WorldWideScience

Sample records for models phenomenological implications

  1. Phenomenology of SUSY models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a review of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), concentrating mainly in the steps needed to derive the lagrangian of the model within the superspace formalism. Some attention is also given to the reduction of parameters that results from incorporating the hypothesis of Grand Unification and low energy Supergravity; the most salient phenomenological consequences are also discussed

  2. Phenomenology of inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaei, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    There are many inflationary models compatible with observational data. One can investigate inflationary models by looking at their general features, which are common in most of the models. Here we have investigated some of the single-field models without considering their origin in order to find the phenomenology of them. We have shown how to adjust the simple harmonic oscillator model in order to be in good agreement with observational data.

  3. Phenomenological three center model

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Gherghescu, R A; Nagame, Y; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results on ternary fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf suggest the existence of a short-lived quasi-molecular state. We present a three-center phenomenological model able to explain such a state by producing a new minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. The shape parametrization chosen by us allows to describe the essential geometry of the systems in terms of one independent coordinate, namely, the distance between the heavy fragment centers. The shell correction (also treated phenomenologically) only produces quantitative effects; qualitatively it is not essential for the new minimum. Half-lives of some quasi-molecular states which could be formed in sup 1 sup 0 B accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 Cm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 Fm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 6 sup 0 No, and sup 2 sup 6 sup 2 Rf are roughly estimated. (authors)

  4. Baryon number fluctuations in chiral effective models and their phenomenological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almási, Gábor András; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    We study the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in a medium at finite temperature and net baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polyakov-loop extended quark-meson Lagrangian that includes the coupling of quarks to vector meson and temporal gauge fields. The functional renormalization group is employed to properly account for the O (4 ) criticality at the phase boundary. We focus on the properties and systematics of ratios of the net-baryon-number cumulants χBn, for 1 ≤n ≤6 , near the phase boundary. The results are presented in the context of the recent experimental data of the STAR Collaboration on fluctuations of the net proton number in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. We show that the model results for the energy dependence of the cumulant ratios are in good overall agreement with the data, with one exception. At center-of-mass energies below 19.6 GeV, we find that the measured fourth-order cumulant deviates considerably from the model results, which incorporate the expected O (4 ) and Z (2 ) criticality. We assess the influence of model assumptions and in particular of repulsive vector-interactions, which are used to modify the location of the critical end point in the model, on the cumulants ratios. Finally, we discuss a possibility to test to what extent the fluctuations are affected by nonequilibrium dynamics by comparing certain ratios of cumulants.

  5. Phenomenology of quark-lepton symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Lew, H.; Volkas

    1991-01-01

    Quark-lepton symmetric models are a new class of gauge theories which unify the quarks and leptons. In these models the gauge group of the standard model is extended to include a color group for the leptons, and consequently the quarks and leptons can then be related by a Z 2 discrete quark-lepton symmetry. Phenomenological implications of these theories are explored. Two varieties are analysed: one being the simplest quark-lepton symmetric model, and the other containing conventional left-right symmetry. Each theory has a Z' boson, whose masses are constrained at 90% C.L. to be greater than 700 GeV and 650 GeV respectively. Phenomenological constraints from rare decays and the implications of the extended fermion spectrum are also examined. 37 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Phenomenological models of raft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotori, H.; Komura, S.; Kato, T.; Olmsted, P. D.

    2004-04-01

    We propose two phenomenological models describing the phase behavior of lipid-lipid systems and lipid-cholesterol systems in order to understand the "rafts" in cell membranes. In our models, the coupling between the lateral phase separation and the internal degree of freedom of a lipid membrane is considered. The calculated phase diagrams are in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental phase diagrams.

  7. Phenomenology of non-universal gaugino masses and implications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the implications of such non-universal gaugino masses for the composition of the lightest neutralino in supersymmetric (SUSY) theories based on (5) gauge group. We also consider the phenomenological implications of non-universal gaugino masses for the phenomenology of Higgs bosons in the context of ...

  8. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  9. Phenomenology of Low Quantum Gravity Scale Models

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, Karim

    1999-01-01

    We study some phenomenological implications of models where the scale of quantum gravity effects lies much below the four-dimensional Planck scale. These models arise from M-theory vacua where either the internal space volume is large or the string coupling is very small. We provide a critical analysis of ways to unify electroweak, strong and gravitational interactions in M-theory. We discuss the relations between different scales in two M-vacua: Type I strings and Ho\\v rava--Witten supergravity models. The latter allows possibilities for an eleven-dimensional scale at TeV energies with one large dimension below separating our four-dimensional world from a hidden one. Different mechanisms for breaking supersymmetry (gravity mediated, gauge mediated and Scherk-Schwarz mechanisms) are discussed in this framework. Some phenomenological issues such as dark matter (with masses that may vary in time), origin of neutrino masses and axion scale are discussed. We suggest that these are indications that the string scal...

  10. Phenomenology of non-universal gaugino masses and implications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenomenology of non-universal gaugino masses and implications for the Higgs boson decay. K HUITU1,2, J LAAMANEN1,2, P N PANDITA3,∗ and SOUROV ROY2. 1High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki,. P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, Finland. 2Helsinki Institute of Physics, ...

  11. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jonathan L. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Moroi, Takeo [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M{sub aux}, m{sub 0}, tan {beta}, and sgn({mu}). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b{yields}s{gamma}, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.

  13. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M aux , m 0 , tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b→sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  15. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  16. Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.

    1995-01-01

    For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....

  17. Acoustic target models and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswander, Paul R.; Kaiser, Stephen G.

    2000-07-01

    Ground-based and airborne acoustic systems often target vehicles that are powered by reciprocating internal combustion engines. Typically the far-field acoustic spectra of these vehicles are dominated by a few narrow spectral lines that are harmonically related. The dominant harmonics change with engine speed and also with emission angle. This paper describes a simple model that recreates some of this variability. The model breaks the far-field signature into two components: the generation of a train of pressure pulses at each exhaust outlet, and the radiation of sound pressures from the outlet(s) to the far field. Predictions are compared with field test data for two ground vehicles.

  18. A phenomenological model for nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.R.; Leray, S.; Paula, L. de; Nemeth, J.; Ngo, C.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette; Ngo, H.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model for nuclear multifragmentation is presented. It is made up of two complementary parts: molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation. It is applied to study the multifragmentation of 16 O+ 80 Br system at several bombarding energies. The results turn out to be in good agreement with available emulsion data. The production of charged particles and IMF as a function of the bombarding energy is also studied. The results seem to agree quite well with experimental observations and with previous results of other model calculations. (author) 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  19. A phenomenological approach for galaxy evolution at z ~ 0: a simple model for black hole growth and its implications for quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-01-01

    The physical processes that cause the quenching of star formation remain unclear. By measuring the mass function of major galaxy mergers, my work shows that at z ~ 0 only a small fraction of galaxies are likely to be quenched through major mergers. Additional quenching channels must therefore exist. AGN feedback represents such a popular alternative quenching process. To describe the properties of the local black hole population, I use a simple, but powerful phenomenological model. The model allows us to capture the diverse properties of the AGN population based on two universal Eddington ratio distribution functions: one for X-ray and one for radio AGN. The two distributions vary in shape, however, they are both mass independent. This implies that, compared to low mass galaxies, more massive galaxies are not more likely to host AGN nor to host high accretion rate AGN. The shut down of star formation can thus not be explained by a simple model in which quenching is directly proportional to the number of AGN or high accretion rate AGN. Due to its versatility the model framework can be used to to make predictions for upcoming surveys and to examine a range of additional aspects of the AGN phenomenon. For example, it allows us to investigate the AGN - major galaxy merger connection and the effect of a minimum black hole mass on the X-ray luminosity function.

  20. The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David J.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is investigated. The rest of the work is devoted to the phenomenology of models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB). In GMSB models, the lighter stau can be the next to lightest supersymmetric particle. The signals at hadronic colliders for GMSB models with minimal visible sector content are explored for this case. A GMSB model with non-minimal visible sector content is also explored. This is the left-right symmetric GMSB model which contains doubly charged bosons and fermions that could be light enough in mass to be produced at Run II of the Tevatron. Findings and conclusions. The presence of a charged Higgs boson that is lighter than the top quark is found to have a significant impact on the expected signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron. This is marked by an overall decrease in high pT electrons and muons in the final states. In addition, for tan beta less than about one, the three-body decay H+→bbW leads to final states that are not present in the Standard Model. For GMSB models with the lighter stau as the next to lightest supersymmetric particle, the signature at the Tevatron typically involves two or three tau-jets plus large missing transverse energy. This tau-jet signature can be even more pronounced in left-right symmetric GMSB models due to the production of light doubly charged fermions that may couple preferentially to the third generation of leptons. The left-right models can be distinguished from GMSB models with minimal visible sector content by the distribution in angle between the highest ET tau-jets when they come from same sign tau

  1. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Bryan

    Understanding the dynamics of biochemical systems can seem impossibly complicated at the microscopic level: detailed properties of every molecular species, including those that have not yet been discovered, could be important for producing macroscopic behavior. The profusion of data in this area has raised the hope that microscopic dynamics might be recovered in an automated search over possible models, yet the combinatorial growth of this space has limited these techniques to systems that contain only a few interacting species. We take a different approach inspired by coarse-grained, phenomenological models in physics. Akin to a Taylor series producing Hooke's Law, forgoing microscopic accuracy allows us to constrain the search over dynamical models to a single dimension. This makes it feasible to infer dynamics with very limited data, including cases in which important dynamical variables are unobserved. We name our method Sir Isaac after its ability to infer the dynamical structure of the law of gravitation given simulated planetary motion data. Applying the method to output from a microscopically complicated but macroscopically simple biological signaling model, it is able to adapt the level of detail to the amount of available data. Finally, using nematode behavioral time series data, the method discovers an effective switch between behavioral attractors after the application of a painful stimulus.

  2. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  3. A general phenomenological model for work function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, I.; Chou, S. H.; Yuan, H.

    2014-07-01

    A general phenomenological model is presented for obtaining the zero Kelvin work function of any crystal facet of metals and semiconductors, both clean and covered with a monolayer of electropositive atoms. It utilizes the known physical structure of the crystal and the Fermi energy of the two-dimensional electron gas assumed to form on the surface. A key parameter is the number of electrons donated to the surface electron gas per surface lattice site or adsorbed atom, which is taken to be an integer. Initially this is found by trial and later justified by examining the state of the valence electrons of the relevant atoms. In the case of adsorbed monolayers of electropositive atoms a satisfactory justification could not always be found, particularly for cesium, but a trial value always predicted work functions close to the experimental values. The model can also predict the variation of work function with temperature for clean crystal facets. The model is applied to various crystal faces of tungsten, aluminium, silver, and select metal oxides, and most demonstrate good fits compared to available experimental values.

  4. Phenomenological modeling of abradable wear in turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoul, Bérenger; Batailly, Alain; Stainier, Laurent; Legrand, Mathias; Cartraud, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Abradable materials are widely used as coatings within compressor and turbine stages of modern aircraft engines in order to reduce operating blade-tip/casing clearances and thus maximize energy efficiency. However, rubbing occurrences between blade tips and coating liners may lead to high blade vibratory levels and endanger their structural integrity through fatigue mechanisms. Accordingly, there is a need for a better comprehension of the physical phenomena at play and for an accurate modeling of the interaction, in order to predict potentially unsafe events. To this end, this work introduces a phenomenological model of the abradable coating removal based on phenomena reported in the literature and accounting for key frictional and wear mechanisms including plasticity at junctions, ploughing, micro-rupture and machining. It is implemented within an in-house software solution dedicated to the prediction of full three-dimensional blade/abradable coating interactions within an aircraft engine low pressure compressor. Two case studies are considered. The first one compares the results of an experimental abradable test rig and its simulation. The second one deals with the simulation of interactions in a complete low-pressure compressor. The consistency of the model with experimental observations is underlined, and the impact of material parameter variations on the interaction and wear behavior of the blade is discussed. It is found that even though wear patterns are remarkably robust, results are significantly influenced by abradable coating material properties.

  5. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2000-01-01

    This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.

  6. Phenomenology of non-universal gaugino masses and implications for the Higgs boson decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huitu, K.; Laamanen, J.; Pandita, P.N.; Roy, Sourov

    2007-01-01

    Grand unified theories (GUTs) can lead to non-universal gaugino masses at the unification scale. We study the implications of such non-universal gaugino masses for the composition of the lightest neutralino in supersymmetric (SUSY) theories based on SU(5) gauge group. We also consider the phenomenological implications of non-universal gaugino masses for the phenomenology of Higgs bosons in the context of large hadron collider. (author)

  7. Phenomenological Model of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshikov, L. I.; Menshikov, P. L.; Fedichev, P. O.

    2017-12-01

    Hydration forces acting between macroscopic bodies at distances L ≤ 3 nm in pure water are calculated based on the phenomenological model of polar liquids. It is shown that depending on the properties of the bodies, the interacting surfaces polarize the liquid differently, and wetting properties of the surfaces are completely characterized by two parameters. If the surfaces are hydrophilic, liquid molecules are polarized at right angles to the surfaces, and the interaction is the short-range repulsion (the forces of interaction decrease exponentially over the characteristic length λ ≈ 0.2 nm). The interaction between the hydrophobic surfaces is more diversified and has been studied less. For L ≤ 3 nm, the interaction exhibits universal properties, while for L ≤ 3 nm, it considerably depends on the properties of the surfaces and on the distances between them, as well as on the composition of the polar liquid. In full agreement with the available experimental results we find that if the interfaces are mostly hydrophobic, then the interaction is attractive and long-range (the interaction forces diminish exponentially with decay length 1.2 nm). In this case, the resultant polarization of water molecules is parallel to the surface. It is shown that hydration forces are determined by nonlinear effects of polarization of the liquid in the bulk or by analogous nonlinearity of the interaction of water with a submerged body. This means that the forces of interaction cannot be calculated correctly in the linear response approximation. The forces acting between hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces are of the entropy type or electrostatic, respectively. It is shown that hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces for L ≤ 3 nm repel each other. The calculated intensity of their interaction is in agreement with experimental data. We predict the existence of an intermediate regime in which a body cannot order liquid molecules, which results in a much weaker attraction that

  8. Model building and phenomenology in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soo

    2008-09-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of grand unified theories (GUT) or the Planck scale. The simplest supersymmetric extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) solves several phenomenological problems, e. g. the gauge couplings unify and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a dark matter candidate. In this thesis, Jarlskog invariants, squark pair production at the LHC and massive neutrinos are discussed in the framework of the MSSM and its extensions. (orig.)

  9. Model building and phenomenology in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Jong Soo

    2008-09-15

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of grand unified theories (GUT) or the Planck scale. The simplest supersymmetric extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) solves several phenomenological problems, e. g. the gauge couplings unify and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a dark matter candidate. In this thesis, Jarlskog invariants, squark pair production at the LHC and massive neutrinos are discussed in the framework of the MSSM and its extensions. (orig.)

  10. How to develop a phenomenological model of disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke

    2015-01-01

    During recent decades various researchers from health and social sciences have been debating what it means for a person to be disabled. A rather overlooked approach has developed alongside this debate, primarily inspired by the philosophical tradition called phenomenology. This paper develops...... a phenomenological model of disability by arguing for a different methodological and conceptual framework from that used by the existing phenomenological approach. The existing approach is developed from the phenomenology of illness, but the paper illustrates how the case of congenital disabilities, looking...... at the congenital disorder called cerebral palsy (CP), presents a fundamental problem for the approach. In order to understand such congenital cases as CP, the experience of disability is described as being gradually different from, rather than a disruption of, the experience of being abled, and it is argued...

  11. Global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hairui; Su, Xinwu; Liang, Haiying; Xu, Yongli; Han, Yinlu; Shen, Qingbiao

    2017-09-01

    The global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha with the incident energy up to 400 MeV are obtained. The global phenomenological optical model potential is extracted by simultaneously fitting the experimental data of total reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions in the mass range of target nuclei 20 ≤ A ≤ 209. The microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both optical model potentials are used to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 209 at incident alpha energies up to 400 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data, and the calculated results by phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are also compared with each other.

  12. Global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hairui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha with the incident energy up to 400 MeV are obtained. The global phenomenological optical model potential is extracted by simultaneously fitting the experimental data of total reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions in the mass range of target nuclei 20 ≤ A ≤ 209. The microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both optical model potentials are used to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 209 at incident alpha energies up to 400 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data, and the calculated results by phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are also compared with each other.

  13. Phenomenological BRDF modeling for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafolla, James C.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Sullivan, Robert J.

    1997-09-01

    The application of analytical light scattering techniques for virtual prototyping the optical performance of paint coatings provides an effective tool for optimizing paint design for specific optical requirements. This paper describes the phenomenological basis for the scattering coatings computer aided design (ScatCad) code. The ScatCad code predicts the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR) of pigmented paint coatings for the purpose of coating design optimization. The code uses techniques for computing the pigment single scattering phase function, multiple scattering radiative transfer, and rough surface scattering to calculate the BRDF and HDR based on the fundamental optical properties of the pigment(s) and binder, pigment number density and size distribution, and surface roughness of the binder-interface and substrate. This is a significant enhancement to the two- flux, Kubelka-Munk analysis that has traditionally been used in the coatings industry. Example calculations and comparison with measurements are also presented.

  14. Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detection experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered in the ...

  15. Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detection experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered in the ...

  16. Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detec- tion experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered ...

  17. Phenomenology of the minimal $ SO (10) $ SUSY model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this talk I define what I call the minimal S O ( 10 ) SUSY model. I then discuss the phenomenological consequences of this theory, vis-a-vis gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, Higgs and super-particle masses, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, the decay B s → + − and dark matter.

  18. The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3) - Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for PSI phenomenology - the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (author)

  19. Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Newton [Physical Research Laboratory,Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Indian Institute of Technology,Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad-382424 (India); Ghosh, Monojit [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University,Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Goswami, Srubabati [Physical Research Laboratory,Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Gupta, Shivani [Center of Excellence for Particle Physics (CoEPP), University of Adelaide,Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia)

    2017-03-14

    We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to ∼ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet S are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, m{sub ν}, depends on the Dirac neutrino mass matrix (M{sub D}), Majorana neutrino mass matrix (M{sub R}) and the mass matrix (M{sub S}) coupling the right handed neutrinos and the singlet. The model predicts one of the light neutrino masses to vanish. We systematically investigate the zero textures in M{sub D} and observe that maximum five zeros in M{sub D} can lead to viable zero textures in m{sub ν}. For this study we consider four different forms for M{sub R} (one diagonal and three off diagonal) and two different forms of (M{sub S}) containing one zero. Remarkably we obtain only two allowed forms of m{sub ν} (m{sub eτ}=0 and m{sub ττ}=0) having inverted hierarchical mass spectrum. We re-analyze the phenomenological implications of these two allowed textures of m{sub ν} in the light of recent neutrino oscillation data. In the context of the MES model, we also express the low energy mass matrix, the mass of the sterile neutrino and the active-sterile mixing in terms of the parameters of the allowed Yukawa matrices. The MES model leads to some extra correlations which disallow some of the Yukawa textures obtained earlier, even though they give allowed one-zero forms of m{sub ν}. We show that the allowed textures in our study can be realized in a simple way in a model based on MES mechanism with a discrete Abelian flavor symmetry group Z{sub 8}×Z{sub 2}.

  20. Phenomenological and ontological models in natural science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Miloš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2007), s. 657-669 ISSN 1733-8026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : science in new age * mathematical models * microscopic world * ontological reflection Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. A phenomenological model of milk coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Osintsev, A.; Gromov, E.; Braginsky, V.

    2013-01-01

    A model of additional stabilization for the milk colloid system by means of the micelle electric charge arising owing to dissociation of micellar calcium caseinate is offered. The model allows comprehending the unique role of calcium in milk clotting and describing some features of coagulation temperature dependence, as well as explaining the nature of rennet, acid, heat-acid and heat-calcium coagulation within uniform concepts.

  2. Phenomenological network models: Lessons for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbink, Jurgen; Meijer, Hil; Huiskamp, Geertjan; van Gils, Stephan; Leijten, Frans

    2017-10-01

    The current opinion in epilepsy surgery is that successful surgery is about removing pathological cortex in the anatomic sense. This contrasts with recent developments in epilepsy research, where epilepsy is seen as a network disease. Computational models offer a framework to investigate the influence of networks, as well as local tissue properties, and to explore alternative resection strategies. Here we study, using such a model, the influence of connections on seizures and how this might change our traditional views of epilepsy surgery. We use a simple network model consisting of four interconnected neuronal populations. One of these populations can be made hyperexcitable, modeling a pathological region of cortex. Using model simulations, the effect of surgery on the seizure rate is studied. We find that removal of the hyperexcitable population is, in most cases, not the best approach to reduce the seizure rate. Removal of normal populations located at a crucial spot in the network, the "driver," is typically more effective in reducing seizure rate. This work strengthens the idea that network structure and connections may be more important than localizing the pathological node. This can explain why lesionectomy may not always be sufficient. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Phenomenological network models : Lessons for epilepsy surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebbink, Jurgen; Meijer, Hil; Huiskamp, Geertjan; van Gils, Stephanus A.; Leijten, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The current opinion in epilepsy surgery is that successful surgery is about removing pathological cortex in the anatomic sense. This contrasts with recent developments in epilepsy research, where epilepsy is seen as a network disease. Computational models offer a framework to investigate the

  4. Phenomenological Hints from a Class of String Motivated Model Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Nilles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We use string theory constructions towards the generalisation of the supersymmetric standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. Properties of the models depend crucially on the location of fields in extradimensional compact space. This allows us to extract some generic lessons for the phenomenological properties of the low energy effective action. Within this scheme we present a compelling model based on local grand unification and mirage mediation of supersymmetry breakdown. We analyse the properties of the specific model towards its possible tests at the LHC and the complementarity to direct dark matter searches.

  5. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  6. Phenomenology of non-universal gaugino masses and implications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    µ, and the ratio of the Higgs vacuum expectation values tan β. In general, the gaugino masses need not be equal at the GUT scale. In SUSY models, such as. SU(5) grand unified models, non-universal gaugino masses are generated by a non- singlet chiral superfield Φn that appears linearly in the gauge kinetic function f(Φ).

  7. Approximate deconvolution models of turbulence analysis, phenomenology and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Layton, William J

    2012-01-01

    This volume presents a mathematical development of a recent approach to the modeling and simulation of turbulent flows based on methods for the approximate solution of inverse problems. The resulting Approximate Deconvolution Models or ADMs have some advantages over more commonly used turbulence models – as well as some disadvantages. Our goal in this book is to provide a clear and complete mathematical development of ADMs, while pointing out the difficulties that remain. In order to do so, we present the analytical theory of ADMs, along with its connections, motivations and complements in the phenomenology of and algorithms for ADMs.

  8. Multiscale modeling of complex materials phenomenological, theoretical and computational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Trovalusci, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with materials science, theoretical mechanics and experimental and computational techniques at multiple scales, providing a sound base and a framework for many applications which are hitherto treated in a phenomenological sense. The basic principles are formulated of multiscale modeling strategies towards modern complex multiphase materials subjected to various types of mechanical, thermal loadings and environmental effects. The focus is on problems where mechanics is highly coupled with other concurrent physical phenomena. Attention is also focused on the historical origins of multiscale modeling and foundations of continuum mechanics currently adopted to model non-classical continua with substructure, for which internal length scales play a crucial role.

  9. Phenomenological modeling of long range noncontact friction in micro- and nanoresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, André

    2011-09-01

    Motivated by the results of an experiment using atomic force microscopy performed by Gotsmann and Fuchs [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2597 (2001)], where a strong energy loss due to the tip-sample interaction was measured, we investigate the potential implications of this energy loss channel to the quality factor of suspended micro- and nanoresonators. Because the observed tip-sample dissipation remains without a satisfactory theoretical explanation, two phenomenological models are proposed to generalize the experimental observations. In the minimal phenomenological model the range of validity of the power law found experimentally for the damping coefficient is assumed to be valid for larger separations. A more elaborate phenomenological model assumes that the noncontact friction is a consequence of the Casimir force acting between the closely spaced surfaces. Both models provide quantitative results for the noncontact friction between any two objects which are then used to estimate the energy loss for suspended bar micro- and nanoresonators. It is concluded that the energy loss due to the unknown mechanism has the potential to seriously restrict the quality factor of both micro- and nanoresonators.

  10. Identification and communication of uncertainties of phenomenological models in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    This report aims at presenting a view upon uncertainty analysis of phenomenological models with an emphasis on the identification and documentation of various types of uncertainties and assumptions in the modelling of the phenomena. In an uncertainty analysis, it is essential to include and document all unclear issues, in order to obtain a maximal coverage of unresolved issues. This holds independently on their nature or type of the issues. The classification of uncertainties is needed in the decomposition of the problem and it helps in the identification of means for uncertainty reduction. Further, an enhanced documentation serves to evaluate the applicability of the results to various risk-informed applications. (au)

  11. Twist decomposition of Drell-Yan structure functions: phenomenological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzemiński, Dawid [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,19 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Motyka, Leszek; Sadzikowski, Mariusz; Stebel, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-01-02

    The forward Drell-Yan process in pp scattering at the LHC at √S=14 TeV is considered. We analyze the Drell-Yan structure functions assuming the dominance of a Compton-like emission of a virtual photon from a fast quark scattering off the small x gluons. The color dipole framework is applied to perform quantitatively the twist decomposition of all the Drell-Yan structure functions. Two models of the color dipole scattering are applied: the Golec-Biernat-Wüsthoff model and the dipole cross section obtained from the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov evolution equation. The two models have essentially different higher twist content and the gluon transverse momentum distribution and lead to different significant effects beyond the collinear leading twist description. It is found that the gluon transverse momentum effects are significant in the Drell-Yan structure functions for all Drell-Yan pair masses M, and the higher twist effects become important for M≲10 GeV. It is found that the structure function W{sub TT} related to the A{sub 2} angular coefficient and the Lam-Tung observable A{sub 0}−A{sub 2} are particularly sensitive to the gluon k{sub T} effects and to the higher twist effects. A procedure is suggested how to disentangle the higher twist effects from the gluon transverse momentum effects.

  12. Light dark matter in NMSSM and implication on Higgs phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjie; Hikasa, Ken-ichi; Wang Wenyu; Yang Jinmin

    2011-01-01

    For the experimental search of neutralino dark matter, it is important to know its allowed mass and scattering cross section with the nucleon. In order to figure out how light a neutralino dark matter can be predicted in low energy supersymmetry, we scan over the parameter space of the NMSSM (next-to-minimal supersymmetric model), assuming all the relevant soft mass parameters to be below TeV scale. We find that in the parameter space allowed by current experiments the neutralino dark matter can be as light as a few GeV and its scattering rate off the nucleon can reach the sensitivity of XENON100 and CoGeNT. As a result, a sizable parameter space is excluded by the current XENON100 and CoGeNT data (the plausible CoGeNT dark matter signal can also be explained). The future 6000 kg-days exposure of XENON100 will further explore (but cannot completely cover) the remained parameter space. Moreover, we find that in such a light dark matter scenario a light CP-even or CP-odd Higgs boson must be present to satisfy the measured dark matter relic density. Consequently, the SM-like Higgs boson h SM may decay predominantly into a pair of light Higgs bosons or a pair of neutralinos so that the conventional decays like h SM →γγ is much suppressed.

  13. Phenomenological constraints on an R-symmetric supersymmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diessner, Philip; Stoeckinger, Dominik [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Kalinowski, Jan [Universitaet Warschau (Poland); Kotlarski, Wojciech [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Universitaet Warschau (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    R-Symmetry in an additional symmetry which can be imposed on an supersymmetric model. In the Minimal R-Symmetric Supersymmetric Standard Model (MRSSM) this symmetry is incorporated and leads to interesting phenomenological consequences like the prediction of Dirac Gauginos. With an extended Higgs sector in this model it is possible to find different scenarios which can accomodate a Standard Model-like Higgs with a mass of around 125 GeV even with the absence of stop mixing. In this talk, the analysis of the Higgs sector of the MRSSM is presented. Results from scans in the parameter space of the model are shown also taking into account other observables like the W-Boson mass and dark matter results. Also, differences and similarities of the MRSSM to the MSSM are discussed.

  14. Quark-flavour phenomenology of models with extended gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Gauge invariance is one of the fundamental principles of the Standard Model of particles and interactions, and it is reasonable to believe that it also regulates the physics beyond it. In this thesis we have studied the theory and phenomenology of two New Physics models based on gauge symmetries that are extensions of the Standard Model group. Both of them are particularly interesting because they provide some answers to the question of the origin of flavour, which is still unexplained. Moreover, the flavour sector represents a promising field for the research of indirect signatures of New Physics, since after the first run of LHC we do not have any direct hint of it yet. The first model assumes that flavour is a gauge symmetry of nature, SU(3) 3 f , spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation values of new scalar fields; the second model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X , the simplest non-abelian extension of the Standard Model group. We have traced the complete theoretical building of the models, from the gauge group, passing through the nonanomalous fermion contents and the appropriate symmetry breakings, up to the spectra and the Feynman rules, with a particular attention to the treatment of the flavour structure, of tree-level Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and of new CP-violating phases. In fact, these models present an interesting flavour phenomenology, and for both of them we have analytically calculated the contributions to the ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 down-type transitions, arising from new tree-level and box diagrams. Subsequently, we have performed a comprehensive numerical analysis of the phenomenology of the two models. In both cases we have found very effective the strategy of first to identify the quantities able to provide the strongest constraints to the parameter space, then to systematically scan the allowed regions of the latter in order to obtain indications about the key flavour observables, namely the mixing parameters of

  15. LHC phenomenology of composite 2-Higgs doublet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Curtis, Stefania [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Moretti, Stefano; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the phenomenology of Composite 2-Higgs doublet models (C2HDMs) of various Yukawa types based on the global symmetry breaking SO(6) → SO(4) x SO(2). The kinetic part and the Yukawa Lagrangian are constructed in terms of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (pNGB) matrix and a 6-plet of fermions under SO(6). The scalar potential is assumed to be the same as that of the Elementary 2-Higgs doublet model (E2HDM) with a softly broken discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. We then discuss the phenomenological differences between the E2HDM and C2HDM by focusing on the deviations from standard model (SM) couplings of the discovered Higgs state (h) as well as on the production cross sections and branching ratios (BRs) at the large Hadron collider (LHC) of extra Higgs bosons. We find that, even if the same deviation in the hVV (V = W,Z) coupling is assumed in the two scenarios, there appear significant differences between the E2HDM and C2HDM from the structure of the Yukawa couplings, so that production and decay features of extra Higgs bosons can be used to distinguish between the two scenarios. (orig.)

