested. Research has yet to be conducted, however, to determine whether a diet high in artificial sweeteners contributes to sweetness liking and preference with the same result as a diet high in sugar. The purpose of this research was to determine if such a relationship exists with regard to diets high in artificially sweetened beverages. Seventy-one female participants were recruited and screened for sweetener consumption in beverages. Sixty-four of these individuals were selected for sensory testing. All participants evaluated orange juice samples (ranging from 0% added sucrose to 20% added sucrose) for liking of sweetness using a 9-point hedonic scale. Based on screening survey data, participants were categorized according to sweetener consumption group (artificial sweetener consumers and natural sweetener consumers) and by overall sweetened beverage intake (low or high, regardless of sweetener type normally consumed). Sensory data were analyzed to compare sweetness liking in each of these groups. Significant differences in liking were observed, with individuals in the high sweetened beverage intake group preferring sweeter orange juice than those in the low-intake group. Categorization by sweetener type resulted in no significant differences between the groups, indicating that regardless of the type of sweetener consumed in a beverage, liking of sweetness will be influenced in the same manner.

  18. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  19. Sweet syndrome revealing systemic lupus erythematosus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, N

    2015-02-01

    Sweet Syndrome is an acute inflammatory skin eruption which is rare in children. We report a case of childhood Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) that presented with Sweet syndrome. This case is a unique presentation of a common disorder which provides a new facet for the differential diagnosis of SLE in children. It is also the first paediatric case to be reported in a Caucasian child.

  20. IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1 gene) is involved in tuberous root initiation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Amy Tsu; Huang, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Yu-Shu; Ma, Daifu; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-07-01

    The tuberization mechanism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has long been studied using various approaches. Morphological data have revealed that the tuberizing events result from the activation of the cambium, followed by cell proliferation. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the regulators participating in this signal-transduction pathway. An attempt was made to characterize the role of one MADS-box transcription factor, which was preferentially expressed in sweet potato roots at the early tuberization stage. A differential expression level of IbMADS1 (Ipomoea batatas MADS-box 1) was detected temporally and spatially in sweet potato tissues. IbMADS1 responses to tuberization-related hormones were assessed. In order to identify the evolutionary significance, the expression pattern of IbMADS1 was surveyed in two tuber-deficient Ipomoea relatives, I. leucantha and I. trifida, and compared with sweet potato. In functional analyses, potato (Solanum tuberosum) was employed as a heterologous model. The resulting tuber morphogenesis was examined anatomically in order to address the physiological function of IbMADS1, which should act similarly in sweet potato. IbMADS1 was preferentially expressed as tuberous root development proceeded. Its expression was inducible by tuberization-related hormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinins. In situ hybridization data showed that IbMADS1 transcripts were specifically distributed around immature meristematic cells within the stele and lateral root primordia. Inter-species examination indicated that IbMADS1 expression was relatively active in sweet potato roots, but undetectable in tuber-deficient Ipomoea species. IbMADS1-transformed potatoes exhibited tuber morphogenesis in the fibrous roots. The partial swellings along fibrous roots were mainly due to anomalous proliferation and differentiation in the xylem. Based on this study, it is proposed that IbMADS1 is an important integrator at the initiation of tuberization

  1. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  3. Sweet's syndrome – a comprehensive review of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Philip R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sweet's syndrome (the eponym for acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include fever, neutrophilia, tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques, and a diffuse infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils that are typically located in the upper dermis. Several hundreds cases of Sweet's syndrome have been published. Sweet's syndrome presents in three clinical settings: classical (or idiopathic, malignancy-associated, and drug-induced. Classical Sweet's syndrome (CSS usually presents in women between the age of 30 to 50 years, it is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection and may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy. Approximately one-third of patients with CSS experience recurrence of the dermatosis. The malignancy-associated Sweet's syndrome (MASS can occur as a paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with an established cancer or individuals whose Sweet's syndrome-related hematologic dyscrasia or solid tumor was previously undiscovered; MASS is most commonly related to acute myelogenous leukemia. The dermatosis can precede, follow, or appear concurrent with the diagnosis of the patient's cancer. Hence, MASS can be the cutaneous harbinger of either an undiagnosed visceral malignancy in a previously cancer-free individual or an unsuspected cancer recurrence in an oncology patient. Drug-induced Sweet's syndrome (DISS most commonly occurs in patients who have been treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, however, other medications may also be associated with DISS. The pathogenesis of Sweet's syndrome may be multifactorial and still remains to be definitively established. Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that cytokines have an etiologic role. Systemic corticosteroids are the therapeutic gold standard for Sweet's syndrome. After initiation of treatment

  4. Synergistic interactions of begomoviruses with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (genus Crinivirus) in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Wilmer J; Galvez, Marco; Fuentes, Segundo; Tugume, Joab; Kreuze, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Three hundred and ninety-four sweet potato accessions from Latin America and East Africa were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of begomoviruses, and 46 were found to be positive. All were symptomless in sweet potato and generated leaf curling and/or chlorosis in Ipomoea setosa. The five most divergent isolates, based on complete genome sequences, were used to study interactions with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), known to cause synergistic diseases with other viruses. Co-infections led to increased titres of begomoviruses and decreased titres of SPCSV in all cases, although the extent of the changes varied notably between begomovirus isolates. Symptoms of leaf curling only developed temporarily in combination with isolate StV1 and coincided with the presence of the highest begomovirus concentrations in the plant. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequence analysis revealed that co-infection of SPCSV with isolate StV1 led to relatively increased siRNA targeting of the central part of the SPCSV genome and a reduction in targeting of the genomic ends, but no changes to the targeting of StV1 relative to single infection of either virus. These changes were not observed in the interaction between SPCSV and the RNA virus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (genus Potyvirus), implying specific effects of begomoviruses on RNA silencing of SPCSV in dually infected plants. Infection in RNase3-expressing transgenic plants showed that this protein was sufficient to mediate this synergistic interaction with DNA viruses, similar to RNA viruses, but exposed distinct effects on RNA silencing when RNase3 was expressed from its native virus, or constitutively from a transgene, despite a similar pathogenic outcome. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  6. Models of Man in Industrial Relations Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Bruce E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Kaufman attempts to identify essential characteristics that distinguish behavioral from nonbehavioral research in industrial relations. He argues that they are distinguished by the psychological model of man that is contained in the theoretical framework used to deduce or test hypotheses. Comments from Lewin, Mincer, and Cummings with Kaufman's…

  7. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2003-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on

  8. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  9. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as…

  10. The association between perceived sweetness intensity and dietary intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Riddell, Lynnette J; Keast, Russell S J

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in taste perception may influence dietary habits, nutritional status, and ultimately nutrition-related chronic disease risk. Individual differences in sweetness intensity perception and the relationship between perceived sweetness intensity, food behaviors, and dietary intake was investigated in 85 adults. Subjects (body mass index [BMI]= 21 ± 3, 21 ± 4 y) completed a food and diet questionnaire, food variety survey, 2 24-h food records, and a perceived sweetness intensity measurement using the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS). There was interindividual variation in perceived sweetness intensity (0 to 34 gLMS units, mean 10 ± 7). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no difference between perceived sweetness intensity and degree of importance placed on not adding sugar to tea or coffee (P = 0.2) and the degree of importance placed on avoiding sugar-sweetened or fizzy drinks (P = 1.0). Independent t-test analysis revealed no significant association between perceived sweetness intensity and the food variety measure for sugar and confectionary intake (P = 0.6) and selected fruit and vegetable intake (P = 0.1 to 0.9). One-way ANOVA also demonstrated no difference between tertiles of sweetness intensity and BMI (P = 0.1), age (P = 0.3), and food variety score (P = 0.5). No correlation was observed with regards to perceived sweetness intensity and mean total energy (kJ) intake (r = 0.05, P = 0.7), percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, protein, carbohydrate, and grams of fiber (r =-0.1 to 0.1, P = 0.2 to 0.8) and also for intake of the micronutrients: folate, magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc (r = 0.1 to 0.2, P = 0.1 to 0.4). Only modest correlations were observed between sodium (r = 0.3, P sweetness intensity. Overall, perceived sweetness intensity does not appear to play a role in food behaviors relating to sugar consumption and dietary intake in adults. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Critical molecular regions for elicitation of the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Keisuke; Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2008-07-01

    Thaumatin is an intensely sweet-tasting protein. To identify the critical amino acid residue(s) responsible for elicitation of the sweetness of thaumatin, we prepared mutant thaumatin proteins, using Pichia pastoris, in which alanine residues were substituted for lysine or arginine residues, and the sweetness of each mutant protein was evaluated by sensory analysis in humans. Four lysine residues (K49, K67, K106 and K163) and three arginine residues (R76, R79 and R82) played significant roles in thaumatin sweetness. Of these residues, K67 and R82 were particularly important for eliciting the sweetness. We also prepared two further mutant thaumatin I proteins: one in which an arginine residue was substituted for a lysine residue, R82K, and one in which a lysine residue was substituted for an arginine residue, K67R. The threshold value for sweetness was higher for R82K than for thaumatin I, indicating that not only the positive charge but also the structure of the side chain of the arginine residue at position 82 influences the sweetness of thaumatin, whereas only the positive charge of the K67 side chain affects sweetness.

  12. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  13. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  14. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to agree on a definition of sweet eating and to construct a valid and reliable questionnaire that might be of help to assess the influence of sweet eating on weight loss after bariatric surgery. A Delphi Study design was chosen to define sweet eating. Based on the Delphi rounds, a questionnaire with self-reported sweets intake was constructed and validated. Nine experts with different scientific backgrounds participated in the Delphi Study which consisted of four rounds. They finally agreed on the definition that sweet eating can be defined as an eating behavior in which at least 50% of daily consumed carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates and which can be triggered by emotional factors (i.e., stress). They did not include the intake of artificial sweeteners in the definition. The Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire built on the four Delphi rounds was tested in 138 female patients and appeared to be both valid and reliable. A shortcoming of this study is that the results may not be applicable to males and to non-Western populations. The definition and the questionnaire may be useful in future research regarding sweet eating and bariatric surgery outcomes in morbidly obese patients.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Symbiosis Induces a Major Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Potato SWEET Sugar Transporter Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manck-Götzenberger, Jasmin; Requena, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Biotrophic microbes feeding on plants must obtain carbon from their hosts without killing the cells. The symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing plant roots do so by inducing major transcriptional changes in the host that ultimately also reprogram the whole carbon partitioning of the plant. AM fungi obtain carbohydrates from the root cortex apoplast, in particular from the periarbuscular space that surrounds arbuscules. However, the mechanisms by which cortical cells export sugars into the apoplast for fungal nutrition are unknown. Recently a novel type of sugar transporter, the SWEET, able to perform not only uptake but also efflux from cells was identified. Plant SWEETs have been shown to be involved in the feeding of pathogenic microbes and are, therefore, good candidates to play a similar role in symbiotic associations. Here we have carried out the first phylogenetic and expression analyses of the potato SWEET family and investigated its role during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The potato genome contains 35 SWEETs that cluster into the same four clades defined in Arabidopsis. Colonization of potato roots by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis imposes major transcriptional rewiring of the SWEET family involving, only in roots, changes in 22 of the 35 members. None of the SWEETs showed mycorrhiza-exclusive induction and most of the 12 induced genes belong to the putative hexose transporters of clade I and II, while only two are putative sucrose transporters from clade III. In contrast, most of the repressed transcripts (10) corresponded to clade III SWEETs. Promoter-reporter assays for three of the induced genes, each from one cluster, showed re-localization of expression to arbuscule-containing cells, supporting a role for SWEETs in the supply of sugars at biotrophic interfaces. The complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs in roots in response to AM fungal colonization supports a model in which symplastic sucrose in cortical cells could be cleaved

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Symbiosis Induces a Major Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Potato SWEET Sugar Transporter Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manck-Götzenberger, Jasmin; Requena, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Biotrophic microbes feeding on plants must obtain carbon from their hosts without killing the cells. The symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing plant roots do so by inducing major transcriptional changes in the host that ultimately also reprogram the whole carbon partitioning of the plant. AM fungi obtain carbohydrates from the root cortex apoplast, in particular from the periarbuscular space that surrounds arbuscules. However, the mechanisms by which cortical cells export sugars into the apoplast for fungal nutrition are unknown. Recently a novel type of sugar transporter, the SWEET, able to perform not only uptake but also efflux from cells was identified. Plant SWEETs have been shown to be involved in the feeding of pathogenic microbes and are, therefore, good candidates to play a similar role in symbiotic associations. Here we have carried out the first phylogenetic and expression analyses of the potato SWEET family and investigated its role during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The potato genome contains 35 SWEETs that cluster into the same four clades defined in Arabidopsis. Colonization of potato roots by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis imposes major transcriptional rewiring of the SWEET family involving, only in roots, changes in 22 of the 35 members. None of the SWEETs showed mycorrhiza-exclusive induction and most of the 12 induced genes belong to the putative hexose transporters of clade I and II, while only two are putative sucrose transporters from clade III. In contrast, most of the repressed transcripts (10) corresponded to clade III SWEETs. Promoter-reporter assays for three of the induced genes, each from one cluster, showed re-localization of expression to arbuscule-containing cells, supporting a role for SWEETs in the supply of sugars at biotrophic interfaces. The complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs in roots in response to AM fungal colonization supports a model in which symplastic sucrose in cortical cells could be cleaved

  17. Quantification of whey proteins by reversed phase-HPLC and effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy for their rapid prediction in sweet whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, Alba; De Marchi, Massimo; Masi, Antonio; Cassandro, Martino

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, membrane filtration is used to reduce the amount of whey waste and, simultaneously, to recover whey proteins (WP). The composition of WP can strongly affect the filtration treatment of whey, and rapid determination of WP fractions would be of interest for dairy producers to monitor WP recovery. This study aimed to develop mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) prediction models for the rapid quantification of protein in sweet whey, using a validated rapid reversed phase (RP)-HPLC as a reference method. Quantified WP included α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) A and B, bovine serum albumin, caseinomacropeptides, and proteose peptone. Validation of RP-HPLC was performed by calculating the relative standard deviation (RSD) in repeatability and reproducibility tests for WP retention time and peak areas. Samples of liquid whey (n=187) were analyzed by RP-HPLC and scanned through MIRS to collect spectral information (900 to 4,000 cm(-1)); statistical analysis was carried out through partial least squares regression and random cross-validation procedure. Retention times in RP-HPLC method were stable (RSD between 0.03 and 0.80%), whereas the RSD of peak area (from 0.25 to 8.48%) was affected by WP relative abundance. Higher coefficients of determination in validation for MIRS model were obtained for protein fractions present in whey in large amounts, such as β-LG (0.58), total identified WP (0.58), and α-LA (0.56). Results of this study suggest that MIRS is an easy method for rapid quantification of detail protein in sweet whey, even if better resolution was achieved with the method based on RP-HPLC. The prediction of WP in sweet whey by MIRS might be used for screening and for classifying sweet whey according to its total and individual WP contents. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of sweetness by multilinear regression analysis and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Chong, Yang; Nie, Xianglei; Yan, Aixia; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-09-01

    The sweetness of a compound is of large interest for the food additive industry. In this work, 2 quantitative models were built to predict the logSw (the logarithm of sweetness) of 320 unique compounds with a molecular weight from 132 to 1287 and a sweetness from 22 to 22500000. The whole dataset was randomly split into a training set including 214 compounds and a test set including 106 compounds, represented by 12 selected molecular descriptors. Then, logSw was predicted using a multilinear regression (MLR) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM). For the test set, the correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.88 were obtained by MLR and SVM, respectively. The descriptors found in our quantitative structure-activity relationship models are prone to a structural interpretation and support the AH/B System model proposed by Shallenberger and Acree. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  20. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  1. Learning Statistical Patterns in Relational Data Using Probabilistic Relational Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koller, Daphne

    2005-01-01

    .... This effort focused on developing undirected probabilistic models for representing and learning graph patterns, learning patterns involving links between objects, learning discriminative models...

  2. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  3. Sweet taste preferences before and after an intensive medical weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, K; Rothberg, A E; Arcori, L; Kaur, M; Fowler, C E; Herman, W H

    2016-06-01

    Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m -2 were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method before and after a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m -2 . The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was -13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was -11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer-term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant ( P -value 0.95). Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet-induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change.

  4. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Katherine P; Truong, Van-Den; Allen, Jonathan C

    2012-11-01

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing peel with saline solvent to dissolve proteins and then precipitating with CaCl(2). Quadratic and segmented models were used to determine the optimum NaCl concentration and peel to solvent ratio to maximize protein solubility while minimizing solvent usage. A segmented model was also used to optimize the concentration of CaCl(2) used for precipitation. The highest yield was obtained by mixing blanched peelings with 59.7 mL of 0.025 mM NaCl per g peel and then precipitating with 6.8 mM CaCl(2). The results of this study show that potentially valuable proteins can be extracted from peel generated during processing of sweet potatoes and industrial costs can be minimized by using these optimum conditions. Potentially valuable proteins can be extracted from sweet potato peel, a waste product of sweet potato processing. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe October 2014 Print this issue Sweet Stuff How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health ... Send us your comments Most of us love sweet foods and drinks. But after that short burst ...

  6. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.

  7. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  8. Evaluation of plant extracts for sweetness using the Mongolian gerbil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakinovich, W; Moon, C; Choi, Y H; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    Extracts of Thladiantha grosvenorii fruits, Stevia rebaudiana leaves, and Abrus precatorius leaves were investigated using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and conditioned taste aversion procedures, which were designed to respond to sucrose. A close correlation was observed between extracts of these sweet plants known to contain sweet principles and those extracts indicated as being sweet by a combination of these gerbil bioassays. The methods employed seem to be suitable for use in aiding the purification of highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

  9. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  11. Comparação de modelos matemáticos para descrição das curvas de dessorção de sementes de milho-doce Comparison of mathematical models for description of desorption curves of sweet corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fontes Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as curvas de dessorção das sementes de milho-doce (Zea mays L., cultivares Superdoce e Doce Cristal, e ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos dados obtidos. As sementes das duas cultivares foram submetidas à dessorção em diversos níveis de temperatura (30, 40, 50 e 60°C, combinados com diferentes umidades relativas do ar (30, 40, 50 e 60%, até atingirem a umidade de equilíbrio. Os seguintes modelos matemáticos foram ajustados por análise de regressão: Henderson-Thompson, Chung-Pfost, Copace, Sigma-Copace, Sabbah e Smith. As sementes das duas cultivares apresentaram umidades de equilíbrio higroscópico semelhantes. Os valores da variância explicada e do desvio-padrão, bem como a distribuição dos resíduos, das duas cultivares, indicam que as equações de Chung-Pfost, Sabbah e Smith foram as que melhor se ajustaram aos dados experimentais, com pequena superioridade da primeira.This work had the goal to determine the desorption curves of seeds of sweet corn cultivars Superdoce and Doce Cristal, and to adjust mathematical models to obtained data. Corn seeds were submitted to desorption under different temperature conditions (30, 40, 50 and 60°C, associated with different relative humidity (30, 40, 50 and 60% until reaching the equilibrium humidity. The following models of regression analysis were adjusted to the experimental data: Henderson-Thompson, Chung-Pfost, Copace, Sigma-Copace, Sabbah and Smith. Seeds of both cultivars showed similar hygroscopic equilibrium. For both cultivars, the equations of Chung-Pfost, Sabbah and Smith, showed the best adjustments to the experimental data, with slight superiority of the first one.

  12. Artificial neural networks employment in the prediction of evapotranspiration of greenhouse-grown sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the prediction of evapotranspiration of sweet pepper cultivated in a greenhouse. The used data encompass the second crop cycle, from September 2013 to February 2014, constituting 135 days of daily meteorological data, referring to the following variables: temperature and relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation (input variables, as well as evapotranspiration (output variable, determined using data obtained by load-cell weighing lysimeter. The recorded data were divided into three sets for training, testing and validation. The ANN learning model recognized the evapotranspiration patterns with acceptable accuracy, with mean square error of 0.005, in comparison to the data recorded in the lysimeter, with coefficient of determination of 0.87, demonstrating the best approximation for the 4-21-1 network architecture, with multilayers, error back-propagation learning algorithm and learning rate of 0.01.

  13. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  14. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  15. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  16. A preliminary investigation of the water use efficiency of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compared to Ukulinga research farm. The results from this study showed that the WUE of sweet sorghum was sensitive to plant density. The WUE values confirm that sweet sorghum has high WUE under different climatic conditions. Keywords: water use efficiency; ethanol yield; biofuel crop; plant density, sweet sorghum, ...

  17. A review of sweet taste potentiation brought about by divalent oxygen and sulfur incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G

    1992-01-01

    The plethora of high-potency sweetener research has allowed the construction of important structure-taste relationships. In light of new structure-taste relationships, it is instructive to review sweet taste potentiation brought about by divalent oxygen and sulfur incorporation. The taste of sulfur-containing organic compounds was reviewed in Japanese by Yasuo Ariyoshi in 1977. Several new representative examples of sweet taste potentiation and taste dichotomy (sweet and bitter) found within similar classes of oxygen- and sulfur-containing organic compound: amides, dipeptides, ureas, sulfamates, sulfonamides, oximes, sugars, dihydroisocoumarins, and others are reviewed. Special attention is given to the thioethers and thioureas in sulfamates, dipeptides, aryl ureas, and hybrid dipeptide ureas. The most notable contributions have arisen from the work of Nofre and Tinti at Université Claude Bernard in Lyons, France. A common trend emerges with certain sweeteners when a carbon atom is strategically replaced by sulfur or oxygen atoms. The net result is an increase in the sweetness two- to tenfold. With saccharins, the usual bitter, metallic taste is removed. Sweet taste receptor models that have been published are mainly based on the original Shallenberger and Acree model of the glucophores AH-B with contributions from Kier (AH-B-X). AH is a proton donor group, B is a proton acceptor group, and X is some hydrophobic group. All of the models have overlooked the contributions of divalent sulfur (often in place of oxygen) in bringing about sweetness potentiation. There is no precedence for localizing the energy-minimized structures of sulfur-containing sweeteners in a binding mode that includes sulfur. These sulfur potentiation loci are analyzed and illustrated in a computer-generated sweetener model to show the specific region in which sulfur is being "recognized" as a potentiating feature.

  18. Grief, poetry, and the sweet unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Richard; Jordan, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    This paper explains the healing benefits, the "sweet unexpected" of the title, which results from using poetry to engage trauma, including traumatic grief. The benefits of poetry are presented alongside a discussion of a 22-year-old nonprofit called The Pongo Poetry Project. The sweet unexpected includes the ease with which trauma survivors engage their trauma narrative, the critical insights that emerge in poetry, the beneficial social context of sharing poetry, and the healing benefits of poetry for writers, care providers, and readers alike. The paper concludes by providing resources that can help people use poetry in their own work.

  19. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  20. The taste transduction channel TRPM5 is a locus for bitter-sweet taste interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Karel; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Voets, Thomas; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Nilius, Bernd

    2008-05-01

    Ordinary gustatory experiences, which are usually evoked by taste mixtures, are determined by multiple interactions between different taste stimuli. The most studied model for these gustatory interactions is the suppression of the responses to sweeteners by the prototype bitter compound quinine. Here we report that TRPM5, a cation channel involved in sweet taste transduction, is inhibited by quinine (EC(50)=50 microM at -50 mV) owing to a decrease in the maximal whole-cell TRPM5 conductance and an acceleration of channel closure. Notably, quinine inhibits the gustatory responses of sweet-sensitive gustatory nerves in wild-type (EC(50)= approximately 1.6 mM) but not in Trpm5 knockout mice. Quinine induces a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of TRPM5-dependent responses of single sweet-sensitive fibers to sucrose, according to the restricted diffusion of the drug into the taste tissue. Quinidine, the stereoisomer of quinine, has similar effects on TRPM5 currents and on sweet-induced gustatory responses. In contrast, the chemically unrelated bitter compound denatonium benzoate has an approximately 100-fold weaker effect on TRPM5 currents and, accordingly, at 10 mM it does not alter gustatory responses to sucrose. The inhibition of TRPM5 by bitter compounds constitutes the molecular basis of a novel mechanism of taste interactions, whereby the bitter tastant inhibits directly the sweet transduction pathway.

  1. Psychophysics of sweet and fat perception in obesity: problems, solutions and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoshuk, Linda M; Duffy, Valerie B; Hayes, John E; Moskowitz, Howard R; Snyder, Derek J

    2006-07-29

    Psychophysical comparisons seem to show that obese individuals experience normal sweet and fat sensations, they like sweetness the same or less, but like fat more than the non-obese do. These psychophysical comparisons have been made using scales (visual analogue or category) that assume intensity labels (e.g. extremely) which denote the same absolute perceived intensity to all. In reality, the perceived intensities denoted by labels vary because they depend on experiences with the substances to be judged. This variation makes comparisons invalid. Valid comparisons can be made by asking the subjects to rate their sensory/hedonic experiences in contexts that are not related to the specific experiences of interest. Using this methodology, we present the evidence that the sensory and hedonic properties of sweet and fat vary with body mass index. The obese live in different orosensory and orohedonic worlds than do the non-obese; the obese experience reduced sweetness, which probably intensifies fat sensations, and the obese like both sweet and fat more than the non-obese do. Genetic variation as well as taste pathology contribute to these results. These psychophysical advances will impact experimental as well as clinical studies of obesity and other eating disorders.

  2. Glucose Content and In Vitro Bioaccessibility in Sweet Potato and Winter Squash Varieties during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Saadoun, Ali

    2017-06-30

    Glucose content and in vitro bioaccessibility were determined in raw and cooked pulp of Arapey, Cuabé, and Beauregard sweet potato varieties, as well as Maravilla del Mercado and Atlas winter squash, after zero, two, four, and six months of storage (14 °C, 80% relative humidity (RH)). The total glucose content in 100 g of raw pulp was, for Arapey, 17.7 g; Beauregard, 13.2 g; Cuabé, 12.6 g; Atlas, 4.0 g; and in Maravilla del Mercado, 4.1 g. These contents were reduced by cooking process and storage time, 1.1 to 1.5 times, respectively, depending on the sweet potato variety. In winter squash varieties, the total glucose content was not modified by cooking, while the storage increased glucose content 2.8 times in the second month. After in vitro digestion, the glucose content released was 7.0 times higher in sweet potato (6.4 g) than in winter squash (0.91 g) varieties. Glucose released by in vitro digestion for sweet potato stored for six months did not change, but in winter squashes, stored Atlas released glucose content increased 1.6 times. In conclusion, in sweet potato and winter squash, the glucose content and the released glucose during digestive simulation depends on the variety and the storage time. These factors strongly affect the supply of glucose for human nutrition and should be taken into account for adjusting a diet according to consumer needs.

  3. Improvement of Constipation in Leukemia Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Using Sweet Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing-Ying; Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing; Zhu, Xia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy commonly develop constipation, which is difficult to treat using routine methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether sweet potato can alleviate constipation in leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy. Leukemia patients receiving their first chemotherapy were randomized to an intervention group (n = 57) or a control group (n = 63). The control and intervention groups were managed by using routine nursing methods and routine methods plus dietary sweet potato consumption (eating sweet potato 200 g/d, from admission to discharge), respectively. Related data regarding patients' defecation were collected on the second and fifth days after chemotherapy initiation, which included rates of constipation, frequency and duration of purgative usage, constipation status assessed by Rome III criteria, and scores on defecation satisfaction. On the second day, the rate of constipation and the rate of having first defecation within 24 hours after chemotherapy initiation were significantly improved in the intervention group, but the difference of the defecation satisfaction and "almost no loose stools without purgative use" in Rome III criteria were not significantly changed. On the fifth day, except for "the sensation of anorectal obstruction" and "requirement of manual assistance" in Rome III criteria, other items regarding defecation were significantly improved. This study demonstrates that sweet potato had a positive impact on the prevention of constipation and the defecation satisfaction in leukemia patients receiving their first chemotherapy. As sweet potato is inexpensive, abundant, tasty, and easy to prepare, it can be widely used in leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  4. Gamma-ray effect on sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Ciofu, R.; Stroia, L.; Ghering, A.; Ferdes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results on modification occurred in biochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomea batatus L.) after gamma irradiation. Two varieties, named Victoria Ianb (a white variety) and Portocaliu (a red variety), were selected and acclimatized for the agrometeorological conditions of Romania. The samples consist of roots from both usual and experimental crops. They were irradiated in batch, one week after harvesting, with a ICPR Co-60 gamma-ray source by approx. 370 TBq, dose range 100-500 Gy, dose rate 100±5 Gy/hour, dose uniformity ±5%, temperature 10 o C, 80±5% relative humidity (rh). The irradiation doses received were checked using the Fricke ferrous sulphate dosimeter procedure. The roots were kept two months at relative darkness, 6-11 o C, 60-75% rh and analyzed from time to time (initial, 5, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days). The following parameters are analyzed by conventional methods: total and reducing sugars (in De equivalent, %, on dry weight basis), starch content and the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. The red variety had a better behaviour towards irradiation that the white one. The sugar contents (both total and reducing), as well as starch, varied more in the white variety. The sugar metabolizing enzyme activities were influenced by both irradiation and storage conditions. Their activities were maximal at 200 and 300 Gy, and decreased significantly at higher doses. The activities also decreased in time, their variations being higher at lower doses (100 and 200 Gy). The results showed no significant influence of gamma irradiation on storage life. The modifications induced in sugar contents and enzyme activities had maximal effects at 200-300 Gy. (author)

  5. Associations between the home environment and children's sweet beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up: the 'Be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, A; Renders, C M; van de Gaar, V M; Hirasing, R A; Raat, H

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates the association between home environmental characteristics and sweet beverage consumption (i.e. beverages that contain sugar) of 7-year-old children. The population for analysis consisted of n = 2047 parents and their children from the population-based 'Be active, eat right' study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, parental beliefs, parenting practices and child's sweet beverage consumption were obtained by parental report with questionnaires. We performed linear and multinomial regression analyses evaluating associations between characteristics at age 5 years and (i) consumption at 7 years and (ii) consumption patterns between age 5 and 7 years with reference category 'low consumption'. Based on the report from their parents, 5-year-old children drank on average 3.0 (SD:1.4) sweet beverage per day. Children consumed less sweet beverages at age 7 years (beta -0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to -0.09) when there were less sweet beverages available at home. The multinomial regression model showed that children with parents who discouraged sweet beverage consumption were more likely to decrease their sweet beverage consumption over the study period (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43). Moreover, when there were less sweet beverages available at home, children were less likely to increase their consumption or have a high consumption over the study period (odds ratio: 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83 and 0.61, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.70, respectively). The results showed that characteristics of the home environment are associated with the consumption of sweet beverages among children. Specifically, the availability of sweet beverages at home is associated with the child's sweet beverage consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis induces a major transcriptional reprogramming of the potato SWEET sugar transporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin eManck-Götzenberger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotrophic microbes feeding on plants must obtain carbon from their hosts without killing the cells. The symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi colonizing plant roots do so by inducing major transcriptional changes in the host that ultimately also reprogram the whole carbon partitioning of the plant. AM fungi obtain carbohydrates from the root cortex apoplast, in particular from the periarbuscular space that surrounds arbuscules. However, the mechanisms by which cortical cells export sugars into the apoplast for fungal nutrition are unknown. Recently a novel type of sugar transporter, the SWEET, able to perform not only uptake but also efflux from cells was identified. Plant SWEETs have been shown to be involved in the feeding of pathogenic microbes and are, therefore, good candidates to play a similar role in symbiotic associations. Here we have carried out the first phylogenetic and expression analyses of the potato SWEET family and investigated its role during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The potato genome contains 35 SWEETs that cluster into the same four clades defined in Arabidopsis. Colonization of potato roots by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis imposes major transcriptional rewiring of the SWEET family involving, only in roots, changes in 22 of the 35 members. None of the SWEETs showed mycorrhiza-exclusive induction and most of the twelve induced genes belong to the putative hexose transporters of clade I and II, while only two are putative sucrose transporters from clade III. In contrast, most of the repressed transcripts (10 corresponded to clade III SWEETs. Promoter-reporter assays for three of the induced genes, each from one cluster, showed re-localization of expression to arbuscule-containing cells, supporting a role for SWEETs in the supply of sugars at biotrophic interfaces. The complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs in roots in response to AM fungal colonization supports a model in which symplastic sucrose in cortical

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; DiBello, Angelo M; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M

    2018-03-20

    The Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET; Adams et al. 2011) is a self-report measure designed to assess multiple reasons why and when smokers use cigarettes for appetite, weight, and shape management, that was initially developed and validated in young female smokers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SWEET measure among both male and female daily cigarette smokers. Participants (n = 577; M age  = 44.42; SD = 13.80; 52.7% female) were daily smokers recruited through Qualtrics Online Sample for an anonymous study on smoking and health. On average, participants reported smoking for 25.7 years (SD = 14.35), smoked 17.0 cigarettes per day (SD = 8.38), and had moderate levels of tobacco dependence. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the initial factor structure found in the original SWEET measure suggesting a four-factor structure fit the data well, but not a one-factor structure. Factors included using cigarettes for appetite suppression, using cigarettes to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and using cigarettes to cope with appetite-related withdrawal symptoms. Tests of measurement invariance revealed no significant differences when evaluating SWEET scores by participant sex. The SWEET factor scores evidenced internal consistency, known groups validity, convergent validity with related constructs (compensatory eating behaviors, tobacco dependence) and cessation-relevant variables (smoking abstinence expectancies, prior withdrawal symptoms), and discriminant validity with physical activity and sedentary behavior. The present study provides evidence in support of the validity and reliability of scores on the SWEET as a multidimensional measure of smoking for appetite, weight, and body-related concerns in male and female daily cigarette smokers.

  9. Relating derived relations as a model of analogical reasoning: reaction times and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-11-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to cheese") derived relational responding, in both speed-contingent and speed-noncontingent conditions. Experiment 2 examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with these two response patterns. Both experiments showed similar-similar responding to be significantly faster than different-different responding. Experiment 2 revealed significant differences between the waveforms of the two response patterns in the left-hemispheric prefrontal regions; different-different waveforms were significantly more negative than similar-similar waveforms. The behavioral and neurophysiological data support the RFT prediction that, all things being equal, similar-similar responding is relationally "simpler" than, and functionally distinct from, different-different analogical responding. The ERP data were fully consistent with findings in the neurocognitive literature on analogy. These findings strengthen the validity of the RFT model of analogical reasoning and supplement the behavior-analytic approach to analogy based on the relating of derived relations.

  10. Statistical optimization of process parameters for exopolysaccharide production by Aureobasidium pullulans using sweet potato based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Sethuraman; Balaji, Nagarajan; Muthukumaran, Chandrasekaran; Tamilarasan, Krishnamurthi

    2015-12-01

    Statistical experimental designs were applied to optimize the fermentation medium for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Plackett-Burman design was applied to identify the significance of seven medium variables, in which sweet potato and yeast extract were found to be the significant variables for EPS production. Central composite design was applied to evaluate the optimum condition of the selected variables. Maximum EPS production of 9.3 g/L was obtained with the predicted optimal level of sweet potato 10 %, yeast extract 0.75 %, 5.5 pH, and time 100 h. The determined (R 2 ) value was 0.97, indicating a good fitted model for EPS production. Results of this study showed that sweet potato can be utilized as a low-cost effective substrate for pullulan production in submerged fermentation.

  11. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-12-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe.

  12. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-01-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978–2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars’ behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe. PMID:27922629

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  14. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  15. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  16. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  17. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of. Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato.

  18. Masking and adaptation of sugar sweetness intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.H.A.

    Subjects indicated the sweetness of solutions of sucrose and a mixture of sucrose and sodium chloride by means of magnitude scaling. The adapting effects of sucrose, sodium chloride and a mixture of both substances were investigated. The stimuli were delivered by a flow system to pre-defined tongue

  19. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  20. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  1. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup ...

  3. Consumers’ Preference for Sweet Peppers with different Process Attributes: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an online discrete choice experiment (DCE this study investigates the relative importance of food label information (country of origin, production methods, chemical residue testing (CRT and price for Taiwanese consumers’ in their purchase of sweet peppers. Results show that respondents focus mostly on the COO labeling during their sweet-pepper shopping, followed by price. Information concerning CRT results and production methods are of less importance. Our findings also indicate that interaction between attributes matter and that preference for attribute levels differs depending on socioeconomic characteristics.