  16. Predicting bipolar disorder on the basis of phenomenology: implications for prevention and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Bargh, Danielle M; Coulston, Carissa M; Das, Pritha; Berk, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a multifaceted illness and there is often a substantial delay between the first onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Early detection has the potential to curtail illness progression and disorder-associated burden but it requires a clear understanding of the initial bipolar prodrome. This article summarizes the phenomenology of bipolar disorder with an emphasis on the initial prodrome, the evolution of the illness, and the implications for prevention and early intervention. A literature review was undertaken using Medline, Web of Science, and a hand search of relevant literature using keywords (e.g., phenomenology, initial or early symptoms, risk factors, and predictors/prediction). Findings from the literature were reviewed and synthesized and have been put into a clinical context. Bipolar disorder is a recurrent, persistent, and disabling illness that typically develops in adolescence or early adulthood. The literature search yielded 28 articles, in which mood lability, nonspecific, non-mood symptoms, and cyclothymic temperament were the most cited prodromal features. A small number of key prospective studies have provided evidence in support of an initial bipolar prodrome; however, methodological differences across studies have prohibited its clear delineation. It is, therefore, not currently possible to anticipate those who will develop bipolar disorder solely on the basis of early phenomenology. Accurate characterization of the bipolar disorder prodrome through high-quality, prospective research studies with adequate control groups will ultimately facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Phenomenological modeling of turbulence in Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, J.W.; Whitney, K.G.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    A phenomenological investigation into the effects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on the initial stagnation dynamics of aluminum wire array and argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions is performed. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled by using multipliers for these quantities in one-dimensional (1-D) MHD calculations. The major effect of these increases is to soften the 1-D implosions by decreasing the densities that are achieved on axis at stagnation. As a consequence, a set of multipliers can be found that reasonably duplicates the average electron temperatures, ion densities, and mass of the K-shell emission region that were measured at stagnation for a variety of Physics International aluminum wire array and argon gas puff experiments. It is determined that the dependence of these measured quantities on the multipliers is weak once a level of enhancement is reached, where agreement between calculations and experiments is attained. The scaling of K-shell yield with load mass for a fixed implosion velocity is then reexamined, and the minimum load mass needed to efficiently produce K-shell emission by thermalization of kinetic energy is calculated for aluminum and argon using this phenomenological soft implosion modeling. The results show an upward shift in the minimum mass by a factor of 6 when compared to the original nonturbulent hard implosion calculations

  18. Report of the Beyond the Standard Model Working Group of the 1999 UK Phenomenology Workshop on Collider Physics (Durham)

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Dedes, A; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hetherington, J; Heinemeyer, S; Holt, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Kalinowski, Jan; Kane, G; Kartvelishvili, V G; King, S F; Lola, S; McNulty, R; Parker, M A; Patel, G D; Ross, Graham G; Spira, Michael; Teixeira-Dias, P; Weiglein, Georg; Wilson, G; Womersley, J; Walker, P; Webber, Bryan R; Wyatt, T R

    2000-01-01

    The Beyond the Standard Model Working Group discussed a variety of topics relating to exotic searches at current and future colliders, and the phenomenology of current models beyond the Standard Model. For example, various supersymmetric (SUSY) and extra dimensions search possibilities and constraints are presented. Fine-tuning implications of SUSY searches are derived. The implications of Higgs (non)-discovery are discussed, as well as the program HDECAY. The individual contributions are included seperately. Much of the enclosed work is original, although some is reviewed.

  19. Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made

  20. A simple phenomenological model for time evolution of social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Wang, Q. A.; Li, W.; Cai, X.

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the maxim ”long union divides and long division unites”, a phenomenological model with the simplification of real social networks is proposed to explore the evolutionary features of these networks composed of the entities whose behaviors are dominated by two events: union and division. The nodes are endowed with some attributes such as identity, ingredient, richness, age and internal diversity, which determine collectively the evolution in a probabilistic way. Through the local interaction of two events, a stationary state of network is reached as a constant amount of nodes survive with no more event happened in the network, like a situation of tripartite confrontation. Besides, the number of survived nodes and the speed of network evolution can be controlled by two parameters.

  1. Higgs Phenomenology in the Standard Model and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Bryan Jonathan; Dawson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The way in which the electroweak symmetry is broken in nature is currently unknown. The electroweak symmetry is theoretically broken in the Standard Model by the Higgs mechanism which generates masses for the particle content and introduces a single scalar to the particle spectrum, the Higgs boson. This particle has not yet been observed and the value of it mass is a free parameter in the Standard Model. The observation of one (or more) Higgs bosons would confirm our understanding of the Standard Model. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of the Standard Model Higgs boson and compare its production observables to those of the Pseudoscalar Higgs boson and the lightest scalar Higgs boson of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model. We study the production at both the Fermilab Tevatron and the future CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the first part of the thesis, we present the results of our calculations in the framework of perturbative QCD. In the second part, we present our resummed calculations.

  2. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics,King’s College London,WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia, Marcos A.G. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy,University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics andAstronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, 77843 Texas (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, 77381 Texas (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, 10679 Athens (Greece); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy,University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  3. Characterisation of a phenomenological model for commercial pneumatic muscle actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, J L; Reynolds, D B; Phillips, C A; Gerschutz, M J; Repperger, D W

    2009-08-01

    This study focuses on the parameter characterisation of a three-element phenomenological model for commercially available pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). This model consists of a spring, damping and contractile element arranged in parallel. Data collected from static loading, contraction and relaxation experiments were fitted to theoretical solutions of the governing equation for the three-element model resulting in prediction profiles for the spring, damping and contractile force coefficient. For the spring coefficient, K N/mm, the following relationships were found: K = 32.7 - 0.0321P for 150 < or = P < or = 314 kPa and K = 17 + 0.0179P for 314 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. For the damping coefficient, B Ns/mm, the following relationship was found during contraction: B = 2.90 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. During relaxation, B = 1.57 for 150 < or = P < or = 372 kPa and B = 0.311 + 0.00338P for 372 < or = P < or = 550. The following relationship for the contractile force coefficient, F(ce) N, was also determined: F(ce) = 2.91P+44.6 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. The model was then validated by reasonably predicting the response of the PMA to a triangular wave input in pressure under a constant load on a dynamic test station.

  4. Phenomenological comparison of models with extended Higgs sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlleitner, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the Standard Model (SM) extensions usually include extended Higgs sectors. Models with singlet or doublet fields are the simplest ones that are compatible with the ρ parameter constraint. The discovery of new non-SM Higgs bosons and the identification of the underlying model requires dedicated Higgs properties analyses. In this paper, we compare several Higgs sectors featuring 3 CP-even neutral Higgs bosons that are also motivated by their simplicity and their capability to solve some of the flaws of the SM. They are: the SM extended by a complex singlet field (C x SM), the singlet extension of the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (N2HDM), and the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric SM extension (NMSSM). In addition, we analyse the CP-violating 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (C2HDM), which provides 3 neutral Higgs bosons with a pseudoscalar admixture. This allows us to compare the effects of singlet and pseudoscalar admixtures. Through dedicated scans of the allowed parameter space of the models, we analyse the phenomenologically viable scenarios from the view point of the SM-like Higgs boson and of the signal rates of the non-SM-like Higgs bosons to be found. In particular, we analyse the effect of singlet/pseudoscalar admixture, and the potential to differentiate these models in the near future. This is supported by a study of couplings sums of the Higgs bosons to massive gauge bosons and to fermions, where we identify features that allow us to distinguish the models, in particular when only part of the Higgs spectrum is discovered. Our results can be taken as guidelines for future LHC data analyses, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, to identify specific benchmark points aimed at revealing the underlying model.

  5. Collider phenomenology of technihadrons in the technicolor straw man model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Kenneth; Mrenna, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest SU(3) C singlet and nonsinglet technihadrons in the straw man model of low-scale technicolor (TCSM). The technihadrons are assumed to be those arising in top-color-assisted technicolor models in which top-color is broken by technifermion condensates. We improve upon the description of the color-singlet sector presented in our earlier paper introducing the TCSM [K. Lane, Phys. Rev. D 60, 075007 (1999)]. These improvements are most important for subprocess energies well below the masses of the ρ T and ω T vector technihadrons and, therefore, apply especially to e + e - colliders such as CERN LEP and a low-energy linear collider. In the color-octet sector, we consider mixing of the gluon, the coloron V 8 from top-color breaking, and four isosinglet color-octet technirho mesons ρ T8 . We assume, as expected in walking technicolor, that these ρ T8 decay into q-barq, gg, and gπ T final states, but not into π T π T , where π T is a technipion. All the TCSM production and decay processes discussed here are included in the event generator PYTHIA. We present several simulations appropriate for the Fermilab Tevatron collider, and suggest benchmark model lines for further experimental investigation

  6. Using phenomenological models for forecasting the 2015 Ebola challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Pell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. Materials and methods: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models. In particular, we systematically compare the logistic growth model and a recently introduced generalized Richards model (GRM that captures a range of early epidemic growth profiles ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth. Specifically, we assess the performance of each model for estimating the reproduction number, generate short-term forecasts of the epidemic trajectory, and predict the final epidemic size. Results: During the challenge the logistic equation consistently underestimated the final epidemic size, peak timing and the number of cases at peak timing with an average mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 0.49, 0.36 and 0.40, respectively. Post-challenge, the GRM which has the flexibility to reproduce a range of epidemic growth profiles ranging from early sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics outperformed the logistic growth model in ascertaining the final epidemic size as more incidence data was made available, while the logistic model underestimated the final epidemic even with an increasing amount of data of the evolving epidemic. Incidence forecasts provided by the generalized Richards model performed better across all scenarios and time points than the logistic growth model with mean RMS decreasing from 78.00 (logistic to 60.80 (GRM. Both models provided reasonable predictions of the effective reproduction number, but the GRM slightly outperformed the logistic growth model with a MAPE of 0

  7. A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2)  = 0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V., E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: dimitri@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 Texas (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0} = B{sub 0} = A{sub 0} = 0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0} ≠ 0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0} = B{sub 0} + m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2} ≠ 0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  9. Phenomenological Model of Current Sheet Canting in Pulsed Electromagnetic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markusic, Thomas; Choueiri, E. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of current sheet canting in pulsed electromagnetic accelerators is the departure of the plasma sheet (that carries the current) from a plane that is perpendicular to the electrodes to one that is skewed, or tipped. Review of pulsed electromagnetic accelerator literature reveals that current sheet canting is a ubiquitous phenomenon - occurring in all of the standard accelerator geometries. Developing an understanding of current sheet canting is important because it can detract from the propellant sweeping capabilities of current sheets and, hence, negatively impact the overall efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic accelerators. In the present study, it is postulated that depletion of plasma near the anode, which results from axial density gradient induced diamagnetic drift, occurs during the early stages of the discharge, creating a density gradient normal to the anode, with a characteristic length on the order of the ion skin depth. Rapid penetration of the magnetic field through this region ensues, due to the Hall effect, leading to a canted current front ahead of the initial current conduction channel. In this model, once the current sheet reaches appreciable speeds, entrainment of stationary propellant replenishes plasma in the anode region, inhibiting further Hall-convective transport of the magnetic field; however, the previously established tilted current sheet remains at a fairly constant canting angle for the remainder of the discharge cycle, exerting a transverse J x B force which drives plasma toward the cathode and accumulates it there. This proposed sequence of events has been incorporated into a phenomenological model. The model predicts that canting can be reduced by using low atomic mass propellants with high propellant loading number density; the model results are shown to give qualitative agreement with experimentally measured canting angle mass dependence trends.

  10. Selected topics in phenomenology of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    These lectures cover some aspects of phenomenology of topics in high energy physics which advertise the success of the standard model in dealing with a wide variety of experimental data. First we begin with a look at deep inelastic scattering. This tells us about the structure of the nucleon, which is understood in terms of the SU(3) gauge theory of QCD, which then allows the information on quark and gluon distributions to be carried over to other 'hard' processes such as hadronic production of jets. Recent data on electroweak processes can estimate the value of Sin 2 θw to a precision where the inclusion of radiative corrections allow bounds to be made on the mass of the top quark. Electroweak effects arise in e + e - collisions, but we first present a review of the recent history of this topic within the context of QCD. We bring the subject up to date with a look at the physics at (or near) the Z pole where the measurement of asymmetries can give more information. We look at the conventional description of quark mixing by the CKM matrix and see how the mixing parameters are systematically being extracted from a variety of reactions and decays. In turn, the values can be used to set bounds on the top quark mass. The matter of CP violation in weak interactions is addressed within the context of the standard model, recent data on ε'/ε being the source of current excitement. Finally, we at the theoretical description and experimental efforts to search for the top quark. (author)

  11. Parametric analysis of a phenomenological model for vortex-induced motions of monocolumn platforms

    OpenAIRE

    ROSETTI, Guilherme F.; GONÇALVES, Rodolfo T.; FUJARRA, André L. C.; NISHIMOTO, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Phenomenological models are an important branch in VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibrations) and in VIM (Vortex-Induced Motions) studies to complement the results achieved via CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), as the latter tool is not presently a suitable tool for intense use in engineering analysis, due to high computer power requirements. A phenomenological model for evaluating the VIM on monocolumn platforms is presented and its results are compared with experimental ones. The main objective is t...

  12. LHC phenomenology of the three-site Higgsless model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckner, Christian

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, extra dimensional models have been proposed which can evade these constraints by delocalizing the Standard Model fermions within the extra dimension, thus allowing to tune the couplings to the new resonances in order to avoid these constraints. This way, such models are a viable method of breaking the electroweak symmetry and retaining perturbative TeV scale unitarity without introducing a fundamental Higgs field. However, extra dimensional models (excluding trivial cases) are intrinsically nonrenormalizable and valid only below a cutoff scale, with most of the new resonances lying in fact above the cutoff. Conceptionally, a honest extension of the Standard Model should only contain the structure below this cutoff, incorporating the extra dimensional mechanism of breaking the symmetry and delaying unitarity violation without making assumptions on the high energy physics above the cutoff scale. The Three-Site Higgsless Model is a minimal implementation of this idea. While it can be motivated by extra dimensional Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking, it in fact contains only one set of extra resonances which lies below the cutoff, delaying unitarity violation to {approx}2-3 TeV. The non-Standard Model part of the spectrum consists of a set of heavy partners for all Standard Model particles with the exception of photon and gluon. The analysis of the experimental constraints reveals that, while the model is consistent with the precision observables, the couplings between the new heavy gauge bosons and the Standard Model fermions have to be exceedingly small ({approx}1% of the isospin gauge coupling) while the new fermions are constrained to be rather heavy with masses above 1.8 TeV. In this thesis, we explored the LHC phenomenology of this scenario. To this end, we calculated the couplings and widths of all the new particles and implemented the model into the Monte-Carlo event generator and WHIZARD / O'Mega. With this implementation

  13. LHC phenomenology of the three-site Higgsless model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, extra dimensional models have been proposed which can evade these constraints by delocalizing the Standard Model fermions within the extra dimension, thus allowing to tune the couplings to the new resonances in order to avoid these constraints. This way, such models are a viable method of breaking the electroweak symmetry and retaining perturbative TeV scale unitarity without introducing a fundamental Higgs field. However, extra dimensional models (excluding trivial cases) are intrinsically nonrenormalizable and valid only below a cutoff scale, with most of the new resonances lying in fact above the cutoff. Conceptionally, a honest extension of the Standard Model should only contain the structure below this cutoff, incorporating the extra dimensional mechanism of breaking the symmetry and delaying unitarity violation without making assumptions on the high energy physics above the cutoff scale. The Three-Site Higgsless Model is a minimal implementation of this idea. While it can be motivated by extra dimensional Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking, it in fact contains only one set of extra resonances which lies below the cutoff, delaying unitarity violation to ∼2-3 TeV. The non-Standard Model part of the spectrum consists of a set of heavy partners for all Standard Model particles with the exception of photon and gluon. The analysis of the experimental constraints reveals that, while the model is consistent with the precision observables, the couplings between the new heavy gauge bosons and the Standard Model fermions have to be exceedingly small (∼1% of the isospin gauge coupling) while the new fermions are constrained to be rather heavy with masses above 1.8 TeV. In this thesis, we explored the LHC phenomenology of this scenario. To this end, we calculated the couplings and widths of all the new particles and implemented the model into the Monte-Carlo event generator and WHIZARD / O'Mega. With this implementation, we simulated

  14. Introduction to special section on phenomenology, underlying processes, and hazard implications of aseismic slip and nonvolcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the special section on the "phenomenology, underlying processes, and hazard implications of aseismic slip and nonvolcanic tremor" by highlighting key results of the studies published in it. Many of the results indicate that seismic and aseismic manifestations of slow slip reflect transient shear displacements on the plate interface, with the outstanding exception of northern Cascadia where tremor sources have been located on and above the plate interface (differing models of the plate interface there also need to be reconciled). Slow slip phenomena appear to result from propagating deformation that may develop with persistent gaps and segment boundaries. Results add to evidence that when tectonic deformation is relaxed via slow slip, most relaxation occurs aseismically but with seismic signals providing higher-resolution proxies for the aseismic slip. Instead of two distinct slip modes as suggested previously, lines between "fast" and "slow" slip more appropriately may be described as blurry zones. Results reported also show that slow slip sources do not coincide with a specific temperature or metamorphic reaction. Their associations with zones of high conductivity and low shear to compressional wave velocity ratios corroborate source models involving pore fluid pressure buildup and release. These models and spatial anticorrelations between earthquake and tremor activity also corroborate a linkage between slow slip and frictional properties transitional between steady state and stick-slip. Finally, this special section highlights the benefits of global and multidisciplinary studies, which demonstrate that slow phenomena are not confined to beneath the locked zone but exist in many settings.

  15. Gauged R-symmetry and its anomalies in 4D N=1 supergravity and phenomenological implications

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I.; Knoops, R.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of models with gauged U(1)_R symmetry in 4D N=1 supergravity that have, at the classical level, a metastable ground state, an infinitesimally small (tunable) positive cosmological constant and a TeV gravitino mass. We analyse if these properties are maintained under the addition of visible sector (MSSM-like) and hidden sector state(s), where the latter may be needed for quantum consistency. We then discuss the anomaly cancellation conditions in supergravity as derived by Freedman, Elvang and K\\"ors and apply their results to the special case of a U(1)_R symmetry, in the presence of the Fayet-Iliopoulos term ($\\xi$) and Green-Schwarz mechanism(s). We investigate the relation of these anomaly cancellation conditions to the "naive" field theory approach in global SUSY, in which case U(1)_R cannot even be gauged. We show the two approaches give similar conditions. Their induced constraints at the phenomenological level, on the above models, remain strong even if one lifted the GUT-like conditi...

  16. Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, Jamil

    2015-02-04

    The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R}. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model. We find that the trinification model predicts that several new scalar particles have masses in the O(100 GeV) range. Moreover, large regions of the parameter space lead to measurable deviations from Standard-Model predictions of the Higgs couplings. Hence the trinification model awaits crucial tests at the Large Hadron Collider in the coming years.

  17. Global phenomenological optical model potential for the 7Li projectile nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongli; Han, Yinlu; Hu, Jiaqi; Liang, Haiying; Wu, Zhendong; Guo, Hairui; Cai, Chonghai

    2018-01-01

    A new global phenomenological optical model potential for the 7Li projectile is derived from the available experimental data of elastic-scattering angular distributions and reaction cross sections from 27Al to 208Pb with incident energies below 200 MeV. It is based on a smooth, unique functional form for the energy dependence of the potential depths, and physically constrained geometry parameters. The elastic-scattering angular distributions and reaction cross sections for other targets are also predicted by the obtained 7Li global phenomenological optical model potential at different incident energies. These results are further compared with the corresponding experimental data. The performance shows that the 7Li global phenomenological optical model potential can give a satisfactory description for 7Li elastic scattering.

  18. Ab Initio and Phenomenological Modeling of the Phonon Spectrum of Superhard cp-BC2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalaev, Yu. M.; Kopytov, A. V.; Pavlova, T. Yu.; Poplavnoi, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The phonon spectrum of hypothetical superhard cp-BC2N is calculated based on ab initio method of density functional in the center of the Brillouin zone and interpolated over the entire Brillouin zone using the Keating phenomenological model. The interaction parameters are determined by optimization of the IR- and Ramanactive frequencies for a phenomenological model by their comparison with the results of ab initio calculations. Numerical values of short-range interaction constants and charges are in agreement with the characteristics of the chemical bond calculated ab initio. These parameters have transparent physical meaning and chemical nature and can further be used for both qualitative estimations of any physical and physico-chemical quantities and quantitative calculations of the phonon spectra of a number of isostructural compounds. The Keating phenomenological model is used to study the genesis of the phonon spectrum from the spectra of sublattices.

  19. String phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.

  20. Synesthesia and the Phenomenological Experience: Implications for Ecological Mindfulness and Beginning Scholars in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Phenomenological experiences based on an openness to the synesthesia of natural environments are a powerful pathway to the development of erotic relationships with and within a place. These relationships are beneficial for beginning scholars and those taking new jobs who find themselves adapting to a new place and career. First, I describe the…

  1. Phenomenological implications of D3/D7 (reversed) µ-split-like ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    Jan 5, 2016 ... electronic EDM close to the experimental upper bounds. Keywords. Split supersymmetry; Calabi–Yau; gravitino dark matter; (N)LSP decays; electric dipole moment. PACS Nos 12.60.Jv; 11.25.Wx; 14.80.Ly; 12.10.−g. 1. Introduction. One of the greatest challenges in string phenomenology is to relate its ...

  2. Conceptualizing the Phenomenology of Movement in Physical Education: Implications for Pedagogical Inquiry and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trent; Payne, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    There is increased phenomenological interest, philosophical and empirical, in the meaning and meaning-making dimensions of the experience of movement in physical education (Kentel & Dobson, 2007; Kretchmar, 2000a; Loland, 2006; Smith, 2007; Whitehead, 1990). This scholarly concern about the qualities and characteristics of movement shifts the…

  3. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate Instructors Using the Inverted or Flipped Classroom Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna F.

    2012-01-01

    The changing educational needs of undergraduate students have not been addressed with a corresponding development of instructional methods in higher education classrooms. This study used a phenomenological approach to investigate a classroom-based instructional model called the "inverted" or "flipped" classroom. The flipped…

  4. A phenomenological model for pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D H; Zhu, W

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize the hysteretic characteristics between the output displacement and applied voltage of pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators (PCSAs), this paper considers that a linear force and a hysteretic force will be generated by a linear extension and a hysteretic extension, respectively, due to the applied voltage to a pre-stressed PCSA and the total force will result in the forced vibration of the single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) system composed of the mass of the pre-stressed PCSA and the equivalent spring and damper of the pre-stressed mechanism, which lets the PCSA be pre-stressed to endure enough tension. On this basis, the phenomenological model to characterize the hysteretic behavior of the pre-stressed PCSA is put forward by using the Bouc–Wen hysteresis operator to model the hysteretic extension. The parameter identification method in a least-squares sense is established by identifying the parameters for the linear and hysteretic components separately with the step and periodic responses of the pre-stressed PCSA, respectively. The performance of the proposed phenomenological model with the corresponding parameter identification method is experimentally verified by the established experimental set-up. The research results show that the phenomenological model for the pre-stressed PCSA with the corresponding parameter identification method can accurately portray the hysteretic characteristics of the pre-stressed PCSA. In addition, the phenomenological model for PCSAs can be deduced from the phenomenological model for pre-stressed PCSAs by removing the terms related to the pre-stressed mechanisms

  5. Dynamic influent pollutant disturbance scenario generation using a phenomenological modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Rosen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and concentration time series representing realistic wastewater influent dynamics. In this paper, a simple phenomenological modelling approach is proposed as an alternative to generate dynamic influent pollutant disturbance scenarios. The presented set of models is constructed following the principles of parsimony...... block for flow rate generation, 2) model block for pollutants generation (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus), 3) model block for temperature generation and 4) model block for transport of water and pollutants. The paper is illustrated with the results obtained during the development of the dynamic......: the larger the simulated sewer network, the smoother the simulated diurnal flow rate and concentration variations. In the discussion, it is pointed out how the proposed phenomenological models can be expanded to other applications, for example to represent heavy metal or organic micro-pollutant loads...

  6. Phenomenological implications of D3/D7 (reversed) µ-split-like ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    Jan 5, 2016 ... Split supersymmetry; Calabi–Yau; gravitino dark matter; (N)LSP decays; electric dipole moment. PACS Nos 12.60.Jv; 11.25.Wx; 14.80.Ly; 12.10.−g. 1. Introduction. One of the greatest challenges in string phenomenology is to relate its parameters to the observables in the low-energy physics world, i.e., ...

  7. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  8. Phenomenological Models for Landscape Signatures: Review and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballard, Jerrell

    2004-01-01

    ... sensors that are commonly applied to the mine detection problem (either surface or buried). The report lists important predictive high-resolution atmospheric, environmental, and geophysical models...

  9. Physics beyond the Standard Model and Collider Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Burikham, P

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the Standard Model of the particle physics focussing on the gauge hierachy problem and the naturalness problem regarding the stabilization of the light Higgs mass. We list the alternative models which address the hierachy problem in addition to conventional Supersymmetric models and Composite models. They include extra dimensional models and Little Higgs models. We investigate the production of heavy $W_{H}$ at the linear $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider at high centre-of-mass energies at 3 and 5 TeV using the Littlest Higgs model where the global group is $SU(5)/SO(5)$. In certain region of the parameter space, the heavy boson induced signals could be distinguishable from the Standard Model background. Based on tree-level open-string scattering amplitudes in the low string-scale scenario, we derive the massless fermion scattering amplitudes. The amplitudes are required to reproduce those of the Standard Model at tree level in the low energy limit. We then obtain four-fermion contact interactions by ex...

  10. Modeling theoretical uncertainties in phenomenological analyses for particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Niess, Valentin [CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6533, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-04-15

    The determination of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (and its extensions) is often limited by the presence of statistical and theoretical uncertainties. We present several models for the latter uncertainties (random, nuisance, external) in the frequentist framework, and we derive the corresponding p values. In the case of the nuisance approach where theoretical uncertainties are modeled as biases, we highlight the important, but arbitrary, issue of the range of variation chosen for the bias parameters. We introduce the concept of adaptive p value, which is obtained by adjusting the range of variation for the bias according to the significance considered, and which allows us to tackle metrology and exclusion tests with a single and well-defined unified tool, which exhibits interesting frequentist properties. We discuss how the determination of fundamental parameters is impacted by the model chosen for theoretical uncertainties, illustrating several issues with examples from quark flavor physics. (orig.)

  11. Synesthesia and the phenomenological experience: implications for ecological mindfulness and beginning scholars in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Rachel A.

    2015-03-01

    Phenomenological experiences based on an openness to the synesthesia of natural environments are a powerful pathway to the development of erotic relationships with and within a place. These relationships are beneficial for beginning scholars and those taking new jobs who find themselves adapting to a new place and career. First, I describe the value and formation of erotic relationships and how they can be constructed through synesthesia and the phenomenological experience through my understanding of the ocean Other. Second, I describe how I have used mindfulness and lived experiences in the natural world to mediate the demands of being a new faculty, and how these provide a pathway to develop and foster relationships that are mutually beneficial and conserving. Among other sustaining qualities, mindfully experiencing natural phenomena reduce stress and increase mental function and emotional well-being. These experiences also connect us with the larger community, where we gain a sense of belonging, more readily establish roots and reasons for care of the Other that sustains us.

  12. Numerical/phenomenological model for fatigue life prediction of hybrid laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadej, Konrad; Surowska, Barbara; Bieniaś, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the fatigue stress-cycle (S-N) curves of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) were investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed on unidirectional specimens and the S-N curves for GFRP and CFRP materials were determined. Obtained S-N curves were next described by phenomenological model (PM) based on mathematical function containing convexity and concavity ranges of stress-cycle curve. Based on the PM and numerical static analyses performed in ABAQUS/Standard on hybrid glass-carbon fiber reinforced polymer, the fatigue S-N curve was predicted for this material. Numerical/phenomenological model predictions were validated by experimental tests, where good agreement was obtained in the field of static tensile strength, shape of S-N curve and infinite fatigue life.

  13. Phenomenological aspects of possible vacua of a neutrino flavor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yusuke; Takagi, Kenta; Umeeda, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a supersymmetric model with discrete flavor symmetry {A}4× {Z}3. The additional scalar fields which contribute masses of leptons in the Yukawa terms are introduced in this model. We analyze their scalar potential and find that they have various vacuum structures. We show the relations among 24 different vacua and classify them into two types. We derive expressions of the lepton mixing angles, Dirac CP violating phase and Majorana phases for the two types. The model parameters which are allowed by the experimental data of the lepton mixing angles are different for each type. We also study the constraints on the model parameters which are related to Majorana phases. The different allowed regions of the model parameters for the two types are shown numerically for a given region of two combinations of the CP violating phases. Supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K05418 (T.M.). This work is also supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research [No. 16J05332 (Y.S.), Nos. 24540272, 26247038, 15H01037, 16H00871, and 16H02189 (H.U.)] from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. H.O. is also supported by Hiroshima Univ. Alumni Association

  14. Reproducing Phenomenology of Peroxidation Kinetics via Model Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Bashylau, Anton V.

    2010-06-01

    We studied mathematical modeling of lipid peroxidation using a biochemical model system of iron (II)-ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat hepatocyte mitochondrial fractions. We found that antioxidants extracted from plants demonstrate a high intensity of peroxidation inhibition. We simplified the system of differential equations that describes the kinetics of the mathematical model to a first order equation, which can be solved analytically. Moreover, we endeavor to algorithmically and heuristically recreate the processes and construct an environment that closely resembles the corresponding natural system. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to theoretically predict both the kinetics of oxidation and the intensity of inhibition without resorting to analytical and biochemical research, which is important for cost-effective discovery and development of medical agents with antioxidant action from the medicinal plants.

  15. Seniority mappings for probing phenomenological nuclear boson models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kock, E.A.

    1988-12-01

    The interacting boson model (IBM) and interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM) are discussed. The main ideas of boson mapping of fermion systems are introduced using Holstein-Primakoff and Dyson-Maleev mappings of angular momentum operators. Generalized Dyson-Maleev (GDM) and Holstein-Primakoff (GHP) mappings are included. In fermoin problems, the degrees of freedom of collective motion are described by a collective subalgebra of the complete bifermion subalgebra. GDM mapping of Sp(6) generators, the transformation to collect bosons and truncation to these bosons led to collective sd-boson realization of Sp(6) algebra. This resulted in an IBM-like description of the collective subspace. Non-hermitian and existing hermitian forms are indicated in the assumed structure of an IBM Hamiltonian Boson mapping based on seniority considerations and involving single-j shell approximations of the shell model are examined. One method utilized truncation of a shell model space to a space spanned by monopole (S) and quadrupole (D) pairs. The association between states in truncated fermion and sd-boson spaces constructs boson images of fermion operators by equating boson and fermion matrix elements. To obtain boson images with IBM-like structures, a zero-order approximation was adopted. This approximation retains only N-body terms in the images of N-body fermion operators. A similarity transformation re-expressing GDM images of single-j shell fermion operators in seniority bosons was applied to the GDM image of a general shell model Hamiltonian. Numerical results for the surface-delta interaction show that truncation to s- and d-bosons in the seniority image of a two-body operator is not allowed if N≥2. This transformation was extended to odd fermion systems and applied to the image of the quadrupole pairing interaction. 79 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Selected topics in phenomenology of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    We begin with the structure of the proton which is revealed through deep inelastic scattering of nucleons by electron/muon or neutrino scattering off nucleons. The quark parton model is described which leads on to the interaction of quarks and gluons - quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From this parton distributions can be extracted and then fed into the quark parton description of hadron-hadron collisions. In this way we analyse large p T jet production, prompt photon production and dilepton, W and Z production (Drell-Yan mechanism), ending with a study of heavy quark production. W and Z physics is then discussed. The various definitions at the tree level of sin 2 θ w are listed and then the radiative corrections to these are briefly considered. The data from European Large Electron-Positron storage rings (LEP) then allow limits to be set on the mass of the top quark and the Higgs via these corrections. Standard model predictions for the various Z widths are compared with the latest LEP data. Electroweak effects in e + e - scattering are discussed together with the extraction of the various vector and axial-vector couplings involved. We return to QCD when the production of jets in e + e - is studied. Both the LEP and lower energy data are able to give quantitative estimates of the strong coupling α s and the consistency of the various estimates and those from other QCD processes are discussed. The value of α s (M z ) actually plays an important role in setting the scale of the possible supersymmetry (SUSY) physics beyond the standard model. Finally the subject of quark mixing is addressed. How the the values of the various CKM matrix elements are derived is discussed together with a very brief look at the charge-parity (CP) violation and how the standard model is standing up to the latest measurements of ε'/ε. (Author)

  17. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODELS UNCERTAINTIES FOR TURBIDITY CURRENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira da Costa, Henrique José; Rochinha, Fernando Alves

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Turbidity currents have significantly contributed to the formation of oil reservoirs through massive transport and deposition of sediments in the offshore area during the past geological era. That motivates the seek for understanding these complex flows composed of carrier and disperse phases. In this regard, numerical simulations can be of great help in understanding the complex underlying physics of those turbulent flows. Two-fluid models allow the explicit consideration of both p...

  18. Phenomenological study of in the minimal model at LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M Balasubramaniam

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... where the terms on the RHS are the scalar, Yang–Mills. (YM)/gauge, fermion and Yukawa parts respectively. 2.2.1 Scalar ... 2.2.2 Yang–Mills/gauge sector. The non-Abelian field strengths of this model are the same as in the ... anomalies of the theory. Therefore, the B−L gauge extension of the SM gauge.