  4. Pertanggungjawaban Sosial Universitas: Implementasi Model Cycle Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sinatra Wijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competition among Higher Education is getting tougher. They need to do their best in order to maintain their existence and getting more students coming to their institutions. One way to achieve that goal is through carrying out Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs or University Social Responsibility (USR for university. This study tries to investigate the implementation of ‘Cycle Relations’ model in CSR to increase the intake of Higher Education. This study involved seven Higher Educations and nineteen High schools in Central Java. In collecting the data, it used a depth-interview method with all the related parties in this study. The result showed that most of the Higher Education institutions have implemented Corporate Social Responsibility program in various ways. Their target audience included the high schools, society, and parents.  From the model implementation, it showed that the CSR program did have an impact towards the intake in their institution. However, one important thing to consider is that the role of the teachers at schools was quite significant in influencing the students to choose which university to go.  This reflects that although the Higher Education institution have planned and carried out CSR programs according to what the target audiences’ need, it does not guarantee that it will have direct impact towards their intake because the influence of teacher is quite significant. It may have a bigger impact in long term as the target audiences know the quality and contribution of the Higher Education institutions.

  5. A QSTR-based Expert System to Predict Sweetness of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Cristian; Todeschini, Roberto; Ballabio, Davide; Mauri, Andrea; Consonni, Viviana; Tripaldi, Piercosimo; Grisoni, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    This work describes a novel approach based on advanced molecular similarity to predict the sweetness of chemicals. The proposed Quantitative Structure-Taste Relationship (QSTR) model is an expert system developed keeping in mind the five principles defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development for the validation of (Q)SARs. The 649 sweet and non-sweet molecules were described by both conformation-independent extended-connectivity fingerprints (ECFPs) and molecular descriptors. In particular, the molecular similarity in the ECFPs space showed a clear association with molecular taste and it was exploited for model development. Molecules laying in the subspaces where the taste assignation was more difficult were modelled trough a consensus between linear and local approaches (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis and N-nearest-neighbor classifier). The expert system, which was thoroughly validated through a Monte Carlo procedure and an external set, gave satisfactory results in comparison with the state-of-the-art models. Moreover, the QSTR model can be leveraged into a greater understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and sweetness, and into the design of novel sweeteners.

  6. A QSTR-Based Expert System to Predict Sweetness of Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rojas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel approach based on advanced molecular similarity to predict the sweetness of chemicals. The proposed Quantitative Structure-Taste Relationship (QSTR model is an expert system developed keeping in mind the five principles defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD for the validation of (QSARs. The 649 sweet and non-sweet molecules were described by both conformation-independent extended-connectivity fingerprints (ECFPs and molecular descriptors. In particular, the molecular similarity in the ECFPs space showed a clear association with molecular taste and it was exploited for model development. Molecules laying in the subspaces where the taste assignation was more difficult were modeled trough a consensus between linear and local approaches (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis and N-nearest-neighbor classifier. The expert system, which was thoroughly validated through a Monte Carlo procedure and an external set, gave satisfactory results in comparison with the state-of-the-art models. Moreover, the QSTR model can be leveraged into a greater understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and sweetness, and into the design of novel sweeteners.

  7. Risk considerations related to lung modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Cross, F.T.

    1989-01-01

    Improved lung models provide a more accurate assessment of dose from inhalation exposures and, therefore, more accurate dose-response relationships for risk evaluation and exposure limitation. Epidemiological data for externally irradiated persons indicate that the numbers of excess respiratory tract carcinomas differ in the upper airways, bronchi, and distal lung. Neither their histogenesis and anatomical location nor their progenitor cells are known with sufficient accuracy for accurate assessment of the microdosimetry. The nuclei of sensitive cells generally can be assumed to be distributed at random in the epithelium, beneath the mucus and tips of the beating cilia and cells. In stratified epithelia, basal cells may be considered the only cells at risk. Upper-airway tumors have been observed in both therapeutically irradiated patients and in Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. The current International Commission on Radiological Protection Lung-Model Task Group proposes that the upper airways and lung have a similar relative risk coefficient for cancer induction. The partition of the risk weighting factor, therefore, will be proportional to the spontaneous death rate from tumors, and 80% of the weighting factor for the respiratory tract should be attributed to the lung. For Weibel lung-model branching generations 0 to 16 and 17 to 23, the Task Group proposes an 80/20 partition of the risk, i.e., 64% and 16%, respectively, of the total risk. Regarding risk in animals, recent data in rats indicate a significantly lower effectiveness for lung-cancer induction at low doses from insoluble long-lived alpha-emitters than from Rn daughters. These findings are due, in part, to the fact that different regions of the lung are irradiated. Tumors in the lymph nodes are rare in people and animals exposed to radiation.44 references

  8. Formulation, nutritive value and sensory evaluation of a new weaning food based on sweet corn (Nutrimaiz) dehydrated pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliza, R; Sgarbieri, V C; Rosenthal, A

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a formulation for complementary infant and child feeding employing linear programing as a mathematical model for optimization. High lysine/high tryptophan sweet corn pulp in the dehydrated form was used as the main ingredient. The restrictions imposed on the model were nutrient requirements, adequate protein/energy ratio and minimum cost. The formula derived by the computer (FC) matched the amino acid requirements, the protein/energy ratio (NDPCal%) and was rated high in laboratory tests in terms of sensory qualities. The cost determined for this formula was competitive in relation to commercial products used for the same purpose. Formula A, which contained 5% more sweet corn pulp and 10% less whole powdered milk, did not differ in nutritional, sensorial and functional properties from the formula FC and was chosen for the field acceptability trial because of its lower cost. Formula A had protein efficiency ratio and Biological Value similar to casein for the rat but protein digestibility and net protein utilization were statistically lower (p less than 0.05) for formula A than for casein. Acceptability tested on children who were 8-18 months of age ranged from 80-90%, average value 87%.

  9. The binding site for neohesperidin dihydrochalcone at the human sweet taste receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochwil Nicole A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sweet taste perception among species depend on structural variations of the sweet taste receptor. The commercially used isovanillyl sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone activates the human but not the rat sweet receptor TAS1R2+TAS1R3. Analysis of interspecies combinations and chimeras of rat and human TAS1R2+TAS1R3 suggested that the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 is crucial for the activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Results By mutational analysis combined with functional studies and molecular modeling we identified a set of different amino acid residues within the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 that forms the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding pocket. Sixteen amino acid residues in the transmembrane domains 2 to 7 and one in the extracellular loop 2 of hTAS1R3 influenced the receptor's response to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Some of these seventeen residues are also part of the binding sites for the sweetener cyclamate or the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. In line with this observation, lactisole inhibited activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate competitively, whereas receptor activation by aspartame, a sweetener known to bind to the N-terminal domain of TAS1R2, was allosterically inhibited. Seven of the amino acid positions crucial for activation of hTAS1R2+hTAS1R3 by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are thought to play a role in the binding of allosteric modulators of other class C GPCRs, further supporting our model of the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone pharmacophore. Conclusion From our data we conclude that we identified the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding site at the human sweet taste receptor, which overlaps with those for the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. This readily delivers a molecular explanation of our finding that lactisole is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor

  10. The binding site for neohesperidin dihydrochalcone at the human sweet taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnig, Marcel; Bufe, Bernd; Kratochwil, Nicole A; Slack, Jay P; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2007-10-12

    Differences in sweet taste perception among species depend on structural variations of the sweet taste receptor. The commercially used isovanillyl sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone activates the human but not the rat sweet receptor TAS1R2+TAS1R3. Analysis of interspecies combinations and chimeras of rat and human TAS1R2+TAS1R3 suggested that the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 is crucial for the activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. By mutational analysis combined with functional studies and molecular modeling we identified a set of different amino acid residues within the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 that forms the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding pocket. Sixteen amino acid residues in the transmembrane domains 2 to 7 and one in the extracellular loop 2 of hTAS1R3 influenced the receptor's response to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Some of these seventeen residues are also part of the binding sites for the sweetener cyclamate or the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. In line with this observation, lactisole inhibited activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate competitively, whereas receptor activation by aspartame, a sweetener known to bind to the N-terminal domain of TAS1R2, was allosterically inhibited. Seven of the amino acid positions crucial for activation of hTAS1R2+hTAS1R3 by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are thought to play a role in the binding of allosteric modulators of other class C GPCRs, further supporting our model of the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone pharmacophore. From our data we conclude that we identified the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding site at the human sweet taste receptor, which overlaps with those for the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. This readily delivers a molecular explanation of our finding that lactisole is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor activation by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate. Some

  11. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-scale producers of food-grade swee...

  12. Yield decline of sweet potato in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Poloma, S.; Maino, M.; Powell, K.S.; Eganae, J.; O'Sullivan, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is the major staple crop in Papua New Guinea and experiments were conducted investigating factors affecting yield decline. Yields of unfertilized plots were related to rainfall and measured changes in soil properties, nematode (Meloidogyne sp., Rotylenchulus

  13. Sweet taste preference in binge-eating disorder: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Erica L; Breithaupt, Lauren; Watson, Hunna J; Peat, Christine M; Baker, Jessica H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with high liking for sweets are at increased risk for binge eating, which has been minimally investigated in individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). Forty-one adults (85% female, 83% white) with binge eating concerns completed a sweet taste test and measures of eating disorder behaviors and food cravings. A subset of participants with BED completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; N=21) and a 24-hour dietary recall (N=26). Regression models were used to compare highest sweet preferers (HSP [N=18]) to other sweet preferers (OSP [N=23]) and were used to assess associations between sweet taste preference and outcome variables. Effect sizes (ηp 2 ) for differences between HSP and OSP ranged from small (≤0.01) to large (≥0.24); group differences were statistically nonsignificant except for 24-hour caloric intake (ηp 2 =0.16, p=0.04), protein intake (ηp 2 =0.16, p=0.04), and insulin sensitivity index (ηp 2 =0.24, p=0.04), which were higher in HSP, and postprandial insulin, which was smaller in HSP (ηp 2 =0.27, p=0.03). Continuous analyses replicated postprandial insulin response. Compared with OSP, HSP reported numerically higher binge-eating frequency (ηp 2 =0.04), over-eating frequency (ηp 2 =0.06), and carbohydrate intake (ηp 2 =0.14), and they exhibited numerically smaller postprandial glucose AUC (ηp 2 =0.16). Sweet taste preference may have implications for glucose regulation, binge-eating frequency, and nutrient intake in BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweet taste disorder and vascular complications in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Imai, Kenjiro; Kanda, Sayaka; Kakei, Masafumi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-10-15

    It remains unknown whether taste disorders can be a risk factor for micro- and macro-vascular diseases in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional study in a nationally representative samples of 848 and 849 US adults (aged ≥40years) with diabetes or prediabetes who had sweet and salt taste disorders, respectively, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Among the study population, 5.7% had sweet taste disorder and 8.6% had salt taste disorder. These data correspond to approximately 1.5 million and 1.8 million individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance aged 40years or older in the US population, respectively. In the adjusted model, sweet taste disorder was significantly associated with complication of ischemic heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.81; P=0.04). Moreover, sweet taste disorder in patients with diabetes was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (adjusted OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.09-7.69; P=0.03) and diabetic nephropathy (adjusted OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.07-9.36; P=0.03). Meanwhile, salt taste disorder was not significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, ischemic heart disease, or stroke. Total sugar intake was significantly higher in patients with sweet taste disorder than in those without it, whereas total daily intake of carbohydrate did not differ significantly. No significant association was observed between salt taste disorder and daily intake of sodium after multivariate analysis. Sweet taste disorder in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with increased sugar intake and vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  16. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on the Central Nervous System in Rats -using the Functional Observational Battery-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Chul An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom on the central nervous system in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for this study and after confirming condition of rats was stable, Sweet BV was administered in thigh muscle of rats. And checked the effects of Sweet BV on the central nervous system using the functional observational battery (FOB, which is a neuro-toxicity screening assay composed of 30 descriptive, scalar, binary, and continuous endpoints. And home cage observations, home cage removal and handling, open field activity, sensorimotor reflex test/physiological measurements were conducted. Results: 1. In the home cage observation, there was not observed any abnormal signs in rats. 2. In the observation of open field activity, the reduction of number of unit areas crossed and rearing count was observed caused by Sweet BV treatment. 3. In the observation of handling reactivity, there was not observed any abnormal signs in rats. 4. In the observation of sensorimotor reflex tests/physiological measurements, there was not observed any neurotoxic signs in rats. 5. In the measurement of rectal temperature, treatment of Sweet BV did not showed great influences in the body temperature of rats. Conclusions: Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the central nervous system. But in the using of over dose, Sweet BV may the cause of local pain and disturbance of movement. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  17. Atomic structure of recombinant thaumatin II reveals flexible conformations in two residues critical for sweetness and three consecutive glycine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Mikami, Bunzo; Tani, Fumito

    2014-11-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein used as a sweetener, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although two major variants designated thaumatin I and thaumatin II exist in plants, there have been few dedicated thaumatin II structural studies and, to date, data beyond atomic resolution had not been obtained. To identify the detailed structural properties explaining why thaumatin elicits a sweet taste, the structure of recombinant thaumatin II was determined at the resolution of 0.99 Å. Atomic resolution structural analysis with riding hydrogen atoms illustrated the differences in the direction of the side-chains more precisely and the electron density maps of the C-terminal regions were markedly improved. Though it had been suggested that the three consecutive glycine residues (G142-G143-G144) have highly flexible conformations, G143, the central glycine residue was successfully modelled in two conformations for the first time. Furthermore, the side chain r.m.s.d. values for two residues (R67 and R82) critical for sweetness exhibited substantially higher values, suggesting that these residues are highly disordered. These results demonstrated that the flexible conformations in two critical residues favoring their interaction with sweet taste receptors are prominent features of the intensely sweet taste of thaumatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Sweets, sweetened beverages, and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2009-08-01

    We examined the associations between sweets, sweetened and unsweetened beverages, and sugars and pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study (532 cases, 1,701 controls) and used multivariate logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Because associations were often different by sex, we present results for men and women combined and separately. Among men, greater intakes of total and specific sweets were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (total sweets: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.6; sweet condiments: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1; chocolate candy: OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.0; other mixed candy bars: OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 7.3 for 1 + servings/day versus none/rarely). Sweets were not consistently associated with risk among women. Sweetened beverages were not associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. In contrast, low-calorie soft drinks were associated with increased risk among men only; while other low-/non-caloric beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, and water) were unassociated with risk. Of the three sugars assessed (lactose, fructose, and sucrose), only the milk sugar lactose was associated with pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 comparing extreme quartiles). These results provide limited support for the hypothesis that sweets or sugars increase pancreatic cancer risk.

  19. In vivo wound healing and antiulcer properties of white sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Daniele; Dudek, Débora N; Maria, Mariana D; Horta, Lívia P; Lima, Eliete N; de Fátima, Ângelo; Sanches, Andréia C C; Modolo, Luzia V

    2013-07-01

    The potential of tuber flour of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv. Brazlândia Branca (white sweet potato) as wound healing and antiulcerogenic agent was investigated in vivo in animal model. Excision on the back of Wistar rats was performed to induce wounds that were topically treated with Beeler's base containing tuber flour of white sweet potato at 2.5%. Number of cells undergoing metaphase and the degree of tissue re-epithelialization were investigated 4, 7 and 10 days post-treatment. The protective effect of aqueous suspension of tuber flour (75 and 100 mg/kg animal weight) on gastric mucosa of Wistar rats was also studied by using the ethanol-induced ulceration model. Ointment based on white sweet potato at 2.5% effectively triggered the healing of cutaneous wound as attested by the increased number of cells undergoing metaphase and tissue re-epithelialization regardless the time of wound treatment. Tuber flour potentially prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulceration by suppressing edema formation and partly protecting gastric mucosa wrinkles. Crude extracts also exhibited potential as free radical scavengers. The results from animal model experiments indicate the potential of tuber flour of white sweet potato to heal wounds.

  20. In vivo wound healing and antiulcer properties of white sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Daniele; Dudek, Débora N.; Maria, Mariana D.; Horta, Lívia P.; Lima, Eliete N.; de Fátima, Ângelo; Sanches, Andréia C.C.; Modolo, Luzia V.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of tuber flour of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv. Brazlândia Branca (white sweet potato) as wound healing and antiulcerogenic agent was investigated in vivo in animal model. Excision on the back of Wistar rats was performed to induce wounds that were topically treated with Beeler’s base containing tuber flour of white sweet potato at 2.5%. Number of cells undergoing metaphase and the degree of tissue re-epithelialization were investigated 4, 7 and 10 days post-treatment. The protective effect of aqueous suspension of tuber flour (75 and 100 mg/kg animal weight) on gastric mucosa of Wistar rats was also studied by using the ethanol-induced ulceration model. Ointment based on white sweet potato at 2.5% effectively triggered the healing of cutaneous wound as attested by the increased number of cells undergoing metaphase and tissue re-epithelialization regardless the time of wound treatment. Tuber flour potentially prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulceration by suppressing edema formation and partly protecting gastric mucosa wrinkles. Crude extracts also exhibited potential as free radical scavengers. The results from animal model experiments indicate the potential of tuber flour of white sweet potato to heal wounds. PMID:25685447

  1. Role of protein surface charge in monellin sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei-Feng; Szczepankiewicz, Olga; Thulin, Eva; Linse, Sara; Carey, Jannette

    2009-03-01

    A small number of proteins have the unusual property of tasting intensely sweet. Despite many studies aimed at identifying their sweet taste determinants, the molecular basis of protein sweetness is not fully understood. Recent mutational studies of monellin have implicated positively charged residues in sweetness. In the present work, the effect of overall net charge was investigated using the complementary approach of negative charge alterations. Multiple substitutions of Asp/Asn and Glu/Gln residues radically altered the surface charge of single-chain monellin by removing six negative charges or adding four negative charges. Biophysical characterization using circular dichroism, fluorescence, and two-dimensional NMR demonstrates that the native fold of monellin is preserved in the variant proteins under physiological solution conditions although their stability toward chemical denaturation is altered. A human taste test was employed to determine the sweetness detection threshold of the variants. Removal of negative charges preserves monellin sweetness, whereas added negative charge has a large negative impact on sweetness. Meta-analysis of published charge variants of monellin and other sweet proteins reveals a general trend toward increasing sweetness with increasing positive net charge. Structural mapping of monellin variants identifies a hydrophobic surface predicted to face the receptor where introduced positive or negative charge reduces sweetness, and a polar surface where charges modulate long-range electrostatic complementarity.

  2. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  3. Descascamento de laranja 'Pêra' em função da duração do tratamento hidrotérmico Peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange related to the duration of the hydrothermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram adequar a tecnologia de descascamento de laranja 'Pêra' pelo uso do tratamento hidrotérmico e avaliar sua influência na atividade respiratória e nas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais dos frutos. O tempo de descascamento, o rendimento em frutos comercializáveis e a temperatura interna dos frutos durante o tratamento também foram avaliados. O tratamento consistiu em colocar os frutos em banho-maria a 50°C por 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutos. Em seguida, os frutos foram descascados retirando-se a parte peduncular com a faca e, posteriormente, o flavedo e o albedo foram retirados manualmente. Os frutos sem tratamento hidrotérmico foram considerados controle. Os frutos foram armazenados durante seis dias a 5°C. O tratamento hidrotérmico alterou a atividade respiratória dos frutos somente nas primeiras horas após o processamento. A temperatura interna dos frutos, após 30 minutos de tratamento, atingiu no máximo 35°C. Não ocorreram alterações nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos frutos. O tratamento não alterou o sabor, melhorou a aparência, diminuiu em até 78% o tempo de descascamento e aumentou o rendimento em frutos comercializáveis. Conclui-se que o tratamento hidrotérmico de 10 a 30 minutos pode ser utilizado como técnica de descascamento para laranja 'Pêra'.The objective of this research was to adapt the technology of peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange for the use of hydrothermal treatment, and to evaluate its influence in the respiratory activity and physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. Peeling time, marketable fruits yield and internal fruit temperature during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of water-bath fruits at 50°C for 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 minutes. The fruits were peeled by first opening cut the peduncle region with a knife and then, the flavedo and albedo

  4. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20–40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model. PMID:29487853

  5. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    . The proper high dosage of Sweet BV for the thirteen week repeated test in Beagle dogs may be 0.28㎎/㎏ in one time. Conclusion: Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  6. Reduced sweetness of a monellin (MNEI) mutant results from increased protein flexibility and disruption of a distant poly-(L-proline) II helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Catherine M; Ostovar pour, Saeideh; Hobbs, Jeanette R; Blanch, Ewan W; Munger, Steven D; Conn, Graeme L

    2011-06-01

    Monellin is a highly potent sweet-tasting protein but relatively little is known about how it interacts with the sweet taste receptor. We determined X-ray crystal structures of 3 single-chain monellin (MNEI) proteins with alterations at 2 core residues (G16A, V37A, and G16A/V37A) that induce 2- to 10-fold reductions in sweetness relative to the wild-type protein. Surprisingly, no changes were observed in the global protein fold or the positions of surface amino acids important for MNEI sweetness that could explain these differences in protein activity. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that while the thermal stability of each mutant MNEI was reduced, the least sweet mutant, G16A-MNEI, was not the least stable protein. In contrast, solution spectroscopic measurements revealed that changes in protein flexibility and the C-terminal structure correlate directly with protein activity. G16A mutation-induced disorder in the protein core is propagated via changes to hydrophobic interactions that disrupt the formation and/or position of a critical C-terminal poly-(L-proline) II helix. These findings suggest that MNEI interaction with the sweet taste receptor is highly sensitive to the relative positions of key residues across its protein surface and that loss of sweetness in G16A-MNEI may result from an increased entropic cost of binding.

  7. Mapping Relational Operations onto Hypergraph Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    ="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/>

    The relational model is the most commonly used data model for storing large datasets, perhaps due to the simplicity of the tabular format which had revolutionized database management systems. However, many real world objects are recursive and associative in nature which makes storage in the relational model difficult. The hypergraph model is a generalization of a graph model, where each hypernode can be made up of other nodes or graphs and each hyperedge can be made up of one or more edges. It may address the recursive and associative limitations of relational model

  8. Anticonvulsant activity of artificial sweeteners: a structural link between sweet-taste receptor T1R3 and brain glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevi, Alan; Enrique, Andrea V; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E

    2012-06-15

    A virtual screening campaign based on application of a topological discriminant function capable of identifying novel anticonvulsant agents indicated several widely-used artificial sweeteners as potential anticonvulsant candidates. Acesulfame potassium, cyclamate and saccharin were tested in the Maximal Electroshock Seizure model (mice, ip), showing moderate anticonvulsant activity. We hypothesized a probable structural link between the receptor responsible of sweet taste and anticonvulsant molecular targets. Bioinformatic tools confirmed a highly significant sequence-similarity between taste-related protein T1R3 and several metabotropic glutamate receptors from different species, including glutamate receptors upregulated in epileptogenesis and certain types of epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  10. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  11. Structure-sweetness relationship in egg white lysozyme: role of lysine and arginine residues on the elicitation of lysozyme sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-10-01

    Lysozyme is one of the sweet-tasting proteins. To clarify the structure-sweetness relationship and the basicity-sweetness relationship in lysozyme, we have generated lysozyme mutants with Pichia systems. Alanine substitution of lysine residues demonstrated that two out of six lysine residues, Lys13 and Lys96, are required for lysozyme sweetness, while the remaining four lysine residues do not play a significant role in the perception of sweetness. Arginine substitution of lysine residues revealed that the basicity, but not the shape, of the side chain plays a significant role in sweetness. Single alanine substitutions of arginine residues showed that three arginine residues, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, play significant roles in lysozyme sweetness, whereas Arg45, Arg68, Arg125 and chemical modification by 1,2-cyclohexanedione did not affect sweetness. From investigation of the charge-specific mutations, we found that the basicity of a broad surface region formed by five positively charged residues, Lys13, Lys96, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, is required for lysozyme sweetness. Differences in the threshold values among sweet-tasting proteins might be caused by the broadness and/or the density of charged residues on the protein surface.

  12. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  13. Localization and quantification of hydrophobicity: The molecular free energy density (MolFESD) concept and its application to sweetness recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Robert; Schmidt, Friedemann; Schilling, Bernd; Brickmann, Jürgen

    2000-10-01

    A method for the localization, the quantification, and the analysis of hydrophobicity of a molecule or a molecular fragment is presented. It is shown that the free energy of solvation for a molecule or the transfer free energy from one solvent to another can be represented by a surface integral of a scalar quantity, the molecular free energy surface density (MolFESD), over the solvent accessible surface of that molecule. This MolFESD concept is based on a model approach where the solvent molecules are considered to be small in comparison to the solute molecule, and the solvent can be represented by a continuous medium with a given dielectric constant. The transfer energy surface density for a 1-octanol/water system is empirically determined employing a set of atomic increment contributions and distance dependent membership functions measuring the contribution of the increments to the surface value of the MolFESD. The MolFESD concept can be well used for the quantification of the purely hydrophobic contribution to the binding constants of molecule-receptor complexes. This is demonstrated with the sweeteners sucrose and sucralose and various halogen derivatives. Therein the relative sweetness, which is assumed to be proportional to the binding constant, nicely correlates to the surface integral over the positive, hydrophobic part of the MolFESD, indicating that the sweetness receptor can be characterized by a highly flexible hydrophobic pocket instead of a localized binding site.

  14. High-resolution structure of the recombinant sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a recombinant form of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I was determined at 1.1 Å resolution and refined to an R work of 9.1% and an R free of 11.7%. Comparisons with plant thaumatin revealed the electron density of recombinant thaumatin I to be significantly improved, especially around Asn46 and Ser63. Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at a concentration of 50 nM. The crystal structure of a recombinant form of thaumatin I produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris has been determined to a resolution of 1.1 Å. The model was refined with anisotropic B parameters and riding H atoms. A comparison of the diffraction data and refinement statistics for recombinant thaumatin I with those for plant thaumatin I revealed no significant differences in the diffraction data. The R values for recombinant thaumatin I and plant thaumatin I (F o > 4σ) were 9.11% and 9.91%, respectively, indicating the final model to be of good quality. Notably, the electron-density maps around Asn46 and Ser63, which differ between thaumatin variants, were significantly improved. Furthermore, a number of H atoms became visible in an OMIT map and could be assigned. The high-quality structure of recombinant thaumatin with H atoms should provide details about sweetness determinants in thaumatin and provide valuable insights into the mechanism of its interaction with taste receptors

  15. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators: example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Douma, L.A.N.R.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Veen, J.H. ten; Bruin, G. de; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  16. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators : Example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heege, Jan; Zijp, Mart; Nelskamp, Susanne; Douma, Lisanne; Verreussel, Roel; Ten Veen, Johan; de Bruin, Geert; Peters, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  17. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods: Forty-six pregnant and 45 nonpregnant women evaluated taste intensity and liking of five samples of each of four different products: two sweet (cake and apple + berry juice) and two bitter (salad and grapefruit juice). Product samples varied in sweetness...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However...

  18. Association of Sweet's Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Barton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis which usually presents as an idiopathic disorder but can also be drug induced, associated with hematopoetic malignancies and myelodysplastic disorders, and more, infrequently, observed in autoimmune disorders. Sweet's syndrome has been reported in three cases of neonatal lupus, three cases of hydralazine-induced lupus in adults, and in nine pediatric and adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients. We describe three additional adult cases of Sweet's associated with SLE and provide a focused review on nondrug-induced, nonneonatal SLE and Sweet's. In two of three new cases, as in the majority of prior cases, the skin rash of Sweet's paralleled underlying SLE disease activity. The pathogenesis of Sweet's remains elusive, but evidence suggests that cytokine dysregulation may be central to the clinical and pathological changes in this condition, as well as in SLE. Further research is needed to define the exact relationship between the two conditions.

  19. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  20. Mineral composition and biomass partitioning of sweet sorghum grown for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Erickson, J.E.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Woodard, K.R.; Vendramini, J.M.B.; Fedenko, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass yield and tissue mineral composition can affect total energy yield potential, conversion efficiencies and environmental impacts, but relatively few data are available for sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown in the southeastern USA. Therefore, a study was conducted at two locations in North and Central Florida on marginal sand soils comparing the effects of planting date (PD) on dry biomass yield and mineral composition of leaf, stem, and grain heads for ‘M-81E’ and ‘Dale’ sweet sorghum cultivars. Overall tissue mineral concentrations were relatively low for sweet sorghum, attributable to low K and Ca concentrations. Ash and mineral concentrations were generally greater for Dale, especially for the early PD. Leaf and grain heads were greater in mineral concentrations compared to stems. Dry biomass yield averaged 19.4 Mg ha −1 and was greater for M-81E and the early PD. Stems accounted for 73% of the total biomass compared to leaves (13%) across all treatments. Total N, P, and K removals averaged 136, 27.6, and 81.4 kg ha −1 , respectively. Overall, leaves removed 30, 23, and 19% of total N, P, and K compared to 34, 34, and 61% by stem, respectively. Considering lower biomass but greater mineral concentrations in leaf and grain heads compared to stems, returning leaf residues and possibly grain heads to the soil have the potential to offset nutrient and energy inputs needed on these marginal soils and enhance the sustainability of sweet sorghum cropping systems.

  1. Relative Motion Modeling and Autonomous Navigation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    the use of nonsingular elements, this version of relative motion STM has singularities for reference orbits that lie in the equatorial plane ...improved by including the lunar orbit’s eccentricity and inclination in the studies presented in References [17-19]. Since the perturbed relative motion ...satellites are equipped with solar flaps or aerodynamic flaps. By appropriate rotation of these flaps, it is possible to influence the relative motion

  2. Maneuver Estimation Model for Relative Orbit Determination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storch, Tara R

    2005-01-01

    While the use of relative orbit determination has reduced the difficulties inherent in tracking geosynchronous satellites that are in close proximity, the problem is often compounded by stationkeeping...

  3. Modeling behavioral considerations related to information security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F. (Decision and Information Sciences); (SNL); (Univ. at Albany)

    2011-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model for the identification of threats to security systems. This model integrates judgment, decision-making, and learning theories to provide a unified framework for the behavioral study of upcoming threats.

  4. PENGARUH ISOTERM SORPSI AIR TERHADAP STABILITAS BERAS UBI [Effect of Moisture Sorption Isotherm to Stability of “Sweet Potato Rice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widowati1*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available “Sweet Potato Rice” stability as a dry food product was determined by water activity (aw and equilibrium moisture content (Me. This relationship is known as moisture sorption isotherm. This research were aimed 1 to study moisture sorption isotherm of “Sweet Potato Rice” from sweet potato flour (Cangkuang variety and native/heat moisture treatment (HMT starch which was stored at the range of aw:0.06 - 0.96 and 28oC; 2 to determine an appropriate model for describing product moisture sorption isotherm and 3 to predict “Sweet Potato Rice” shelf of life. Experimental design used was a random complete design with two factor, namely: 1 sweet potato starch: native and HMT, and 2 packaging material: polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP.The result showed that the moisture sorption isotherm profiles were sigmoid. Smith equation was the best model which described moisture sorption isotherm with R2= 0,991-0,993 for adsorption and R2= 0,964-0,971 for desorption. Shelf life test showed that “Sweet Potato Rice” from Cangkuang flour and modified starch had longer shelf life (5.67 months when packed in PP bag and 2.3 months when packed in PE bag; while shelf life artificial sweet potato made from Cangkuang flour and native starch was 4.24 months when packed in PP bag and 1.72 months when packed in PE bag.

  5. Infant Dietary Exposures to Sweetness and Fattiness Increase during the First Year of Life and Are Associated with Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen Lun; Lange, Christine; Schwartz, Camille; Martin, Christophe; Chabanet, Claire; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-11-01

    Taste is a strong determinant of food intake. Previous research has suggested that early taste exposures could influence preferences and later eating behavior, but little is known about the factors related to this. The aims of this study were to describe infants' exposure to sweetness and fattiness and to examine whether maternal and infant characteristics and feeding practices are related to these exposures in participants from the OPALINE [Observatoire des Préférences Alimentaires du Nourrisson et de l'Enfant (Observatory of Infant and Child Food Preferences)] cohort study. Food consumption frequency was assessed with a 7-d food record completed monthly over the first year. Dietary taste exposure was defined by the consumption frequency of each food multiplied by the intensity of its taste, summed over all foods. The daily sweetness exposure (SweetExp) and fattiness exposure (FatExp) were calculated at 3-6, 7-9, and 10-12 mo of age for 268 infants from complementary feeding initiation (CFI) to 12 mo. Associations between taste exposure and potential factors were tested by multiple linear regressions. Both FatExp and SweetExp increased from 3-6 mo to 10-12 mo (mean ± SD: 7.5 ± 2.3 to 12.2 ± 2.5 and 6.8 ± 2.8 to 14.7 ± 4.1, respectively). Breastfeeding duration ≥6 mo was associated with higher SweetExp at all ages, with a decreasing β [β (95% CI): 2.6 (1.8; 3.4) at 3-6 mo and 1.3 (0.1; 2.4) at 10-12 mo]. CFI at <6 mo was associated with higher SweetExp at all ages but with higher FatExp only at 3-6 mo. Higher SweetExp and FatExp were associated with a higher use of all complementary food types. Boys were more likely to be exposed to SweetExp at 10-12 mo and to FatExp at 3-6 mo and 10-12 mo than were girls. Maternal higher education attainment and return to work after 6 mo were linked with higher FatExp and higher FatExp and SweetExp, respectively. SweetExp and FatExp increased from CFI until 12 mo and were associated with feeding practices in OPALINE

  6. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  7. A workshop on 'Dietary sweetness-Is it an issue?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, A; Higgins, K; McGale, L; Schwartz, C; Stamataki, N S; Beauchamp, G K; Bonnema, A; Dussort, P; Gibson, S; de Graaf, C; Halford, J C G; Marsaux, C F M; Mattes, R D; McLaughlin, J; Mela, D J; Nicklaus, S; Rogers, P J; Macdonald, I A

    2017-12-06

    This report summarises a workshop convened by ILSI Europe on 3rd and 4th April 2017 to discuss the issue of dietary sweetness. The objectives were to understand the roles of sweetness in the diet; establish whether exposure to sweetness affects diet quality and energy intake; and consider whether sweetness per se affects health. Although there may be evidence for tracking of intake of some sweet components of the diet through childhood, evidence for tracking of whole diet sweetness, or through other stages of maturity are lacking. The evidence to date does not support adverse effects of sweetness on diet quality or energy intake, except where sweet food choices increase intake of free sugars. There is some evidence for improvements in diet quality and reduced energy intake where sweetness without calories replaces sweetness with calories. There is a need to understand the physiological and metabolic relevance of sweet taste receptors on the tongue, in the gut and elsewhere in the body, as well as possible differentiation in the effects of sustained consumption of individual sweeteners. Despite a plethora of studies, there is no consistent evidence for an association of sweetness sensitivity/preference with obesity or type 2 diabetes. A multifaceted integrated approach, characterising nutritive and sensory aspects of the whole diet or dietary patterns, may be more valuable in providing contextual insight. The outcomes of the workshop could be used as a scientific basis to inform the expert community and create more useful dialogue among health care professionals.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 06 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.296.

  8. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-09

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  10. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  11. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  12. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  13. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The optimized log interpretation method and sweet-spot prediction of gas-bearing shale reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maojin; Bai, Ze; Xu, Jingjing

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas is one of the most important unconventional oil and gas resources, and its lithology and reservoir type are both different from conventional reservoirs [1,2]. "Where are shale reservoirs" "How to determine the hydrocarbon potential" "How to evaluate the reservoir quality", these are some key problems in front of geophysicists. These are sweet spots prediction and quantitative evaluation. As we known, sweet spots of organic shale include geological sweet spot and engineering sweet spot. Geophysical well logging can provide a lot of in-site formation information along the borehole, and all parameters describing the sweet spots of organic shale are attained by geophysical log interpretation[2]. Based on geological and petrophysical characteristics of gas shale, the log response characteristics of gas shales are summarized. Geological sweet spot includes hydrocarbon potential, porosity, fracture, water saturation and total gas content, which can be calculated by using wireline logs[3]. Firstly, the based-logging hydrocarbon potential evaluation is carried out, and the RBF neural network method is developed to estimate the total organic carbon content (TOC), which was proved more effective and suitable than empirical formula and ΔlogR methods [4]. Next, the optimized log interpretation is achieved by using model-searching, and the mineral concentrations of kerogen, clay, feldspar and pyrite and porosity are calculated. On the other hand, engineering sweet spot of shale refers to the rock physical properties and rock mechanism parameters. Some elastic properties including volume module, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are correspondingly determined from log interpretation, and the brittleness index (BI), effective stress and pore pressure are also estimated. BI is one of the most important engineering sweet spot parameters. A large number of instances show that the summarized log responses can accurately identify the gas-bearing shale, and the proposed RBF

  15. PENGARUH ISOTERM SORPSI AIR TERHADAP STABILITAS BERAS UBI [Effect of Moisture Sorption Isotherm to Stability of “Sweet Potato Rice”

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Widowati1)*; Heti Herawati1); Rizal Syarief2); Nugraha Edhi Suyatma2),; Hendra Adi Prasetia3)

    2010-01-01

    Sweet Potato Rice” stability as a dry food product was determined by water activity (aw) and equilibrium moisture content (Me). This relationship is known as moisture sorption isotherm. This research were aimed 1) to study moisture sorption isotherm of “Sweet Potato Rice” from sweet potato flour (Cangkuang variety) and native/heat moisture treatment (HMT) starch which was stored at the range of aw:0.06 - 0.96 and 28oC; 2) to determine an appropriate model for describing product moisture sorp...