  19. A phenomenological model of the growth of two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, R W; Parker, N G; Proukakis, N P

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a phenomenological mean-field model to describe the growth of immiscible two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates towards some equilibrium. Our model is based on the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the addition of dissipative terms to account for growth. While our model may be applied generally, we take a recent Rb-Cs experiment [McCarron et al., Phys. Rev. A 84 011603(R) (2011)] as a case study. As the condensates grow, they can pass through ranging transient density structures which can be distinct from the equilibrium states, although such a model always predicts the predominance of one condensate species over longer evolution times.

  20. Interaction Design for and with the Lived Body: Some Implications of Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, Paul Dourish proposed the term embodied interaction to describe a new paradigm for interaction design that focuses on the physical, bodily, and social aspects of our interaction with digital technology. Dourish used Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of perception as the theoretical basis...... for his discussion of the bodily nature of embodied interaction. This article extends Dourish’s work to introduce the human-computer interaction community to ideas related to Merleau-Ponty’s concept of the lived body. It also provides a detailed analysis of two related topics: (1) embodied perception......: the active and embodied nature of perception, including the body’s ability to extent its sensory apparatus through digital technology; and (2) kinaesthetic creativity: the body’s ability to relate in a direct and creative fashion with the “feel” dimension of interactive products during the design process....

  1. CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why

  2. Models of light singlet fermion and neutrino phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, E.J.; Joshipura, A.S.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1995-05-01

    We suggest that a single fermion S exists beyond the standard see-saw structure. It mixes with light neutrinos via interactions with the right-handed neutrino components, so that ν e → S conversion solves the solar neutrino problem. Supersymmetry endowed with R-symmetry is shown to give a natural framework for existence, mass scale (∼ 3 · 10 -3 eV) and mixing (sin 2 2θ es ∼ (0.1 - 1.5) · 10 -2 ) of such a fermion. Models with an approximate horizontal symmetry are constructed, which embed the fermion S and explain simultaneously solar, atmospheric, hot dark matter problems as well as may predict the oscillation ν-bar μ → ν-bar e in the region of sensitivity of KARMEN and LSND experiments. (author). 24 refs

  3. Evaluation of the Predictive Capabilities of a Phenomenological Combustion Model for Natural Gas SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toman Rastislav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the predictive capabilities of a new phenomenological combustion model, available as a part of the GT-Suite software package. It is comprised of two main sub-models: 0D model of in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and turbulent SI combustion model. The 0D in-cylinder flow model (EngCylFlow uses a combined K-k-ε kinetic energy cascade approach to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence, where K and k are the mean and turbulent kinetic energies, and ε is the turbulent dissipation rate. The subsequent turbulent combustion model (EngCylCombSITurb gives the in-cylinder burn rate; based on the calculation of flame speeds and flame kernel development. This phenomenological approach reduces significantly the overall computational effort compared to the 3D-CFD, thus allowing the computation of full engine operating map and the vehicle driving cycles. Model was calibrated using a full map measurement from a turbocharged natural gas SI engine, with swirl intake ports. Sensitivity studies on different calibration methods, and laminar flame speed sub-models were conducted. Validation process for both the calibration and sensitivity studies was concerning the in-cylinder pressure traces and burn rates for several engine operation points achieving good overall results.

  4. Psychosocial implications of tubal ligation in a rural health district: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutala, Prosper M; Hugo, Jannie F; Luhiriri, Levi N

    2011-12-16

    Tubal ligation is the most popular family planning method worldwide. While its benefits, such as effectiveness in protecting against pregnancies, minimal need for long-term follow-up and low side-effects profile are well documented, it has many reported complications. However, to date, these complications have not been described by residents in Congo. Therefore, the study aimed at exploring the experience of women who had undergone tubal ligation, focusing on perceptions of physical, psychological and contextual experiences of participants. This qualitative study used a semi-structured questionnaire in a phenomenological paradigm to collect data. Fifteen participants were purposefully selected among sterilized women who had a ligation procedure performed, were aged between 30 and 40 years, and were living within the catchment area of the district hospital. Data were collected by two registered nurses, tape-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Reading and re-reading cut and paste techniques, and integration were used to establish codes, categories, themes, and description. Diverse and sometimes opposite changes in somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms, productivity, ecological relationships, doctor-client relationships, ethical issues, and change of life style were the major problem domains. Clients reported conflicting experiences in several areas of their lives after tubal sterilization. Management, including awareness of the particular features of the client, is needed to decrease the likelihood of psychosocial morbidity and/or to select clients in need of sterilization.

  5. Psychosocial implications of tubal ligation in a rural health district: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tubal ligation is the most popular family planning method worldwide. While its benefits, such as effectiveness in protecting against pregnancies, minimal need for long-term follow-up and low side-effects profile are well documented, it has many reported complications. However, to date, these complications have not been described by residents in Congo. Therefore, the study aimed at exploring the experience of women who had undergone tubal ligation, focusing on perceptions of physical, psychological and contextual experiences of participants. Methods This qualitative study used a semi-structured questionnaire in a phenomenological paradigm to collect data. Fifteen participants were purposefully selected among sterilized women who had a ligation procedure performed, were aged between 30 and 40 years, and were living within the catchment area of the district hospital. Data were collected by two registered nurses, tape-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Reading and re-reading cut and paste techniques, and integration were used to establish codes, categories, themes, and description. Results Diverse and sometimes opposite changes in somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms, productivity, ecological relationships, doctor-client relationships, ethical issues, and change of life style were the major problem domains. Conclusions Clients reported conflicting experiences in several areas of their lives after tubal sterilization. Management, including awareness of the particular features of the client, is needed to decrease the likelihood of psychosocial morbidity and/or to select clients in need of sterilization.

  6. Crossing symmetry and phenomenological widths in effective Lagrangian models of the pion photoproduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-21

    We investigate the importance of crossing symmetry in effective field models and the effects of phenomenological nucleon resonance widths on the paradigmatic case of pion photoproduction. We use reaction models containing four star resonances up to 1.8 GeV ({delta}(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), {delta}(1620), N(1650), {delta}(1700), and N(1720)) with different prescriptions for crossed terms and widths, to fit the latest world database on pion photoproduction. We compare {chi}{sup 2} results from selected multipoles and fits. The {chi}{sup 2} is highly dependent on the fulfillment of crossing symmetry and the inclusion of u channels.

  7. A Phenomenological Model of Star Formation Efficiency in Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Alsheshakly, Ghadeer; Moustakas, John

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of star formation in massive dark matter halos is extraordinarily low, less than 10% in >10^13 Msun sized halos. Although many physical processes have been proposed to explain this low efficiency, such as feedback from supermassive black halos and massive stars, this question remains one of the most important outstanding problems in galaxy evolution. To explore this problem, we build a simple phenomenological model to predict the variations in gas fraction and star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass. We compare our model predictions to central galaxy stellar masses and halo masses drawn from the literature, and discuss plans for our future work.

  8. Phenomenology of OCD: lessons from a large multicenter study and implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavitt, Roseli G; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Oki, Fábio; Ferrao, Ygor A; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Torres, Albina R; Diniz, Juliana B; Costa, Daniel L C; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Miguel, Euripedes C; Simpson, H Blair

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addressing specific questions about the nature of obsessions and compulsions, and to contribute to the World Health Organization's (WHO) revision of OCD diagnostic guidelines. Data from 1001 patients from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders were used. Patients were evaluated by trained clinicians using validated instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the University of Sao Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. The aims were to compare the types of sensory phenomena (SP, subjective experiences that precede or accompany compulsions) in OCD patients with and without tic disorders and to determine the frequency of mental compulsions, the co-occurrence of obsessions and compulsions, and the range of insight. SP were common in the whole sample, but patients with tic disorders were more likely to have physical sensations and urges only. Mental compulsions occurred in the majority of OCD patients. It was extremely rare for OCD patients to have obsessions without compulsions. A wide range of insight into OCD beliefs was observed, with a small subset presenting no insight. The data generated from this large sample will help practicing clinicians appreciate the full range of OCD symptoms and confirm prior studies in smaller samples the degree to which insight varies. These findings also support specific revisions to the WHO's diagnostic guidelines for OCD, such as describing sensory phenomena, mental compulsions and level of insight, so that the world-wide recognition of this disabling disorder is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A 3D finite strain phenomenological constitutive model for shape memory alloys considering martensite reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arghavani, J.; Auricchio, F.; Naghdabadi, R.; Reali, A.; Sohrabpour, S.

    2010-06-01

    Most devices based on shape memory alloys experience both finite deformations and non-proportional loading conditions in engineering applications. This motivates the development of constitutive models considering finite strain as well as martensite variant reorientation. To this end, in the present article, based on the principles of continuum thermodynamics with internal variables, a three-dimensional finite strain phenomenological constitutive model is proposed taking its basis from the recent model in the small strain regime proposed by Panico and Brinson (J Mech Phys Solids 55:2491-2511, 2007). In the finite strain constitutive model derivation, a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and inelastic parts, together with an additive decomposition of the inelastic strain rate tensor into transformation and reorientation parts is adopted. Moreover, it is shown that, when linearized, the proposed model reduces exactly to the original small strain model.

  10. Direct Detection Phenomenology in Models Where the Products of Dark Matter Annihilation Interact with Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional non-relativistic direct detection by more than three orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window....

  11. Understanding phenomenology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Anne

    2012-01-31

    Phenomenology is a philosophic attitude and research approach. Its primary position is that the most basic human truths are accessible only through inner subjectivity, and that the person is integral to the environment. This paper discusses the theoretical perspectives related to phenomenology, and includes a discussion of the methods adopted in phenomenological research.

  12. The phenomenological-existential comprehension of chronic pain: going beyond the standing healthcare models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of the biomedical model is its compartmentalized view of man. This way of seeing human beings has its origin in Greek thought; it was stated by Descartes and to this day it still considers humans as beings composed of distinct entities combined into a certain form. Because of this observation, one began to believe that the focus of a health treatment could be exclusively on the affected area of the body, without the need to pay attention to patient’s subjectivity. By seeing pain as a merely sensory response, this model was not capable of encompassing chronic pain, since the latter is a complex process that can occur independently of tissue damage. As of the second half of the twentieth century, when it became impossible to deny the relationship between psyche and soma, the current understanding of chronic pain emerges: that of chronic pain as an individual experience, the result of a sum of physical, psychological, and social factors that, for this reason, cannot be approached separately from the individual who expresses pain. This understanding has allowed a significant improvement in perspective, emphasizing the characteristic of pain as an individual experience. However, the understanding of chronic pain as a sum of factors corresponds to the current way of seeing the process of falling ill, for its conception holds a Cartesian duality and the positivist premise of a single reality. For phenomenology, on the other hand, the individual in his/her unity is more than a simple sum of parts. Phenomenology sees a human being as an intending entity, in which body, mind, and the world are intertwined and constitute each other mutually, thus establishing the human being’s integral functioning. Therefore, a real understanding of the chronic pain process would only be possible from a phenomenological point of view at the experience lived by the individual who expresses and communicates pain. PMID:24410937

  13. Photonic crystal defect mode cavity modelling: a phenomenological dimensional reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Qiang, Zexuan; Chen, Li

    2007-05-01

    A phenomenological dimensional reduction approach (PDRA) for the cavity characteristics in defect mode based photonic crystal (PC) lasers is presented. Based on the fully vectorial three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) technique, simultaneous enhancement and suppression in spontaneous emission and absorption were obtained in an absorptive photonic crystal slab (PCS) cavity. Effective index perturbation (EIP) was proposed for fast and accurate determination of the effective index and the dominant resonant cavity frequency in a 3D PCS structure, with two-dimensional (2D) FDTD simulation. Further dimensional reduction from 2D to one-dimensional planar cavity enables phenomenological modelling of lasing characteristics via the effective reflectivity calculation and rate equation analysis. Very fast and accurate results have been achieved with this PDRA approach. A high spontaneous emission factor and cavity quality factor Q were obtained in a single defect cavity, which led to over an order reduction in lasing gain threshold. The model offers a fast and accurate tool for the design and modelling of PC defect mode cavity based devices and aids the research in the proposed novel defect mode based devices such as ultra-compact light sources on Si and spectrally resolved PC infrared photodetectors.

  14. Correspondence between phenomenological and IBM-1 models of even isotopes of Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Okhunov, A.; I. Sharrad, F.; Anwer, A. Al-Sammarraie; U. Khandaker, M.

    2015-08-01

    Energy levels and the reduced probability of E2- transitions for ytterbium isotopes with proton number Z = 70 and neutron numbers between 100 and 106 have been calculated through phenomenological (PhM) and interacting boson (IBM-1) models. The predicted low-lying levels (energies, spins and parities) and the reduced probability for E2- transitions results are reasonably consistent with the available experimental data. The predicted low-lying levels (gr-, β1- and γ1- band) produced in the PhM are in good agreement with the experimental data compared with those by IBM-1 for all nuclei of interest. In addition, the phenomenological model was successful in predicting the β2-, β3-, β4-, γ2- and 1+ - band while it was a failure with IBM-1. Also, the 3+- band is predicted by the IBM-1 model for 172Yb and 174Yb nuclei. All calculations are compared with the available experimental data. Supported by Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia (FRGS13-074-0315), Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (36/11201905/35/IRQ/D31, 37/IRQ/P30)

  15. Phenomenological modeling of eddy current signals with a view to characterizing steam generator tube flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, R.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with the eddy current non-destructive test ing. Its long-term goal is to design an 'inverse model' for evaluating the geometry an d the dimensions of steam generator tube flaws from eddy current signals. The approach we adopted requires the preliminary knowledge of a 'forward model' that estimates the eddy current signal knowing the geometry and the dimensions of the flaws. A quasi-exhaustive study of the existing forward models showed their inadequacy to solve the inverse problem. Hence, we proposed to build a general forward model, appropriate to the inversion. Using a parametric approach, this model is phenomenological, i.e. it is based on observations made from results of a finite element code. For each position of the coil, the proposed forward model fist discretized the eddy current distribution into 'tubes of current'. A parametric description of the shape of these tubes is given according the system constituted of the coil and the tubes of current as a 'multi-transformer', their current signal, can then be deduced. The model was validated in the case of an axisymmetric configuration. Comparisons with both analytical and numerical models showed very good agreements. Then, the proposed model was applied to a three-dimensional configuration. Comparisons with experimental results are sufficiently conclusive to validate the approach to the construction of the phenomenological model. However, before envisaging the inverse problem, the computation time, still too long, ought to be reduced and the parametric description needs to be generalized to other three-dimensional configurations. (author)

  16. Phenomenological and mechanistic modeling of melt-structure-water interactions in a light water reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to address the modeling of the thermal hydrodynamic phenomena and interactions occurring during the progression of reactor severe accidents. Integrated phenomenological models are developed to describe the accident scenarios, which consist of many processes, while mechanistic modeling, including direct numerical simulation, is carried out to describe separate effects and selected physical phenomena of particular importance

  17. Higgs phenomenology in the minimal S U (3 )L×U (1 )X model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Okada, Nobuchika; Orikasa, Yuta; Yagyu, Kei

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a model based on the S U (3 )c×S U (3 )L×U (1 )X gauge theory, the so-called 331 model. In particular, we focus on the Higgs sector of the model which is composed of three S U (3 )L triplet Higgs fields and is the minimal form for realizing a phenomenologically acceptable scenario. After the spontaneous symmetry breaking S U (3 )L×U (1 )X→S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y , our Higgs sector effectively becomes that with two S U (2 )L doublet scalar fields, in which the first- and the second-generation quarks couple to a different Higgs doublet from that which couples to the third-generation quarks. This structure causes the flavor-changing neutral current mediated by Higgs bosons at the tree level. By taking an alignment limit of the mass matrix for the C P -even Higgs bosons, which is naturally realized in the case with the breaking scale of S U (3 )L×U (1 )X much larger than that of S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y, we can avoid current constraints from flavor experiments such as the B0-B¯ 0 mixing even for the Higgs bosons masses that are O (100 ) GeV . In this allowed parameter space, we clarify that a characteristic deviation in quark Yukawa couplings of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson is predicted, which has a different pattern from that seen in two Higgs doublet models with a softly broken Z2 symmetry. We also find that the flavor-violating decay modes of the extra Higgs boson, e.g., H /A →t c and H±→t s , can be dominant, and they yield the important signature to distinguish our model from the two Higgs doublet models.

  18. Phase transition and gravitational wave phenomenology of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-07-15

    Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)

  19. Study of creep-fatigue behavior in a 1000 MW rotor using a phenomenological lifetime model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nailong; Wang, Weizhe; Jiang, Jishen; Liu, Yingzheng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the phenomenological lifetime model was applied to part of an ultra-supercritical steam turbine rotor model to predict its lifetime as a post processing of the finite element method. To validate the accuracy and adaptation of the post processing program, stress strain hysteresis loops of a cylinderal model under service-like load cycle conditions in cycle N = 1 and 300 were constructed, and the comparison of the results with experimental data on the same cylinderal specimen showed them to be satisfactory. The temperature and von Mises stress distributions of the rotor during a startup-running-shutdown-natural cool process were numerically studied using ABAQUS and the damage caused by the interaction of creep and fatigue was subsequently computed and discussed. It was found that the maximum damage appeared at the inlet notch zone, with the blade groove areas and the front notch areas also suffering a large damage amplitude.

  20. Modelling of solid polymer and direct methanol fuel cells: Phenomenological equations and analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, P. S.

    1993-04-01

    In the solid state concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol is directly oxidized at the anode of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (SPEFC). Mathematical modelling of the transport and reaction phenomena within the electrodes and the electrolyte membrane is needed in order to get a closer insight into the operation of the fuel cell. In the work, macro-homogenous porous electrode and dilute solution theories are used to derive the phenomenological equations describing the transport and reaction mechanisms in a SPEFC single cell. The equations are first derived for a conventional H2/air SPEFC, and then extended for a DMFC. The basic model is derived in a one dimensional form in which it is assumed that species transport take place only in the direction crossing the cell sandwich. In addition, two dimensional descriptions of the catalyst layer are reviewed.

  1. A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ling, E-mail: 2006chenling2006@163.com [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Chuandong, E-mail: licd@cqu.edu.cn [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Tingwen [Texas A and M University at Qatar, Doha, B.O. Box 23874 (Qatar); Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Yiran [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett–Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network. - Highlights: • We take the Fick diffusion and the Soret diffusion into account in the ion drift theory. • We develop a new model based on the old HP model. • The new model can describe the forgetting effect and the spike-rate-dependent property of memristor. • The new model can solve the boundary effect of all window functions discussed in [13]. • A new Hopfield neural network with the forgetting ability is built by the new memristor model.

  2. A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam; Chen, Yiran

    2014-01-01

    Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett–Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network. - Highlights: • We take the Fick diffusion and the Soret diffusion into account in the ion drift theory. • We develop a new model based on the old HP model. • The new model can describe the forgetting effect and the spike-rate-dependent property of memristor. • The new model can solve the boundary effect of all window functions discussed in [13]. • A new Hopfield neural network with the forgetting ability is built by the new memristor model

  3. B→τ+τ-(X) decays: First constraints and phenomenological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.; Ligeti, Z.; Nardi, E.

    1997-01-01

    The study of B→τ + τ - (X) decays can provide us with a better understanding of the third generation, and can be a useful probe of physics beyond the standard model. We present a model-independent analysis of these decays. We classify new physics that can largely enhance the decay rates and we discuss the constraints implied by other processes. Experimentally, flavor-changing neutral current B decays into final state τ close-quote s are still unconstrained. Searches for B decays with large missing energy at CERN LEP provide the first limits. We estimate that existing data already imply bounds on the B d →τ + τ - , B s →τ + τ - , and B→Xτ + τ - decay rates at the few percent level. Although these bounds are over four orders of magnitude above the standard model predictions, they provide the first constraints on some leptoquarks, and on some R-parity-violating couplings. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Understanding psychogenic nonepileptic seizures-Phenomenology, semiology and the Integrative Cognitive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, Markus; Brown, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES) are one of the commonest differential diagnoses of epilepsy. This paper provides a narrative review of what has been learnt in the last 25 years regarding the visible manifestations, physiological features, subjective experiences and interactional aspects of PNES. We then explore how current insights into PNES semiology and phenomenology map onto the Integrative Cognitive Model (ICM), a new account of these phenomena that unifies previous approaches within a single explanatory framework. We discuss to what extent recent psychological and neurophysiological research is consistent with the ICM and indicate how the more detailed analysis of physiological data, connectivity analyses of EEG and functional or structural MRI data may provide greater insights into the biopsychosocial underpinnings of a disabling and under-researched disorder. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Phenomenological Model For The Spin Stiffness Of A Half-metallic Ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chura, Raul; Bedell, Kevin

    By using the Fermi Liquid Theory for Spin Polarized Systems, more specifically, by using the linearized form of Landau Silin Kinetic Equation, and after considering an appropriate approximation, we have obtained the dispersion relationships describing the collective modes for the spin waves in a Half Metallic Ferromagnetic (HMF) material. Our results predict the existence of a gapless mode for the spin dynamics of a HMF, in agreement with experiment. In addition, our calculations allowed us to get a phenomenological formula for the spin stiffness of HMF materials, which being entirely in terms of band theory and Landau interaction parameters, allowed us to test that formula for those HMF materials for which we were able to find, in the available literature, the required data. For these materials our model is consistent with experiment. Work supported by Grant Number CANON-CU-005-2013 at UNSAAC, Cusco, Peru.

  6. A phenomenological particle-based platelet model for simulating filopodia formation during early activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothapragada, Seetha; Zhang, Peng; Sheriff, Jawaad; Livelli, Mark; Slepian, Marvin J; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a phenomenological three-dimensional platelet model to characterize the filopodia formation observed during early stage platelet activation. Departing from continuum mechanics based approaches, this coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) particle-based model can deform to emulate the complex shape change and filopodia formation that platelets undergo during activation. The platelet peripheral zone is modeled with a two-layer homogeneous elastic structure represented by spring-connected particles. The structural zone is represented by a cytoskeletal assembly comprising of a filamentous core and filament bundles supporting the platelet's discoid shape, also modeled by spring-connected particles. The interior organelle zone is modeled by homogeneous cytoplasm particles that facilitate the platelet deformation. Nonbonded interactions among the discrete particles of the membrane, the cytoskeletal assembly, and the cytoplasm are described using the Lennard-Jones potential with empirical constants. By exploring the parameter space of this CGMD model, we have successfully simulated the dynamics of varied filopodia formations. Comparative analyses of length and thickness of filopodia show that our numerical simulations are in agreement with experimental measurements of flow-induced activated platelets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A phenomenological force model of Li-ion battery packs for enhanced performance and health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2017-10-01

    A 1-D phenomenological force model of a Li-ion battery pack is proposed to enhance the control performance of Li-ion battery cells in pack conditions for efficient performance and health management. The force model accounts for multiple swelling sources under the operational environment of electric vehicles to predict swelling-induced forces in pack conditions, i.e. mechanically constrained. The proposed force model not only incorporates structural nonlinearities due to Li-ion intercalation swelling, but also separates the overall range of states of charge into three ranges to account for phase transitions. Moreover, an approach to study cell-to-cell variations in pack conditions is proposed with serial and parallel combinations of linear and nonlinear stiffness, which account for battery cells and other components in the battery pack. The model is shown not only to accurately estimate the reaction force caused by swelling as a function of the state of charge, battery temperature and environmental temperature, but also to account for cell-to-cell variations due to temperature variations, SOC differences, and local degradation in a wide range of operational conditions of electric vehicles. Considering that the force model of Li-ion battery packs can account for many possible situations in actual operation, the proposed approach and model offer potential utility for the enhancement of current battery management systems and power management strategies.

  8. Phenomenological aspects of a left-right model based on SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doas, Alex G.; Nishi, Celso C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Motivated by the problem of explaining the observed maximal parity violation in the electroweak interactions, we develop a model based on the SU(3) L x SU(3) R x U(1) X gauge symmetry, where anomalies cancellation restricts the number of families is restricted to be a multiple of three. Left-right symmetry is fully realized in the model and the standard model arises in the low energy limit. The fermionic representation content has, besides standard model fields, nine additional neutrinos which could be linked with problems like neutrino oscillation, warm dark matter and baryogenesis; six new quarks which could show up at the TeV; and also new gauge bosons whose production and associated effects observed in colliders shall indicate the parity restoration. Our focus will be mainly on the spontaneous symmetry breakdown patterns leading to a compatible scenario for particle interactions with the well tested standard model. In order to break the symmetries we take into account a set of scalar fields representation content composed by: two sextets and two bi-triplets. These fields are sufficient to implement a successful mass generation mechanisms, furnishing also a consistent mixing among the fermions. We discuss the main phenomenological issues of the model. (author)

  9. Phenomenological modelling of CHF in annular flow in annuli using new models of droplet deposition and entrainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hb-zhang@xjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F., E-mail: g.hewitt@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A phenomenological model to predict the CHF for flows in annuli is described. • New correlations of droplet entrainment and deposition are used. • The present model has good predictive capability in predicting CHF in annuli. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in heated vertical annuli. In present model, a new set of correlations of droplet deposition and entrainment in annuli was used which were verified by comparison with the data of Moeck (1970) for developing liquid films in adiabatic annuli. In the results presented here, these new correlations have been used to predict 2249 independent data on critical heat flux (CHF) obtained both regarding internal heating of the rod as well as simultaneous heating of the rod and the outer tube in six heated vertical annuli under various mass flow rate, pressure and inlet quality and where the conditions were such that (as is most common) the CHF condition occurred in the annular flow regime. The comparisons between the calculated and measured CHFs showed that the present model has good predictive capability in predicting CHF.

  10. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6

  11. Phenomenological Model for Phase Transformation Characteristics of Textured Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziathanasiou, Dimitris; Chemisky, Yves; Meraghni, Fodil; Chatzigeorgiou, George; Patoor, Etienne

    In the present study, a new transformation criterion that includes the effect of tension-compression asymmetry and texture-induced anisotropy is proposed and combined with a thermodynamical model to describe the thermomechanical behavior of polycrystalline shape memory alloys. An altered Prager criterion has been developed, introducing a general transformation of the axes in the stress space. A convexity analysis of such criterion is included along with an identification strategy aimed at extracting the model parameters related to tension-compression asymmetry and anisotropy. These are identified from a numerical simulation of a SMA polycrystal, using a self-consistent micromechanical model previously developed by Patoor et al. (Patoor, E., Eberhardt, A., Berveiller, M., 1996. Micromechanical Modelling of Superelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys. Journal de Physique IV 6, C1 277) for several loading cases on isotropic, rolled and drawn textures. Transformation surfaces in the stress and transformation strain spaces are obtained and compared with those predicted by the micromechanical model. The good agreement obtained between the macroscopic and the microscopic polycrystalline simulations states that the proposed criterion and transformation strain evolution equation can capture phenomenologically the effects of texture on anisotropy and asymmetry in SMAs.

  12. Learning from Twentieth Century Hermeneutic Phenomenology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of commonalities in the contributions of five key thinkers in twentieth century phenomenology are discussed in relation to both original aims and contemporary projects. It is argued that, contrary to the claims of Husserl, phenomenology can only operate as hermeneutic phenomenology. Hermeneutics arose ...

  13. Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.

  14. Modeling of twisted and coiled polymer (TCP) muscle based on phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Farzad; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-12-01

    Twisted and coiled polymers (TCP) muscles are linear actuators that respond to change in temperature. Exploiting high negative coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and helical geometry give them a significant ability to change length in a limited temperature range. Several applications and experimental data of these materials have been demonstrated in the last few years. To use these actuators in robotics and control system applications, a mathematical model for predicting their behavior is essential. In this work, a practical and accurate phenomenological model for estimating the displacement of TCP muscles, as a function of the load as well as input electrical current, is proposed. The problem is broken down into two parts, i.e. modeling of the electro-thermal and then the thermo-elastic behavior of the muscles. For the first part, a differential equation, with changing electrical resistance term, is derived. Next, by using a temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and CTE as well as taking the geometry of the muscles into account, an expression for displacement is derived. Experimental data for different loads and actuation current levels are used for verifying the model and investigating its accuracy. The result shows a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results for all loads.

  15. Phenomenological Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents an argument that phenomenological Lagrangians can be used not only to reproduce the soft pion results of current algebra, but also to justify these results, without any use of operator algebra, and shows how phenomenological Lagrangians can be used to calculate corrections to the leading soft pion results to any desired order in external momenta. The renormalization group is used to elucidate the structure of these corrections. Corrections due to the finite mass of the pion are treated and speculations are made about another possible application of phenomenological Lagrangians. (Auth.)

  16. A phenomenological model to represent the kinetics of growth by Corynebacterium glutamicum for lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Kalyan; Venkatesh, K V

    2007-05-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is commonly used for lysine production. In the last decade, several metabolic engineering approaches have been successfully applied to C. glutamicum. However, only few studies have been focused on the kinetics of growth and lysine production. Here, we present a phenomenological model that captures the growth and lysine production during different phases of fermentation at various initial dextrose concentrations. The model invokes control coefficients to capture the dynamics of lysine and trehalose synthesis. The analysis indicated that maximum lysine productivity can be obtained using 72 g/L of initial dextrose concentration in the media, while growth was optimum at 27 g/L of dextrose concentration. The predictive capability was demonstrated through a two-stage fermentation strategy to enhance the productivity of lysine by 1.5 times of the maximum obtained in the batch fermentation. Two-stage fermentation indicated that the kinetic model could be further extended to predict the optimal feeding strategy for fed-batch fermentation.

  17. Phenomenology of MaVaN’s Models in Reactor Neutrino Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass Varying Neutrinos (MaVaN’s mechanisms were proposed to link the neutrino mass scale with the dark energy density, addressing the coincidence problem. In some scenarios, this mass can present a dependence on the baryonic density felt by neutrinos, creating an effective neutrino mass that depends both on the neutrino and baryonic densities. In this work, we study the phenomenological consequence of MaVaN’s scenarios in which the matter density dependence is induced by Yukawa interactions of a light neutral scalar particle which couples to neutrinos and matter. Under the assumption of one mass scale dominance, we perform an analysis of KamLAND neutrino data which depends on 4 parameters: the two standard oscillation parameters, Δm0,212 and tan2θ12, and two new coefficients which parameterize the environment dependence of neutrino mass. We introduce an Earth’s crust model to compute precisely the density in each point along the neutrino trajectory. We show that this new description of density does not affect the analysis with the standard model case. With the MaVaN model, we observe a first order effect in lower density, which leads to an improvement on the data description.

  18. A model of spontaneous CP violation and neutrino phenomenology with approximate LμLτ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model where CP and Z 2 symmetry violate spontaneously. CP and Z 2 violate spontaneously through a singlet complex scalar S which obtains vacuum expectation value with phase S = Ve iα /2 and this is the only source of CP violation in this model. Low energy CP violation in the leptonic sector is connected to the large scale phase by three generations of left and right handed singlet fermions in the inverse see-saw like structure of model. We have considered approximate LμL τ symmetry to study neutrino phenomenology. Considering two mass square differences and three mixing angles including non zero θ 13 to their experimental 3σ limit, we have restricted the Lagrangian parameters for reasonably small value of L μ L τ symmetry breaking parameters. We have predicted the three masses, Dirac phase and two Majorana phases. We also evaluate CP violating parameter J CP , sum-mass and effective mass parameter involved in neutrino less double beta decay. (author)

  19. Phenomenology of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in fluxed string compactifications and brane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Okumura, Ken-ichi

    2005-01-01

    In some string compactifications, for instance the recently proposed KKLT set-up, light moduli are stabilized by nonperturbative effects at supersymmetric AdS vacuum which is lifted to a dS vacuum by supersymmetry breaking uplifting potential. In such models, soft supersymmetry breaking terms are determined by a specific mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in which the two mediations typically give comparable contributions to soft parameters. Similar pattern of soft terms can arise also in brane models to stabilize the radion by nonperturbative effects. We examine some phenomenological consequences of this mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, including the pattern of low energy sparticle spectrum and the possibility of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is noted that adding the anomaly-mediated contributions at M GUT amounts to replacing the messenger scale of the modulus mediation by a mirage messenger scale (m 3/2 /M Pl ) α/2 M GUT where α = m 3/2 /[M 0 ln (M Pl /m 3/2 )] for M 0 denoting the modulus-mediated contribution to the gaugino mass at M GUT . The minimal KKLT set-up predicts α = 1. As a consequence, for α = O(1), the model can lead to a highly distinctive pattern of sparticle masses at TeV scale, particularly when α = 2

  20. The method for determination of parameters of the phenomenological continual model of soil organic matter transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Bartsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A possible method for experimental determination of parameters of the previously proposed continual mathematical model of soil organic matter transformation is theoretically considered in this paper. The previously proposed by the authors continual model of soil organic matter transformation, based on using the rate of matter transformation as a continual scale of its recalcitrance, describes the transformation process phenomenologically without going into detail of microbiological mechanisms of transformation. Thereby simplicity of the model is achieved. The model is represented in form of one differential equation in first­order partial derivatives, which has an analytical solution in elementary functions. The model equation contains a small number of empirical parameters which generally characterize environmental conditions where the matter transformation process occurs and initial properties of the plant litter. Given the values of these parameters, it is possible to calculate dynamics of soil organic matter stocks and its distribution over transformation rate. In the present study, possible approaches for determination of the model parameters are considered and a simple method of their experimental measurement is proposed. An experiment of an incubation of chemically homogeneous samples in soil and multiple sequential measurement of the sample mass loss with time is proposed. An equation of time dynamics of mass loss of incubated homogeneous sample is derived from the basic assumption of the presented soil organic matter transformation model. Thus, fitting by the least squares method the parameters of sample mass loss curve calculated according the proposed mass loss dynamics equation allows to determine the parameters of the general equation of soil organic transformation model.