  16. Radiation-induced grafting of sweet sorghum stalk for copper(II) removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation-induced grafting was used to modify the stalk. • Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin participated in grafting reaction. • Both the structure and composition of stalk had influence on grafting. • The sorption capacity of the grafted stalk increased about five times. -- Abstract: The influence of main components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of the sweet sorghum stalk on radiation-induced grafting reaction and adsorption of copper from aqueous solution was investigated. Sweet sorghum stalk was grafted with acrylic acid induced by γ-irradiation. The results showed that the grafted stalk contained 1.6 mmol/g carboxyl groups, and its maximal adsorption capacity was 13.32 mg/g. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of the raw materials were confirmed to involve in grafting reaction through comparing the grafting yield and the structure of the grafted materials. Both the structure and the composition of the sweet sorghum stalk had influence on the grafting reaction and adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of the grafted sweet sorghum stalk increased about five times, and the adsorption isotherm of the grafted materials conformed to the Langmuir model. The main mechanism for copper adsorption involved in ion exchange

  17. The research and implementation continuum of biofortified sweet potato and maize in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Ball, Anna-Marie; Kaliwile, Chisela; Pixley, Kevin V

    2017-02-01

    The enhancement of sweet potato and maize with provitamin A carotenoids has been part of HarvestPlus's research continuum since the formation of the biofortification project. This review includes case studies of biofortification strategies used for sweet potato in Uganda and orange maize in Zambia. The current status of the science and release of biofortified varieties was reviewed by three scientists who were part of the HarvestPlus program for more than a decade with input from a scientist who experienced orange maize dissemination in Zambia. High β-carotene varieties of sweet potato were introduced into South Africa and Mozambique, and efficacy and effectiveness studies, respectively, showed promise to improve vitamin A status, followed by dissemination efforts in Uganda. A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial tested extension models to promote sweet potato and assessed vitamin A intake among Ugandans. Orange maize breeding was initially a challenge, but considering that the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was present in maize germplasm, breeders quickly bred higher amounts of provitamin A into the maize that was ultimately released in Zambia. Initial resistance occurred because orange maize was associated with yellow maize, which had negative connotations associated with food aid and animal feed, and consumers preferred white maize. Currently, both orange crops are available on the market. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  19. Structural Role of the Terminal Disulfide Bond in the Sweetness of Brazzein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittli, Sannali M.; Rao, Hongyu; Tonelli, Marco; Quijada, Jeniffer; Markley, John L.; Max, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Brazzein, a 54 residue sweet-tasting protein, is thought to participate in a multipoint binding interaction with the sweet taste receptor. Proposed sites for interaction with the receptor include 2 surface loops and the disulfide bond that connects the N- and C-termini. However, the importance of each site is not well understood. To characterize the structural role of the termini in the sweetness of brazzein, the position of the disulfide bond connecting the N- and C-termini was shifted by substituting K3-C4-K5 with C3-K4-R5. The apparent affinity and Vmax of the C3-K4-R5-brazzein (CKR-brazzein) variant were only modestly decreased compared with the wild-type (WT) brazzein. We determined a high-resolution structure of CKR-brazzein by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (backbone root mean square deviation of 0.39 Å). Comparing the structure of CKR-brazzein with that of WT-brazzein revealed that the terminal β-strands of the variant display extended β-structure and increased dynamics relative to WT-brazzein. These results support previous mutagenesis studies and further suggest that, whereas interactions involving the termini are necessary for full function of brazzein, the termini do not constitute the primary site of interaction between brazzein and the sweet taste receptor. PMID:21765060

  20. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  1. Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

  2. STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    deterministic in nature, and this has been a major constraint in achieving agricultural sustainability in most developing countries.To facilitate this study, 29 years information of the observed relative humidity of Ogun basin was obtained from the Federal ...

  3. Relational Model Conflicts in Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Baalen (Peter); J. van Dalen (Jan); J. van Malsen (Jorina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe distributed nature of organizational knowledge makes that knowledge sharing an important factor for unlocking its potential value. In practice, however, people may have different motivations for not sharing knowledge with colleagues, which in part may be due to the relational

  4. The Plasma Membrane-Localized Sucrose Transporter IbSWEET10 Contributes to the Resistance of Sweet Potato to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins, a novel family of sugar transporters, mediate the diffusion of sugars across cell membranes and acts as key players in sucrose phloem loading. Manipulation of SWEET genes in plants leads to various effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses due to disruption of sugar efflux and changes in sugar distribution. In this study, a member of the SWEET gene family, IbSWEET10 , was cloned from the sweet potato line ND98. mRNA expression analysis in sweet potato and promoter β-Glucuronidase analysis in Arabidopsis showed that IbSWEET10 is highly expressed in leaves, especially in vascular tissue. Transient expression in tobacco epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization of IbSWEET10, and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that IbSWEET10 encodes a sucrose transporter. The expression level of IbSWEET10 was significantly up-regulated in sweet potato infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas. Further characterization revealed IbSWEET10 -overexpressing sweet potato lines to be more resistant to F. oxysporum , exhibiting better growth after infection compared with the control; conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) lines showed the opposite results. Additionally, the sugar content of IbSWEET10 -overexpression sweet potato was significantly reduced, whereas that in RNAi plants was significantly increased compared with the control. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in sugar content caused by IbSWEET10 overexpression is the major reason for the enhanced F. oxysporum resistance of the transgenic plants. This is the first report that the IbSWEET10 transporter contributes to the resistance of sweet potato to F. oxysporum . The IbSWEET10 gene has the great potential to be used for improving the resistance to F. oxysporum in sweet potato and other plants.

  5. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of

  6. Field Evaluation Of Four Sweet Potato Cultivars For Yield And Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweet potato cultivars (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 2532 OP. 1. 13 and Ex Igbariam) were evaluated for yield and damage of C. puncticollis during the period June to October in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Plants were ...

  7. Modeling patterns in count data using loglinear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the use of loglinear and logit models, for analyzing Poisson and binomial counts in the presence of explanatory variables. The explanatory variables may be unordered categorical variables or numerical variables, or both. The report shows how to construct models to fit data, and how to test whether a model is too simple or too complex. The appropriateness of the methods with small data sets is discussed. Several example analyses, using the SAS computer package, illustrate the methods

  8. Growth stimulation produced by methylene blue treatment in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, C.L.S.; Esquibel, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Methylene blue as an alternative treatment to gamma rays to stimulate growth in sweet potato tissue cultures, was applied in two different ways: – pre-incubation of nodal explants with methylene blue for 1 h using urea as a permeabilizer; – methylene blue directly incorporated into the culture medium. Both treatments stimulated growth, but the better performance being obtained with the second treatment, which had no toxic effect. The activity and electrophoresis pattern of peroxidase after treatment of Ipomoea batatas plantlets with methylene blue or gamma rays did not show similar results for the two treatments. Peroxidase activity was greater in leaves of gamma ray treated plants compared to the non-treated control. The results obtained with the Methylene blue treatment did not significantly change the peroxidase activity relative to the control. (author)

  9. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  10. Utilization of Baked-Smashed Sweet Potato and Vegetables on Patisserie Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, A.; Subekti, S.; Sudewi, S.; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2018-02-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  11. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  12. Utilization of sweet potato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Whole sweet potato flour and starch were also included where 100% wheat flour was used as control or ...

  13. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  14. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  15. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  16. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  17. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  18. Evolution and Stress Responses of Gossypium hirsutum SWEET Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ren, Zhongying; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Kuan; Pei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yangai; He, Kunlun; Zhang, Fei; Song, Chengxiang; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Yang, Daigang

    2018-03-08

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features. Moreover, chromosomal localization and an analysis of homologous genes in Gossypium arboreum , Gossypium raimondii , and G. hirsutum suggested that a whole-genome duplication, several tandem duplications, and a polyploidy event contributed to the expansion of the cotton SWEET gene family, especially in Clade III and IV. Analyses of cis -acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions, expression profiles, and artificial selection revealed that the GhSWEET genes were likely involved in cotton developmental processes and responses to diverse stresses. These findings may clarify the evolution of G. hirsutum SWEET gene family and may provide a foundation for future functional studies of SWEET proteins regarding cotton development and responses to abiotic stresses.

  19. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Antonio; Ribes, Ramon; Riva, Andres de la; Rubio, Fernando Lopez; Sanchez, Carmen; Sancho, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome is presented. Both entities have been described in association with several other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune conditions. To our knowledge the coexistence between Sweet's Syndrome and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis has not been reported up to date. We suggest a possible autoimmune or dysimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two entities

  20. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and five (305) five weeks old broilers (Anak strain) were used in a four-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of processed sweet potato meal for maize grain on the carcass quality of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of processed sweet potato meal (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and ...

  1. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts for the Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy foodstuffs using crude amylase extracts from Ugandan sweet potato cultivars. Amylolytic activity in 18 sweet potato cultivars grown at Namulonge was evaluated and there was a significant variation of activity among cultivars ...

  2. Consumer perceptions and demand for biofortified sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain varieties of sweet potato, especially orange-fleshed, are being promoted as part of the strategy to combat vitamin A deficiency in children and pregnant mothers. However, the consumption of sweet potato is more widespread in rural households where it is mainly boiled or eaten raw. The lack of value addition ...

  3. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the rainforest of south eastern Nigeria, new varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas Lam) have been introduced but appropriate soil nutrient management for these cultivars is lacking. The present study evaluated the response of two varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Umuspo 1 and Umuspo ...

  4. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  5. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...

  6. SWEET POTATO CULTURE – PROMISING TREND OF RUSSIAN VEGETABLE GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Podlesny

    2014-01-01

    Results of research of possibility of introduction of a new for the Russian Federation tuberous crop culture, sweet potato, are presented. The influence of planting dates on the yield of this culture was studied. According to the field experiment, the high yield of sweet potato tuber and resistance to diseases and pests were revealed.

  7. Identification and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of total plant RNA isolations confirmed the presence of SPFMV, SPVG, SPCSV and SPMMV as the most prevalent viruses infecting sweet potato in KZN. Keywords: reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, sweet potato, viruses. South African Journal of Plant and Soil ...

  8. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on sweet potato flower induction. A 3*4 factorial experiment in a randomized ... short photoperiod, moderate temperature, limited water supply, trellising vines, overwintering, ..... Sweet potato Germplasm Management Training. Manual. International Potato Center (CIP), ...

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  10. A review of therapeutic potentials of sweet potato: Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a global food crop, now being recognized as a functional food due to several of its nutraceutical components. Several experimental studies have reported that sweet potato can generally be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases through its antioxidant, ...

  11. Innovation-oriented Analysis of Critical Control Points (IACCP): Sho Wishes to Solve Sweet Pepper Yield Oscillations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.E.; Kromdijk, W.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    A generic program for mathematical model-supported innovation profiling in fresh food supply chains is presented. Building on top of a crop growth model, strategies to address the problem of sweet pepper yield oscillations (flushes) are analysed quantitatively from both isolated or combined

  12. Psychophysical Evaluation of Sweetness Functions Across Multiple Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; McBride, Robert L; Lacy, Kathleen E; Keast, Russell S J

    2017-02-01

    Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A). Sweetness intensity for all sweeteners was measured using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. There were strong correlations between DT and RT of all 4 caloric sweeteners across people (r = 0.62-0.90, P 0.05). In contrast, there were strong correlations between the sweetness intensity ratings of all sweeteners (r = 0.70-0.96, P sweet taste mechanism for the perceived intensity range. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. The semiotics of control and modeling relations in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslyn, C

    2001-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of ideas and principles from the systems theory discourse which underlie Pattee's semantic or semiotic closure, which is itself foundational for a school of theoretical biology derived from systems theory and cybernetics, and is now being related to biological semiotics and explicated in the relational biological school of Rashevsky and Rosen. Atomic control systems and models are described as the canonical forms of semiotic organization, sharing measurement relations, but differing topologically in that control systems are circularly and models linearly related to their environments. Computation in control systems is introduced, motivating hierarchical decomposition, hybrid modeling and control systems, and anticipatory or model-based control. The semiotic relations in complex control systems are described in terms of relational constraints, and rules and laws are distinguished as contingent and necessary functional entailments, respectively. Finally, selection as a meta-level of constraint is introduced as the necessary condition for semantic relations in control systems and models.

  14. Applying the social relations model to self and peer evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greguras, G.J.; Robie, C.; Born, M.Ph.

    2001-01-01

    Peer evaluations of performance increasingly are being used to make organizational decisions and to provide individuals with performance related feedback. Using Kenny's social relations model (SRM), data from 14 teams of undergraduate students who completed performance ratings of themselves and

  15. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vîrgă, D.; Curseu, P.L.; Maricuţoiu, L.; Sava, S.A.; Macsinga, I.; Măgurean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested

  16. Modeling Approaches and Systems Related to Structured Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Lasdon 򒾂> and Maturana 򒾃> for surveys of several modern systems. A -6- N NN- %0 CAMPS (Lucas and Mitra 򒾁>) -- Computer Assisted Mathe- %l...583-589. MATURANA , S. 򒾃>. "Comparative Analysis of Mathematical Modeling Systems," informal note, Graduate School of Manage- ment, UCLA, February

  17. Economics and Uncertainty of Lignocellulosic Biofuel Production from Energy Cane and Sweet Sorghum in South Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Monge, Juan J.; Ribera, Luis A.; Jifon, John L.; Silva, Jorge A. da; Richardson, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Government support uncertainty, scarce yiel d information, and the inherent risk in bio- economic phenomena are some of the deterrents faced by investors in the nascent cellulosic biofuel industry. A financial probabilistic model was developed to contrast the economic feasibility of producing cellulosic biofuels from energy cane and sweet sorghum using three technologies: hydrolysis, pyrolysis, and gasification. Hydrolysis and pyrolysis proved feasible (showed possibilities of a positive net ...

  18. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  19. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  1. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  2. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998... policies: Processing Sweet Corn Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  3. Negotiation as a Model for Teaching Public Relations Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha Dunagin; Perrigo, Eileen

    1998-01-01

    Shows that negotiation provides an effective model for teaching public relations professionalism. Describes how two professors in a public relations class used a negotiation model to teach students to simultaneously balance the two components of professionalism: ethical considerations and pragmatic, problem-solving measures. (SR)

  4. Longitudinal models in the behavioral and related sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Satorra, A.; Oud, H.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal Models in the Behavioral and Related Sciences opens with the latest theoretical developments. In particular, the book addresses situations that arise due to the categorical nature of the data, issues related to state space modeling, and potential problems that may arise from network

  5. Simulation of transient heat transfer during cooling and heating of whole sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) roots under forced-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korese, Joseph Kudadam; Sturm, Barbara; Román, Franz; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer of whole sweet potato roots under forced-air cooling and heating is investigated. • Experiments were carried out in a cooling and heating chamber. • The cooling and heating rate and time was clearly depended on air velocity and roots size. • Simulated and experimental data on cooling and heating times were compared for validation. • Simulation results quantitatively agreed with experimental results. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated how different air velocity and temperature affect the cooling and heating rate and time of individual sweet potato roots. Additionally, we modified and applied a simulation model which is based on the fundamental solution of the transient equations for estimating the cooling and heating time at the centre of sweet potato roots. The model was adapted to receive input parameters such as thermo-physical properties of whole sweet potato roots as well as the surrounding air properties, and was verified with experimental transient temperature data. The experimental results showed that the temperature at the centre and the under skin of sweet potato roots is almost homogeneous during forced convection cooling and heating. The cooling and heating time was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by high air velocity and sweet potato root size. The simulation results quantitatively agreed with the experimental transient data. This research, thus provides a reliable experimental and theoretical basis for understanding the temperature variations as well as estimating the cooling and heating times in individual sweet potato roots under forced convection cooling and heating. The result from this study could be applied to design and optimize forced-air treatment equipments with improved energy efficiency as well as ensuring safety and the maintenance of sweet potato roots quality.

  6. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte.

    OpenAIRE

    Cicero Almeida; Edson Perito Amorim; José Fernandes Barbosa Neto; Julio Alves Cardoso Filho; Maria Jane Cruz de Melo Sereno

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in varioussubspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This typewas originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations ofsweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this presen...

  7. Wound healing activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Sonkamble

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. from the family Convolvulaceae is the world’s sixth largest food crop. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas commonly known as sweet potato are consumed as a vegetable globally. The tubers contain high levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids and vitamins A, B and C, which impart a potent antioxidant activity that can translate well to show wound healing effects. To check their effects on wound healing, the peels and peel bandage were tested on various injury models in rats in the present study.Methods: The methanolic extracts of the peels and peel bandage of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato were screened for wound healing by excision and incision wound models on Wistar rats. Three types of gel formulations were prepared, viz., gel containing 3.0% (w/w peel extract, gel containing 6.0% (w/w peel extract and gel containing 10% (w/w peel extract. Betadine (5% w/w povidone iodine cream was used as a reference standard. In the incision wound model, Tensile strength of the skin was measured. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in the excision wound model.Results: In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was observed in animals treated with the peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared with wounded control animals. The increase in tensile strength indicates the promotion of collagen fibers and that the disrupted wound surfaces are being firmly knit by collagen. In the excision wound model, significant wound closure was observed on the 4th day in rats treated with all three gel formulations when compared with the wounded control rats. A significant increase inFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:403-415hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid content in the gel-treated animals and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content in the

  8. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Develop of a Sweet Cookie with toasted sesame and ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C. Aldo Hernández-Monzón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sweet cookies nutritionally are rich source of energy and they have great acceptance to world level and the sesame (Sésamum indicum it is of the family of the oleaginous ones that possesses a high quantity of protein and fat where 80% belongs to the fatty polinsaturadas fundamentally linoleic acid, it has high content of calcium and the presence iron, magnesium and zinc, what makes it a functional food. This work had as objective to develop a sweet cookie with addition of toastedsesame and ground with good characteristic sensorial and nutritional. The addition of the toasted sesame and ground it was carried out in dose of 10, 15 and 20% to the formulation of a sweet cookie. The sweet cookies were evaluated by seven trained judges to determine the most appropriate dose according to the general impression of obtained quality. The accepted formulation it was determined humidity, proteins, fat, ashy, calcium, iron, and zinc and texture analysis. The best formulation wasthat of 15% sesame for the obtaining of a product with an acceptability of excellent, a percentage of humidity and typical fat of sweet cookies and high content of proteins and calcium as well as appreciable iron content and zinc. The obtained sweet cookie was characterized sensorial to possess a scent and flavor defined to sesame, good crujencia and harmony among its components, very pleasant hardness and the weight and thickness similar to that of other sweet cookies.