  1. LHC phenomenology and higher order electroweak corrections in supersymmetric models with and without R-parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebler, Stefan Rainer

    2011-09-01

    The standard model of particle physics lacks on some shortcomings from experimental as well as from theoretical point of view: There is no approved mechanism for the generation of masses of the fundamental particles, in particular also not for the light, but massive neutrinos. In addition the standard model does not provide an explanation for the observance of dark matter in the universe. Moreover the gauge couplings of the three forces in the standard model do not unify, implying that a fundamental theory combining all forces can not be formulated. Within this thesis we address supersymmetric models as answers to these various questions, but instead of focusing on the most simple supersymmetrization of the standard model, we consider basic extensions, namely the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which contains an additional singlet field, and R-parity violating models. Using lepton number violating terms in the context of bilinear R-parity violation and the μνSSM we are able to explain neutrino physics intrinsically supersymmetric, since those terms induce a mixing between the neutralinos and the neutrinos. This thesis works out the phenomenology of the supersymmetric models under consideration and tries to point out differences to the well-known features of the simplest supersymmetric realization of the standard model. In case of the R-parity violating models the decays of the light neutralinos can result in displaced vertices. In combination with a light singlet state these displaced vertices might offer a rich phenomenology like non-standard Higgs decays into a pair of singlinos decaying with displaced vertices. Within this thesis we present some calculations at next order of perturbation theory, since one-loop corrections provide possibly large contributions to the tree-level masses and decay widths. We are using an on-shell renormalization scheme to calculate the masses of neutralinos and charginos including the neutrinos and leptons in

  2. LHC phenomenology and higher order electroweak corrections in supersymmetric models with and without R-parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebler, Stefan Rainer

    2011-09-15

    The standard model of particle physics lacks on some shortcomings from experimental as well as from theoretical point of view: There is no approved mechanism for the generation of masses of the fundamental particles, in particular also not for the light, but massive neutrinos. In addition the standard model does not provide an explanation for the observance of dark matter in the universe. Moreover the gauge couplings of the three forces in the standard model do not unify, implying that a fundamental theory combining all forces can not be formulated. Within this thesis we address supersymmetric models as answers to these various questions, but instead of focusing on the most simple supersymmetrization of the standard model, we consider basic extensions, namely the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which contains an additional singlet field, and R-parity violating models. Using lepton number violating terms in the context of bilinear R-parity violation and the {mu}{nu}SSM we are able to explain neutrino physics intrinsically supersymmetric, since those terms induce a mixing between the neutralinos and the neutrinos. This thesis works out the phenomenology of the supersymmetric models under consideration and tries to point out differences to the well-known features of the simplest supersymmetric realization of the standard model. In case of the R-parity violating models the decays of the light neutralinos can result in displaced vertices. In combination with a light singlet state these displaced vertices might offer a rich phenomenology like non-standard Higgs decays into a pair of singlinos decaying with displaced vertices. Within this thesis we present some calculations at next order of perturbation theory, since one-loop corrections provide possibly large contributions to the tree-level masses and decay widths. We are using an on-shell renormalization scheme to calculate the masses of neutralinos and charginos including the neutrinos and

  3. Exceptional phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Kenneth; Moltke Martiny, Kristian

    Phenomenological research is in traditional terms a matter of going 'back to the things themselves', as Husserl famously stated. But if phenomenology is to renew itself in creative ways and reveal new aspects of human experience it is of value to look for a certain kind of phenomena: exceptions....... Through exceptional cases we can gain a deeper understanding of the ordinary. This was already a guiding thread in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological investigations, but this paper will take the idea further by grounding the methodology in ‘hands on’ research in elite sport (football) and pathological cases...... (cerebral palsy). Within this method exceptional phenomena serve as exemplary cases, which can challenge and expand our conception of ”normal” experience. Thus, we will focus on two central aspects of exceptional phenomenology: a) it is grounded in exceptional practice and b) it lets this practical...

  4. The noncommutative standard model. Construction beyond leading order in θ and collider phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alboteanu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Within this work we study the phenomenological consequences of a possible realization of QFT on noncommutative space-time. In the first part we performed a phenomenological analysis of the hadronic process pp → Z γ → l + l - γ at the LHC and of electron-positron pair annihilation into a Z boson and a photon at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The noncommutative extension of the SM considered within this work relies on two building blocks: the Moyal-Weyl *-product of functions on ordinary space-time and the Seiberg-Witten maps. A consequence of the noncommutativity of space-time is the violation of rotational invariance with respect to the beam axis. This effect shows up in the azimuthal dependence of cross sections, which is absent in the SM as well as in other models beyond the SM. We have found this dependence to be best suited for deriving the sensitivity bounds on the noncommutative scale NC. By studying pp→Z γ →l + l - γ to first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we show in the first part of this work that measurements at the LHC are sensitive to noncommutative effects only in certain cases, giving bounds on the noncommutative scale of Λ NC >or similar 1.2 TeV. By means of e + e - → Z γ → l + l - γ to O(θ) we have shown that ILC measurements are complementary to LHC measurements of the noncommutative parameters. In addition, the bounds on Λ NC derived from the ILC are significantly higher and reach Λ NC >or similar 6 TeV. In the second part of this work we expand the neutral current sector of the noncommutative SM to second order in θ. We found that, against the general expectation, the theory must be enlarged by additional parameters. The new parameters enter the theory as ambiguities of the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter are not uniquely determined and differ by homogeneous solutions of the gauge equivalence equations. The expectation was that the ambiguities correspond to field redefinitions and therefore should

  5. LHC Phenomenology and Cosmology of String-Inspired Intersecting D-Brane Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.; Vlcek, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology and cosmology of a Standard-like Model inspired by string theory, in which the gauge fields are localized on D-branes wrapping certain compact cycles on an underlying geometry, whose intersection can give rise to chiral fermions. The energy scale associated with string physics is assumed to be near the Planck mass. To develop our program in the simplest way, we work within the construct of a minimal model with gauge-extended sector U (3)_B \\times Sp (1)_L \\times U (1)_{I_R} \\times U (1)_L. The resulting U (1) content gauges the baryon number B, the lepton number L, and a third additional abelian charge I_R which acts as the third isospin component of an SU(2)_R. All mixing angles and gauge couplings are fixed by rotation of the U(1) gauge fields to a basis diagonal in hypercharge Y and in an anomaly free linear combination of I_R and B-L. The anomalous $Z'$ gauge boson obtains a string scale St\\"uckelberg mass via a 4D version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. To keep the realizatio...

  6. Direct Detection Phenomenology in Models Where the Products of Dark Matter Annihilation Interact with Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, John F; Frandsen, Mads T; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2015-06-12

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, but rather, the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection experiments is controlled by relativistic kinematics. This results in a distinctive recoil spectrum, a nonstandard and/or even absent annual modulation, and the ability to probe DM masses as low as a ∼10  MeV. We use current LUX data to show that experimental sensitivity to thermal relic annihilation cross sections has already been reached in a class of models. Moreover, the compatibility of dark matter direct detection experiments can be compared directly in Emin space without making assumptions about DM astrophysics, mass, or scattering form factors. Lastly, when DM has direct couplings to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional nonrelativistic direct detection by more than 3 orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window.

  7. Predictions of localized plastic flow conditions in irradiated zircaloy using a unified phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    A general-purpose constitutive model for the non-elastic deformation of metals and alloys has recently been developed. This model is aimed at improved analysis of high-temperature structures in general and light-water reactor cladding in particular. Accordingly, detailed work has been undertaken to apply the model to the in-reactor behavior of zircaloy, and to verify that the model does, in fact, simulate the deformation of zircaloy in a realistic manner. It is the purpose of this paper to present some of these results, especially as regards strain softening and localized plastic flow. The model is phenomenological in that it is formulated at the macroscopic level and thus predicts the interrelationship of macroscopic variables such as stress, strain rate, temperature, and history but the overall format of the model is based on the microscopic dislocation mechanisms underlying non-elastic deformation. The equations simulate a wide variety of phenomena such as transient and steady-state creep; short-time plasticity; cyclic hardening, softening, and saturation; static and dynamic recovery; dynamic strain aging effects; complex stress, strain rate, and temperature histories; and interactions of all of these. The effects of fluence, cold work, and post-irradiation strain rate have been examined analytically. For annealed material, with increasing fluence (1) the simulated yield strength increases (up to saturation), (2) the magnitude of the stress drop during strain softening increases, and (3) the strain at which the stress goes through a minimum increases. Prior cold work tends to suppress the simulated strain softening in irradiated material. Unirradiated, cold-worked material having a yield strength level equal to that of annealed, irradiated material does not show strain softening in the simulations. With increasing strain rate, the strain-softening portion of the stress-strain curve takes a larger amount of strain

  8. Development of the Ulchin 34 Melcor1.8.6 Model for Phenomenological Uncertainty analysis in Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gun Hyo; Lee, Jin Young; Ahn, Kwng Il; Park, Soo Yong

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technology has been widely used to measure safety levels and identify weak points of nuclear power plants. Since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), event tree method has been used. In level 2 PSA, mainly three kinds of considerations are included: phenomenological events, operator actions, and heat removal system operations. It was pointed out that a structuring CET with phenomenological events was difficult and there were large uncertainties due to a lack of data used in an expert judgement and an expert judgement itself. PSA has been playing important roles to identify the weak point of NPPs and derive research topics. However, PSA results themselves, like containment failure probability, have no significant physical meaning. In order to use PSA results to design and improve NPPs and apply to decision making in NPPs, the quality of PSA results should be improved and uncertainties lied in PSA methodologies should be eliminated. Various researches to improve the quality of PSAs are ongoing. Phenomenological uncertainty analysis to reduce level 2 PSA uncertainties using the MELCOR code is off the ground. First of all, MELCOR1.8.6 model for the phenomenological uncertainty analysis has been developed

  9. Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' ' A. Avogadro' ' , Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cardone, Vincenzo F., E-mail: camera@ph.unito.it, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: winnyenodrac@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r{sub c}, the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼models differ at most by the 1σ uncertainty over the range 500∼

  10. Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Cardone, Vincenzo F.

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r c , the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼< l∼<3000; on the contrary, the two models differ at most by the 1σ uncertainty over the range 500∼< l∼<3000 in the DES experiment and they are virtually indistinguishable

  11. Formation of shatter cones by symmetric fracture bifurcation: Phenomenological modeling and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Hergarten, Stefan; Kuhn, Thomas; Wilk, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Several models of shatter cone formation require a heterogeneity at the cone apex of high impedance mismatch to the surrounding bulk rock. This heterogeneity is the source of spherically expanding waves that interact with the planar shock front or the following release wave. While these models are capable of explaining the overall conical shape of shatter cones, they are not capable of explaining the subcone structure and the diverging and branching striations that characterize the surface of shatter cones and lead to the so-called horse-tailing effect. Here, we use the hierarchical arrangement of subcone ridges of shatter cone surfaces as key for understanding their formation. Tracing a single subcone ridge from its apex downward reveals that each ridge branches after some distance into two symmetrically equivalent subcone ridges. This pattern is repeated to form new branches. We propose that subcone ridges represent convex-curved fracture surfaces and their intersection corresponds to the bifurcation axis. The characteristic diverging striations are interpreted as the intersection lineations delimiting each subcone. Multiple symmetric crack branching is the result of rapid fracture propagation that may approach the Raleigh wave speed. We present a phenomenological model that fully constructs the shatter cone geometry to any order. The overall cone geometry including apex angle of the enveloping cone and the degree of concavity (horse-tailing) is largely governed by the convexity of the subcone ridges. Straight cones of various apical angles, constant slope, and constant bifurcation angles form if the subcone convexity is low (30°). Increasing subcone convexity leads to a stronger horse-tailing effect and the bifurcation angles increase with increasing distance from the enveloping cone apex. The model predicts possible triples of enveloping cone angle, bifurcation angle, and subcone angle. Measurements of these quantities on four shatter cones from different

  12. Phenomenological supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, F.

    1992-01-01

    The motivations for low-energy supersymmetry and the main features of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model are reviewed. Possible non-minimal models and the issue of gauge coupling unification are also discussed. Theoretical results relevant for supersymmetric particle searches at present and future accelerators are presented. In particular, recent results on radiative corrections to supersymmetric Higgs boson masses and couplings are summarized, and their implications for experimental searches are discussed in some detail. (author). 87 refs, 9 figs

  13. A phenomenological biological dose model for proton therapy based on linear energy transfer spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvik, Eivind; Thörnqvist, Sara; Stokkevåg, Camilla H; Dahle, Tordis J; Fjaera, Lars Fredrik; Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S

    2017-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons varies with the radiation quality, quantified by the linear energy transfer (LET). Most phenomenological models employ a linear dependency of the dose-averaged LET (LET d ) to calculate the biological dose. However, several experiments have indicated a possible non-linear trend. Our aim was to investigate if biological dose models including non-linear LET dependencies should be considered, by introducing a LET spectrum based dose model. The RBE-LET relationship was investigated by fitting of polynomials from 1st to 5th degree to a database of 85 data points from aerobic in vitro experiments. We included both unweighted and weighted regression, the latter taking into account experimental uncertainties. Statistical testing was performed to decide whether higher degree polynomials provided better fits to the data as compared to lower degrees. The newly developed models were compared to three published LET d based models for a simulated spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) scenario. The statistical analysis of the weighted regression analysis favored a non-linear RBE-LET relationship, with the quartic polynomial found to best represent the experimental data (P = 0.010). The results of the unweighted regression analysis were on the borderline of statistical significance for non-linear functions (P = 0.053), and with the current database a linear dependency could not be rejected. For the SOBP scenario, the weighted non-linear model estimated a similar mean RBE value (1.14) compared to the three established models (1.13-1.17). The unweighted model calculated a considerably higher RBE value (1.22). The analysis indicated that non-linear models could give a better representation of the RBE-LET relationship. However, this is not decisive, as inclusion of the experimental uncertainties in the regression analysis had a significant impact on the determination and ranking of the models. As differences between the models were

  14. Comparative Numerical Study of Four Biodiesel Surrogates for Application on Diesel 0D Phenomenological Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet more stringent norms and standards concerning engine performances and emissions, engine manufacturers need to develop new technologies enhancing the nonpolluting properties of the fuels. In that sense, the testing and development of alternative fuels such as biodiesel are of great importance. Fuel testing is nowadays a matter of experimental and numerical work. Researches on diesel engine’s fuel involve the use of surrogates, for which the combustion mechanisms are well known and relatively similar to the investigated fuel. Biodiesel, due to its complex molecular configuration, is still the subject of numerous investigations in that area. This study presents the comparison of four biodiesel surrogates, methyl-butanoate, ethyl-butyrate, methyl-decanoate, and methyl-9-decenoate, in a 0D phenomenological combustion model. They were investigated for in-cylinder pressure, thermal efficiency, and NOx emissions. Experiments were performed on a six-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine fuelled by methyl ester (MEB and ethyl ester (EEB biodiesel from wasted frying oil. Results showed that, among the four surrogates, methyl butanoate presented better results for all the studied parameters. In-cylinder pressure and thermal efficiency were predicted with good accuracy by the four surrogates. NOx emissions were well predicted for methyl butanoate but for the other three gave approximation errors over 50%.

  15. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  16. The presence of phenomenology in physical education in Brazil: implications for the study of the body and other problematizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Quintão de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of phenomenology in Physical Education in Brazil. In methodological terms, it describes five studies that belong to this theoretical framework in the field, represented by authors such as Silvino Santin, Manuel Sérgio, Wagner Wey Moreira, Elenor Kunz and Terezinha Petrúcia da Nóbrega. It problematizes some aspects of this reception, by highlighting not only its boundaries, but also the challenges for research and reflection within this tradition in physical education

  17. Review of Phenomenological Models for the Initial Phase HCDA Analysis in a Metal-Fueled Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Kwi Seok; Chang, Won Pyo; Suk, Soo Dong

    2009-03-01

    The safety aspects of the KALIMER design results from the advanced safety performance characteristics of its ternary alloy metallic fuel. The superior thermal, mechanical, and neutronic performance of the metal-fueled core assures inherent safety response to unprotected and multiple fault accidents which are HCDA initiating events. HCDA has received great attentions because of its significant consequence, leading to substantial core disruption, although its probability of occurrence is very low. The SAS4A code provides an integrated quantitative framework for examining the phenomenological behaviors under HCDA conditions. Various phenomenological models such as prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to cladding failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are required for the HCDA analysis. The important mechanisms which introduce negative reactivity during HCDA are fuel extrusion and in-pin fuel relocation, and structural feedback through thermal-mechanical neutronic effects. This report describes the safety performance characteristics of the metal fuel as observed in ex-pile and in-pile tests, and describes associated theoretical models employed into the SAS4A HCDA analysis code. Most of such tests and experiments, and development of theoretical models have been performed for the IFR program by ANL. This report provides a phenomenological basis for gaining an understanding of the metal fuel performance characteristics that obtained from expile experiments and in-pile tests. This report will provide insight and direction for planning HCDA experiments and developing theoretical models in Korea later

  18. Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology. Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for Acoustical Analyses using the 3-D Finite-Difference Time-Domain Program PSTOP3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ER D C TR -1 5- 5 Remote Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology Report 1...ERDC TR-15-5 August 2015 Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for Acoustical Analyses...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology ; Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for

  19. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Superstring inspired phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in superstring model building is reviewed with an emphasis on the general features of the models obtained. The problems associated with supersymmetry breaking and intermediate gauge symmetry breaking (M W I GUT ) are described. Finally, the phenomenology of these models is summarized, with a discussion of the role that new experimental results could play to help clearing up the above difficulties

  1. Phenomenological modeling and study of a catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarade, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    particle bed but reaches a maximum with the variation of heavy water content in the feed stream. According to these observations, a phenomenological 2D model, describing momentum and mass transfers, was developed. Simulations results are in good agreement with the general behavior observed experimentally. Results show that modeling of the permeation of heteronuclear species should account for crossed-interactions of the hydrogen isotopologues on the mass transfer of one specie. Nevertheless, thanks to the modeling approach used and the similitude rules existing between isotopologues' physical and chemical properties (Graham's law), this model can be easily extrapolated to the processing of tritium containing mixtures. (author)

  2. Evaluation and optimisation of phenomenological multi-step soot model for spray combustion under diesel engine-like operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song

    2015-01-01

    -empirical soot model in predicting the associated events. Numerical computation is performed using an open-source code and a chemistry coordinate mapping approach is used to expedite the calculation. A library consisting of various phenomenological multi-step soot models is constructed and integrated......, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out to appraise the existing soot formation and oxidation submodels. It is revealed that the soot formation is captured when the surface growth rate is calculated using a square root function of the soot specific surface area and when a pressure-dependent model...

  3. Brane vector phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter; Xiong, C.

    2009-01-01

    Local oscillations of the brane world are manifested as massive vector fields. Their coupling to the Standard Model can be obtained using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher-dimensional space-time symmetries, and to an extent, are model independent. Phenomenological limits on these vector field parameters are obtained using LEP collider data and dark matter constraints

  4. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-07

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor Λ(Norm)(0,1) = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor Λ(0,1) are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of Λ(opt)(0,1) factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. Λ(opt)(0,1) was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX(2) where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,-  0.46 respectively for Λ(opt)(0), Λ(opt)(1)). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ(Norm)(0,1) than Λ(opt)(0,1) (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the Λ(opt)(0,1) model compared to the Λ(Norm)(0,1) model. Calculation times for Λ(opt)(0,1) are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation.B ased on the results of this study, using CST with the Λ(opt)(0,1) factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton

  5. Phenomenology of the Higgs at the hadron colliders: from the standard model to supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglio, J.

    2011-10-01

    This thesis has been conducted in the context of one of the utmost important searches at current hadron colliders, that is the search for the Higgs boson, the remnant of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We wish to study the phenomenology of the Higgs boson in both the Standard Model (SM) framework and its minimal Supersymmetric extension (MSSM). After a review of the Standard Model in a first part and of the key reasons and ingredients for the supersymmetry in general and the MSSM in particular in a third part, we will present the calculation of the inclusive production cross sections of the Higgs boson in the main channels at the two current hadron colliders that are the Fermilab Tevatron collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), starting by the SM case in the second part and presenting the MSSM results, where we have 5 Higgs bosons and focusing on the two main production channels that are the gluon gluon fusion and the bottom quarks fusion, in the fourth part. The main output of this calculation is the extensive study of the various theoretical uncertainties that affect the predictions: the scale uncertainties which probe our ignorance of the higher-order terms in a fixed order perturbative calculation, the parton distribution functions (PDF) uncertainties and its related uncertainties from the value of the strong coupling constant, and the uncertainties coming from the use of an effective field theory to simplify the hard calculation. We then move on to the study of the Higgs decay branching ratios which are also affected by diverse uncertainties. We will present the combination of the production cross sections and decay branching fractions in some specific cases which will show interesting consequences on the total theoretical uncertainties. We move on to present the results confronted to experiments and show that the theoretical uncertainties have a significant impact on the inferred limits either in the SM search for the Higgs boson or on the MSSM

  6. A phenomenological reaction kinetic model for Cu removal from aqueous solutions by zero-valent iron (ZVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Kurosu, Shunji; Yamaguchi, Rina; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2018-06-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) being an inexpensive and eco-friendly catalyst has drawn great attention in removal of heavy metals from wastewaters. However, quantitative understandings of ZVI processes are significantly deficient. To compensate for the lack of quantitative analyses of removal of heavy metals by ZVI, a phenomenological reaction kinetic model was newly developed for removal of Cu chosen as a typical heavy metal from acidic aqueous solutions by ZVI. The novel kinetic model is based on the adsorption of Cu 2+ and H + onto ZVI surface and subsequent Cu 2+ reduction on ZVI surface and Fe 2+ elution from ZVI. Batch experiments were conducted to elucidate effects of pH and Cu loading on Cu removal by ZVI in acidic aqueous solutions and to validate the proposed phenomenological reaction kinetic model. The quick and complete removals of 1.57 mM Cu were established in the rage of pH 2-5. Although the maximum Cu removal rate was obtained at pH 4, effects of pH were insignificant. In the range of Cu loading from 0.393 to 4.72 mM, almost complete Cu removals were obtained at pH 4 within 35 min. The changes in concentrations of Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , H + and dissolved oxygen were strongly linked with each other. They could be successfully simulated by the proposed model with the average correlation coefficient of 0.979. The capability of the phenomenological reaction kinetic model for dynamic simulation of Cu removal by ZVI under acidic conditions was confirmed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of theory and phenomenology of some classes of family symmetry and unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; King, Steve F.; Peddie, Iain N.R.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    We review and compare theoretically and phenomenologically a number of possible family symmetries, which when combined with unification, could be important in explaining quark, lepton and neutrino masses and mixings, providing new results in several cases. Theoretical possibilities include abelian or non-abelian, symmetric or non symmetric Yukawa matrices, Grand Unification or not. Our main focus is on anomaly-free U(1) family symmetry combined with SU(5) unification, although we also discuss other possibilities. We provide a detailed phenomenological fit of the fermion masses and mixings for several examples, and discuss the supersymmetric flavour issues in such theories, including a detailed analysis of lepton flavour violation. We show that it is not possible to quantitatively and decisively discriminate between these different theoretical possibilities at the present time

  8. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  9. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: II. Phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, T

    2007-01-01

    Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the deployment of a set of templates, also called a template bank, to cover the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. In a companion paper, we described the template bank algorithm used in the analysis of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) data to search for signals from non-spinning binaries made of neutron star and/or stellar-mass black holes; this template bank is based upon physical template families. In this paper, we describe the phenomenological template bank that was used to search for gravitational waves from non-spinning black hole binaries (from stellar mass formation) in the second, third and fourth LIGO science runs. We briefly explain the design of the bank, whose templates are based on a phenomenological detection template family. We show that this template bank gives matches greater than 95% with the physical template families that are expected to be captured by the phenomenological templates

  10. Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

    2008-05-05

    We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

  11. Dynamics of competing diffusion processes in a bias electric field: kinetic Ising model approach and phenomenological descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrin-Denny, R

    1998-01-01

    The methodology of formulating spatio-temporal diffusion-migration equations in an applied electric field for two competing diffusion processes is outlined using kinetic Ising model versions with the help of spin-exchange dynamics due to Kawasaki. The two transport processes considered here correspond to bounded displacement of species attached to supramolecular structures and electron hopping between spatially separated electron transfer active centres. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on number density as well as the microscopic basis underlying phenomenological diffusion-migration equations are pointed out. (author)

  12. Simple phenomenological model for phase transitions in confined geometry. 2. Capillary condensation/evaporation in cylindrical mesopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellenq, Roland J-M; Coasne, Benoit; Denoyel, Renaud O; Coussy, O

    2009-02-03

    A simple phenomenological model that describes capillary condensation and evaporation of pure fluids confined in cylindrical mesopores is presented. Following the work of Celestini (Celestini, F. Phys. Lett. A 1997, 228, 84), the free energy density of the system is derived using interfacial tensions and a corrective term that accounts for the interaction coupling between the vapor/adsorbed liquid and the adsorbed liquid/adsorbent interfaces. This corrective term is shown to be consistent with the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and assessed by standard adsorption tests. This model reveals that capillary condensation and evaporation are metastable and equilibrium processes, respectively, hence exhibiting the existence of a hysteresis loop inadsorption/desorption isotherm that is well-known in experiment. We extend the phenomenological model of Celestini to give a quantitative description of adsorption on the pore wall and hysteresis width evolution with temperature and confinement. Direct quantitative comparison is made with experimental data for confined argon. Used as a characterizing tool, this integrated model allows in a single fit of an experimental adsorption/desorption isotherm assessing essential characterization data such as the specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore size.

  13. Development of Phenomenological Models of Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site - BENHAM and TYBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1999-09-21

    Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to

  14. The lived experience of nurse practitioners practicing within the Transformational Advanced Professional Practice Model: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth C; Walden, Marlene; Young, Anne; Symes, Lene; Fredland, Nina

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of nurse practitioners (NPs) practicing within the Transformational Advanced Professional Practice (TAPP) Model, a professional practice model (PPM). A descriptive phenomenological analysis using semistructured interviews of 11 NPs across multiple inpatient and outpatient clinical areas at Texas Children's Hospital. Member checking and theming data occurred using Colaizzi's Method concurrently with Mind Mapping technique. Main themes included: (a) transforming professional practice, (b) cultivating the inner self, and (c) mentoring professional transitions. The findings of this study provide qualitative evidence that the TAPP Model influences role transition and professional development. Transforming NP practice within organizations and within the nursing profession itself will take mindfulness with an intentional approach to design PPMs specifically for NPs. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. From model conception to verification and validation, a global approach to multiphase Navier-Stoke models with an emphasis on volcanic explosive phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartevelle, Sebastian

    2007-10-01

    Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key

  16. Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic, mindfulness, mood, health and sport implications. ... the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores.

  17. Quantitative characterization of initiation and propagation in stress corrosion cracking. An approach of a phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raquet, O.

    1994-01-01

    A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl 2 aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a 'riddle' for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author)

  18. Final report on LDRD project: A phenomenological model for multicomponent transport with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHEN,KEN S.; EVANS,GREGORY H.; LARSON,RICHARD S.; NOBLE,DAVID R.; HOUF,WILLIAM G.

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological model was developed for multicomponent transport of charged species with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions, and was applied to model processes in a thermal battery cell. A new general framework was formulated and implemented in GOMA (a multidimensional, multiphysics, finite-element computer code developed and being enhanced at Sandia) for modeling multidimensional, multicomponent transport of neutral and charged species in concentrated solutions. The new framework utilizes the Stefan-Maxwell equations that describe multicomponent diffusion of interacting species using composition-insensitive binary diffusion coefficients. The new GOMA capability for modeling multicomponent transport of neutral species was verified and validated using the model problem of ternary gaseous diffusion in a Stefan tube. The new GOMA-based thermal battery computer model was verified using an idealized battery cell in which concentration gradients are absent; the full model was verified by comparing with that of Bernardi and Newman (1987) and validated using limited thermal battery discharge-performance data from the open literature (Dunning 1981) and from Sandia (Guidotti 1996). Moreover, a new Liquid Chemkin Software Package was developed, which allows the user to handle manly aspects of liquid-phase kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport (particularly in terms of computing properties). Lastly, a Lattice-Boltzmann-based capability was developed for modeling pore- or micro-scale phenomena involving convection, diffusion, and simplified chemistry; this capability was demonstrated by modeling phenomena in the cathode region of a thermal battery cell.

  19. Reflection and transmission characteristics of a layer obeying the two-pressure field poroelastic phenomenological model of Berryman and Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachkouch, F; Franklin, H; Tinel, A

    2018-07-01

    The characteristics of the reflection and transmission by a fluid-loaded double porosity layer are studied. The medium obeys the two-pressure field poroelastic phenomenological model of Berryman and Wang. The open pore hydraulic conditions applied at the interfaces yield factorized expressions for the coefficients exhibiting on the one hand a separation allowing to distinguish between symmetrical and antisymmetrical motions and on the other hand the way each of the three dilatational waves associate with the shear wave. The numerical study done for a layer of Berea sandstone saturated by water shows clearly the role of each of the dilatational waves. There are peculiarities such as the absence of the fundamental antisymmetrical mode (zero order) and a singular behaviour of the symmetrical fundamental mode. The low frequency approximation for this latter is derived from the proposed formulas and compared with the numerical results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenomenological approach to the modelling of elliptical galaxies: The problem of the mass-to-light ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the phenomenological modelling of elliptical galaxies using various available observational data is presented. Recently, Tortora, Cardona and Piedipalumbo (2007 suggested a double power law expression for the global cumulative mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies. We tested their expression on a sample of ellipticals for which we have the estimates of the mass-to-light ratio beyond ~ 3 effective radii, a region where dark matter is expected to play an important dynamical role. We found that, for all the galaxies in our sample, we have α + β > 0, but that this does not necessarily mean a high dark matter content. The galaxies with higher mass (and higher dark matter content also have higher value of α+β. It was also shown that there is an indication that the galaxies with higher value of the effective radius also have higher dark matter content. .

  1. Phenomenology of Joint Attention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    might be brought against this analysis. Husserlian Phenomenology. As Husserl explains in Ideas Pertaining to Pure. Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philo- sophy (1913/1983), phenomenology is a theory of intentional mental states. A mental state is intentional insofar as it is about some object. The perceptual.

  2. From Sakata model to Goldberg-Ne'eman quarks and Nambu QCD phenomenology and 'right' and 'wrong' experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, Harry J.

    2007-01-01

    The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on p-bar p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the Ξ * and Ω - . More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the Ξ * and the Ω - and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the φ → ρπ decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the Δ ++ and Ω - contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the pnΛ triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's. (author)

  3. From Sakata model to Goldberg-Ne'eman quarks and Nambu QCD phenomenology and 'right' and 'wrong' experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on (bar p)p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the of the Ξ and (Omega) - . More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the Ξ* and the (Omega) - and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the φ → ρ π decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the Δ ++ and (Omega) - contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the Λ triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's

  4. Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, Giuliano [IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vecchi, Luca [SISSA,via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN - Sezione di Padova,via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wulzer, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN - Sezione di Padova,via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-06-30

    A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results. We also perform an assessment of which properties of the resonance could be inferred, after discovery, by a careful experimental study of the diphoton distributions. These include the spin J of the new particle and its dominant production mode. Partial information on its CP-parity can also be obtained, but only for J≥2. The complete determination of the resonance CP properties requires studying the pattern of the initial state radiation that accompanies the resonant diphoton production.

  5. DSE hadron phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A perspective on the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations, focusing on some recent phenomenological applications: a description and unification of light-meson observable using a one-parameter model of the effective quark-quark interaction, and studies of leptonic and nonleptonic nucleon form factors. The theory and phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) have seen something of a renaissance. For example, they have been applied simultaneously to phenomena as apparently unconnected as low-energy ππ scattering, B (r a rrow) D * decays and the equation of state for a quark gluon plasma, and there are renewed attempts to understand the origin of the infrared enhancement necessary in the kernel of the quark DSE (QCD gap equation) to generate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Also significant is the appreciation that in this approach current algebra's anomalies remain a feature of the global aspects of DCSB

  6. Developing the Model of "Pedagogical Art Communication" Using Social Phenomenological Analysis: An Introduction to a Research Method and an Example for Its Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method for museum and art education. After explaining its methodological background, it is shown how this method has been applied in a study of gallery talks or guided tours in art museums: Analyzing the situation by description and interpretation, a model for understanding gallery talks…

  7. The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2009-08-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

  8. Iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy: Laboratory data, a phenomenological model, and predictions of in-reactor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.K.; Tasooji, A.

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory tests performed on unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloy have been used as the basis for developing a phenomenological model of iodine-induced stress corrosion crack initiation and growth. The model is capable of predicting the response of cladding subjected to complex loading conditions. Major features of the data incorporated into the model include the existence of a threshold stress, the effect of iodine concentration, temperature effects, the role of chemical inhomogeneities and mechanical flaws, crack initiation in smooth specimens, crack propagation rates as a function of stress intensity in flawed specimens, and the detrimental effect of irradiation. The major physical processes addressed by the model include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC), transgranular SCC, ductile rupture, iodine penetration by surface diffusion along existing on incipient cracks, and stress and strain intensification and triaxiality caused by cracks or flaws. A probabilistic description of the size distribution of the flaws found in as-fabricated cladding is used at the basis for quantitatively extrapolating the laboratory test results to predict in-reactor cladding behavior. The in-reactor SCC resistance of a large fuel assembly is predicted to be substantially lower and more variable than that of small laboratory specimens. (orig.)

  9. Phenomenology of the three-flavor PNJL model and thermal strange quark production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Ming; Müller, Berndt

    2009-07-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the adjoint Polyakov loop and its implication for the momentum spectrum of gluons in the mean-field approximation. This allows us to calculate the contribution of the thermal (transverse) gluons to the thermodynamic pressure. As an application, we evaluate the rates for the strange quark pair-production processes q\\barq \\tos\\bars and gg \\tos\\bars as functions of temperature including thermal effects on quark deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking.

  10. A phenomenological model of the thermal hydraulics of convective boiling during the quenching of hot rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; Unal, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological model of the thermal hydraulics of convective boiling in the post-critical-heat-flux (post-CHF) regime is developed and discussed. The model was implemented in the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code (an advanced best-estimate computer program written for the analysis of pressurized water reactor systems). The model was built around the determination of flow regimes downstream of the quench front. The regimes were determined from the flow-regime map suggested by Ishii and his coworkers. Heat transfer in the transition boiling region was formulated as a position-dependent model. The propagation of the CHF point was strongly dependent on the length of the transition boiling region. Wall-to-fluid film boiling heat transfer was considered to consist of two components: first, a wall-to-vapor convective heat-transfer portion and, second, a wall-to-liquid heat transfer representing near-wall effects. Each contribution was considered separately in each of the inverted annular flow (IAF) regimes. The interfacial heat transfer was also formulated as flow-regime dependent. The interfacial drag coefficient model upstream of the CHF point was considered to be similar to flow through a roughened pipe. A free-stream contribution was calculated using Ishii's bubbly flow model for either fully developed subcooled or saturated nucleate boiling. For the drag in the smooth IAF region, a simple smooth-tube correlation for the interfacial friction factor was used. The drag coefficient for the rough-wavy IAF was formulated in the same way as for the smooth IAF model except that the roughness parameter was assumed to be proportional to liquid droplet diameter entrained from the wavy interface. The drag coefficient in the highly dispersed flow regime considered the combined effects of the liquid droplets within the channel and a liquid film on wet unheated walls. 431 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Evaluation and optimisation of phenomenological multi-step soot model for spray combustion under diesel engine-like operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song; Schramm, Jesper

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics study is reported of an n-heptane combustion event and the associated soot formation process in a constant volume combustion chamber. The key interest here is to evaluate the sensitivity of the chemical kinetics and submodels of a semi-empirical soot model in predicting the associated events. Numerical computation is performed using an open-source code and a chemistry coordinate mapping approach is used to expedite the calculation. A library consisting of various phenomenological multi-step soot models is constructed and integrated with the spray combustion solver. Prior to the soot modelling, combustion simulations are carried out. Numerical results show that the ignition delay times and lift-off lengths exhibit good agreement with the experimental measurements across a wide range of operating conditions, apart from those in the cases with ambient temperature lower than 850 K. The variation of the soot precursor production with respect to the change of ambient oxygen levels qualitatively agrees with that of the conceptual models when the skeletal n-heptane mechanism is integrated with a reduced pyrene chemistry. Subsequently, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out to appraise the existing soot formation and oxidation submodels. It is revealed that the soot formation is captured when the surface growth rate is calculated using a square root function of the soot specific surface area and when a pressure-dependent model constant is considered. An optimised soot model is then proposed based on the knowledge gained through this exercise. With the implementation of optimised model, the simulated soot onset and transport phenomena before reaching quasi-steady state agree reasonably well with the experimental observation. Also, variation of spatial soot distribution and soot mass produced at oxygen molar fractions ranging from 10.0 to 21.0% for both low and high density conditions are reproduced.

  12. A phenomenological molecular model for yielding and brittle-ductile transition of polymer glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Cheng, Shiwang; Lin, Panpan; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2014-09-07

    This work formulates, at a molecular level, a phenomenological theoretical description of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in tensile extension, exhibited by all polymeric glasses of high molecular weight (MW). The starting point is our perception of a polymer glass (under large deformation) as a structural hybrid, consisting of a primary structure due to the van der Waals bonding and a chain network whose junctions are made of pairs of hairpins and function like chemical crosslinks due to the intermolecular uncrossability. During extension, load-bearing strands (LBSs) emerge between the junctions in the affinely strained chain network. Above the BDT, i.e., at "warmer" temperatures where the glass is less vitreous, the influence of the chain network reaches out everywhere by activating all segments populated transversely between LBSs, starting from those adjacent to LBSs. It is the chain network that drives the primary structure to undergo yielding and plastic flow. Below the BDT, the glassy state is too vitreous to yield before the chain network suffers a structural breakdown. Thus, brittle failure becomes inevitable. For any given polymer glass of high MW, there is one temperature TBD or a very narrow range of temperature where the yielding of the glass barely takes place as the chain network also reaches the point of a structural failure. This is the point of the BDT. A theoretical analysis of the available experimental data reveals that (a) chain pullout occurs at the BDT when the chain tension builds up to reach a critical value f(cp) during tensile extension; (b) the limiting value of f(cp), extrapolated to far below the glass transition temperature T(g), is of a universal magnitude around 0.2-0.3 nN, for all eight polymers examined in this work; (c) pressurization, which is known [K. Matsushige, S. V. Radcliffe, and E. Baer, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 20, 1853 (1976)] to make brittle polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ductile at room

  13. The phenomenology of deep brain stimulation-induced changes in OCD: an enactive affordance-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sanneke; Rietveld, Erik; Stokhof, Martin; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    People suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) do things they do not want to do, and/or they think things they do not want to think. In about 10% of OCD patients, none of the available treatment options is effective. A small group of these patients is currently being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain. These electrodes give a continuous electrical pulse to the brain area in which they are implanted. It turns out that patients may experience profound changes as a result of DBS treatment. It is not just the symptoms that change; patients rather seem to experience a different way of being in the world. These global effects are insufficiently captured by traditional psychiatric scales, which mainly consist of behavioral measures of the severity of the symptoms. In this article we aim to capture the changes in the patients' phenomenology and make sense of the broad range of changes they report. For that we introduce an enactive, affordance-based model that fleshes out the dynamic interactions between person and world in four aspects. The first aspect is the patients' experience of the world. We propose to specify the patients' world in terms of a field of affordances, with the three dimensions of broadness of scope (“width” of the field), temporal horizon (“depth”), and relevance of the perceived affordances (“height”). The second aspect is the person-side of the interaction, that is, the patients' self-experience, notably their moods and feelings. Thirdly, we point to the different characteristics of the way in which patients relate to the world. And lastly, the existential stance refers to the stance that patients take toward the changes they experience: the second-order evaluative relation to their interactions and themselves. With our model we intend to specify the notion of being in the world in order to do justice to the phenomenological effects of DBS treatment. PMID:24133438

  14. The phenomenology of Deep Brain Stimulation-induced changes in OCD: An enactive affordance-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanneke ede Haan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available People suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD do things they do not want to do, and/or they think things they do not want to think. In about 10 percent of OCD patients, none of the available treatment options is effective. A small group of these patients is currently being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS. Deep brain stimulation involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain. These electrodes give a continuous electrical pulse to the brain area in which they are implanted. It turns out that patients may experience profound changes as a result of DBS treatment. It is not just the symptoms that change; patients rather seem to experience a different way of being in the world. These global effects are insufficiently captured by traditional psychiatric scales, which mainly consist of behavioural measures of the severity of the symptoms.In this article we aim to capture the changes in the patients’ phenomenology and make sense of the broad range of changes they report. For that we introduce an enactive, affordance-based model that fleshes out the dynamic interactions between person and world in four aspects. The first aspect is the patients’ experience of the world. We propose to specify the patients’ world in terms of a field of affordances, with the three dimensions of broadness of scope (‘width’ of the field, temporal horizon (‘depth’, and relevance of the perceived affordances (‘height’. The second aspect is the person-side of the interaction, that is, the patients’ self-experience, notably their moods and feelings. Thirdly, we point to the different characteristics of the way in which patients relate to the world. And lastly, the existential stance refers to the stance that patients take towards the changes they experience: the second-order evaluative relation to their interactions and themselves. With our model we intend to specify the notion of being in the world in order to do justice to the

  15. THE LOW FREQUENCY OF DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VERSUS THE HIGH MERGER RATE OF GALAXIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingjuan; Lu Youjun; Mohayaee, Roya; Colin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are natural byproducts of hierarchical mergers of galaxies in the ΛCDM cosmogony. Recent observations have shown that only a small fraction (∼0.1%-2.5%) of AGNs at redshift z ∼< 0.3 are dual with kpc-scale separations, which is rather low compared to the high merger rate of galaxies. Here we construct a phenomenological model to estimate the number density of dual AGNs and its evolution according to the observationally estimated major merger rates of galaxies and various scaling relations on the properties of galaxies and their central massive black holes. We show that our model reproduces the observed frequency and separation distribution of dual AGNs provided that significant nuclear activities are triggered only in gas-rich progenitor galaxies with central massive black holes and only when the nuclei of these galaxies are roughly within the half-light radii of their companion galaxies. Under these constraints, the observed low dual AGN frequency is consistent with the relatively high merger rate of galaxies and supports the hypothesis that major mergers lead to AGN/QSO activities. We also predict that the number of kpc-scale dual AGNs decreases with increasing redshift and only about 0.02%-0.06% of AGNs are dual AGNs with double-peaked narrow line features at redshifts of z ∼ 0.5-1.2. Future observations of high-redshift dual AGNs would provide a solid test for this prediction.

  16. A phenomenological model for the structure-composition relationship of the high Tc cuprates based on simple chemical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Talbot, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model for the relationship between structure and composition of the high Tc cuprates is presented. The model is based on two simple crystal chemistry principles: unit cell doping and charge balance within unit cells. These principles are inspired by key experimental observations of how the materials accommodate large deviations from stoichiometry. Consistent explanations for significant HTSC properties can be explained without any additional assumptions while retaining valuable insight for geometric interpretation. Combining these two chemical principles with a review of Crystal Field Theory (CFT) or Ligand Field Theory (LFT), it becomes clear that the two oxidation states in the conduction planes (typically d 8 and d 9 ) belong to the most strongly divergent d-levels as a function of deformation from regular octahedral coordination. This observation offers a link to a range of coupling effects relating vibrations and spin waves through application of Hund’s rules. An indication of this model’s capacity to predict physical properties for HTSC is provided and will be elaborated in subsequent publications. Simple criteria for the relationship between structure and composition in HTSC systems may guide chemical syntheses within new material systems.

  17. Mudcake growth: Model and implications

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Q.

    2017-12-15

    Oil and gas account for 60% of the world\\'s energy consumption. Drilling muds that are used to advance oil and gas wells must be engineered to avoid wellbore integrity problems associated with mud cake formation, to favor cake erosion during cementing, and to prevent partial differential sticking. We developed a robust mud cake growth model for water-based mud based on wide stress-range constitutive equations within a Lagrangian reference system to avoid non-natural moving boundary solutions. The comprehensive mud cake growth model readily accommodates environmental factors (e.g., temperature, pH, and ionic concentration) and defines the yield stress distribution for displacement-erosion analyses. Results show that the mud cake thickness is more sensitive to time than to filtration pressure, therefore, time controls the non-uniform distribution of mudcake thickness during drilling. Long filtration time, high permeability, high salinity, high in-situ temperature and low viscosity exacerbate fluid loss and give rise to thick filter cakes. The analysis of residual cake thickness during cement displacement must take into account the effective stress dependent mudcake formation and the time-dependent mud thixotropy. Thixotropy dominates the mud yield stress at high void ratios, e.g. e > 20. The offsetting force that causes differential pressure sticking increases sub-linearly as a power function of the still-time.

  18. A phenomenological variational multiscale constitutive model for intergranular failure in nanocrystalline materials

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a variational multiscale constitutive model that accounts for intergranular failure in nanocrystalline fcc metals due to void growth and coalescence in the grain boundary region. Following previous work by the authors, a nanocrystalline material is modeled as a two-phase material consisting of a grain interior phase and a grain boundary affected zone (GBAZ). A crystal plasticity model that accounts for the transition from partial dislocation to full dislocation mediated plasticity is used for the grain interior. Isotropic porous plasticity model with further extension to account for failure due to the void coalescence was used for the GBAZ. The extended model contains all the deformation phases, i.e. elastic deformation, plastic deformation including deviatoric and volumetric plasticity (void growth) followed by damage initiation and evolution due to void coalescence. Parametric studies have been performed to assess the model\\'s dependence on the different input parameters. The model is then validated against uniaxial loading experiments for different materials. Lastly we show the model\\'s ability to predict the damage and fracture of a dog-bone shaped specimen as observed experimentally. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb L anti b L coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K 0 - anti K 0 mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B s - anti B s system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)

  20. The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Monika

    2009-07-24

    Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb{sub L} anti b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K{sup 0} - anti K{sup 0} mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B{sub s} - anti B{sub s} system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)

  1. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  2. Towards a multisensory phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    This paper illustrates a multisensory phenomenology that extends hermeneutic phenomenologies in tourism through the embracing of non-representational approaches. The novel co-integration of audio, visual, impressionistic and netnographic accounts allows us to rethink the textual nature and symbolic...... meaning confining phenomenological research. Our analysis is centred on an under-researched European tourism phenomenon, interrailing. This sensuous account provides an original reading of phenomenology focused on how rhythms, sounds and temperatures construct interrail encounters. The analysis...

  3. A phenomenological two-phase constitutive model for porous shape memory alloys

    KAUST Repository

    El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-07-01

    We present a two-phase constitutive model for pseudoelastoplastic behavior of porous shape memory alloys (SMAs). The model consists of a dense SMA phase and a porous plasticity phase. The overall response of the porous SMA is obtained by a weighted average of responses of individual phases. Based on the chosen constitutive model parameters, the model incorporates the pseudoelastic and pseudoplastic behavior simultaneously (commonly reported for porous SMAs) as well as sequentially (i.e. dense SMAs; pseudoelastic deformation followed by the pseudoplastic deformation until failure). The presented model also incorporates failure due to the deviatoric (shear band formation) and volumetric (void growth and coalescence) plastic deformation. The model is calibrated by representative volume elements (RVEs) with different sizes of spherical voids that are solved by unit cell finite element calculations. The overall response of the model is tested against experimental results from literature. Finally, application of the presented constitutive model has been presented by performing finite element simulations of the deformation and failure in unaixial dog-bone shaped specimen and compact tension (CT) test specimen. Results show a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lectures on perturbative QCD, jets and the standard model: collider phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Applications of the Standard Model to the description of physics at hadron colliders are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the use of jets to characterize this physics. The issue of identifying physics beyond the Standard Model is also discussed. 59 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Finding practical phenomenological models that include both photoresist behavior and etch process effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunwook; Do, Thuy; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    For more than five decades, the semiconductor industry has overcome technology challenges with innovative ideas that have continued to enable Moore's Law. It is clear that multi-patterning lithography is vital for 20nm half pitch using 193i. Multi-patterning exposure sequences and pattern multiplication processes can create complicated tolerance accounting due to the variability associated with the component processes. It is essential to ensure good predictive accuracy of compact etch models used in multipatterning simulation. New modelforms have been developed to account for etch bias behavior at 20 nm and below. The new modeling components show good results in terms of global fitness and some improved predication capability for specific features. We've also investigated a new methodology to make the etch model aware of 3D resist profiles.

  6. Phenomenology of minimal Z’ models: from the LHC to the GUT scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accomando Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of minimal abelian extensions of the Standard Model with an extra neutral gauge boson Z′ at the TeV scale. In these scenarios an extended scalar sector and heavy right-handed neutrinos are naturally envisaged. We present some of their striking signatures at the Large Hadron Collider, the most interesting arising from a Z′ decaying to heavy neutrino pairs as well as a heavy scalar decaying to two Standard Model Higgses. Using renormalisation group methods, we characterise the high energy behaviours of these extensions and exploit the constraints imposed by the embedding into a wider GUT scenario.

  7. Phenomenology of U(1)F extension of inert-doublet model with exotic scalars and leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhargyal, Lobsang

    2018-02-01

    In this work we will extend the inert-doublet model (IDM) by adding a new U(1)F gauge symmetry to it, under which, a Z2 even scalar (φ 2) and Z2 odd right handed component of two exotic charged leptons (F_{eR}, F_{μ R}), are charged. We also add one Z2 even real scalar (φ 1) and one complex scalar (φ ), three neutral Majorana right handed fermions (N1, N2, N3), two left handed components of the exotic charged leptons (F_{eL}, F_{μ L}) as well as F_{τ } are all odd under the Z2, all of which are not charged under the U(1)F. With these new particles added to the IDM, we have a model which can give two scalar DM candidates, together they can explain the present DM relic density as well as the muon (g-2) anomaly simultaneously. Also in this model the neutrino masses are generated at one loop level. One of the most peculiar feature of this model is that non-trivial solution to the axial gauge anomaly free conditions lead to the prediction of a stable very heavy partner to the electron (Fe), whose present collider limit (13 TeV LHC) on its mass should be around m_{Fe} ≥ few TeV.

  8. Discriminative phenomenological features of scale invariant models for electroweak symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical scale invariance (CSI may be one of the solutions for the hierarchy problem. Realistic models for electroweak symmetry breaking based on CSI require extended scalar sectors without mass terms, and the electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically at the quantum level by the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism. We discuss discriminative features of these models. First, using the experimental value of the mass of the discovered Higgs boson h(125, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the lightest additional scalar boson (≃543 GeV, which does not depend on its isospin and hypercharge. Second, a discriminative prediction on the Higgs-photon–photon coupling is given as a function of the number of charged scalar bosons, by which we can narrow down possible models using current and future data for the di-photon decay of h(125. Finally, for the triple Higgs boson coupling a large deviation (∼+70% from the SM prediction is universally predicted, which is independent of masses, quantum numbers and even the number of additional scalars. These models based on CSI can be well tested at LHC Run II and at future lepton colliders.

  9. Phenomenological model for predicting the catabolic potential of an arbitrary nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M D Seaver

    Full Text Available The ability of microbial species to consume compounds found in the environment to generate commercially-valuable products has long been exploited by humanity. The untapped, staggering diversity of microbial organisms offers a wealth of potential resources for tackling medical, environmental, and energy challenges. Understanding microbial metabolism will be crucial to many of these potential applications. Thermodynamically-feasible metabolic reconstructions can be used, under some conditions, to predict the growth rate of certain microbes using constraint-based methods. While these reconstructions are powerful, they are still cumbersome to build and, because of the complexity of metabolic networks, it is hard for researchers to gain from these reconstructions an understanding of why a certain nutrient yields a given growth rate for a given microbe. Here, we present a simple model of biomass production that accurately reproduces the predictions of thermodynamically-feasible metabolic reconstructions. Our model makes use of only: i a nutrient's structure and function, ii the presence of a small number of enzymes in the organism, and iii the carbon flow in pathways that catabolize nutrients. When applied to test organisms, our model allows us to predict whether a nutrient can be a carbon source with an accuracy of about 90% with respect to in silico experiments. In addition, our model provides excellent predictions of whether a medium will produce more or less growth than another (p<10(-6 and good predictions of the actual value of the in silico biomass production.

  10. General model of wood in typical coupled tasks. Part I. – Phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is focused on FE modeling of wood structure. This task is conditioned mainly by different organized structures/regions (tissues, anomalies... and leads to homogenization process of multiphysics declaration of common scientific and engineering problems. The crucial role in this paper is played by derivation of coefficient form of general PDE which is solvable by nowadays numerical solvers. Generality of supposed model is given by wide range of coupled physical fields included in the model. Used approach summarizes and brings together models for various fields of matter and energy common in wood material in wood drying process, but is also suitable for a lot of different tasks of similar materials. Namely microwave drying of wood with orthotropic, visco-elastic material properties together with time, moisture and temperature dependency of structural strains by modified mechanical properties were included. Specific matrixes of elasticity for in­di­vi­dual fields were derived. Thermal field in wood was described by conduction type of spreading. Coupling of physical fields is based on diffusive character of temperature, moisture, static pressure fields movement.

  11. Reconstructing ATLAS SU3 in the CMSSM and relaxed phenomenological supersymmetry models

    CERN Document Server

    Fowlie, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that the LHC makes a positive end-point measurement indicative of low-energy supersymmetry, we examine the prospects of reconstructing the parameter values of a typical low-mass point in the framework of the Constrained MSSM and in several other supersymmetry models that have more free parameters and fewer assumptions than the CMSSM. As a case study, we consider the ATLAS SU3 benchmark point with a Bayesian approach and with a Gaussian approximation to the likelihood for the measured masses and mass differences. First we investigate the impact of the hypothetical ATLAS measurement alone and show that it significantly narrows the confidence intervals of relevant, otherwise fairly unrestricted, model parameters. Next we add information about the relic density of neutralino dark matter to the likelihood and show that this further narrows the confidence intervals. We confirm that the CMSSM has the best prospects for parameter reconstruction; its results had little dependence on our choice of prior, in co...

  12. Phenomenological Hamiltonian of Sp(2,R) model for heavy deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.I.; Asherova, R.M.; Filippov, G.F.; Smirnov, Yu.F.; Zajtsev, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the frame of the symplectic collective model, operating with the microscopical basic functions of irraducible representation of SU(3) groups the energy spectrum of collective excitation in 164 Kr nucleus is calculated. Also the aOsolute and relative values of probabilities E2-transitions between collective states are obtained. The indexes of SU(3) symmetry are chosen in correspondence with rules of Nillsson orbital occupation

  13. New class of two-loop neutrino mass models with distinguishable phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Shao-Long; Ma, Ernest; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    We discuss a new class of neutrino mass models generated in two loops, and explore specifically three new physics scenarios: (A) doubly charged scalar, (B) dark matter, and (C) leptoquark and diquark, which are verifiable at the 14 TeV LHC Run-II. We point out how the different Higgs insertions will distinguish our two-loop topology with others if the new particles in the loop are in the simplest representations of the SM gauge group.

  14. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-09

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  15. Phenomenological study of the minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diessner, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics gives a comprehensive description of numerous phenomena concerning the fundamental components of nature. Still, open questions and a clouded understanding of the underlying structure remain. Supersymmetry is a well motivated extension that may account for the observed density of dark matter in the universe and solve the hierarchy problem of the SM. The minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM (MSSM) provides solutions to these challenges. Furthermore, it predicts new particles in reach of current experiments. However, the model has its own theoretical challenges and is under fire from measurements provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Nevertheless, the concept of supersymmetry has an elegance which not only shines in the MSSM. Hence, it is also of interest to examine non-minimal supersymmetric models. They have benefits similar to the MSSM and may solve its shortcomings. R-symmetry is the only global symmetry allowed that does not commutate with supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry. Thus, extending a supersymmetric model with R-symmetry is a theoretically well motivated endeavor to achieve the complete symmetry content of a field theory. Such a model provides a natural explanation for non-discovery in the early runs of the LHC and leads to further predictions distinct from those of the MSSM. The work described in this thesis contributes to the effort by studying the minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric extension of the SM (MRSSM). Important aspects of its physics and the dependence of observables on the parameter space of the MRSSM are investigated. The discovery of a scalar particle compatible with the Higgs boson of the SM at the LHC was announced in 2012. It is the first and crucial task of this thesis to understand the underlying mechanisms leading to the correct Higgs boson mass prediction in the MRSSM. Then, the relevant regions of parameter space are investigated and it is shown that they are also in agreement

  16. Phenomenological study of the minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diessner, Philip

    2016-10-20

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics gives a comprehensive description of numerous phenomena concerning the fundamental components of nature. Still, open questions and a clouded understanding of the underlying structure remain. Supersymmetry is a well motivated extension that may account for the observed density of dark matter in the universe and solve the hierarchy problem of the SM. The minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM (MSSM) provides solutions to these challenges. Furthermore, it predicts new particles in reach of current experiments. However, the model has its own theoretical challenges and is under fire from measurements provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Nevertheless, the concept of supersymmetry has an elegance which not only shines in the MSSM. Hence, it is also of interest to examine non-minimal supersymmetric models. They have benefits similar to the MSSM and may solve its shortcomings. R-symmetry is the only global symmetry allowed that does not commutate with supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry. Thus, extending a supersymmetric model with R-symmetry is a theoretically well motivated endeavor to achieve the complete symmetry content of a field theory. Such a model provides a natural explanation for non-discovery in the early runs of the LHC and leads to further predictions distinct from those of the MSSM. The work described in this thesis contributes to the effort by studying the minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric extension of the SM (MRSSM). Important aspects of its physics and the dependence of observables on the parameter space of the MRSSM are investigated. The discovery of a scalar particle compatible with the Higgs boson of the SM at the LHC was announced in 2012. It is the first and crucial task of this thesis to understand the underlying mechanisms leading to the correct Higgs boson mass prediction in the MRSSM. Then, the relevant regions of parameter space are investigated and it is shown that they are also in agreement

  17. In the Intimacy of My "Enactlon": Modeling Kohut's "Bipolar Self" as an Autopoietic System: A Dialectic Approach to Phenomenological Research in Contemporary Psychoanalytic Self Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Claire Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that Kohut's definitional system of the "bipolar self" within psychoanalytic self psychology can be modeled as a biological autopoietic system, both in terms of its structure and dynamics, in a way that accounts for the phenomenological aspects of experiential living. Based on this finding, the author argues that a nonreductionist definitional system of this type is an integral component of any pragmatic methodology, such as Kohut's "empathic-introspective" method of treatment, which aims to enable the analyst, as observer, to gain access to the phenomenological world of the analysand within the analytic setting. The dialectic approach undertaken in this preliminary exploration of the "bipolar self" as an autopoietic system has proven fruitful in excavating some of the theoretical features of psychoanalytic self psychology, the weighted importance of which can now be reevaluated in contemporary practice.

  18. Annealing of radiation-induced defects in silicon in a simplified phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, S.; Lazanu, I.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of primary radiation-induced defects has been previously estimated considering both the explicit mechanisms of the primary interaction between the incoming particle and the nuclei of the semiconductor lattice, and the recoil energy partition between ionisation and displacements, in the frame of the Lindhard theory. The primary displacement defects are vacancies and interstitials that are essentially unstable in silicon. They interact via migration, recombination, annihilation or produce other defects. In the present work, the time evolution of the concentration of defects induced by pions in medium and high resistivity silicon for detectors is modelled, after irradiation. In some approximations, the differential equations representing the time evolution processes could be decoupled. The theoretical equations so obtained are solved analytically in some particular cases, with one free parameter, for a wide range of particle fluences and/or for a wide energy range of incident particles, for different temperatures; the corresponding stationary solutions are also presented

  19. The Urban Tree as a Tool to Mitigate the Urban Heat Island in Mexico City: A Simple Phenomenological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinas, Mónica; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is mainly a nocturnal phenomenon, but it also appears during the day in Mexico City. The UHI may affect human thermal comfort, which can influence human productivity and morbidity in the spring/summer period. A simple phenomenological model based on the energy balance was developed to generate theoretical support of UHI mitigation in Mexico City focused on the latent heat flux change by increasing tree coverage to reduce sensible heat flux and air temperature. Half-hourly data of the urban energy balance components were generated in a typical residential/commercial neighborhood of Mexico City and then parameterized using easily measured variables (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and visibility). Canopy conductance was estimated every hour in four tree species, and transpiration was estimated using sap flow technique and parameterized by the envelope function method. Averaged values of net radiation, energy storage, and sensible and latent heat flux were around 449, 224, 153, and 72 W m, respectively. Daily tree transpiration ranged from 3.64 to 4.35 Ld. To reduce air temperature by 1°C in the studied area, 63 large would be required per hectare, whereas to reduce the air temperature by 2°C only 24 large trees would be required. This study suggests increasing tree canopy cover in the city cannot mitigate UHI adequately but requires choosing the most appropriate tree species to solve this problem. It is imperative to include these types of studies in tree selection and urban development planning to adequately mitigate UHI. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Interpretive Hermeneutic Phenomenology: Clarifying Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The philosophical orientation of Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenology is explored in this paper. Gadamer offers a hermeneutics of the humanities that differs significantly from models of the human sciences historically rooted in scientific methodologies. In particular, Gadamer proposes that understanding is first a mode ...

  1. PH- and salt-dependent molecular combing of DNA: experiments and phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, Annegret; Pompe, Wolfgang; Mertig, Michael

    2011-01-01

    λ-DNA as well as plasmids can be successfully deposited by molecular combing on hydrophobic surfaces, for pH values ranging from 4 to 10. On polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates, the deposited DNA molecules are overstretched by about 60-100%. There is a significant influence of sodium ions (NaCl) on the surface density of the deposited DNA, with a maximum near to 100 mM NaCl for a DNA solution (28 ng μl -1 ) at pH 8. The combing process can be described by a micromechanical model including: (i) the adsorption of free moving coiled DNA at the substrate; (ii) the stretching of the coiled DNA by the preceding meniscus; (iii) the relaxation of the deposited DNA to the final length. The sticky ends of λ-DNA cause an adhesion force in the range of about 400 pN which allows a stable overstretching of the DNA by the preceding meniscus. The exposing of hidden hydrophobic bonds of the overstretched DNA leads to a stable deposition on the hydrophobic substrate. The pH-dependent density of deposited DNA as well as the observed influence of sodium ions can be explained by their screening of the negatively charged DNA backbone and sticky ends, respectively. The final DNA length can be derived from a balance of the stored elastic energy of the overstretched molecules and the energy of adhesion.

  2. EASEE: an open architecture approach for modeling battlespace signal and sensor phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lauren E.; Wilson, D. Keith; Ekegren, Michael T.; Borden, Christian T.