  10. Body fat, sweetness sensitivity, and preference: determining the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Duizer, Lisa; Caldwell, Tristaca

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether body fat is a better measure than body mass index (BMI) for determining the relationship between body size and sweetness perception and preference. Seventy-two women were recruited and separated into two groups. First, BMI was determined and used to classify each woman as either normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²) or overweight (>25.0 kg/m²). Body fat was determined from skinfold sites and used to categorize women into normal (sweetness were evaluated to determine the women's liking for sweetness, and the perceived sweetness of the sample. Women in the overweight BMI and body fat groups had higher sucrose threshold values than did women in the normal groups. When presented with custards of varying sucrose levels, the overweight BMI and body fat groups had a significantly increased liking for sweetness as sucrose concentration increased. Body fat measures were as effective as BMI measures in determining sweetness preference. Future research should be conducted to determine whether body fat and measures, such as waist circumference, can be predictive tools for sweetness preference.

  11. Chemical constituents and health effects of sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Nie, Shaoping; Zhu, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to their unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects. Factors affecting the nutritional composition and bio-functions of sweet potato include the varieties, plant parts, extraction time and solvents, postharvest storage, and processing. The assays for bio-function evaluation also contribute to the variations among different studies. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the chemical composition of sweet potato, and their bio-functions studied in vitro and in vivo. Leaves, stems, and stalks of sweet potato remain much underutilized on commercial levels. Sweet potato can be further developed as a sustainable crop for diverse nutritionally enhanced and value-added food products to promote human health. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  13. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation.

  15. Agrometeorological models for 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges to estimate the number of fruits per plant Modelos agrometeorológicos para estimação do número de frutos por planta em laranjeiras 'Valência' e 'Hamlin'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Elisandra Pasqua Paulino

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of models that allow forecasting yield tendencies is important to all sectors of the citrus industry. This work evaluated the influence of meteorological variables in different phases of the crop cycle in order to propose empirical models to estimate the number of fruits per plant (NFP of 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges. NFP sampling data from the citrus juice industry of the State of São Paulo, on the total of 15 harvests (1990/91 to 2004/05, classified into three age classes, and meteorological data of maximum and minimum air temperature and rainfall of Limeira, SP, Brazil, were utilized. Correlation coefficients were initially computed between the number of fruits per plant and each meteorological variable used for water balance and variables related to air temperature, in different periods. Linear multiple regression models were fit to describe the empirical relationship between NFP and the subsets of agrometeorological predictors that presented higher correlations in different phases of the crop cycle. The meteorological conditions during the phases of vegetative summer flush, pre-flowering, flowering and beginning of fruit growth influenced the number of fruits per plant. The proposed models presented adequate goodness-of-fit with determination coefficients varying from 0.72 to 0.87.O desenvolvimento de modelos para previsões de tendências de produtividade é de grande importância para todos os elos da cadeia produtiva de citros. Buscou-se avaliar a influência de variáveis meteorológicas, em diferentes fases do ciclo da cultura, para propor modelos empíricos para estimação do número de frutos por planta em laranjeira 'Valência' e laranjeira 'Hamlin'. Utilizaram-se dados amostrais, provenientes da indústria de suco paulista, de número de frutos por planta (NFP, em três classes de idade, referentes aos valores estimados anuais de produtividade, no total de 15 safras (1990/91 a 2004/05, e dados meteorol

  16. Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Frank, Guido K W; Simmons, Alan N; Wagner, Angela; McCurdy, Danyale; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals in response to palatable foods. Participants who had recovered from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied to avoid confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional MRI measured brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose and sucralose to disentangle neural processing of caloric and noncaloric sweet tastes. Whole-brain functional analysis was constrained to anatomical regions of interest. Relative to matched comparison women (N=14), women recovered from anorexia nervosa (N=14) had significantly diminished and women recovered from bulimia nervosa (N=14) had significantly elevated hemodynamic response to tastes of sucrose in the right anterior insula. Anterior insula response to sucrose compared with sucralose was exaggerated in the recovered group (lower in women recovered from anorexia nervosa and higher in women recovered from bulimia nervosa). The anterior insula integrates sensory reward aspects of taste in the service of nutritional homeostasis. One possibility is that restricted eating and weight loss occur in anorexia nervosa because of a failure to accurately recognize hunger signals, whereas overeating in bulimia nervosa could represent an exaggerated perception of hunger signals. This response may reflect the altered calibration of signals related to sweet taste and the caloric content of food and may offer a pathway to novel and more effective treatments.

  17. Discussion of various models related to cloud performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kande, Chaitanya Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the various models related to cloud computing. Knowing the metrics related to infrastructure is very critical to enhance the performance of cloud services. Various metrics related to clouds such as pageview response time, admission control and enforcing elasticity to cloud infrastructure are very crucial in analyzing the characteristics of the cloud to enhance the cloud performance.

  18. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Rok, Kwon; Suk Ho, Choi; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom). Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom ...

  19. Modification of the Sweetness and Stability of Sweet-Tasting Protein Monellin by Gene Mutation and Protein Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiulei; Li, Lei; Yang, Liu; Liu, Tianming; Cai, Chenggu; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Natural sweet protein monellin has a high sweetness and low calorie, suggesting its potential in food applications. However, due to its low heat and acid resistance, the application of monellin is limited. In this study, we show that the thermostability of monellin can be improved with no sweetness decrease by means of sequence, structure analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We analyzed residues located in the α-helix as well as an ionizable residue C41. Of the mutants investigated, the effects of E23A and C41A mutants were most remarkable. The former displayed significantly improved thermal stability, while its sweetness was not changed. The mutated protein was stable after 30 min incubation at 85°C. The latter showed increased sweetness and slight improvement of thermostability. Furthermore, we found that most mutants enhancing the thermostability of the protein were distributed at the two ends of α-helix. Molecular biophysics analysis revealed that the state of buried ionizable residues may account for the modulated properties of mutated proteins. Our results prove that the properties of sweet protein monellin can be modified by means of bioinformatics analysis, gene manipulation, and protein modification, highlighting the possibility of designing novel effective sweet proteins based on structure-function relationships.

  20. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  1. Sweet potato for biomass. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-15 days (7.2 t/ha) and at 210-30 days (9.6 t/ha) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-15 to 210-30 days the mean starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/ha but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period. 17 references, 2 tables.

  2. Sweet Syndrome: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Villarreal, C D; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Villarreal-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    Sweet syndrome is the most representative entity of febrile neutrophilic dermatoses. It typically presents in patients with pirexya, neutrophilia, painful tender erytomatous papules, nodules and plaques often distributed asymmetrically. Frequent sites include the face, neck and upper extremities. Affected sites show a characteristical neutrophilic infiltrate in the upper dermis. Its etiology remains elucidated, but it seems that can be mediated by a hypersensitivity reaction in which cytokines, followed by infiltration of neutrophils, may be involved. Systemic corticosteroids are the first-line of treatment in most cases. We present a concise review of the pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment update of this entity. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacogenetics of taste: turning bitter pills sweet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, Mariëlle J; Swen, Jesse J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Schimmel, Kirsten Jm; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Poor palatability of oral drug formulations used for young children negatively influences medication intake, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Some children are more sensitive to bitter tastes than others. Bitter tasting status is currently assessed by phenotyping with 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) as a bitter probe. Recent studies showed that interindividual differences in PROP sensitivity can be largely explained by three SNPs in TAS2R38, encoding a bitter taste receptor. Gustin, involved in the development of taste buds, and the sweet receptor genotype potentially explain remaining parts of PROP sensitivity variability. Other TAS2 receptor bitter receptor genes may also play a role in bitter aversions. Dependent on their genotype, children may have different medication formulation preferences. Taste genetics could improve drug acceptance by enabling better-informed choices on adapting oral formulations to children's taste preferences. This paper presents an overview of recent findings concerning bitter taste genetics and discusses these in the context of pediatric drug formulation.

  4. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  5. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Shim

    Full Text Available Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG, 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp, in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD. Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  6. The sweetness and bitterness of childhood: Insights from basic research on taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we review findings from basic, experimental research on children that suggest that the liking of sweet and the dislike of bitter tastes reflect children's basic biology. Children are born preferring sweet tastes, which attract them to mother's milk and even act as an analgesic. They prefer higher levels of sweet than do adults, with preferences declining to adult levels during middle to late adolescence, which coincides with the cessation of physical growth. The level of sweetness most preferred by children has remained heightened relative to adults for nearly a decade, despite reductions in sugar, both consumed and in the food environment. In spite of these reductions, however, children's intake of sugar remains higher than that recommended by health organizations worldwide. In contrast to sweet taste, children dislike and reject bitter taste, which protects them from ingesting poisons. Although variation in bitter taste receptor genes such as TAS2R38 accounts for people's marked differences in perceptions of the same bitter-tasting compounds, basic research revealed that these genotype-phenotype relationships are modified with age, with children of the same genotype being more bitter sensitive than adults and the changeover occurring during mid-adolescence. This heightened bitter sensitivity is also evident in the taste of the foods (green vegetables) or medicines (liquid formulations of drugs) they dislike and reject. While bitter taste can be masked or blocked to varying degrees by sugars and salts, their efficacy in modulating bitterness is not only based on the type of bitter ligand but on the person's age. Children's heightened preference for sweet and dislike of bitter, though often detrimental in the modern food environment, reflects their basic biology. Increasing knowledge of individual variation in taste due to both age and genetics will shed light on potential strategies to promote healthier eating since chronic diseases derive in

  7. An analytical pipeline to compare and characterise the anthocyanin antioxidant activities of purple sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Deng, Liqing; Chen, Jinwu; Zhou, Siyu; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yufan; Yang, Chunxian; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2016-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is rich in anthocyanin pigments, which are valuable constituents of the human diet. Techniques to identify and quantify anthocyanins and their antioxidant potential are desirable for cultivar selection and breeding. In this study, we performed a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of 30 purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars, using various assays to measure reducing power radical-scavenging activities, and linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to establish relationships between the antioxidant activities and the chemical fingerprints, in order to identify key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that four peonidin-based anthocyanins and three cyanidin-based anthocyanins make significant contributions to antioxidant activity. We conclude that the analytical pipeline described here represents an effective method to evaluate the antioxidant potential of, and the contributing compounds present in, PSP cultivars. This approach may be used to guide future breeding strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W.; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. PMID:25146290

  9. Sensory biology. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J; Klasing, Kirk C; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-08-22

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  11. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C Anthony; Ropella, Glen E P; Lam, Tai ning; Gewitz, Andrew D

    2011-09-27

    We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM). Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor) typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module) models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  12. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  14. Comparison of Size and Geography of Airborne Tungsten Particles in Fallon, Nevada, and Sweet Home, Oregon, with Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Sheppard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve understanding of possible connections between airborne tungsten and public health, size and geography of airborne tungsten particles collected in Fallon, Nevada, and Sweet Home, Oregon, were compared. Both towns have industrial tungsten facilities, but only Fallon has experienced a cluster of childhood leukemia. Fallon and Sweet Home are similar to one another by their particles of airborne tungsten being generally small in size. Meteorologically, much, if not most, of residential Fallon is downwind of its hard metal facility for at least some fraction of time at the annual scale, whereas little of residential Sweet Home is downwind of its tungsten facility. Geographically, most Fallon residents potentially spend time daily within an environment containing elevated levels of airborne tungsten. In contrast, few Sweet Home residents potentially spend time daily within an airborne environment with elevated levels of airborne tungsten. Although it cannot be concluded from environmental data alone that elevated airborne tungsten causes childhood leukemia, the lack of excessive cancer in Sweet Home cannot logically be used to dismiss the possibility of airborne tungsten as a factor in the cluster of childhood leukemia in Fallon. Detailed modeling of all variables affecting airborne loadings of heavy metals would be needed to legitimately compare human exposures to airborne tungsten in Fallon and Sweet Home.

  15. A Novel Sugar Transporter from Dianthus spiculifolius, DsSWEET12, Affects Sugar Metabolism and Confers Osmotic and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant SWEETs (sugars will eventually be exported transporters play a role in plant growth and plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, DsSWEET12 from Dianthus spiculifolius was identified and characterized. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DsSWEET12 expression was induced by sucrose starvation, mannitol, and hydrogen peroxide. Colocalization experiment showed that the DsSWEET12-GFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, which was labeled with FM4-64 dye, in Arabidopsis and suspension cells of D. spiculifolius. Compared to wild type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing DsSWEET12 have longer roots and have a greater fresh weight, which depends on sucrose content. Furthermore, a relative root length analysis showed that transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Finally, a sugar content analysis showed that the sucrose content in transgenic Arabidopsis was less than that in the wild type, while fructose and glucose contents were higher than those in the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that DsSWEET12 plays an important role in seedling growth and plant response to osmotic and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis by influencing sugar metabolism.

  16. Note on off-shell relations in nonlinear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we investigate relations between tree-level off-shell currents in nonlinear sigma model. Under Cayley parametrization, all odd-point currents vanish. We propose and prove a generalized U(1) identity for even-point currents. The off-shell U(1) identity given in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2014)061 is a special case of the generalized identity studied in this note. The on-shell limit of this identity is equivalent with the on-shell KK relation. Thus this relation provides the full off-shell correspondence of tree-level KK relation in nonlinear sigma model.

  17. Gratitude depends on the relational model of communal sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We studied the relation between benefits, perception of social relationships and gratitude. Across three studies, we provide evidence that benefits increase gratitude to the extent to which one applies a mental model of a communal relationship. In Study 1, the communal sharing relational model, and no other relational models, predicted the amount of gratitude participants felt after imagining receiving a benefit from a new acquaintance. In Study 2, participants recalled a large benefit they had received. Applying a communal sharing relational model increased feelings of gratitude for the benefit. In Study 3, we manipulated whether the participant or another person received a benefit from an unknown other. Again, we found that the extent of communal sharing perceived in the relationship with the stranger predicted gratitude. An additional finding of Study 2 was that communal sharing predicted future gratitude regarding the relational partner in a longitudinal design. To conclude, applying a communal sharing model predicts gratitude regarding concrete benefits and regarding the relational partner, presumably because one perceives the communal partner as motivated to meet one's needs. Finally, in Study 3, we found in addition that being the recipient of a benefit without opportunity to repay directly increased communal sharing, and indirectly increased gratitude. These circumstances thus seem to favor the attribution of communal norms, leading to a communal sharing representation and in turn to gratitude. We discuss the importance of relational models as mental representations of relationships for feelings of gratitude.

  18. Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purple-fleshed sweet potato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Das, Dharani Dhar; Prakash, Satya; Burgos, Gabriela; Zum Felde, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Cooked, milled purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) accessions, PM09.812 and PM09.960, underwent digestion in a dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model that simulates gut digestive conditions to study the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed accession-dependent variations in anthocyanin release and degradation. After 24h, more anthocyanin species were detected in the small intestinal vessel relative to other vessels for accession PM09.960 whereas more species appeared in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was increased in the small intestinal vessel for PM09.960 and in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812, corresponding to the appearance of a majority of anthocyanins for each accession. These results show that intestinal and colonic microbial digestion of PFSP leads to an accession-dependent pattern for anthocyanin bioaccessibility and degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  20. Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2012-01-01

    For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized.

  1. Coexistence of pyoderma gangrenosum and sweet's syndrome in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coexistence of pyoderma gangrenosum and sweet's syndrome in a patient with ulcerative colitis. F Ajili, A Souissi, F Bougrine, N Boussetta, N.B. Abdelhafidh, S Sayhi, B Louzir, N Doss, J Laabidi, S Othmani ...

  2. genetic evaluation of polycross hybrids of sweet potatoes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-14

    Received 14 June ... sweet potato to Identify tuber bearing progenies was conducted at PNG University of Technology farm, ... Heritability values for tuber yield, tuber number and vine weight were OÜO, 0.62 and 0.10, respectively.

  3. Computational Model for Internal Relative Humidity Distributions in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model is developed for predicting nonuniform internal relative humidity distribution in concrete. Internal relative humidity distribution is known to have a direct effect on the nonuniform drying shrinkage strains. These nonuniform drying shrinkage strains result in the buildup of internal stresses, which may lead to cracking of concrete. This may be particularly true at early ages of concrete since the concrete is relatively weak while the difference in internal relative humidity is probably high. The results obtained from this model can be used by structural and construction engineers to predict critical drying shrinkage stresses induced due to differential internal humidity distribution. The model uses finite elment-finite difference numerical methods. The finite element is used to space discretization while the finite difference is used to obtain transient solutions of the model. The numerical formulations are then programmed in Matlab. The numerical results were compared with experimental results found in the literature and demonstrated very good agreement.

  4. A Semi-Tychonic Model in General relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, George L.

    1998-10-01

    In the sixteenth century Tycho Brahe proposed a geocentric model of the solar system kinematically equivalent to the heliocentric Copernican model. There has been disagreement even among prominent relativists over whether or not relativity validates use of a geocentric model. Tycho's desire for a non-rotating earth cannot be satisfied, but we demonstrate here dynamical equivalence between a Copernican and a "semi-Tychonic" model by using an appropriate accelerated reference frame in general relativity. (The idea of absolute space in Newtonian mechanics makes use of Einstein's theory desirable even in the Newtonian approximation.) Optical questions are easily dealt with. Our treatment provides a satisfactory answer for the important historical question concerning geocentric and heliocentric models, and is also of pedagogic value. In addition, it gives insights into the real generality of general relativity, the nature of the relativistic equations of motion, and the analogy between coordinate and gauge transformations.

  5. Síndrome de Sweet associada à policitemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Ângela Puccini; Souza,Flávia Feijó de; Gaspar,Neide Kalil; Quattrino,Ada Lobato; Vilar,Enoi Aparecida Guedes

    2009-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet pode estar associada a malignidades hematológicas, principalmente, à leucemia mieloide aguda, porém existem poucos relatos demonstrando a associação com a policitemia vera. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo masculino, de 65 anos, portador de policitemia vera,que evoluiu com aparecimento de síndrome de Sweet na sua forma paraneoplásica.

  6. Cost to deliver sweet sorghum fermentables to a central plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The major obstacle to a sweet sorghum-for-ethanol industry in the Piedmont of Virginia is the short harvest season of eight weeks. A Piedmont harvesting system is described that will enable the Piedmont to compete with Louisiana in production of sweet sorghum for ethanol. The cost to supply feedstock (up to the point fermentation begins) for a one million GPY ethanol plant was estimated to be $2.35/gal expected ethanol yield. This amount compared favorably with two other options

  7. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  8. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  9. Hypothesis/review: the structural basis of sweetness perception of sweet-tasting plant proteins can be deduced from sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintjens, René; Viet, Tran Melody Vu Ngoc; Mbosso, Emmanuel; Huet, Joëlle

    2011-10-01

    Human perception of sweetness, behind the felt pleasure, is thought to play a role as an indicator of energy density of foods. For humans, only a small number of plant proteins taste sweet. As non-caloric sweeteners, these plant proteins have attracted attention as candidates for the control of obesity, oral health and diabetic management. Significant advances have been made in the characterization of the sweet-tasting plant proteins, as well as their binding interactions with the appropriate receptors. The elucidation of sweet-taste receptor gene sequences represents an important step towards the understanding of sweet taste perception. However, many questions on the molecular basis of sweet-taste elicitation by plant proteins remain unanswered. In particular, why homologues of these proteins do not elicit similar responses? This question is discussed in this report, on the basis of available sequences and structures of sweet-tasting proteins, as well as of sweetness-sensing receptors. A simple procedure based on sequence comparisons between sweet-tasting protein and its homologous counterparts was proposed to identify critical residues for sweetness elicitation. The open question on the physiological function of sweet-tasting plant proteins is also considered. In particular, this review leads us to suggest that sweet-tasting proteins may interact with taste receptor in a serendipity manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  11. Personality, Relationship Conflict, and Teamwork-Related Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143

  12. Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Genome-Wide 6K SNP Array for Diploid Sweet Cherry and Tetraploid Sour Cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Cameron; Bassil, Nahla; Main, Dorrie; Ficklin, Stephen; Rosyara, Umesh R.; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Gilmore, Barbara; Lawley, Cindy; Mockler, Todd C.; Bryant, Douglas W.; Wilhelm, Larry; Iezzoni, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb) of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome) and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome). Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269) and sour (n = 330) cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery, genome

  14. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  15. Relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...

  16. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition p = λ i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  17. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition ρ= i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  18. Identification of putative candidate genes involved in cuticle formation in Prunus avium (sweet cherry) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Sprink, Thorben; van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-07-01

    The cuticular membrane (CM) of Prunus avium (sweet cherry) and other fleshy fruit is under stress. Previous research indicates that the resultant strain promotes microscopic cuticular cracking. Microcracks impair the function of the CM as a barrier against pathogens and uncontrolled water loss/uptake. Stress and strain result from a cessation of CM deposition during early development, while the fruit surface continues to expand. The cessation of CM deposition, in turn, may be related to an early downregulation of CM-related genes. The aims of this study were to identify genes potentially involved in CM formation in sweet cherry fruit and to quantify their expression levels. Fruit growth and CM deposition were quantified weekly from anthesis to maturity and rates of CM deposition were calculated. Sequences of genes expressed in the sweet cherry fruit skin (exocarp) were generated using high-throughput sequencing of cDNA and de novo assembly and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Relative mRNA levels of selected genes were quantified in the exocarp and fruit flesh (mesocarp) weekly using reverse transcriptase-quantitative real-time PCR and compared with the calculated CM deposition rate over time. The rate of CM deposition peaked at 93 (±5) μg per fruit d(-1) about 19 d after anthesis. Based on sequence analyses, 18 genes were selected as potentially involved in CM formation. Selected sweet cherry genes shared up to 100 and 98 % similarity with the respective Prunus persica (peach) and Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Expression of 13 putative CM-related genes was restricted to the exocarp and correlated positively with the CM deposition rate. The results support the view that the cessation of CM deposition during early sweet cherry fruit development is accounted for by a downregulation of genes involved in CM deposition. Genes that merit further investigation include PaWINA, PaWINB, PaLipase, PaLTPG1, PaATT1, PaLCR, PaGPAT4/8, PaLACS2, PaLACS1 and PaCER1.

  19. relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Imo State University. Owerri e-mail: timasy.ikenegbu@yahoo.com. Abstract. The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and ... conversation skills; assertiveness skills, play interaction skills; self-related ... possession of poor, inefficient or inadequate social skills, low self-esteem,.

  20. Applying the social relations model to self and peer evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Greguras; C. Robie; M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPeer evaluations of performance increasingly are being used to make organizational decisions and to provide individuals with performance related feedback. Using Kenny’s social relations model (SRM), data from 14 teams of undergraduate students who completed performance ratings of

  1. Latent Stochastic Actor Oriented Models for Relational Event Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    L-SAOMs for Relational Events Latent Stochastic Actor Oriented Models for Relational Event Data J.A. Lospinoso12 J.H. Koskinen2 T.A.B. Snijders2......PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US

  2. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  3. Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Potential of Purple Sweet Potato Tuber Dry Extract in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jawi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Purple sweet potato tuber extract in liquid form has been shown to lower blood pressure of hypertensive rats and hypertensive patients. Liquid dosage form increasingly unstable when stored for long periods, thus it is necessary to find a more stable dosage form. The objective of this research was to prove that dry extract of purple sweet potato tuber has the same effects with liquid extract in hypertensive rats. The is a randomized pre-test and post-test control group design study. Thirty hypertensive model rats were divided into 5 groups (6 animals for each group. Group 1 was treated as a control group. Group 2 to group 5 were treated as treatment groups. Treatment groups were given liquid extract at a dose of 3 ml, dry extract with the dose of 200 mg, dry extract that stored in a certain time with a dose of 200 mg and given a mixture of dry extract with a carrier substance (capsule formula with a dose of 200 mg, respectively, for 4 weeks. Variables observed were blood pressure, SOD and MDA level of the blood. The results showed that the group given the purple sweet potato tuber extract lowers blood pressure were significantly in liquid extract or dry extract (p <0.01. The group that was treated with capsule formula showed more decrease in blood pressure than dry extract group (p <0.01. The similar results happened on MDA and SOD level in blood. Thus, it can be concluded that dried extract of purple sweet potato tubers has the same effectiveness with liquid extract, both as an antihypertensive and also antioxidant. Capsules formula is more effective than liquid extract and dry extract. 

  4. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  5. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J.; Gupta, Nili; Case, R. Maynard; Thompson, David G.; McLaughlin, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of “equisweet” (Study A) or “equibitter” (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH2O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH2O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [13C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions. PMID:19535679

  6. Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, L.S.; Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

  7. Personal Variation in Preference for Sweetness: Effects of Age and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowski, Nuala; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-10-01

    Use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs), which provide sweet taste with few to no calories, has increased, but data on whether children's hedonic responses to NNSs differ from nutritive sugars or from adults' hedonic responses are limited. Most preferred levels of sucrose and the NNS sucralose were determined via a forced-choice tracking procedure in 48 children, 7-14 years (mean = 10 years), and 34 adults. Each participant also rated the liking of these taste stimuli, as well as varying concentrations of aspartame on 3- and 5-point facial hedonic scales. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and motives for palatable food intake were assessed with the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS, adults) and Kids PEMS. While use of the 3-point scale showed no age-related differences in liking of sweeteners, the 5-point scale showed that more children than adults liked higher concentrations of sucrose, sucralose, and aspartame, and the tracking procedure showed that children most preferred higher concentrations of sucrose and sucralose than adults. Regardless of age, sweet preference did not differ between obese and nonobese participants and showed no association with motives for eating palatable foods. Children's body mass index z-scores were positively associated with social and conformity motive scores for eating palatable foods. Research should move beyond measures of variation in sweet taste hedonics to include identifying motives, and the physiological and psychological consequences of eating sweets, to shed light on what children are more vulnerable to develop unfavorable eating habits, increasing risk for obesity, and other diseases.

  8. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  9. Comparsion of maximum viscosity and viscometric method for identification of irradiated sweet potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Sang Duk; Yang, Jae Seung

    2000-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare viscosity and maximum viscosity methods for the detection of irradiated sweet potato starch. The viscosity of all samples decreased by increasing stirring speeds and irradiation doses. This trend was similar for maximum viscosity. Regression coefficients and expressions of viscosity and maximum viscosity with increasing irradiation dose were 0.9823 (y=335.02e -0. 3 366x ) at 120 rpm and 0.9939 (y =-42.544x+730.26). This trend in viscosity was similar for all stirring speeds. Parameter A, B and C values showed a dose dependent relation and were a better parameter for detecting irradiation treatment than maximum viscosity and the viscosity value it self. These results suggest that the detection of irradiated sweet potato starch is possible by both the viscometric and maximum visosity method. Therefore, the authors think that the maximum viscosity method can be proposed as one of the new methods to detect the irradiation treatment for sweet potato starch

  10. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 μm), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparsion of maximum viscosity and viscometric method for identification of irradiated sweet potato starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sang Duk; Yang, Jae Seung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    A study was carried out to compare viscosity and maximum viscosity methods for the detection of irradiated sweet potato starch. The viscosity of all samples decreased by increasing stirring speeds and irradiation doses. This trend was similar for maximum viscosity. Regression coefficients and expressions of viscosity and maximum viscosity with increasing irradiation dose were 0.9823 (y=335.02e{sup -0.}3{sup 366x}) at 120 rpm and 0.9939 (y =-42.544x+730.26). This trend in viscosity was similar for all stirring speeds. Parameter A, B and C values showed a dose dependent relation and were a better parameter for detecting irradiation treatment than maximum viscosity and the viscosity value it self. These results suggest that the detection of irradiated sweet potato starch is possible by both the viscometric and maximum visosity method. Therefore, the authors think that the maximum viscosity method can be proposed as one of the new methods to detect the irradiation treatment for sweet potato starch.

  12. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Academic stress levels were positively associated with sweet food consumption among Korean high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Yang, Hye Young; Kim, Ae-Jung; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify the association among levels of persistent academic stress, appetite, and dietary habits and to determine the specific types of sweet foods consumed by Korean high-school students according to their academic stress levels. The study participants included 333 high-school students in the 10th to 12th grades in Kyunggi Province, Korea. The level of academic stress was scored with a 75-item academic stress scale and was categorized as high, medium, or low. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure the sugar intake from sweet foods. Korean high-school students with a high academic stress level had larger meals than the other students. Compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher frequency of sugar intake from the following food types: confectionaries, candies and chocolates, breads, and flavored milk. Moreover, compared with students with low academic stress, the students with high academic stress had a higher total intake of sugar from the following food types: confectionaries, candies, chocolates, flavored milk, traditional Korean beverages, and spicy, sweet, and fried rice cakes. Unhealthy stress-related food choices may compromise high-school students' health and contribute to their morbidity. The findings of the present study could be used to help nutritionists develop effective strategies for nutritional education and counseling to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An integrative analysis of transcriptome and proteome provides new insights into carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in sweet orange fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiyong; Zeng, Yunliu; An, Jianyong; Ye, Junli; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-17

    An integrative analysis of transcriptome and proteome was performed to identify differential genes/proteins of a red-flesh sweet orange Cara Cara in comparison with a common cultivar Newhall at ripening stages. At the transcript level, gene expression was measured with Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS), and 629 genes of these two sweet orange cultivars differed by two fold or more (FDR<0.001). At the protein level, a combination of 2DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS identified 48 protein spots differed in relative abundance (P<0.05). The data obtained from comparing transcriptome with proteome showed a poor correlation, suggesting the necessity to integrate both transcriptomic and proteomic approaches in order to get a comprehensive molecular characterization. Function analysis of the differential genes/proteins revealed that a set of candidates was associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and the regulation. Overall, some intriguing genes/proteins were previously unrecognized related with the formation of red-flesh trait, which provided new insights into molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in a red-flesh sweet orange. In addition, some genes/proteins were found to be different in expression patterns between the Cara Cara and another red-flesh sweet orange Hong Anliu, and their potential roles were further discussed in the present study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Monell forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking procedure for determining sweet taste preferences across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Lukasewycz, Laura D; Griffith, James W; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-05-01

    Lack of methodology to assess taste in children limits its measurement in research studies that include pediatric populations. We used the Monell 2-series, forced-choice tracking method to measure sucrose preferences of a racially/ethnically diverse sample (n = 949) of children, adolescents, and adults. Reliability was assessed by comparing the results of the first series with the second series. Validity was assessed by relating participants' sucrose preferences to their preferences for foods varying in sweetness. The task required, on average, 7 presentations of aqueous sucrose solution pairs. Children and adolescents preferred more concentrated sweetness than adults (P sweet preferences. Level of sweetness preferred significantly correlated with the sugar content of favorite cereals (P < 0.001) and beverages (P < 0.02). This method is brief and has evidence of reliability and external validity. Although a single series will yield useful information about age-related differences in taste preferences, the 2-series version should be considered when differences in race/ethnicity are of interest.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  17. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (psweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  18. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  19. Infinite Multiple Membership Relational Modeling for Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    Learning latent structure in complex networks has become an important problem fueled by many types of networked data originating from practically all fields of science. In this paper, we propose a new non-parametric Bayesian multiplemembership latent feature model for networks. Contrary to existing...... multiplemembership models that scale quadratically in the number of vertices the proposedmodel scales linearly in the number of links admittingmultiple-membership analysis in large scale networks. We demonstrate a connection between the single membership relational model and multiple membership models and show...

  20. Present status of the VMI and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G.

    1980-05-01

    This article traces the evolution of the Variable Moment of Inertia model in its relation to the shell model, the Bohr-Mottelson model and the Interacting Boson Model. The discovery of a new type of spectrum, that of pseudomagic nuclei (isobars of doubly magic nuclei) is reported, and an explanation for their dynamics is suggested. The type of rotational motion underlying the ground state band of an e-e nucleus is shown to depend on whether the minimum number of valence nucleon pairs of one kind (neutrons or protons) is less than or equal to 2 or > 2. In the former case the alpha-dumbbell model holds; in the latter the two-fluid model

  1. Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or APSPE]; model group (with CCl4 only; positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin; low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE; medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE; and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE. After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous. Twelve hours after CCl4 injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity.

  2. Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Luo, Chun-Li; Deng, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Cheng; Zhang, Jiu-Liang

    2017-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE) was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or APSPE]; model group (with CCl 4 only); positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin); low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE); medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE); and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE). After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl 4 (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous). Twelve hours after CCl 4 injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Thermodynamics of Paint Related Systems with Engineering Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2001-01-01

    to solid surfaces and drying. Many engineering models have been applied over the last decades for solutions with commoditity polymers. In this work the performance of some of these models is investigated for paint-related systems, focusing on those drying by the so-called " lacquer mechanism " (evaporation......Paints are complex materials composed of polymers (binders) dissolved in one or more solvents, pigments, and other additives. The thermodynamics of such systems is essential, for example, for selecting improved solvents and understanding a number of phenomena related especially! to adhesion...... that, despite the uncertainties involved, several models yield reasonably accurate activity coefficients, even at infinite dilution. Thus, engineering models may be useful for solvent selection via semiempirical rules of thumb, which are based on thermodynamic considerations....

  4. Amplitudes, recursion relations and unitarity in the Abelian Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, Ronald; Luna, Oscar Boher

    2017-12-01

    The Abelian Higgs model forms an essential part of the electroweak standard model: it is the sector containing only Z0 and Higgs bosons. We present a diagram-based proof of the tree-level unitarity of this model inside the unitary gauge, where only physical degrees of freedom occur. We derive combinatorial recursion relations for off-shell amplitudes in the massless approximation, which allows us to prove the cancellation of the first two orders in energy of unitarity-violating high-energy behaviour for any tree-level amplitude in this model. We describe a deformation of the amplitudes by extending the physical phase space to at least 7 spacetime dimensions, which leads to on-shell recursion relations à la BCFW. These lead to a simple proof that all on-shell tree amplitudes obey partial-wave unitarity.

  5. Relating mesocarnivore relative abundance to anthropogenic land-use with a hierarchical spatial count model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Shawn M.; Walleser, Liza R.; Hertel, Dan R.; McKann, Patrick C.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing need to develop models of spatial patterns in animal abundance, yet comparatively few examples of such models exist. This is especially true in situations where the abundance of one species may inhibit that of another, such as the intensively-farmed landscape of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the central United States, where waterfowl production is largely constrained by mesocarnivore nest predation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to relate the distribution of various land-cover types to the relative abundances of four mesocarnivores in the PPR: coyote Canis latrans, raccoon Procyon lotor, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and striped skunk Mephitis mephitis. We developed models for each species at multiple spatial resolutions (41.4 km2, 10.4 km2, and 2.6 km2) to address different ecological and management-related questions. Model results for each species were similar irrespective of resolution. We found that the amount of row-crop agriculture was nearly ubiquitous in our best models, exhibiting a positive relationship with relative abundance for each species. The amount of native grassland land-cover was positively associated with coyote and raccoon relative abundance, but generally absent from models for red fox and skunk. Red fox and skunk were positively associated with each other, suggesting potential niche overlap. We found no evidence that coyote abundance limited that of other mesocarnivore species, as might be expected under a hypothesis of mesopredator release. The relationships between relative abundance and land-cover types were similar across spatial resolutions. Our results indicated that mesocarnivores in the PPR are most likely to occur in portions of the landscape with large amounts of agricultural land-cover. Further, our results indicated that track-survey data can be used in a hierarchical framework to gain inferences regarding spatial patterns in animal relative abundance.

  6. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  7. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  8. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  9. Genome-wide identification of the SWEET gene family in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Zi Yuan; Kumar, Vikranth; Xu, Xiao Feng; Yuan, De Peng; Zhu, Xiao Feng; Li, Tian Ya; Jia, Baolei; Xuan, Yuan Hu

    2018-02-05

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporter) family is a newly characterized group of sugar transporters. In plants, the key roles of SWEETs in phloem transport, nectar secretion, pollen nutrition, stress tolerance, and plant-pathogen interactions have been identified. SWEET family genes have been characterized in many plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of SWEET members has not yet been performed in wheat. Here, 59 wheat SWEETs (hereafter TaSWEETs) were identified through homology searches. Analyses of phylogenetic relationships, numbers of transmembrane helices (TMHs), gene structures, and motifs showed that TaSWEETs carrying 3-7 TMHs could be classified into four clades with 10 different types of motifs. Examination of the expression patterns of 18 SWEET genes revealed that a few are tissue-specific while most are ubiquitously expressed. In addition, the stem rust-mediated expression patterns of SWEET genes were monitored using a stem rust-susceptible cultivar, 'Little Club' (LC). The resulting data showed that the expression of five out of the 18 SWEETs tested was induced following inoculation. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the wheat SWEET gene family. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and expression profiles of SWEET genes in different tissues and following stem rust disease inoculation will be useful in identifying the potential roles of SWEETs in specific developmental and pathogenic processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dataflow-Driven Crowdsourcing: Relational Models and Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Ustalov

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microtask crowdsourcing has become a popular approach for addressing various data mining problems. Crowdsourcing workflows for approaching such problems are composed of several data processing stages which require consistent representation for making the work reproducible. This paper is devoted to the problem of reproducibility and formalization of the microtask crowdsourcing process. A computational model for microtask crowdsourcing based on an extended relational model and a dataf...