    2017-04-01

    Open architecture in the context of defense applications encourages collaboration across government agencies and academia. This paper describes a success story in the implementation of an open architecture framework that fosters transparency and modularity in the context of Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment (EASEE), a complex physics-based software package for modeling the effects of terrain and atmospheric conditions on signal propagation and sensor performance. Among the highlighted features in this paper are: (1) a code refactorization to separate sensitive parts of EASEE, thus allowing collaborators the opportunity to view and interact with non-sensitive parts of the EASEE framework with the end goal of supporting collaborative innovation, (2) a data exchange and validation effort to enable the dynamic addition of signatures within EASEE thus supporting a modular notion that components can be easily added or removed to the software without requiring recompilation by developers, and (3) a flexible and extensible XML interface, which aids in decoupling graphical user interfaces from EASEE's calculation engine, and thus encourages adaptability to many different defense applications. In addition to the outlined points above, this paper also addresses EASEE's ability to interface with both proprietary systems such as ArcGIS. A specific use case regarding the implementation of an ArcGIS toolbar that leverages EASEE's XML interface and enables users to set up an EASEE-compliant configuration for probability of detection or optimal sensor placement calculations in various modalities is discussed as well.

  3. Renormalization Group Evolution of the Standard Model Dimension Six Operators III: Gauge Coupling Dependence and Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V; Trott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the gauge terms of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix for the dimension-six operators of the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT). Combining these results with our previous results for the $\\lambda$ and Yukawa coupling terms completes the calculation of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix for the dimension-six operators. There are 1350 $CP$-even and $1149$ $CP$-odd parameters in the dimension-six Lagrangian for 3 generations, and our results give the entire $2499 \\times 2499$ anomalous dimension matrix. We discuss how the renormalization of the dimension-six operators, and the additional renormalization of the dimension $d \\le 4$ terms of the SM Lagrangian due to dimension-six operators, lays the groundwork for future precision studies of the SM EFT aimed at constraining the effects of new physics through precision measurements at the electroweak scale. As some sample applications, we discuss some aspects of the full RGE improved result for essential processes such as $gg \\to h...

  4. From essence to Lebenswelt as a method in phenomenological psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA,Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of different phenomenological philosophies as a methodological inspiration in psychopathology certainly leads to methodological implications that must be taken into account. Karl Jaspers, who was inspired by Husserl's transcendental phenomenology, sought the essence so as to reach the generality of the lived psychopathology, thereby giving birth to general psychopathology. This paper advocates for the ambiguous phenomenological method, inspired by Merleau-Ponty's philosophy o...

  5. Social Phenomenological Analysis as a Research Method in Art Education: Developing an Empirical Model for Understanding Gallery Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method to study gallery talks or guided tours in art museums. The research method is based on the philosophical considerations of Edmund Husserl and sociological/social science concepts put forward by Max Weber and Alfred Schuetz. Its starting point is the everyday lifeworld; the…

  6. Phenomenological, symmetrical, field-theoretical aspects and mathematical considerations of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjaev, L.Sh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We review the conceptual foundation of Yang-Mills gauge field theories. On these gauge theories the Standard Model (SM) are constructed. The fundamental postulates and their immediate consequence of the SM are formulated. The SM is a Yang-Mills type gauge field theory basically dictated by the Generalized Gauge Principle (GGP). According to this principle all fundamental forces of nature such as strong, electroweak, gravitational are mediated by an exchange of the Yang-Mills gauge fields corresponding gauge group. The SM is constructed by extension of the global non-Abelian SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) symmetry to the local SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) symmetry under which the Lagrangian of the SM invariant. This full symmetry has to be broken by Higgs mechanism down to the Electroweak gauge symmetry. The concept of fundamental particles does not exist. To Look for not Fundamental Particles but Fundamental symmetries. By searching of more general theory it is natural to search first of all Global symmetries and then to learn consequences connected with the localization of the global symmetries like wise of SM. The SM is renormalizable and therefor potentially consist at all energy scales. The SM in principle can describe the properties of the Universe beginning at 10 -43 sec. after BIG BANG. A SM of the BIG BANG Particle physics provides one of the few windows of the high energy world beyond SM which is consistent with SM and Cosmology. All the fundamental particles of the SM such as quarks, leptons and weak intermediate vector-gauge Bosons except one Higgs boson H 0 have been discovered and there masses and spins have been determined. The SM is stunning. Until now, no cracks have been found. There is no experiment that contradicts the SM. Moreover there is nothing observed beyond the SM. The SM works better and better. We proposed to construct colour singular nuclear forces theory based on Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). As well Theological aspects of the BIG BANG

  7. A Phenomenological Model for Prediction Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation of Turbulent Diffusion Combustion in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenological model, the TP (Temperature Phase model, is presented to carry out optimization calculations for turbulent diffusion combustion in a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature is the most important parameter in the TP model, which includes two parts: an auto-ignition and a soot model. In the auto-ignition phase, different reaction mechanisms are built for different zones. For the soot model, different methods are used for different temperatures. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimization. The results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP model, KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed. The results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and CFD (computational fluid dynamics and can be a useful tool to study turbulent diffusion combustion.

  8. Intolerance of uncertainty in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: A transdiagnostic construct with implications for phenomenology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Carrie B; Bilek, Emily L; Hanna, Gregory L; Fitzgerald, Kate D

    2018-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are early-onset disorders with significant overlapping phenomenology, especially in young patients who, due to developmental stage, may have difficulty recognizing obsessions and worries as unrealistic or excessive. Shared phenomenology and high rates of comorbidity between OCD and GAD raise the possibility of common underlying processes, and recent work has focused on intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a reasonable candidate. With an emphasis on the youth literature, we review the phenomenological overlap between OCD and GAD, how symptoms may relate to IU, and how IU may be measured. We review existing psychotherapeutic treatments and discuss how understanding the role of IU may assist in the development of novel psychotherapeutic strategies to improve treatment outcomes. Neuroimaging studies of IU in OCD and GAD are also discussed and suggestions for further research are offered. We conclude that, consistent with Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), IU represents a transdiagnostic construct with a demonstrable neural basis that could be targeted to improve existing treatments for these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenomenology and homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Tom

    2013-07-01

    There is a great overlap between the way of seeing the world in clinical homeopathy and in the technical philosophical system known as phenomenology. A knowledge of phenomenologic principles reveals Hahnemann to have been an unwitting phenomenologist. The ideas of phenomenology as applied to medicine show that homeopathy is the ideal medical system to fulfill the goals of coming ever closer to true patient concerns and experience of illness. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A phenomenological model for the rounding of the electrical conductivity above Tgco in polycrystalline copper oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veira, J.A.; Domarco, G.; Maza, J.; Miguelez, F.; Torron, C.; Vidal, F.

    1989-01-01

    The amplitude and temperature behavior of the electrical resistivity of ceramic superconductors above the mean-field critical temperature of the individual grains is explained by combining the current phenomenological ideas on the electrical conductivity in granular superconductors with the effects of the fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter amplitude. As an example of application, the authors analyze the phase-breaking time in ceramic YBCO samples

  11. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution. John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. London &. New York: Routledge. Hard Cover (198 pages). ...... suggestive power exerted by artistic means of presentation. Thus, if one is fond of paradoxi- cal phrases, one can ...

  12. What Is Film Phenomenology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Ferencz-Flatz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this article Christian Ferencz-Flatz and I try to give an answer to the question what film phenomenology actually is. We proceed in three steps. First, we provide a survey of five different research practices within current film phenomenological writing: We call them excavation, explanation,

  13. Humanising Forces: Phenomenology in Science; Psychotherapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the concerns of the existential-phenomenological tradition has been to examine the human implications of living in a world of proliferating technology. The pressure to become more specialised and efficient has become a powerful value and quest. Both contemporary culture and science enables a view of human ...

  14. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  15. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a single case of anorexia nervosa: Part 2. Coping modes, healthy adult mode, superordinate themes, and implications for research and practice.

  16. Research approaches related to phenomenology: negotiating a complex landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Maura; Cooney, Adeline

    2012-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of the many research approaches related to phenomenology and their philosophical underpinnings. Phenomenological research approaches are varied and often difficult to apply appropriately. Some researchers persist in labelling their studies as examples of Heideggerian or Husserlian phenomenology without fully understanding the implications of the underpinning philosophical assumptions. Methodological sources related to phenomenology as a philosophy and phenomenology as a research approach are used to illustrate the range of phenomenological methods and their philosophical underpinnings. The origins of phenomenology are the writings of Husserl and the advancement of his thoughts by Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger, Gadamer and Ricoeur. The importance of fully understanding a methodology and its philosophical underpinnings before using it, or claiming to use it, is emphasised. In addition, the variety of phenomenological research approaches that have evolved over the past 50 years are explored and placed in the context of their philosophical underpinnings. There is no single way to conduct a phenomenological study. There are many approaches from which researchers can choose. This has resulted in a range of labels and often in different descriptions for the same approach. It is essential that researchers planning to use phenomenology are familiar with the many approaches available. This knowledge will help researchers choose the approaches that best suit the aims of their studies.

  17. To be objective in Experimental Phenomenology: a Psychophysics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Several scientific psychologists consider the approach for the study of perceptive problems of the Experimental Phenomenology is problematic, namely that the phenomenological demonstrations are subjectively based and they do not produce quantifiable results. The aim of this study is to show that Experimental Phenomenology can lead to conclusions objective and quantifiable and propose a procedure allowing to obtain objective measuring using the Rasch mathematical model able to describe the experimental data gathered in Experimental Phenomenology procedures. In order to demonstrate this, a Psychophysics simulated study is proposed. It is possible to carry out a fundamental measurement starting from Experimental Phenomenology by way of the Theory of Conjoint Measurement.

  18. Phenomenology of unified gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    Part I of these lectures treats the standard Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of weak and electromagnetic interactions, discussing in turn its basic structure and weak neutral currents, charged currents, mixing angles and CP violation, and the phenomenology of weak vector and Higgs bosons. Part II of the lectures discusses the structure of theories of dynamical symmetry breaking such as technicolour, phenomenological consequences, frustrations and alternatives. The third part of these lectures offers the standard menu of grand unified theories (GUTs) of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, including an hors d'oeuvre of constraints on the parameters of the standard model, a main course of baryon number violating processes, and desserts which violate lepton number and CP. The fourth and final part goes through different attempts to remedy the inadequacies of previous theories by invoking supersymmetry and reaching out towards gravitation. (orig./HSI)

  19. Hadron mass scaling in Regge phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakovsky, L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors show that Regge phenomenology is consistent with the only scaling law for the hadron masses, M * /M = (α'/α' * ) 1/2 , where asterisk indicates a finite-temperature quantity. Phenomenological models further suggest the following expression of the above scaling in terms of the temperature-dependent gluon condensate: M * /M = (α'/α' * ) 1/2 ( μν α > * / αμν >) 1/4

  20. Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.

  1. Phenomenology of Baryon Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Landay, Justin [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Mai, Maxim [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Molina, Raquel [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ronchen, Deborah [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2018-04-01

    Results for light baryon spectroscopy by different collaborations and the state of the art in the subfield is reviewed. Highlights contain common efforts of different phenomenology groups and the impact of recent high-precision data from ELSA, JLab, MAMI, and other facilities. Questions will be addressed, on one side, of how to proceed to reach conclusive answers in baryon spectroscopy, and, on the other side, how phenomenology can be connected to theory in a meaningful way.

  2. Perspectives on string phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...

  3. Phenomenological aspects of mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen, Valeri

    2009-07-01

    We consider the possibility that string theory vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and a small positive cosmological constant arise due to hidden sector matter interactions, known as F-uplifting/F-downlifting. We analyze this procedure in a model-independent way in the context of type IIB and heterotic string theory. Our investigation shows that the uplifting/downlifting sector has very important consequences for the resulting phenomenology. Not only does it adjust the vacuum energy, but it can also participate in the process of moduli stabilization. In addition, we find that this sector is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking. It leads to a hybrid mediation scheme and its signature is a relaxed mirage pattern of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The low energy spectra exhibit distinct phenomenological properties and di er from conventional schemes considered so far. (orig.)

  4. Phenomenological aspects of mirage mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Valeri

    2009-07-15

    We consider the possibility that string theory vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and a small positive cosmological constant arise due to hidden sector matter interactions, known as F-uplifting/F-downlifting. We analyze this procedure in a model-independent way in the context of type IIB and heterotic string theory. Our investigation shows that the uplifting/downlifting sector has very important consequences for the resulting phenomenology. Not only does it adjust the vacuum energy, but it can also participate in the process of moduli stabilization. In addition, we find that this sector is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking. It leads to a hybrid mediation scheme and its signature is a relaxed mirage pattern of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The low energy spectra exhibit distinct phenomenological properties and di er from conventional schemes considered so far. (orig.)

  5. Aspects of SUSY phenomenology at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindert, Jonas M.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate different aspects of supersymmetric collider phenomenology with an emphasis on precision predictions for supersymmetric particle production and decay. In the first part, we introduce the theoretical framework: the Standard Model of particle physics, the concept of supersymmetry and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Next, resulting collider and early-Universe phenomenology is discussed. In the second part, we present precision calculations for combined scalar quark (squark) production and decay in next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) within the MSSM. First, the motivation and theoretical approach including computational details of such a combined calculation is presented. Second, an analysis of the signature 2j+E T (+X) via squark-squark production and direct decays into the lightest neutralino, which is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle and hence stable, is presented. Resulting differential distributions are compared with leading order (LO) approximations rescaled by a flat K-factor and a possible impact on cut-and-count searches for supersymmetry at the LHC is examined. Third, the signature 2j+2l+E T (+X) from squark-squark production and decay into a lightest and a second lightest neutralino, with a subsequent electroweak decay chain via an on-shell slepton, is investigated. The impact of NLO corrections on resulting invariant mass distributions is highlighted. Such distributions can be important for future determination of supersymmetry parameters. In the third part, we present a calculation of the dominant cross section contributions for hadronic scalar tau (stau) pair-production within the MSSM, taking into account left-right mixing of the stau eigenstates. We find that b-quark annihilation and gluon fusion can enhance the cross sections by more than one order of magnitude with respect to the Drell-Yan predictions. For long-lived staus, we investigate phenomenological

  6. Nucleon relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Feng Dachun; Zhuo Yizhong

    1991-01-01

    In this talk, both the phenomenological and microscopic nucleon relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies En=20-1000 MeV has been obtained through automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing effective lagrangian based on popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we have shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. We have concluded that both the phenomenological and microscopic relativistic optical potentials proposed here can be extensively used for intermediate energy nucleon data evaluation. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in RPOP is suggested. (author). 33 refs, 24 figs

  7. Learning Phenomenology with Heidegger: Experiencing the Phenomenological "Starting Point" as the Beginning of Phenomenological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, John

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenology has been with us for many years, and yet grasping phenomenology remains a difficult task. Heidegger, too, experienced this difficulty and devoted much of his teaching to the challenge of working phenomenologically. This article draws on aspects of Heidegger's commentary in progressing the teaching and learning of phenomenology,…

  8. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  9. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, P.

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) x U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field

  10. Quantum groups in hadron phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilik, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    We show that application of quantum unitary groups, in place of ordinary flavor SU(n f ), to such static aspects of hadron phenomenology as hadron masses and mass formulas is indeed fruitful. So-called q-deformed mass formulas are given for octet baryons 1/2 + and decuplet baryons 3/2 + , as well as for the case of vector mesons 1 - involving heavy flavors. For deformation parameter q, rigid fixation of values is used. New mass sum rules of remarkable accuracy are presented. As shown in decuplet case, the approach accounts for effects highly nonlinear in SU(3)-breaking. Topological implication (possible connection with knots) for singlet vector mesons and the relation q ↔ Θ c (Cabibbo angle) in case of baryons are considered

  11. Reflood completion report: Volume 1. A phenomenological thermal-hydraulic model of hot rod bundles experiencing simultaneous bottom and top quenching and an optimization methodology for closure development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A. Jr.; Pimentel, D.A.; Jolly-Woodruff, S.; Spore, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a phenomenological model of simultaneous bottom-up and top-down quenching is developed and discussed. The model was implemented in the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code. Two sets of closure relationships were compared within the study, the Absolute set and the Conditional set. The Absolute set of correlations is frequently viewed as the pure set because the correlations is frequently viewed as the pure set because the correlations utilize their original coefficients as suggested by the developer. The Conditional set is a modified set of correlations with changes to the correlation coefficient only. Results for these two sets indicate quite similar results. This report also summarizes initial results of an effort to investigate nonlinear optimization techniques applied to the closure model development. Results suggest that such techniques can provide advantages for future model development work, but that extensive expertise is required to utilize such techniques (i.e., the model developer must fully understand both the physics of the process being represented and the computational techniques being employed). The computer may then be used to improve the correlation of computational results with experiments.

  12. A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-01-01

    This article distills the core principles of a phenomenological research design and, by means of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology. After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the specific study follows. Thereafter the location of the data, the data-gathering the data-storage methods are explained. Unstructured in-depth phenomenological interviews supplemented by memoing, essays by participants, a focus group discussion an...

  13. Psychotherapy And Phenomenology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    What happens when two people meet and engage in a meaningful conversation, specifically in psycho- therapy? This question has perennially engaged psychology and psychotherapy since its beginnings. Ian Rory Owen's book entitled Psychotherapy and. Phenomenology: On Freud, Husserl and Heidegger is another ...

  14. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  15. Phenomenology of radions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    done by super Yang–Mills sectors in the bulk and on the hidden brane. Interestingly one can get a viable version of the anomaly mediated symmetry breaking in this ... first particle indicating extra dimensions. 2. Radion couplings. Radion couples to the trace of the stress–energy tensor [7,8]. From the phenomenological.

  16. Phenomenology, Psychoanalysis, and Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Lewis W.

    1971-01-01

    The author contends that phenomenology and psychoanalysis have in common that they consider the investigator and the subject as equals as evidenced by the application of their basic principles and of their findings to both investigators and investigatees whom they consider human beings cooperating in a joint search for knowledge. (Author)

  17. Phenomenological realism, superconductivity and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shomar, T.L.E.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to present a new kind of realism that is driven not from the traditional realism/anti-realism debate but from the practice of physicists. The usual debate focuses on discussions about the truth of theories and their fit with nature, while the real practices of the scientists are forgotten. The position I shall defend is called 'phenomenological realism': theories are merely tools to construct other theories and models, including phenomenological models; phenomenological models are the vehicles of representation. The realist doctrine was recently undermined by the argument from the pessimistic meta-induction, also known as the argument from scientific revolutions. I argue that phenomenological realism is a new kind of scientific realism which can overcome the problem generated by the argument from scientific revolutions, and which depend on the scientific practice. The realist tried to overcome this problem by suggesting various types of theory dichotomy. I claim that different types of dichotomy presented by realists did not overcome the problem, these dichotomies cut through theory vertically. I argue for a different kind of dichotomy between high level theoretical abstractions and low-level theoretical representations. I claim that theoretical work in physics have two distinct types depending on the way they are built these are: theoretical models which built depending on a top-down approach and phenomenological models which are built depending on a bottom-up approach, this dichotomy cuts the division along a horizontal line between low and high level theory. I present two case studies. One from superconductivity where I contrast the BCS theory of superconductivity with the phenomenological model of Landau and Ginzburg. I show how in that field of physics the historical developments favoured phenomenological models over high-level theoretical abstraction. I show how the BCS theory of superconductivity was constructed, and why it

  18. Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models

  19. Investigation of the effects of misfit strain on barium strontium titanate thin films deposited on base metal substrates by a modified phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hanting; Li, Hongfang; Chen, Jianguo; Jin, Dengren; Cheng, Jinrong

    2017-10-01

    The Landau-Devonshire phenomenological model, which has been utilized to investigate epitaxial barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films, was modified to investigate the effects of misfit strain on the dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films deposited on base metal substrates. The modification considers the relaxation of lattice misfit stress resulting from the formation of in-plane misfit dislocations. The modified lattice misfit strain was calculated by referring to the ferroelectric critical grain size. Moreover, the misfit strain and dielectric properties of BST thin films with different structures and substrates were investigated by the models. It was found that the measured dielectric constant and tunability of BST thin films on different metal substrates overall agreed with the computed data. In addition, the good agreement was also observed for sandwich-like structural BST thin films deposited on LNO buffered stainless steel plates. Our results indicated that the modified L-D models might be utilized to predict dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films for varied substrates and multilayer structures.

  20. Phenomenology and cosmology of weakly coupled string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    1998-01-01

    The weakly coupled vacuum of E 8 (circle t imes) E 8 heterotic string theory remains an attractive scenario for phenomenology and cosmology. The particle spectrum is reviewed and the issues of gauge coupling unification, dilaton stabilization and modular cosmology are discussed. A specific model for condensation and supersymmetry breaking, that respects known constraints from string theory and is phenomenologically viable, is described

  1. Phenomenology in Its Original Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Max

    2017-05-01

    In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes phenomenology in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of phenomenology in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make phenomenology into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the phenomenological term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding phenomenological reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights. I also attend to the kind of experiential material that is needed to focus on a genuine phenomenological question that should guide any specific research project. Heidegger, van den Berg, and Marion provide some poignant exemplars of the use of narrative "examples" in phenomenological explorations of the phenomena of "boredom," "conversation," and "the meaningful look in eye-contact." Only what is given or what gives itself in lived experience (or conscious awareness) are proper phenomenological "data" or "givens," but these givens are not to be confused with data material that can be coded, sorted, abstracted, and accordingly analyzed in some "systematic" manner. The latter approach to experiential research may be appropriate and worthwhile for various types of qualitative inquiry but not for phenomenology in its original sense. Finally, I use the mythical figure of Kairos to show that the famous phenomenological couplet of the epoché-reduction aims for phenomenological insights that require experiential analysis and attentive (but serendipitous) methodical inquiry practices.

  2. The phenomenology of comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J M; Bottorff, J L; Hutchinson, S

    1994-07-01

    From patient narratives, the phenomenological literature and reflection of patients' autobiographical accounts of illness, nine themes reflecting the phenomenological concept of corporeality were used to identify the ways patients achieve comfort. The themes were: the dis-eased body, the disobedient body, the vulnerable body, the violated body, the resigned body, the enduring body, the betraying body and the betraying (neurotic) mind. The process of achieving comfort is based on the patients' needs to live with illness or injury without being dominated by their bodies. The authors argue that while the role of nursing is to provide comfort to the sick, the goal of total comfort is unattainable in patient care. However, if the goal is to enhance comfort, to ease and to relieve distress, comfort remains central to the role of nursing.

  3. Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested

  4. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  5. Phenomenological modeling of anisotropy induced by evolution of the dislocation structure on the macroscopic and microscopic scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausmeyer, Till; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Noman, Mohammad; Gershteyn, Gregoriy; Schaper, Mirko; Svendsen, Bob; Bargmann, Swantje

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the modeling of the evolution of anisotropy induced by the development of the dislocation microstructure. A model formulated at the engineering scale in the context of classical metal plasticity and a model formulated in the context of crystal plasticity are presented. Images

  6. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  7. Implications of μ-e universality constraints for gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.W.; Kim, J.

    1978-01-01

    Implications are discussed of apparent violation of μ-e universality in the ratio π→eγ/π→μγ for SU(2)xU(1) gauge models with and without righthanded doublets and gauge models based on the exceptional groups. (Auth.)

  8. Aspects of M theory and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review is presented of selected topics, including a world- sheet formulation of M theory, couplings and scales in M phenomenology, the perils of baryon decay and the possible elevation of free-fermion models to true M- or F-theory compactifications. (35 refs).

  9. SEISMIC SIMULATIONS USING PARALLEL COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS TO IMPROVE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION PHENOMENOLOGY AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Matzel, E; Pasyanos, M; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B; Bono, C; Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T; Walter, W; Myers, S; Lomov, I

    2008-07-07

    The development of accurate numerical methods to simulate wave propagation in three-dimensional (3D) earth models and advances in computational power offer exciting possibilities for modeling the motions excited by underground nuclear explosions. This presentation will describe recent work to use new numerical techniques and parallel computing to model earthquakes and underground explosions to improve understanding of the wave excitation at the source and path-propagation effects. Firstly, we are using the spectral element method (SEM, SPECFEM3D code of Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002) to model earthquakes and explosions at regional distances using available 3D models. SPECFEM3D simulates anelastic wave propagation in fully 3D earth models in spherical geometry with the ability to account for free surface topography, anisotropy, ellipticity, rotation and gravity. Results show in many cases that 3D models are able to reproduce features of the observed seismograms that arise from path-propagation effects (e.g. enhanced surface wave dispersion, refraction, amplitude variations from focusing and defocusing, tangential component energy from isotropic sources). We are currently investigating the ability of different 3D models to predict path-specific seismograms as a function of frequency. A number of models developed using a variety of methodologies are available for testing. These include the WENA/Unified model of Eurasia (e.g. Pasyanos et al 2004), the global CUB 2.0 model (Shapiro and Ritzwoller, 2002), the partitioned waveform model for the Mediterranean (van der Lee et al., 2007) and stochastic models of the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula region (Pasyanos et al., 2006). Secondly, we are extending our Cartesian anelastic finite difference code (WPP of Nilsson et al., 2007) to model the effects of free-surface topography. WPP models anelastic wave propagation in fully 3D earth models using mesh refinement to increase computational speed and improve memory efficiency. Thirdly

  10. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Yong Chen, Yoke; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Shevlin, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates. Seven alternative models were estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n = 481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit with statistical superiority for the Externalising Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models, with substantial variation emerging for sexual victimisation. These findings have important implications for research and practice and highlight that more research attention is needed to examine the diagnostic implications emerging from the alternative models of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Planetary Interior Modeling and Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating spectral admittance functions using Pioneer Venus gravity and topography data. These admittance functions provide a convenient means to carry out systematic geophysical studies over much of the surface of Venus with a variety of interior density models. The admittance functions are calculated in the observation space of line-of-sight (LOS) gravity. Both closed and open system petrological models are considered for the Tharsis region of Mars. An analytic theory for isostatic compensation on one-plate planet is applied, including membrane stresses in the lithosphere, self gravitation, and rotational ellipticity. Crucial to this stress modeling and also to the petrological modeling is the observation that the earliest fracturing seen in the Tharsis region is associated with isostatic stresses. The radial fractures that extend far from Tharsis are associated with an additional and/or a completely different mechanism.

  12. A phenomenological model of thermal-hydraulics of convective boiling during the quenching of hot rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    After completion of the thermal-hydraulic model developed in a companion paper, the authors performed developmental assessment calculation of the model using steady-state and transient post-critical heat flux (CHF) data. This paper discusses the results of those calculations. The overall interfacial drag model predicted reasonable drag coefficients for both the nucleate boiling and the inverted annular flow (IAF) regimes. The predicted pressure drops agreed reasonably well with the measured data of two transient experiments, CCTF Run 14 and a Lehigh reflood test. The thermal-hydraulic model for post-CHF convective heat transfer predicted the rewetting velocities reasonably well for both experiments. The predicted average slope of the wall temperature traces for these tests showed reasonable agreement with the measured data, indicating that the transient-calculated precursory cooling rates agreed with measured data. The hot-patch model, in conjunction with the other thermal-hydraulic models, was capable of modeling the Winfrith post-CHF hot-patch experiments. The hot-patch model kept the wall temperatures at the specified levels in the hot-patch regions and did not allow any quench-front propagation from either the bottom or the top of the test section. The interfacial heat-transfer model tended to slightly underpredict the vapor temperatures. The maximum difference between calculated and measured vapor temperatures was 20%, with a 10% difference for the remainder of the runs considered. The wall-to-fluid heat transfer was predicted reasonably well, and the predicted wall temperatures were in reasonable agreement with measured data with a maximum relative error of less than 13%

  13. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech—also known as covert speech or verbal thinking—has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. PMID:26011789

  14. Inner Speech: Development, Cognitive Functions, Phenomenology, and Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Some reflections on clinical supervision: an existential-phenomenological paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews psychotherapy, counselling, and nursing literature related to ideas of clinical supervision and attempts to illuminate areas important to effective health related practice and specifically palliative care. Included are explorations of existentialism, phenomenology, existential phenomenology and psychoanalytical concepts. The phenomenological idea of lived experience is outlined and the Heideggerian notion of authenticity is explored in context. The paper also examines dynamic forces such as hope, trust and personal values that might influence clinical supervision design and so inform a framework for practice. An existential-phenomenological method of supervision is offered as one basis for professional practice. The central recommendation of this paper is, however, to identify relevant value and belief systems to direct clinical supervision. Nursing models might appropriately instruct approaches to supervision. The writer considers the phenomenological idea of the lived experiences as a means by which to at once capture the essence of palliative care nursing and guide the supervision towards the existential idea of authenticity.

  16. Phenomenology and Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartimo, Mirja

    2010-01-01

    During Edmund Husserl,s lifetime, modern logic and mathematics rapidly developed toward their current outlook and Husserl,s writings can be fruitfully compared and contrasted with both 19th century figures (Boole, Schroder, Weierstrass) as well as the 20th century characters (Heyting, Zermelo, Godel). Besides the more historical studies, the internal ones on Husserl alone and the external ones attempting to clarify his role in the more general context of the developing mathematics and logic, Husserl,s phenomenology offers also a systematically rich but little researched area of investigation.

  17. The Implications of Literacy Teaching Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Gunawardena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available First year students often experience a culture shock as certain literacy practices at the university level are different from their experiences in high schools. Some major challenges that students encounter include students’ ability to maintain academic integrity practices in their studies, to comprehend complex academic texts to outline key ideas, and to communicate confidently and effectively in diverse academic genres. As these challenges are common, often universities offer activities to assist students’ with their academic enculturation process. The three popular literacy teaching models currently in practice are the generic, embedded and literacies models. All the three models offer challenges in their effective practice. By evaluating the ethnographic data from the models used at UNSW Canberra Academic Language Learning Unit (ALL, this paper argues that in line with Lea and Street’s (2006 discussion, literacies is the most effective approach for developing students’ lifelong skills for effective communication, reading and critical thinking. Literary teaching should involve an advanced inquiry into writing practices in diverse disciplines helping students’ identifying and practicing using language devices and rhetorical structures in academic genres.

  18. The Wider Implications of Business-model Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lettl, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Business-model research has struggled to develop a clear footprint in the strategic management field. This introduction to the special issue on the wider implications of business-model research argues that part of this struggle relates to the application of five different perspectives on the term...... “business model,” which creates ambiguity about the conceptual boundaries of business models, the applied terminology, and the potential contributions of business-model research to strategic management literature. By explicitly distinguishing among these five perspectives and by aligning them into one...

  19. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  20. Organizational Resilience: The Theoretical Model and Research Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are all subject to a diverse and ever changing and uncertain environment. Under this situation organizations should develop a capability which can resist the emergency and recover from the disruption. Base on lot of literature, the paper provides the main concept of organizational resilience; construct the primary theoretical model and some implications for management.

  1. Cosmological implications of a class of SO(10) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, G.; Rosa, L.

    1996-01-01

    The cosmological implications of a class of SO(10) models are discussed. In particular we show how a good prediction for neutrino masses is obtained in order to fit with the MSW mechanism to explain the solar neutrino flux deficit and with the predicted amount of the dark matter hot component. A possible scenario for baryogenesis is also considered. (orig.)

  2. Skewness of the standard model possible implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper we consider combinations of gauge algebra and set of rules for quantization of gauge charges. We show that the combination of the algebra of the standard model and the rule satisfied by the electric charges of the quarks and leptons has an exceptional high degree of a kind of asymmetry which we call skewness. Assuming that skewness has physical significance and adding two other rather plausible assumptions, we may conclude that space time must have a non simply connected topology on very small distances. Such topology would allow a kind of symmetry breakdown leading to a more skew combination of gauge algebra and set of quantization rules. (orig.)

  3. SLED phenomenology: curvature vs. volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We assess the question whether the SLED (Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions) model admits phenomenologically viable solutions with 4D maximal symmetry. We take into account a finite brane width and a scale invariance (SI) breaking dilaton-brane coupling, both of which should be included in a realistic setup. Provided that the brane tension and the microscopic size of the brane take generic values set by the fundamental bulk Planck scale, we find that either the 4D curvature or the size of the extra dimensions is unacceptably large. Since this result is independent of the dilaton-brane couplings, it provides the biggest challenge to the SLED program. In addition, to quantify its potential with respect to the cosmological constant problem, we infer the amount of tuning on model parameters required to obtain a sufficiently small 4D curvature. A first answer was recently given in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2016)025, showing that 4D flat solutions are only ensured in the SI case by imposing a tuning relation, even if a brane-localized flux is included. In this companion paper, we find that the tuning can in fact be avoided for certain SI breaking brane-dilaton couplings, but only at the price of worsening the phenomenological problem. Our results are obtained by solving the full coupled Einstein-dilaton system in a completely consistent way. The brane width is implemented using a well-known ring regularization. In passing, we note that for the couplings considered here the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2016)025 (which only treated infinitely thin branes) are all consistently recovered in the thin brane limit, and how this can be reconciled with the concerns about their correctness, recently brought up in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2016)017.

  4. A phenomenological study on the production of Higgs bosons in the cSMCS model at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Darvishi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we intend to predict the production rates of the Higgs bosons in the simplest extension of the Standard Model (SM by a neutral complex singlet (cSMCS. This model has an additional source of CP violation and provides strong enough first-order electroweak phase transition to generate the baryon asymmetry of universe (BAU. The scalar spectrum of the cSMCS includes three neutral Higgs particles with the lightest one considered to be the 125 GeV Higgs boson found at LHC. The SM-like Higgs boson comes mostly from the SM-like SU(2 doublet, with a small correction from the singlet. To predict the production rates of the Higgs bosons, we use a conventional effective LO QCD framework and the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF of Kimber–Martin–Ryskin (KMR. We first compute the SM Higgs production cross-section and compare the results to the existing theoretical calculations from different frameworks as well as the experimental data from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations. It is shown that our framework is capable of producing sound predictions for these high-energy QCD events in the SM. Afterwards we present our predictions for the Higgs boson production in the cSMCS.

  5. Towards a Kantian Phenomenology of Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Beyleveld, D.; Ziche, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment (CPoJ) can be, or otherwise ought to be, regarded as a transcendental phenomenology of hope. Kant states repeatedly that CPoJ mediates between the first two Critiques, or between the theoretical knowledge we arrive at on the basis of understanding and reason’s foundational role for practical philosophy. In other words, exercising the power of judgment is implicated whenever we try to bring togethe...

  6. Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2016-06-21

    A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.

  7. Postmodernism, phenomenology and afriphenomenology | Francis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I aimed to study the relationship between postmodernism and phenomenology. In the study, I established that postmodernism and phenomenology bear similar ontological marking, which base their concepts and methodologies on an individualistic framework. On the basis of such ontological framework, ...

  8. Being a practitioner: an application of Heidegger's phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthea

    2014-07-01

    To explain how Heidegger's phenomenology can be applied to investigations of practitioners' experiences and enhance research of roles. The application of phenomenology in nursing research has been subject to strong criticism. A recent phenomenological investigation of nurses' experiences of mentoring students has shown the value of applying Heidegger's ideas to understand practitioners' experiences. The author's experience of conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study and influential literature. An inquiry into the author's application of Heidegger's philosophy to an empirical study. Heidegger's phenomenology was based on his concept of 'dasein', denoting existence as 'being in the world'. These ideas of existence are discussed in relation to the experiences of practitioners. A nurse or other practitioner's experiences of practice are explained according to three modes of being: absorbed in practice, noticing practice and contemplating practice. The paper shows how this layered understanding of a person's lifeworld can be incorporated into the design of empirical research. Heideggerian phenomenology provides a defendable framework in which to examine experience of practice. Given the expanding diversity of nursing roles, this methodology offers a route for improving our understanding of the implications for the nurses occupying particular roles.

  9. Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in

  10. VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN FREE FLAPS: A STUDY OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY, HISTORY AND CLINICAL SIGNS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Montesano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of free flaps with microsurgical vascular anastomosis has made reconstructions, that would have been considered impossible forty years ago, possible. The limitations of this technique are mainly due to necrosis of the transplanted tissue caused by blockage of the vessels of the flap’s vascular pedicle due to the formation of thrombi at the level of the surgical anastomosis. Thrombosis is handled by removing the thrombus in the shortest possible time, thus allowing restoration of the blood flow. Currently clinical observation is the best way to evaluate the survival of a flap but, being subjective, it is dependent on the observer’s experience. The purpose of this study is to identify the first sure sign of venous thrombosis in a murine model of complete venous occlusion of the pedicle of an inguinal flap, postoperatively and after the restoration of blood flow following a period of stasis; so as to simulate the monitoring of re-thrombosis after recanalization of a thrombosed anastomosis.

  11. Authentically Engaged Learning through Live Supervision: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Steven; Kostohryz, Katie; Vereen, Linwood

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the experiential learning of 5 master's-level counseling students undergoing live supervision in a group techniques course. Multiple themes were identified to provide a textural-structural description of how students authentically engaged in the learning process. Implications for counselor education and…

  12. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Situated Action and Planned Action Models of Behavior in Information Retrieval Contexts: Contributions from Phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwong Bor

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of human-computer interaction and planned action focuses on the belief that it is impossible to consider an action without an a priori plan, even according to the phenomenological position taken for granted by the situated action theory. Reports results of a quasi-experiment that focused on plan deviation within an information seeking…

  13. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Phenomenological model of local plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgorukov Vadim Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two points of an elastic and perfectly plastic material exposed to the plane stress are examined by the author. One point is located on the stress concentrator surface. The other one is located at a certain distance from the first one (it is considered as a secondary point within the framework of the kinetic theory of a plastic flow. As a result of the finite element analysis of the stress-strain state it has been discovered that the material in the point located in the front area of the kinetic plastic flow remains linearly elastic in terms of its physical condition, and the load is applied to it in accordance with a curved trajectory.

  15. Cosmic antimatter: models and phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of creation of cosmologically significant antimatter are analyzed in different scenarios of baryogenesis. It is argued that there may exist plenty of antimatter even in our Galaxy. Possible forms of antimatter objects and their observational signatures are discussed.

  16. Phenomenology of 1032 dark sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    We postulate an exact permutation symmetry acting on 10 32 standard model copies as the largest possible symmetry extension of the standard model. This setup automatically lowers the fundamental gravity cutoff down to TeV, and thus, accounts for the quantum stability of the weak scale. We study the phenomenology of this framework and show that below TeV energies the copies are well hidden, obeying all the existing observational bounds. Nevertheless, we identify a potential low energy window into the hidden world, the oscillation of the neutron into its dark copies. At the same time, proton decay can be suppressed by gauging the diagonal baryon number of the different copies. This framework offers an alternative approach to several particle physics questions. For example, we suggest a novel mechanism for generating naturally small neutrino masses that are suppressed by the number of neutrino species. The mirror copies of the standard model naturally house dark matter candidates. The general experimentally observable prediction of this scenario is an emergence of strong gravitational effects at the LHC. The low energy permutation symmetry powerfully constrains the form of this new gravitational physics and allows to make observational predictions, such as, production of micro black holes with very peculiar properties.

  17. SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent & Implications in Atmospheric Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    The project Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent and Implications in Atmospheric Modeling (SSTDV: R.EX.- IM.A.M.) was initiated within the framework of the European Space Agency's Support to Science Element (ESA STSE). The main focus is twofold: i) to characterize...... and quantify regional diurnal warming from the experimental MSG/SEVIRI hourly SST fields, for the period 2006-2012. ii) To investigate the impact of the increased SST temporal resolution in the atmospheric model WRF, in terms of modeled 10-m winds and surface heat fluxes. Withing this context, 3 main tasks...... SST variability on atmospheric modeling is the prime goal of the third and final task. This will be examined by increasing the temporal resolution of the SST initial conditions in WRF and by evaluating the WRF included diurnal scheme. Validation of the modeled winds will be performed against 10m ASAR...

  18. Strategic Implications of Cloud Computing for Modeling and Simulation (Briefing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    of Promises with Cloud • Cost efficiency • Unlimited storage • Backup and recovery • Automatic software integration • Easy access to information...Strategic Implications of Cloud Computing for Modeling and Simulation (Briefing) Amy E. Henninger I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L...under contract HQ0034-14-D-0001, Project AI-2-3077, “ Cloud Computing for Modeling and Simulation,” for Office of the Deputy Assistant Director of

  19. Phenomenology of ELDER dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2017-08-01

    We explore the phenomenology of Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER) dark matter. ELDER is a thermal relic whose present density is determined primarily by the cross-section of its elastic scattering off Standard Model (SM) particles. Assuming that this scattering is mediated by a kinetically mixed dark photon, we argue that the ELDER scenario makes robust predictions for electron-recoil direct-detection experiments, as well as for dark photon searches. These predictions are independent of the details of interactions within the dark sector. Together with the closely related Strongly-Interacting Massive Particle (SIMP) scenario, the ELDER predictions provide a physically motivated, well-defined target region, which will be almost entirely accessible to the next generation of searches for sub-GeV dark matter and dark photons. We provide useful analytic approximations for various quantities of interest in the ELDER scenario, and discuss two simple renormalizable toy models which incorporate the required strong number-changing interactions among the ELDERs, as well as explicitly implement the coupling to electrons via the dark photon portal.

  20. Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinfeld, Michael; Grinfeld, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright. To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov. Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and generalized them by taking into account electromagnetic effects.

  1. Workshop on Model Uncertainty and its Statistical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    In this book problems related to the choice of models in such diverse fields as regression, covariance structure, time series analysis and multinomial experiments are discussed. The emphasis is on the statistical implications for model assessment when the assessment is done with the same data that generated the model. This is a problem of long standing, notorious for its difficulty. Some contributors discuss this problem in an illuminating way. Others, and this is a truly novel feature, investigate systematically whether sample re-use methods like the bootstrap can be used to assess the quality of estimators or predictors in a reliable way given the initial model uncertainty. The book should prove to be valuable for advanced practitioners and statistical methodologists alike.

  2. Particle Phenomenology of Compact Extra Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbeus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the subject of extra dimensions in particle physics. In recent years, there has been a large interest in this subject. In particular, a number of models have been suggested that provide solutions to some of the problem with the current Standard Model of particle physics. These models typically give rise to experimental signatures around the TeV energy scale, which means that they could be tested in the next generation of high-energy experiments, such as the LHC. Among the most important of these models are the universal extra dimensions model, the large extra dimensions model by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopolous, and Dvali, and models where right-handed neutrinos propagate in the extra dimensions. In the thesis, we study phenomenological aspects of these models, or simple modifications of them. In particular, we focus on Kaluza-Klein dark matter in universal extra dimensions models, different aspects of neutrino physics in higher dimensions, and collider phenomenology of extra dimensions. In addition, we consider consequences of the enhanced renormalization group running of physical parameters in higher-dimensional models

  3. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  4. Phenomenological modeling of eddy current signals with a view to characterizing steam generator tube flaws; Modelisation phenomenologique des signaux courants de Foucault en vue de la caracterisation des defauts des tubes de generateurs de vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, R

    1997-12-31

    This work deals with the eddy current non-destructive test ing. Its long-term goal is to design an `inverse model` for evaluating the geometry an d the dimensions of steam generator tube flaws from eddy current signals. The approach we adopted requires the preliminary knowledge of a `forward model` that estimates the eddy current signal knowing the geometry and the dimensions of the flaws. A quasi-exhaustive study of the existing forward models showed their inadequacy to solve the inverse problem. Hence, we proposed to build a general forward model, appropriate to the inversion. Using a parametric approach, this model is phenomenological, i.e. it is based on observations made from results of a finite element code. For each position of the coil, the proposed forward model fist discretized the eddy current distribution into `tubes of current`. A parametric description of the shape of these tubes is given according the system constituted of the coil and the tubes of current as a `multi-transformer`, their current signal, can then be deduced. The model was validated in the case of an axisymmetric configuration. Comparisons with both analytical and numerical models showed very good agreements. Then, the proposed model was applied to a three-dimensional configuration. Comparisons with experimental results are sufficiently conclusive to validate the approach to the construction of the phenomenological model. However, before envisaging the inverse problem, the computation time, still too long, ought to be reduced and the parametric description needs to be generalized to other three-dimensional configurations. (author). 92 refs.

  5. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: implications for spatial dose redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Dittmann, Florian; Shih, Helen A; Menze, Bjoern H; Ayache, Nicholas; Konukoglu, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas differ from many other tumors as they grow infiltratively into the brain parenchyma rather than forming a solid tumor mass with a well-defined boundary. Tumor cells can be found several centimeters away from the central tumor mass that is visible using current imaging techniques. The infiltrative growth characteristics of gliomas question the concept of a radiotherapy target volume that is irradiated to a homogeneous dose—the standard in current clinical practice. We discuss the use of the Fisher–Kolmogorov glioma growth model in radiotherapy treatment planning. The phenomenological tumor growth model assumes that tumor cells proliferate locally and migrate into neighboring brain tissue, which is mathematically described via a partial differential equation for the spatio-temporal evolution of the tumor cell density. In this model, the tumor cell density drops approximately exponentially with distance from the visible gross tumor volume, which is quantified by the infiltration length, a parameter describing the distance at which the tumor cell density drops by a factor of e. This paper discusses the implications for the prescribed dose distribution in the periphery of the tumor. In the context of the exponential cell kill model, an exponential fall-off of the cell density suggests a linear fall-off of the prescription dose with distance. We introduce the dose fall-off rate, which quantifies the steepness of the prescription dose fall-off in units of Gy mm −1 . It is shown that the dose fall-off rate is given by the inverse of the product of radiosensitivity and infiltration length. For an infiltration length of 3 mm and a surviving fraction of 50% at 2 Gy, this suggests a dose fall-off of approximately 1 Gy mm −1 . The concept is illustrated for two glioblastoma patients by optimizing intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose fall-off rate concept reflects the idea that infiltrating gliomas lack a defined boundary and are characterized by a

  6. The use of phenomenology in mental health nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Caroline Jane; Moxham, Lorna; Patterson, Christopher

    2017-12-18

    Historically, mental health research has been strongly influenced by the underlying positivism of the quantitative paradigm. Quantitative research dominates scientific enquiry and contributes significantly to understanding our natural world. It has also greatly benefitted the medical model of healthcare. However, the more literary, silent, qualitative approach is gaining prominence in human sciences research, particularly mental healthcare research. To examine the qualitative methodological assumptions of phenomenology to illustrate the benefits to mental health research of studying the experiences of people with mental illness. Phenomenology is well positioned to ask how people with mental illness reflect on their experiences. Phenomenological research is congruent with the principles of contemporary mental healthcare, as person-centred care is favoured at all levels of mental healthcare, treatment, service and research. Phenomenology is a highly appropriate and suitable methodology for mental health research, given it includes people's experiences and enables silent voices to be heard. This overview of the development of phenomenology informs researchers new to phenomenological enquiry. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  7. Implications of the S-Web Model for Impulsive SEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.; Higginson, Aleida K.; DeVore, C. Richard

    2017-08-01

    One of the most important discoveries of the STEREO mission is that impulsive Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events frequently exhibit large longitudinal spread in the heliosphere, up to 100 degrees or more. This result is especially puzzling given the long-standing observations that impulsive SEPs originate in highly localized regions in the corona, angular extent less than one degree, and that the SEPs frequently show so-called drop-outs, effectively ruling out diffusion as a mechanism for the observed spread. We discuss the implications of the S-Web slow solar wind model for the propagation of SEPs and their distribution in the heliosphere. We present results from 3D MHD simulations demonstrating that for commonly-observed coronal magnetic topologies, the connectivity of the corona to heliosphere will be quasi-singular, with small regions near the Sun dynamically connecting to giant arcs in the heliosphere that span tens of degrees in both latitude and longitude. We show that the S-Web model can account for both SEP longitudinal spread and dropouts, and discuss implications for observations from the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions.This research was supported, in part, by the NASA LWS Program.

  8. Cognitive Attachment Model of Voices: Evidence Base and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Varese, Filippo; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    There is a robust association between hearing voices and exposure to traumatic events. Identifying mediating mechanisms for this relationship is key to theories of voice hearing and the development of therapies for distressing voices. This paper outlines the Cognitive Attachment model of Voices (CAV), a theoretical model to understand the relationship between earlier interpersonal trauma and distressing voice hearing. The model builds on attachment theory and well-established cognitive models of voices and argues that attachment and dissociative processes are key psychological mechanisms that explain how trauma influences voice hearing. Following the presentation of the model, the paper will review the current state of evidence regarding the proposed mechanisms of vulnerability to voice hearing and maintenance of voice-related distress. This review will include evidence from studies supporting associations between dissociation and voices, followed by details of our own research supporting the role of dissociation in mediating the relationship between trauma and voices and evidence supporting the role of adult attachment in influencing beliefs and relationships that voice hearers can develop with voices. The paper concludes by outlining the key questions that future research needs to address to fully test the model and the clinical implications that arise from the work.

  9. Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    2008-06-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.

  10. Psychology and phenomenology: a clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic psychology and philosophical phenomenology both employ a human science approach to psychology that seeks to explain behavior in terms of a person's subjective existence. Maslow's and Heidegger's formulations are both fulfillment theories in that they specify moral values that suggest how life ought to be lived. Natural science methodology rejects the possibility that moral imperatives can be validated, whereas human science methodology allows phenomenological convictions to justify recommendations about a fulfilled life and a good society. The social role of psychology is analyzed within the framework of phenomenological convictions and scientific truth. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Phenomenology and hermeneutics - poles apart?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kurt Dauer; Feilberg, Casper

    A key dispute within qualitative methodology is the choice between top-down (deductive) and bottom-up (inductive) research approaches. Abduction, on the other hand, has received little attention, even though it would often seem to be a more promising methodology. The phenomenological tradition...... is marked by a similar dichotomy, whereas hermeneutical phenomenologists argue for the necessity of preunderstanding and theorethical perspectives (van Manen), Husserlian phenomenologists insist on the importance of the epoché together with reduction. The existential phenomenology of Heidegger and Merleau......-Ponty offers a methodological clarification that points to three basic methods of henomenology: description (reduction), interpretation (construction) and ritique (destruction). We recognize that all phenomenological research relates to escription, but we will emphasize the importance of interpretation...

  12. Phenomenology of modern education quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya G. Kulikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The national priority question of education quality is considered in the article at the level of an in-depth – existential – function of the educational system, where the former arises. In that case, education appears not only as a social organism, but a fundamental form of understanding existence and self-realization of a person as a self-organized space and biosocial system in terms of an integral educational result. The mechanisms and effects of formal development logic become clear from such research perspective namely, that changes into philosophy of education in the shape of a single-dimensional methodological imperative and provides for an inconsistency of educational practice, achievement of some pedagogical aims at the expense and to the disadvantage of others. The limited nature of pedagogical thinking is not simply fixed in the paradoxes of human development as an individual and organism, but is considered as the main obstacle in the way of evolution of the Human-Nature-Society global system. The phenomenological comprehension of education problems supposes coming into the space of a spiritual idea, funding the process of searching for quality at different levels of human life and activities from within, which characterizes the topicality of the given article. The aim of the scientific research is to analyze factors limiting the process of modern human development, and to ground the necessity of the fundamental updating of the education model in the noospheric scientific paradigm. Theoretical methods of research are used in the paper: analysis of scientific literature, system analysis, analogy, systematization, and generalization. The research results are represented in the categories of education philosophy and focus the reader’s attention mainly on its critical-reflexive function. Elimination of the subject of education is considered as a logical result of phenomenological reduction of thinking that loses a higher level of

  13. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  14. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  15. The Cosmological Standard Model and Its Implications for Beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    While the cosmological standard model has many notable successes, it assumes 95% of the mass-energy density of the universe is dark and of unknown nature, and there was an early stage of inflationary expansion driven by physics far beyond the range of the particle physics standard model. In the colloquium I will discuss potential particle-physics implications of the standard cosmological model.

  16. Phenomenology of induced electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Spencer; Galloway, Jamison; Luty, Markus A.; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of models of electroweak symmetry breaking where the Higgs potential is destabilized by a tadpole arising from the coupling to an “auxiliary” Higgs sector. The auxiliary Higgs sector can be either perturbative or strongly coupled, similar to technicolor models. Since electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by a tadpole, the cubic and quartic Higgs couplings can naturally be significantly smaller than their values in the standard model. The theoretical motivation for these models is that they can explain the 125 GeV Higgs mass in supersymmetry without fine-tuning. The auxiliary Higgs sector contains additional Higgs states that cannot decouple from standard model particles, so these models predict a rich phenomenology of Higgs physics beyond the standard model. In this paper we analyze a large number of direct and indirect constraints on these models. We present the current constraints after the 8 TeV run of the LHC, and give projections for the sensitivity of the upcoming 14 TeV run. We find that the strongest constraints come from the direct searches A 0 →Zh, A 0 →tt-bar, with weaker constraints from Higgs coupling fits. For strongly-coupled models, additional constraints come from ρ + →WZ where ρ + is a vector resonance. Our overall conclusion is that a significant parameter space for such models is currently open, allowing values of the Higgs cubic coupling down to 0.4 times the standard model value for weakly coupled models and vanishing cubic coupling for strongly coupled models. The upcoming 14 TeV run of the LHC will stringently test this scenario and we identify several new searches with discovery potential for this class of models.

  17. [Time perception and schizophrenia: Phenomenological and neuropsychological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montalembert, M; Tordjman, S; Bonnot, O; Coulon, N

    2015-09-01

    Based on clinical, phenomenological and neurobiological observations, psychiatrists often report a deficit in time estimation in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive models of time estimation in healthy subjects have been proposed and developed for approximately 30 years. The investigation of time perception is pertinent to the understanding of neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia. Brain lesions and neuroimaging studies have shown that the critical brain structures engaged in time perception include the prefrontal and parietal lobes, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. These brain areas have been implicated in the physiopathology of schizophrenia in that there is impaired coordination of activity among these regions. Clinical and experimental date strongly suggest that patients with schizophrenia are less accurate in their ability to estimate time than healthy subjects. The specificity of these clinical and behavioral impairments is still in question. The aims of this article are to present an overview of the literature regarding time estimation and schizophrenia, to discuss specific issues related to how perceptual dysfunction in schizophrenia may lead to abnormalities in time perception, and to propose new perspectives towards an integrative approach between phenomenology and neuroscience. We present a review of the literature describing the current theory in the field of time perception, which is supported by a connectionist model, postulating that temporal judgment is based upon a pacemaker-counter device that depends mostly upon memory and attentional resources. The pacemaker emits pulses that are accumulated in a counter, and the number of pulses determines the perceived length of an interval. Patients with schizophrenia are known to display attentional and memory dysfunctions. Moreover, dopamine regulation mechanisms are involved in both the temporal perception and schizophrenia. It is still unclear if temporal impairments in

  18. Melanie Klein's metapsychology: phenomenological and mechanistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, N

    1981-01-01

    Freud's metapsychology is the subject of an important debate. This is over whether psychoanalysis is best construed as a science of the natural science type or as a special human science. The same debate applies to Melanie Klein's work. In Klein's metapsychology are two different and incompatible models of explanation. One is taken over from Freud's structural theory and appears to be similarly mechanistic. The other is clinically based and phenomenological. These two are discussed with special reference to the concepts of "phantasy" and "internal object".

  19. New perspectives on phenomenological decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Fernando Vaz de; Guzzo, Marcelo Moraes; Peres, Orlando Luis Goulart

    2001-01-01

    Decoherence showed to be a powerful tool in helping to solve the atmospheric Neutrino problem. However a complete analysis was not yet done. In this work we present all the possibilities concerning phenomenological decoherence linked to Neutrino 'problem'. Its possibilities and differences are stressed out in a effort to clarify the whole phenomena. (author)

  20. Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits

  1. The status of supersymmetry phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The status of supersymmetry phenomenology. AMITAVA DATTA. Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032, India. Present Address: Department of Physics, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. In this brief review the following topics are discussed: Direct searches for SUSY in mSUGRA: a ...

  2. Investigation into breath meditation: Phenomenological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This integral heuristic phenomenological investigation records participants' experiences of a single session of breath meditation with special reference to psychotherapy and sport psychology. There were 8 participants, 4 men and 4 women, with mean age of 45 years and age range from 31 to 62 years. Various breathing ...

  3. Use of the magnetic test-filter for magnetic control of ferroimpurities of fuels, oils, and other liquids (phenomenological and physical models)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, Sandulyak; Alexander, Sandulyak; Vera, Ershova; Maria, Polismakova; Darya, Sandulyak

    2017-01-01

    It is noted that in most cases, mechanical impurities of technological liquides are ferroimpurities, possessing ferromagnetic properties; therefore for their control (as well as for the decision taking on the possible use of magnetophoresis devices for their removal) the preference should be given to magnetic methods. In the development of the existing options of magnetic control, used in metrology of ferroimpurities control (including ferrography), the main provisions of the relatively new, tested on a number of process liquids (including fuels and lubricants) poly-operational experimental calculation method is set out. Unlike already practiced experimental methods, it allows the implementation of more objective control. Operational data of magnetic control of ferroimpurities in motor oils, gasoline, diesel fuel and others are given. Based on the phenomenological approach (using the method of functional legalization of mass-operational charachteristics in semi-logarithmic coordinates) the expressions for calculating the operating masses (including the forecasted ones outside of the experiment), and, most importantly, for the calculation of the total mass for unlimited and limited number of operations are obtained. Along that expressions (with the relevant data) for determination of the error control during the limitation of the number of operations and inverse expression for the required number of operations subject to the margin of error are receieved. Based on the physical approach (assuming concepts of absorption screen of exponential type) the design formulas correlated with the phenomenological ones for calculating operating mass and the total mass of ferroimpurities (including the residual) in the analyzed sample probe are obtained. The physical meaning of the number of parameters, which were previously considered exclusively empirical, is figured out. - Highlights: • The method of magnetic sedimentation of wear particle has been examined • The main

  4. Some Reflections in Phenomenology and Psychoanalysis | Hsu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the origin of phenomenology, and delineates several of its significant developments and refractions, in order to arrive at a renewed conception of phenomenological theory and practice: a future phenomenology that can, it is argued, articulate productively with certain grounds opened up by ...

  5. Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. The approach of empirical phenomenology builds upon the phenomenology of the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger and the sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their ...

  6. New model of axion monodromy inflation and its cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yi-Fu [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology,Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Chen, Fang [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Quintin, Jerome [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    We propose a new realization of axion monodromy inflation in which axion monodromy arises from torsional cycles in a type IIB compactification. A class of monomial potentials is obtained with specific values for the power index. Moreover, the inflaton mass changes profile due to the couplings between various fields after compactification. Consequently, the potential obtains a step-like profile at some critical scale. We study the cosmological implications of one concrete realization of this model. At the background level, it realizes a sufficiently long inflationary stage, which allows for the violation of the slow-roll conditions for a short period of time when the inflaton is close to the critical scale. Accordingly, the Hubble horizon is perturbed and affects the dynamics of primordial cosmological perturbations. In particular, we analyze the angular power spectrum of B-mode polarization and find a boost on very large scales. We also find that the amplitude of scalar perturbations is suppressed near the critical scale. Thus our model provides an interpretation for the low-ℓ suppression of temperature anisotropies in the CMB power spectrum. We examine these effects and confront the model to observations.

  7. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; Harvey, Judson W.; Marion, Andrea; Packman, Aaron I.; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca; Anders, Wörman

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed."

  8. Phenomenology of lepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, F.M.

    1976-06-01

    The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l + l - production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons [fr

  9. Strong interaction phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of high energy hadronic data (Part I)is followed by an introduction to the standard (Weinberg Salam Glashow) model of electroweak interactions and its extension to the hadrons (Part II). Rudiments of QCD and of the parton model area given in Part III together with a quick review of the spectroscopy of heavy flavours whereas Part IV is devoted to the introduction to deep inelastic scattering and to the so-called EMC effects. (author)

  10. Brain microstructure of subclinical apathy phenomenology in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Although apathy has been extensively studied in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, it is still unclear whether, in healthy people, it should be considered as a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a risk factor for progression to clinical disturbances. Here, we investigated subclinical apathy phenomenology and its brain microstructural correlates in healthy individuals. We submitted 72 participants to a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution structural MRI and a diffusion tensor imaging scan protocol. Data of individual microstructural (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) variations were processed across genders in relation to the Apathy Rating Scale score. In females, subclinical apathy phenomenology was associated with microstructural variation of the bilateral thalami, the anterior thalamic radiation, the forceps major, and the corona radiate. These are white matter areas mostly connecting the thalami to the frontal and occipital cortices, regions that are known to be implicated in the expression of apathy in clinical samples. No significant relationship with brain microstructure was found in males who showed a positive correlation between subclinical apathy and somatic phenomenology of depression. In conclusion, our results show that in healthy individuals subclinical apathy phenomenology is associated with different mechanisms across genders, and raise the issue about whether brain microstructural changes associated with subclinical apathy in healthy females could be a precocious marker useful in the prediction of progression to more severe apathetic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  12. SAPS and SAID: Differences and implications on modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. C.; Landry, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large subauroral electric fields/ion drifts associated with geomagnetic activity and known as Polarization Jets [Galperin et al., 1973] or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) [Spiro et al., 1978] have been reported by a number of researchers over the years starting in the early 1970s. They are latitudinally narrow ( 1 - 3°), are primarily located between the late afternoon and early morning sectors, are extended several hours in magnetic local time, and have westward drifts that can exceed 5000 m/s. Foster et al., [2002] used Millstone Hill radar data to derive a statistical model of the subauroral ion drifts and coined the term SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams) to identify the sometimes broad region of subauroral drifts that the SAID are embedded within. While both are located in the subauroral region and closely associated with ionospheric conductivity and the region 2 field-aligned currents, they are in reality separate phenomena. We investigate this difference, their production mechanisms, and the implications for modeling them.

  13. A phenomenological approach to psychoprosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Frederick B

    2013-05-01

    The phenomenology of human embodiment can advance the practitioner's understanding of the lived human body and in particular, what it means to incorporate a prosthetic device into one's body. In order for a prosthesis to be incorporated into the lived body of the patient, the prosthesis must arguably be integrated into the body schema. This article uses the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and others to identify three of the necessary conditions of embodiment that determine the body schema: corporeal understanding, transparency and sensorimotor feedback. It then examines the structure of each of these conditions of embodiment and how they impact the lived body's incorporation of prostheses and other artifacts. [Box: see text].

  14. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  15. Phenomenology of the Higgs boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    1981-09-01

    The phenomenology of the standard Weinberg-Salam Higgs boson is reviewed with particular emphasis on production mechanisms in high energy e + e - and hadron-hadron collisions. The production processes relevant for the ISABELLE and TEVATRON energies are discussed and their backgrounds estimated. It is argued that the toponium production and radiative decay provides the most hopeful reaction to detect a Higgs in both the e + e - and the hadron-hadron machines. (orig.)

  16. Phenomenology of 10^32 Dark Sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We postulate an exact permutation symmetry acting on 10^32 Standard Model copies as the largest possible symmetry extension of the Standard Model. This setup automatically lowers the fundamental gravity cutoff down to TeV, and thus, accounts for the quantum stability of the weak scale. We study the phenomenology of this framework and show that below TeV energies the copies are well hidden, obeying all the existing observational bounds. Nevertheless, we identify a potential low energy window into the hidden world, the oscillation of the neutron into its dark copies. At the same time, proton decay can be suppressed by gauging the diagonal baryon number of the different copies. This framework offers an alternative approach to several particle physics questions. For example, we suggest a novel mechanism for generating naturally small neutrino masses that are suppressed by the number of neutrino species. The mirror copies of the Standard Model naturally house dark matter candidates. The general experimentally obse...

  17. An integrated approach to determine phenomenological equations in metallic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamarian, Iman

    It is highly desirable to be able to make predictions of properties in metallic materials based upon the composition of the material and the microstructure. Unfortunately, the complexity of real, multi-component, multi-phase engineering alloys makes the provision of constituent-based (i.e., composition or microstructure) phenomenological equations extremely difficult. Due to these difficulties, qualitative predictions are frequently used to study the influence of microstructure or composition on the properties. Neural networks were used as a tool to get a quantitative model from a database. However, the developed model is not a phenomenological model. In this study, a new method based upon the integration of three separate modeling approaches, specifically artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and monte carlo was proposed. These three methods, when coupled in the manner described in this study, allows for the extraction of phenomenological equations with a concurrent analysis of uncertainty. This approach has been applied to a multi-component, multi-phase microstructure exhibiting phases with varying spatial and morphological distributions. Specifically, this approach has been applied to derive a phenomenological equation for the prediction of yield strength in alpha+beta processed Ti-6-4. The equation is consistent with not only the current dataset but also, where available, the limited information regarding certain parameters such as intrinsic yield strength of pure hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium.