  11. Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    is tied up with a principle of immanence which is crucial for the understanding of Bourriaud's and many of his related artists' sense of utopia and avant-garde. Setting off from an analysis of the concept of model in RA, I would like to demonstrate the relationship between relational form, model......, and utopia, and how this surprisingly lead to an ideal yet immanent conception of art. To contextualise and exemplify my analysis, I shall draw on my collaboration-based study of art collective Superflex as well as Bourriaud's later writings on post-production and alter-modernism....

  12. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    Accretion on a natural backbarrier salt marsh was modeled as a function of high tide level, initial salt marsh level and distance to the source. Calibration of the model was based on up to ca 80 year old marker horizons, supplemented by 210Pb/137Cs datings and subsequent measurements of clay...... that mass depth down core can be directly related to the bulk dry density of the surface layer by means of a logarithmic function. The results allow for an evaluation of the use of marker horizons in the topmost layers and show that it is important to know the level of the marker in relation to the salt...

  13. A multistate additive relative survival semi-Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaizeau, Florence; Dantan, Etienne; Giral, Magali; Foucher, Yohann

    2017-08-01

    Medical researchers are often interested to investigate the relationship between explicative variables and times-to-events such as disease progression or death. Such multiple times-to-events can be studied using multistate models. For chronic diseases, it may be relevant to consider semi-Markov multistate models because the transition intensities between two clinical states more likely depend on the time already spent in the current state than on the chronological time. When the cause of death for a patient is unavailable or not totally attributable to the disease, it is not possible to specifically study the associations with the excess mortality related to the disease. Relative survival analysis allows an estimate of the net survival in the hypothetical situation where the disease would be the only possible cause of death. In this paper, we propose a semi-Markov additive relative survival (SMRS) model that combines the multistate and the relative survival approaches. The usefulness of the SMRS model is illustrated by two applications with data from a French cohort of kidney transplant recipients. Using simulated data, we also highlight the effectiveness of the SMRS model: the results tend to those obtained if the different causes of death are known.

  14. Experimental Models of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approache...

  15. How Is Building Lego Models Related to Math Skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Murti, Swiya; Szucs, Denes

    2017-01-01

    Math is usually taught using a lot of words. But, is this the way the human brain learns math? We studied how math is related to memory, intelligence, and reading in 7-year-old children. We found that memory for visual information (things you can see) and spatial information (where things are located in relationship to each other) is related to math skills more than memory for words and verbal information. Interestingly, previous studies have found that building Lego models (construction play...

  16. Mathematical model II. Basic particle and special relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Ramchandra Gadre

    2011-01-01

    The basic particle electron obeys various theories like electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity. Particle under different experimental conditions behaves differently, allowing us to observe different characteristics which become basis for these theories. In this paper, we try to find out the requirements of the special relativity and suggest a mathematical particle model which can satisfy these requirements. The basic presumption is that the particle should have some structu...

  17. Discovery of Highly Sweet Compounds from Natural Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Kennelly, Edward J.

    1995-08-01

    Sucrose, the most widely used sweetener globally, is of plant origin. In addition, a number of other plant constituents are employed as dietary sucrose substitutes in one or more countries, including the diterpenoid, stevioside, the triterpenoid, glycyrrhizin, and the protein, thaumatin. Accordingly, there has been much interest in discovering further examples of potently sweet compounds of natural origin, for potential use in foods, beverages, and medicines. Approximately 75 plant-derived compounds are presently known, mainly representative of the flavonoid, proanthocyandin, protein, steroidal saponin, and terpenoid chemotypes. In our program directed towards the elucidation of further highly sweet molecules from plants, candidate sweet-tasting plants for laboratory investigation are obtained from ethnobotanical observations in the field or in the existing literature. Examples of novel sweet-tasting compounds obtained so far are the sesquiterpenoids, hernandulcin and 4beta-hydroxyhemandulcin; the triterpenoids, abrusosides A-D; a semi-synthetic dihydroflavonol based on the naturally occurring substance, dihydroquercetin 3-acetate; and the proanthocyanidin, selligueain A. Natural product sweeteners may be of potential commercial use per se, and can be used for synthetic modification to produce improved sweeteners, and can also be of value scientifically to aid in the better understanding of structure-sweetness relationships.

  18. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  19. A Case Report of Sweet's Syndrome with Parotitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Soo Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is characterized by clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include fever, neutrophilia, tender erythematous skin lesions, and a diffuse infiltrate of mature neutrophils. This is a report of our experience of Sweet's syndrome with parotitis. A 57-year-old man initially presented with tender swelling on the right cheek similar to parotitis. His symptoms relapsed despite the use of an oral antibiotic agent for 3 weeks. He additionally presented with erythematous papules and plaques on the periocular area and dorsum of both hands. Histiopathologic findings on punch biopsy of the right dorsum of the hand showed superficial perivenular histiocytic infiltration without vasculitis. We confirmed this as histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome and used systemic corticosteroid. After initiation of treatment with systemic corticosteroids, there was a prompt recovery from both the dermatosis-releated symptoms and skin lesions. Sweet's syndrome should be considered in patients with therapy-refractory parotitis and unclear infiltrated nodules. We present a confusing case who initially appeared to have parotitis but turned out to have histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome.

  20. Saliva pH affects the sweetness sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Ken-Ichi; Okino, Yuichiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kojima, Rena; Uchibori, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Yaushiro; Ota, Yoshihide

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a prediction system for taste sense according to the biochemical data of saliva. The present study included 100 participants ages ≥20 y without physical, mental, or dental disabilities. Saliva samples were collected from the participants and subjected to biochemical analyses. Taste examination (sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness) was performed using the dropped disk method. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed between the taste sense properties and biochemical data of saliva. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that sweetness sensitivity (in which a higher score indicates lower sensitivity) was significantly affected by various biochemical properties, with the strongest influence being pH. The following prediction equation was determined: Sweetness sensitivity = 1.38 + (-0.12 × low pH [1: If pH 7.3, 0: otherwise]) + (0.04 × Fe [μg/dL]). Analysis of variance showed an overall significant effect of these variables on sweetness sensitivity (R 2  = 0.74; P sweetness sensitivity. This prediction can be used for evaluations of variations in dietary choices and to help individuals make healthy food choices to maintain health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard P J; Booth, David A

    2010-08-01

    We present the first experiment that was based on a novel analysis of the mental processes of choice. Sensed material characteristics such as the sweetness of a drink and symbolic attributes such as the source of sweetness stated on the label are put into the same units of influence on the response. Most users of low-calorie drinks thought about the energy in a drink quite differently from the way they decided how sweet and how low in calories they liked the drink to be. Also the female diet drink users thought about energy content differently from most of the male users of sugar drinks. In both groups' ratings of likelihood of choice and in sugar drink users' estimates of energy content, sweetness and labelled calories were usually treated as separate stimuli or ideas. In contrast, some female diet drink users treated sweetness and perceived calories as the same, whereas no male sugar drink user did. Such findings illustrate how this approach spans the gap between sensory perception and conceptualised knowledge. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esteban; Ares, Gastón; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Varela, Pablo; Bologna, Franco; Lado, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A Relational Model for Simulation Data to Promote Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronova, A. M.; Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling is an essential component to understanding the physical processes that govern water resources systems. The process representation, approach, and scale used in each model can vary greatly among scientific domains. In addition, many models use proprietary data input and output file formats making it difficult to share results among scientists. These factors limit the extent to which cross disciplinary models can grow, and as a result, restricts collaboration across academic disciplines. The heterogeneity of data formats among models also inhibits archival due to the lack of consistent metadata and the inability to quickly inspect file contents. This work investigates a method for archiving model simulation input and output time series data in an easily accessible manner. We present a relational data model for representing simulation-based data that extends the functionality of the Observations Data Model (version 2). We demonstrate its use by implementing a PostgreSQL database with geospatial support via PostGIS, and illustrate how it is used to store and retrieve data to facilitate sharing among models and scientists.

  4. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  5. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  6. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the

  7. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Rather than consigning assemblages to the micro-politics of international relations, the chapter argues that assemblages can also be seen to play a role in the ‘grand’ structures of international relations. Structural IR theory normally only considers how subjects are ordered – hierarchically......, anarchically, in core-periphery relations or in terms of networks. However, not only subjects but also assemblages – the bringing together of previously unconnected elements into novel constellations – play a critical role in structuring international relations. More specifically, one sub......-category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...

  8. Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny M.; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, John

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids which are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

  9. Cut Back on Your Kid's Sweet Treats: 10 Tips to Decrease Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines for Americans Cut back on your kid’s sweet treats Set your kids on a path for ... limiting the amount of added sugars they eat. Sweet treats and sugary drinks have lots of calories ...

  10. germination of seeds from earlier fruits of bitter and sweet african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-11-18

    , 2006). The mesocarp of the sweet bush mangoes are edible; while the endocarp of both bitter and sweet fruits are important part of African communities' diets and is marketed all over the world (Lowe et al.,. 2000; Tabuna ...

  11. Metabolism related toxicity of diclofenac in yeast as model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.S.; Vredenburg, G.; Dragovic, S.; Tjong, T.F.; Vos, J.C.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Diclofenac is a widely used drug that can cause serious hepatotoxicity, which has been linked to metabolism by cytochrome P450s (P450). To investigate the role of oxidative metabolites in diclofenac toxicity, a model for P450-related toxicity was set up in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We expressed a

  12. Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein's field equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein's field equations are solvable for any arbitrary ...

  13. Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein's field equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein's field equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale ...

  14. Dataflow-Driven Crowdsourcing: Relational Models and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ustalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, microtask crowdsourcing has become a popular approach for addressing various data mining problems. Crowdsourcing workflows for approaching such problems are composed of several data processing stages which require consistent representation for making the work reproducible. This paper is devoted to the problem of reproducibility and formalization of the microtask crowdsourcing process. A computational model for microtask crowdsourcing based on an extended relational model and a dataflow computational model has been proposed. The proposed collaborative dataflow computational model is designed for processing the input data sources by executing annotation stages and automatic synchronization stages simultaneously. Data processing stages and connections between them are expressed by using collaborative computation workflows represented as loosely connected directed acyclic graphs. A synchronous algorithm for executing such workflows has been described. The computational model has been evaluated by applying it to two tasks from the computational linguistics field: concept lexicalization refining in electronic thesauri and establishing hierarchical relations between such concepts. The “Add–Remove–Confirm” procedure is designed for adding the missing lexemes to the concepts while removing the odd ones. The “Genus–Species–Match” procedure is designed for establishing “is-a” relations between the concepts provided with the corresponding word pairs. The experiments involving both volunteers from popular online social networks and paid workers from crowdsourcing marketplaces confirm applicability of these procedures for enhancing lexical resources. 

  15. Cardinal Direction Relations Query Modeling Based on Geo-Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Chen, D.; Zhou, C.; Li, M.; Xiao, W.

    2012-08-01

    Direction relations, as an important spatial relationship, is simply expressed as object prosperity in traditional geo-ontology. The lacking of explicit specifications and reasoning rules of direction relations in geo-ontology result in the difficult or inflexible of spatial reasoning. Also, digital gazetteers provide information on named features, linking the feature's name with its location and its type. Although the location information is incomplete and not exact, the implicit spatial information, for example spatial relationships and spatial scale, can be extract using the appropriate models based on geo-ontology. In this paper, we proposed a novel conceptual framework of direction relations in order to formalize the semantics and implicit information of direction relations, and present an extraction algorithm of implicit information based on previous researches, which will produce a complete query instance of direction relations. At last, the most suitable direction physical model is recommended to calculation module according to relevant rules. And the experimental results show that this direction query model not only extracted the implicit information effectively, but also made a reasonable interpretation for the user's intention.

  16. Experimental models of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliss, Brian M; Looney, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Models of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI. PMID:21134622

  18. Dispersion Relations for Electroweak Observables in Composite Higgs Models

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto

    2015-12-14

    We derive dispersion relations for the electroweak oblique observables measured at LEP in the context of $SO(5)/SO(4)$ composite Higgs models. It is shown how these relations can be used and must be modified when modeling the spectral functions through a low-energy effective description of the strong dynamics. The dispersion relation for the parameter $\\epsilon_3$ is then used to estimate the contribution from spin-1 resonances at the 1-loop level. Finally, it is shown that the sign of the contribution to the $\\hat S$ parameter from the lowest-lying spin-1 states is not necessarily positive definite, but depends on the energy scale at which the asymptotic behavior of current correlators is attained.

  19. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person

  20. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  1. Potential Quality Evaluation Method for Radix Astragali Based on Sweetness Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Li; Fanrong Gao; Zhenyu Li; Xuemei Qin; Haifeng Sun; Jie Xing; Lizeng Zhang; Guanhua Du

    2015-01-01

    Sweetness is a traditional sensory indicator used to evaluate the quality of the popular Chinese herb Radix Astragali (RA). RA roots with strong sweetness are considered to be of good quality. However, neither a thorough analysis of the component(s) contributing to RA sweetness, nor a scientific investigation of the reliability of this indicator has been conducted to date. In this study, seven kinds of sweetness components were identified in RA and a quality evaluation method based on these c...

  2. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures on Development of Sweet Potato Industry in Ziyun County

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shuang; Yang, Xiaoshan; Li, Guang

    2013-01-01

    According to the actual situation of sweet potato industry development in Ziyun County, we use SWOT analysis method to conduct strategic analysis on strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and the opportunities and challenges of the external environment of the sweet potato industry, to explore correct strategic countermeasures suitable for the future development of sweet potato industry in Ziyun County and provide reference for the sweet potato industry to maintain sustainable co...

  3. Multiple mutations of the critical amino acid residues for the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, brazzein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Won; Cha, Ji-Eun; Jo, Hyun-Joo; Kong, Kwang-Hoon

    2013-06-01

    We have previously identified critical residues important for sweetness of the sweet protein brazzein by site-directed mutagenesis (Yoon, Kong, Jo, & Kong, 2011). In order to elucidate the interaction mechanisms of brazzein with the sweet taste receptor, we made multiple mutations of three residues (His31 in loop 30-33, Glu36 in β-strand III, and Glu41 in loop 40-43). We found that all double mutations (H31R/E36D, H31R/E41A and E36D/E41A) made the molecules sweeter than des-pE1M-brazzein and three single mutants. Moreover, the triple mutation (H31R/E36D/E41A) made the molecule significantly sweeter than three double mutants. These results strongly support the hypothesis that brazzein binds to the multisite surface of the sweet taste receptor. Our findings also suggest that mutations reducing the overall negative charge and/or increasing the positive charge favour sweet-tasting protein potency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  5. Is there a Sweet Spot in Ethical Trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    might emerge, reflecting an amended version of Gereffi et al.'s (2005) theory of value chain governance. We conclude that the possibility of identifying a sweet spot in ethical trade improves as we move from market-based transactions toward hierarchical governance in global production networks.......We undertake a critical appraisal of the existence of the so- called 'sweet spot' in ethical trade at which the interests of buyers, suppliers, and workers intersect to enable benefits for commercial buyers and suppliers and improvements in the conditions of workers at the base of global production...... networks. In turn, we take the perspectives of three central actors typically involved in ethical trade: buyers/brands, suppliers in the Global South, and workers at the base of these networks. By applying all three perspectives, we theorize about the circumstances in which the sweet spot in ethical trade...

  6. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  7. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  8. Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. during Kernel Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of ZmHPT and ZmTC genes increased, whereas ZmTMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP. Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of ZmTMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn.

  9. Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) during Kernel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Yu, Yongtao; Mao, Jihua; Liu, Haiying; Hu, Jian Guang; Li, Tong; Guo, Xinbo; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-12-20

    Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of Zm HPT and Zm TC genes increased, whereas Zm TMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP). Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW) at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of Zm TMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn.

  10. Soil-related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. J. Smith

    2003-01-01

    This analysis is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003 [163602]). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. ''The Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters needed to evaluate doses from pathways associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation and ash

  11. Animal Models of Hemophilia and Related Bleeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Jay N.; Nichols, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of hemophilia and related diseases are important for development of novel treatments and to understand the pathophysiology of bleeding disorders in humans. Testing in animals with the equivalent human disorder provides informed estimates of doses and measures of efficacy, which aids in design of human trials. Many models of hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and von Willebrand disease have been developed from animals with spontaneous mutations (hemophilia A dogs, rats, sheep; hemophilia B dogs; and von Willebrand disease pigs and dogs), or by targeted gene disruption in mice to create hemophilia A, B, or VWD models. Animal models have been used to generate new insights into the pathophysiology of each bleeding disorder and also to perform pre-clinical assessments of standard protein replacement therapies as well as novel gene transfer technology. Both the differences between species and differences in underlying causative mutations must be considered in choosing the best animal for a specific scientific study PMID:23956467

  12. Modeling of charged anisotropic compact stars in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayanandan, Baiju; Maurya, S.K.; T, Smitha T. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)

    2017-06-15

    A charged compact star model has been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein-Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star model by using the radial pressure, the metric function e{sup λ} and the electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via the adiabatic index, TOV equations and the Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star model is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. Moreover, we also presented the EOS ρ = f(p) for the present charged compact star model. (orig.)

  13. DMPD: Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet...nces of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet preferences... SJ, Saeland E, van Kooyk Y. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):83-90. Epub 2008 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Sweet prefere

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  15. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... FR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation... handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally by the... cherries and other lightly-colored sweet cherry varieties that are designated as ``premium'' when handled...

  16. 75 FR 46901 - Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...] Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean Fruit Fly... schedules to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual for sweet cherries imported from Australia... regulations by adding new treatment schedules for sweet cherries and for certain species of citrus fruit...

  17. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 923 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0033; FV09-923-1 PR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally... requirements for Rainier cherries and other lightly colored sweet cherry varieties that are designated as...

  18. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... 2013-2014 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the handling of sweet cherries grown in...

  19. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 923 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0059; FV11-923-1 CR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  20. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...