  18. Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for UBe_13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martisovits, V.; Cox, D. L.

    1998-03-01

    The staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology based upon Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum was previously applied to the hexagonal heavy-fermion superconductors UPt_3,(R. Heid, Ya. B. Bazaliy, V. Martisovits, and D. L. Cox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 2571 (1995). UPd_2Al_3, and UNi_2Al_3.(V. Martisovits and D. L. Cox (to be published); Report No. cond-mat/9706245.) Here we apply this phenomenology to study the cubic heavy-fermion superconductor UBe_13. We find the momentum of Cooper pairs to be at X points on the Brillouin-zone boundary and identify a three-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an X-point irreducible representation of the space group. Minimizing the free energy, we find possible superconducting phases and the upper critical field H_c2. We investigate coupling to strain fields and the possibility of magnetic order and charge-density waves induced by superconductivity. To explain multiple superconducting phases in the temperature-thorium-concentration phase diagram of U_1-xTh_xBe_13, we model the influence of thorium in terms of random tetragonal strain fields.

  19. Philosophy of phenomenology: how understanding aids research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To assist the researcher in understanding the similarities and differences between the Husserlian and Heideggerian philosophies of phenomenology, and how that philosophy can inform nursing research as a useful methodology. Nurse researchers using phenomenology as a methodology need to understand the philosophy of phenomenology to produce a research design that is philosophically congruent. However, phenomenology has a long and complex history of development, and may be difficult to understand and apply. The author draws from Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (2004), and nurse scholars and methodologists. To give the reader a sense of the development of the philosophy of phenomenology, the author briefly recounts its historical origins and interpretations, specifically related to Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. The author outlines the ontological and epistemological assumptions of Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology and guidance for methodology inspired by these philosophers. Difficulties with engaging in phenomenological research are addressed, especially the processes of phenomenological reduction and bracketing, and the lack of clarity about the methods of interpretation. Despite its complexity, phenomenology can provide the nurse researcher with indepth insight into nursing practice. An understanding of phenomenology can guide nurse researchers to produce results that have meaning in nursing patient care.

  20. Phenomenological approaches of dissipative heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures describe the properties of dissipative heavy ion collisions observed in low bombarding energy heavy ion reactions. These dissipative collisions are of two different types: fusion and deep inelastic reactions. Their main experimental properties are described on selected examples. It is shown how it is possible to give a simple interpretation to the data. A large number of phenomenological models have been developped to understand dissipative heavy ion collisions. The most important are those describing the collision by classical mechanics and friction forces, the diffusion models, and transport theories which merge both preceding approaches. A special emphasis has been done on two phenomena observed in dissipative heavy ion collisions: charge equilibratium for which we can show the existence of quantum fluctuations, and fast fission which appears as an intermediate mechanism between deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation [fr

  1. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2011-01-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce

  2. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, Facultad de Física, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

  3. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-12-23

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  4. The phenomenology in the environmental aesthetic education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera de Echeverri, Ana Patricia

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present an abstract about our Philosophical Doctor Thesis make on Campinas University (Sao Paulo, Brazil) titled educacion estetico ambiental y fenomenologia: problemas de la educacion estetico ambiental en la modernidad. In this thesis we do a critical thinking about the epistemological model of relation subject -object on modern education, and on the other side, we work in the construction about a aesthetic - environmental education model. We propose here an aesthetization of the education, for conjoint body and world-of-life (lebenswelt) into scenarios and actors of the pedagogical process. Body and world-of-life, are two concepts of Husserl's phenomenology that open the door about the environment' s studies aesthetization and aesthetic' s studies environment, separated on modernity, between the metaphysical subject and physicality objects. Body and world-of-life -symbolic-biotic- are marginal alterities on modernity. This marginality has been a structural lead on the contemporary environmental problems

  5. The phenomenology of Dvali Gabadadze Porrati cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Cosmologists today are confronted with the perplexing reality that the universe is currently accelerating in its expansion. Nevertheless, the nature of the fuel that drives today's cosmic acceleration is an open and tantalizing mystery. There exists the intriguing possibility that the acceleration is not the manifestation of yet another mysterious ingredient in the cosmic gas tank (dark energy), but rather our first real lack of understanding of gravity itself, and even possibly a signal that there might exist dimensions beyond that which we can currently observe. The braneworld model of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) is a theory where gravity is altered at immense distances by the excruciatingly slow leakage of gravity off our three-dimensional Universe and, as a modified-gravity theory, has pioneered this line of investigation. I review the underlying structure of DGP gravity and those phenomenological developments relevant to cosmologists interested in a pedagogical treatment of this intriguing model.

  6. Embodiment and psychopathology: a phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Schlimme, Jann E

    2009-11-01

    To survey recent developments in phenomenological psychopathology. We present the concept of embodiment as a key paradigm of recent interdisciplinary approaches from the areas of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience. This requires a short overview on the phenomenological concept of embodiment; in particular, on the distinction of subject and object body. A psychopathology of embodiment may be based on these and other distinctions, in particular on a polarity of disembodiment and hyperembodiment, which is illustrated by the examples of schizophrenia and depression. Recent contributions to phenomenological accounts of these disorders are presented. Finally, the study discusses the relationship of phenomenological and neuropsychiatric perspectives on embodiment. A phenomenology of embodiment may be combined with enactive approaches to cognitive neuroscience in order to overcome dualist concepts of the mind as an inner realm of representations that mirror the outside world. Phenomenological and ecological concepts of embodiment should also be conjoined to enable a new, advanced understanding of mental illness.

  7. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY

    OpenAIRE

    CIPRIAN IULIAN ŞOPTICĂ

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this article concerns the what, the how and the whyof moral phenomenology. The first question we take into consideration is „What is moral phenomenology”? The second question which arises is „How to pursue moral phenomenology”? The third question is „Why pursue moral phenomenology”? We will analyze the study Moral phenomenology:foundation issues1, by which the American phenomenologist Uriah Kriegel aims three lines of research: the definition of moral phenomenology and the desc...

  8. Phenomenology And Media Lıteracy

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan, Çise; Domitran, Zrinka; Radunovic, Nikola; Tavakoli, Sepehr Dadjoi

    2016-01-01

    Is phenomenology a movement or concept? Is it a research method in human science? Different approaches have been introduced with the term of phenomenology, even it has been named as movement.It is commonly understood in either of two ways: as a disciplinary field in philosophy, or as a movement. In phenomenologist's point of view, “Phenomenology is the theory of experiences in general, inclusive of all matters, whether real or intentional, given in experiences, and evidently di...

  9. Phenomenology is not Phenomenalism. Is there such a thing as phenomenology of sport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Halák

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The application of the philosophical mode of investigation called "phenomenology" in the context of sport. Objective: The goal is to show how and why the phenomenological method is very often misused in sport-related research. Methods: Interpretation of the key texts, explanation of their meaning. Results: The confrontation of concrete sport-related texts with the original meaning of the key phenomenological notions shows mainly three types of misuse - the confusion of phenomenology with immediacy, with an epistemologically subjectivist stance (phenomenalism, and with empirical research oriented towards objects in the world. Conclusions: Many of the discussed authors try to take over the epistemological validity of phenomenology for their research, which itself is not phenomenological, and it seems that this is because they are lacking such a methodological foundation. We believe that an authentically phenomenological analysis of sport is possible, but it must respect the basic distinctions that differentiate phenomenology from other styles of thinking.

  10. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  11. Modeling Extra-Long Tsunami Propagation: Assessing Data, Model Accuracy and Forecast Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Rabinovich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and modeling tsunamis propagating tens of thousands of kilometers from the source is a formidable scientific challenge and seemingly satisfies only scientific curiosity. However, results of such analyses produce a valuable insight into the tsunami propagation dynamics, model accuracy and would provide important implications for tsunami forecast. The Mw = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that devastated Indian Ocean coastlines and spread into the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The tsunami was recorded by a great number of coastal tide gauges, including those located in 15-25 thousand kilometers from the source area. To date, it is still the farthest instrumentally detected tsunami. The data from these instruments throughout the world oceans enabled to estimate various statistical parameters and energy decay of this event. High-resolution records of this tsunami from DARTs 32401 (offshore of northern Chile), 46405 and NeMO (both offshore of the US West Coast), combined with the mainland tide gauge measurements enabled us to examine far-field characteristics of the 2004 in the Pacific Ocean and to compare the results of global numerical simulations with the observations. Despite their small heights (less than 2 cm at deep-ocean locations), the records demonstrated consistent spatial and temporal structure. The numerical model described well the frequency content, amplitudes and general structure of the observed waves at deep-ocean and coastal gages. We present analysis of the measurements and comparison with model data to discuss implication for tsunami forecast accuracy. Model study for such extreme distances from the tsunami source and at extra-long times after the event is an attempt to find accuracy bounds for tsunami models and accuracy limitations of model use for forecast. We discuss results in application to tsunami model forecast and tsunami modeling in general.

  12. Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boglione, Mariaelena [University of Turin, Torino, Italy; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Melis, Stefano [European Centre for Theoretical Studies; Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB

    2015-03-01

    Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.

  13. Recent Trends in Superstring Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We review for non-experts possible phenomenological scenari in String Theory. In particular we focus on vacuum configurations with intersecting and/or magnetized unoriented D-branes. We will show how a TeV scale tension may be compatible with the existence of Large Extra Dimensions and how anomalous U(1)'s can give rise to interesting signatures at LHC or in cosmic rays. Finally, we discuss unoriented D-brane instantons as a source of non-perturbative effects that can contribute to moduli stabilization and susy braking in combination with fluxes. We conclude with an outlook and directions for future work.

  14. Quantum and classical phenomenological universalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molski, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    The quantum Q2 class of phenomenological universalities (PU) is extended to include exact solutions and minimum uncertainty coherent states of Hulthen, Kratzer-Fues, Tipping and generalized Kratzer-Fues-Tipping oscillators. In the dissociation (quasi-quantum) limit the solutions obtained generate the extended U2 class of PU including West-Brown-Enquist universal growth curve and temporal (spatial) fractal functions widely used in the field of life sciences and physics. It will be shown that the PU concept seems to be a valuable methodology for deriving the new forms of potential energy functions with possible applications in theoretical analysis of molecular spectra.

  15. A consistent phenomenological model for natural organic matter linked migration of Cm(III), Pu(III/IV), Np(IV), Tc(IV) and Pa(V) in the Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Van Gompel, M.

    2010-01-01

    of magnitude lower than for the first cell. This indicates that the species that is transported is not a conservative tracer as otherwise the outlet concentration should equal the inlet concentration. Recently, Bruggeman and Maes (2009) put forward a phenomenological model which describes the Tc retention and transport mechanisms in Boom Clay. They hypothesise that Tc is transported as a Tc-NOM colloidal species exhibiting slow dissociation kinetics. This phenomenological model was now tested to describe the NOM related transport of Cm, Pu, Np, Tc and Pa in these 'sequential' migration experiments. All these RNs are known to form strong complexes with NOM in batch experiments. To describe the RN elution profiles from the second clay core, we used the migration parameters (diffusion coefficient, porosity and retardation factor) of NOM derived from small-scale lab experiments and validated by large-scale (long-term) in-situ tests in combination with a first order kinetic dissociation reaction. The transport feature of the geochemical code PHREEQC-2 was used for the simulations. Based on the original NOM transport parameters, and a narrow range for the parameter in the kinetic dissociation equation (2.4-8.5 x 10 -8 s -1 ), a good match with the experimental data could be achieved for all RNs considered in this study. This supports our hypothesis that for a large array of RNs (Tc, Pa, Np, Pu and Cm in this study), the transport behaviour observed in the experiments is indeed linked to NOM, irrespective of their dominant valence state (tri-, tetra-, pentavalent). Their overall transport potential (at longer times and distances) remains limited due to dissociation and subsequent sorption on the Boom Clay. The results presented in this study form an important step forward for safety assessments analysis: (i) the model is easy to implement, (ii) there is a link with a phenomenological description, and (iii) elements with a similar NOM association behaviour can be

  16. Combination of the H1 and ZEUS inclusive cross-section measurements at proton beam energies of 460 GeV and 575 GeV and tests of low Bjorken-x phenomenological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Pavel

    2013-06-15

    A combination is presented of the inclusive neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section data collected by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations during the last months of the HERA II operation period with proton beam energies E{sub p} of 460 and 575 GeV. The kinematic range of the cross section data covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV{sup 2} {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 110 GeV{sup 2}, small values of Bjorken-x, 2.8.10{sup -5} {<=} x {<=} 1.5.10{sup -2}, and high inelasticity y {<=} 0.85. The combination algorithm is based on the method of least squares and takes into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties. The combined data are used in the QCD fits to extract the parton distribution functions. The phenomenological low-x dipole models are tested and parameters of the models are obtained. A good description of the data by the dipole model taking into account the evolution of the gluon distribution is observed. The longitudinal structure function F{sub L} is extracted from the combination of the currently used H1 and ZEUS reduced proton beam energy data with previously published H1 nominal proton beam energy data of 920 GeV. A precision of the obtained values of F{sub L} is improved at medium Q{sup 2} compared to the published results of the H1 collaboration.

  17. Phenomenological modeling of the drying of a thin cloth with a rotating cylinder heated by electromagnetic induction; Modelisation phenomenologique du sechage d'une nappe mince avec un cylindre rotatoire chauffe par induction electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S. [Universidad de Carabobo, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valencia (Venezuela); Therien, N.; Broadbent, A.D. [Sherbrooke Univ., Faculte de Genie, Quebec (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A phenomenological model of the evolution of the humidity and temperature during the drying of a thin fiber cloth in contact with a metal surface heated by electric induction is presented. The model calculates also the temperature inside the cylinder with respect to its position. Differential mass and energy statuses are established and the concept of substantial derivative is used to bind the state variables with respect to the time and position. The conduction, convection, radiant heat transfer, thermal induction, and energy transfer due to water vaporization are explicitly considered. The model takes into consideration the disturbances due to the variations of the humidity of the cloth at the input of the process. It calculates the response of the process in front of these disturbances and in front of the rotation speed of the cylinder and the electric power supplied to the system. Multiple experiments performed on a bench test have permitted to characterize the response of the drying process (temperature of the cylinder, humidity and temperature of the cloth) under different combinations of conditions. (J.S.)

  18. Phenomenological modeling of the thermal dynamics of a rotating cylinder heated by electromagnetic induction; Modelisation phenomenologique de la dynamique thermique d'un cylindre rotatoire chauffe par induction electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S. [Universidad de Carabobo, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valencia (Venezuela); Therien, N.; Broadbent, A.D. [Sherbrooke Univ., Faculte de Genie, Quebec (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This work concerns the development of a phenomenological model describing the temperature dynamics of a metal cylinder heated by electric induction. The model used takes into consideration in an explicit way the different mechanisms of energy transfer from the cylinder towards the environment, in particular the convection and radiant heat transfers. The conduction process, which takes place inside the cylinder as a response to the temperature gradient at the periphery of the cylinder, has been characterized too. The process of energy induction inside the cylinder has been characterized in a precise way. The experiments show that the induction is localized in the part of the cylinder facing the inductors and that the induction presents a distributed feature in the induction section. The model proposed is based on the concept of substantial derivative. It calculates the response of the process with respect to these disturbances and with respect to the rotation speed of the cylinder and to the electric power supplied to the system. (J.S.)

  19. Reflection about the Phenomenological Claim Book Review of Jose Ruiz: About the Meaning of Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Rojas Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Commentary on the attempt to save the phenomenological claim (the meaning of phenomenology) that Jose Ruiz makes in his book, trying to distinguish noesis from noema. This comment is written from the view that the milestones of phenomenology cannot be considered regardless of their methodical aspect

  20. Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Price, Donald D

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in the philosophical and neurobiological studies of consciousness provide promising frameworks to investigate the neurobiology of hypnosis. A model of consciousness phenomenology is described to demonstrate that the experiential dimensions characterizing hypnosis (relaxation and mental ease, absorption, orientation and monitoring, and self-agency) reflect basic phenomenal properties of consciousness. Changes in relaxation-mental ease and absorption, produced by standard hypnotic procedures, are further associated with changes in brain activity within structures critically involved in the basic representation of the body-self and the regulation of states of consciousness. The combination of experiential and modern brain imaging methods offers a unique perspective on hypnotic phenomena and provides new observations consistent with the proposition that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

  1. Phenomenology between Pathos and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Waldenfels

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author calls phenomenological intentionality, into question while taking it, nevertheless, as a starting point. From the analysis of the meaning of phenomena he goes back to a pathic dimension which precedes them. What happens to us or affects us and to what we respond in different ways cannot be reduced to previous horizons. Between pathos and response, there is an irreducible cleft which constitutes a special sort of time-lag. What happens to us comes is always too early; our responses always come too late. Our experience is never completely up to date. In order to explore this pre-semantic and pre-pragmatic depth of experience we need a sort of responsive reduction, which guides all meaning toward something we respond to. In conclusion, the author evokes some areas in which such a revision of phenomenology shows its effects, namely the genesis of life in bioethics, the historical elaboration of memory and the experience of the Other.  

  2. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  3. Phenomenology of the innovative question when based on wonderment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    of the questioner. Second the questions seem to arise from within the profession, being in resonance with some kind of meaningfulness. Implications: A wonder-driven approach to innovation and entrepreneurship seems in some way and degree to grasp the meaning of our professions and the deeper meaning of our...... new products but also to get in a resonance with some kind of meaningfulness. Value/ originality: The study has originality because of the phenomenological research-approach to innovation and entrepreneurship and because of the philosophic-hermeneutic and wonder-driven approach to innovation...

  4. Phenomenology as first philosophy | Allsobrook | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interprets phenomenology as a mode of inquiry that addresses fundamental questions of first philosophy, beyond the limitation of the practice by its leading theorists to the study of mere appearances. I draw on Adorno's critique of phenomenology to show that it has typically functioned as a mode of first ...

  5. Visual Arts as a Tool for Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. CohenMiller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explain the process and benefits of using visual arts as a tool within a transcendental phenomenological study. I present and discuss drawings created and described by four participants over the course of twelve interviews. Findings suggest the utility of visual arts methods within the phenomenological toolset to encourage participant voice through easing communication and facilitating understanding.

  6. Phenomenology and Otherness - on embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    Starting from phenomenology's notion of orientation towards and involvement with the other and the surrounding environment the paper want to pursue a development from the meeting and opening up to the universalized other of phenomenology towards a focus on encounters with particular others...

  7. Phenomenology, Hermeneutics and the study of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the quest for appropriate methods of studying religion, researchers in recent years have fiercely attacked phenomenology for its inadequacies in the academic study of religion. Phenomenology, as an approach, has been relegated to a relic in some departments of religious studies at Western universities. Yet in Africa ...

  8. Humanising Forces: Phenomenology in Science; Psychotherapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology (IPJP) can be found at www.ipjp.org. The IPJP is a joint project of Rhodes ... The present paper examines how the findings of a phenomenological study of psychotherapy reflects a movement by people in .... the particular in the general; the dance of the unique and the shared.

  9. Interdisciplinarity within Phenomenology | Embree | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognition of phenomenological tendencies in several dozen disciplines beyond philosophy raises the question of how phenomenology in general might be defined prior to specification in terms of the agendas of the particular disciplines. After an attempt at an answer to this question, some observations concerning the ...

  10. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  11. String Phenomenology: Past, Present and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon E. Faraggi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The observation of a scalar resonance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, compatible with perturbative electroweak symmetry breaking, reinforces the Standard Model (SM parameterisation of all subatomic data. The logarithmic evolution of the SM gauge and matter parameters suggests that this parameterisation remains viable up to the Planck scale, where gravitational effects are of comparable strength. String theory provides a perturbatively consistent scheme to explore how the parameters of the Standard Model may be determined from a theory of quantum gravity. The free fermionic heterotic string models provide concrete examples of exact string solutions that reproduce the spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Contemporary studies entail the development of methods to classify large classes of models. This led to the discovery of exophobic heterotic-string vacua and the observation of spinor-vector duality, which provides an insight to the global structure of the space of (2,0 heterotic-string vacua. Future directions entail the study of the role of the massive string states in these models and their incorporation in cosmological scenarios. A complementary direction is the formulation of quantum gravity from the principle of manifest phase space duality and the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics, which suggest that space is compact. The compactness of space, which implies intrinsic regularisation, may be tightly related to the intrinsic finite length scale, implied by string phenomenology.

  12. Aging in the Shadow of Violence: A Phenomenological Conceptual Framework for Understanding Elderly Women Who Experienced Lifelong IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests a heuristic framework for understanding elderly women's "lived experience" of lifelong intimate partner violence (IPV). This framework is based on the phenomenological qualitative studies of 31 women, aged 60-83, using a semistructured interview guide. From the results, a matrix emerged built on two axes. The first axis consists of three phenomenological dimensions: suffering, a "ticking clock," and life wisdom. The second axis consists of four themes that emerged from the content analysis: loneliness, regret, being in a state of waiting, and being a living monument to perpetual victimhood. The practical implications of these phenomenological findings are then discussed.

  13. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Suspension of Phenomenological Judgement of Scientific Naivety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko M. Lozar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the negative judgements on natural sciences, however persistent and frequent they may be, found scattered in the philosophical texts of the two founding fathers of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. It first presents these harsh views and then, by assuming the phenomenological method, advocated by both philosophers, endeavours to suspend these judgements in favour of a phenomenologically more adequate description of the scientific comportment, trying to do justice to its non-philosophical excellence. The basic claim of the treatise is that Husserl’s and Heidegger’s criticisms should only be understood in the defensive sense of procuring a firm and safe ground for theoretical comportment, bios 'theoretikos'. Such an approach, however, begs for a phenomenological description of the intrinsic excellence of science, which might be phenomenologically most accurately understood as most rigorous practical comportment, as 'bios praktikos'.

  15. Phenomenology of the behavior of nuclear fuels containing plutonium in the cycles of water reactors. Development of a model on the equivalence of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzoug, D.

    1990-05-01

    In the scope of fuel recycling, in nuclear reactors with water cooling systems, a model concerning the plutonium equivalence and adapted to the thermal spectra is proposed. The physical phenomena involving the plutonium isotopes are studied. A method based on the sensitivity analysis allows the understanding of the plutonium isotope behavior. An equivalence model of plutonium for thermal spectre is established. The validity of the model for different cycle lengths and supports is proved [fr

  16. Implications of model uncertainty for the practice of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskey, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    A model is a representation of a system that can be used to answer questions about the system's behavior. The term model uncertainty refers to problems in which there is no generally agreed upon, validated model that can be used as a surrogate for the system itself. Model uncertainty affects both the methodology appropriate for building models and how models should be used. This paper discusses representations of model uncertainty, methodologies for exercising and interpreting models in the presence of model uncertainty, and the appropriate use of fallible models for policy making

  17. Observation and phenomenology of glueballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

  18. Observation and phenomenology of glueballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T 1 /, and g/sub T 11 /. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction π - p → phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs

  19. Astroparticle physics theory and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sigl, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This books aims at giving an overview over theoretical and phenomenological aspects of particle astrophysics and particle cosmology. To be of interest for both students and researchers in neighboring fields of physics, it keeps a balance between well established foundations that will not significantly change in the future and a more in-depth treatment of selected subfields in which significant new developments have been taking place recently. These include high energy particle astrophysics, such as cosmic high energy neutrinos, the interplay between detection techniques of dark matter in the laboratory and in high energy cosmic radiation, axion-like particles, and relics of the early Universe such as primordial magnetic fields and gravitational waves. It also contains exercises and thus will be suitable for both introductory and advanced courses in astroparticle physics.

  20. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Lebed

    1998-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ''large'' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions

  1. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  2. Cell phenomenology: The first phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, H H

    2015-12-01

    As a broad academic discipline phenomenology may be summarized as the study from a first person point of view of what appears to subjective human conscious experience. As a historical philosophical movement phenomenology was often motivated by the belief that subjective human experience is the proper foundation of all philosophy. I explore phenomena from a broader evolutionary and physical point of view. I consider a phenomenon as the subjective consequence of a physical interaction with an individual organism. In physical terms, a phenomenon requires some form of detection or measurement. What is detected is determined by the organism, and is potentially functional for the organism as a self or subject. The concept of function has meaning only for living organisms. The classical human mind-body problem is an ill-defined complicated case of the more general epistemic subject-object problem, which at the origin of life I reduce to the primitive symbol-matter problem. I argue that the first memory-based self-replicating unit, like a cell, is the most primitive case of a necessary symbol-matter distinction. The first phenomena, which include all forms or sensing, detection, and measurement, require a subject-object distinction, called the epistemic cut. It is only because of such a subject-object distinction that populations of individual subjects can selectively adapt to their environment by heritable variations. This basic evolutionary process requires distinguishing the individual's subjective phenomena from the objective events of inexorable physical laws. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The role and management implications of modeling owl populations and the habitats they occupy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy E. Kearns

    1997-01-01

    Modeling ecosystems is an evolving science that is both practical and theoretical. The integration of modeling, landscape ecology, management, and rapidly changing technology offers an array of possible solutions to modern environmental quandaries. In order to address these concerns, a workshop was developed to discuss the role and management implications of modeling...

  4. Uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Environmental radiological assessments rely heavily on the use of mathematical models. The predictions of these models are inherently uncertain because these models are inexact representations of real systems. The major sources of this uncertainty are related to biases in model formulation and parameter estimation. The best approach for estimating the actual extent of over- or underprediction is model validation, a procedure that requires testing over the range of the intended realm of model application. Other approaches discussed are the use of screening procedures, sensitivity and stochastic analyses, and model comparison. The magnitude of uncertainty in model predictions is a function of the questions asked of the model and the specific radionuclides and exposure pathways of dominant importance. Estimates are made of the relative magnitude of uncertainty for situations requiring predictions of individual and collective risks for both chronic and acute releases of radionuclides. It is concluded that models developed as research tools should be distinguished from models developed for assessment applications. Furthermore, increased model complexity does not necessarily guarantee increased accuracy. To improve the realism of assessment modeling, stochastic procedures are recommended that translate uncertain parameter estimates into a distribution of predicted values. These procedures also permit the importance of model parameters to be ranked according to their relative contribution to the overall predicted uncertainty. Although confidence in model predictions can be improved through site-specific parameter estimation and increased model validation, risk factors and internal dosimetry models will probably remain important contributors to the amount of uncertainty that is irreducible

  5. A unified approach to hadron phenomenology at zero and finite temperatures in a hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiyuan [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Ma, Bo-Qiang [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    We propose a unified approach to study meson, nucleon and Δ-baryon properties at zero and finite temperatures in the context of hard-wall AdS/QCD model. We first combine some previous works dealing with mesons and baryons separately, and introduce a new parameter ξ so that the model could give a universal description of spectrum and couplings of both sectors in a self-consistent way. All observables calculated numerically show reasonable agreement with experimental data. We then study these observables at nonzero temperature by modifying the AdS space-time into AdS-Schwarzschild space-time. Numerically solving the model, we find an interesting temperature dependence of the spectrum and the couplings. We also make a prediction on the finite-temperature decay width of some nucleon and Δ excited states. (orig.)

  6. Phenomenology of an SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) model with lepton-flavour non-universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN,Via Enrico Fermi 40, 100044 Frascati (Italy); Celis, Alejandro [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Fakultät für Physik,Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 München (Germany); Fuentes-Martín, Javier; Vicente, Avelino [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València - CSIC,E-46071 València (Spain); Virto, Javier [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-12-14

    We investigate a gauge extension of the Standard Model in light of the observed hints of lepton universality violation in b→cℓν and b→sℓ{sup +}ℓ{sup −} decays at BaBar, Belle and LHCb. The model consists of an extended gauge group SU(2){sub 1}×SU(2){sub 2}×U(1){sub Y} which breaks spontaneously around the TeV scale to the electroweak gauge group. Fermion mixing effects with vector-like fermions give rise to potentially large new physics contributions in flavour transitions mediated by W{sup ′} and Z{sup ′} bosons. This model can ease tensions in B-physics data while satisfying stringent bounds from flavour physics, and electroweak precision data. Possible ways to test the proposed new physics scenario with upcoming experimental measurements are discussed. Among other predictions, the ratios R{sub M}=Γ(B→Mμ{sup +}μ{sup −})/Γ(B→Me{sup +}e{sup −}), with M=K{sup ∗},ϕ, are found to be reduced with respect to the Standard Model expectation R{sub M}≃1.

  7. Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason

    2013-09-01

    In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.

  8. Phenomenology of Compositeness at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Salvioni, Ennio; Zwirner, Fabio

    The hierarchy problem of the weak scale calls for extensions of the Standard Model at the TeV, and thus within the reach of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One of the best motivated proposals builds on the idea that the Higgs could be a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. In this thesis we discuss several topics in the phenomenology of composite Higgs models, concentrating mainly on LHC physics. In Chapter 1 we introduce the hierarchy problem and the essential features of viable theories of compositeness at the TeV scale. Chapter 2 is dedicated to a review of concrete constructions realizing the composite Higgs idea, focusing mostly on models with partial compositeness. In Chapter 3 we present the effective Lagrangians suited for describing the Higgs boson and the constraints placed by electroweak precision tests on their parameters. Motivated by hints in the experimental results, we also reconsider the possibility of custodial breaking in the couplings of the Higgs to the W and Z. Chapter 4 is devo...

  9. Phenomenological model of a 90.sup.o./sup. domain wall in BaTiO.sub.3./sub.-type ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Márton, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 10 (2006), 104104/1-104104/12 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : BaTiO3 3 * ferroelectrics * domain wall * Ginzburg-Landau model Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  10. Phenomenological studies and modelling of the gaseous impurities oxidation and adsorption mechanisms in helium: application for the purification system optimization in gas cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, F.

    2008-01-01

    In GEN IV studies on future fission nuclear reactors, two concepts using helium as a coolant have been selected: GFR and VHTR. Among radioactive impurities and dusts, helium can contain H 2 , CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , H 2 O, O 2 , as well as nitrogenous species. To optimize the reactor functioning and lifespan, it is necessary to control the coolant chemical composition using a dedicated purification system. A pilot designed at the CEA allows studying this purification system. Its design includes three unit operations: H 2 and CO oxidation on CuO, then two adsorption steps. This study aims at providing a detailed analysis of the first and second purification steps, which have both been widely studied experimentally at laboratory scale. A first modelling based on a macroscopic approach was developed to represent the behaviour of the reactor and has shown that the CuO fixed bed conversion is dependent on the chemistry (mass transfer is not an issue) and is complete. The results of the structural analysis of the solids allow considering the CuO as particles made of 200 nm diameter grains. Hence, a new model at grain scale is proposed. It is highlighted that the kinetic constants from these two models are related with a scale factor which depends on geometry. A competition between carbon monoxide and hydrogen oxidation has been shown. Activation energies are around 30 kJ.mol-1. Simulation of the simultaneous oxidations leads to consider CO preferential adsorption. A similar methodology has been applied for CO 2 and H 2 O adsorption. The experimental isotherms showed a Langmuir type adsorption. Using this model, experimental and theoretical results agree. (author) [fr

  11. Phenomenological perspectives of self-care in healthcare professionals' continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bruzzone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare professionals, daily confronted with existential failty, feel themselves emotionally vulnerable too. For this reason, they need knowledge and tools in order to take care for themselves. Phenomenology provides an epistemological model that includes subjective and affective dimensions and legitimates lived experience as a source of cognition. In the undergraduate and continuing education of healthcare professionals, the phenomenological approach can represent a way of promoting self-care through personal narrative and reflection.

  12. On the Wheeler-De Witt equation in multidimensional cosmology with phenomenological matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleyer, U.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the Wheller-De Witt equation for multidimensional cosmological models including phenomenological matter. In this way we find a generalized mechanical system in minisuperspace, which is integrable for a special mixture of tracefree matter components, generalizing the result of Ivashchuk, Melnikov, and Zhuk for the case of phenomenological matter. Just for a mixture of trace-free matter components, the dependence of the effective potential on the pseudotime in the corresponding minisuperspace may be separated. (author)

  13. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  14. Phenomenology of new physics beyond the Standard Model: signals of Supersymmetry with displaced vertices and an extended Higgs sector at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334334

    2017-08-02

    Our current understanding of matter and its interactions is summarised in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Many experiments have tested the predictions of the SM with great success, but others have brought our ignorance into focus by showing us there are new phenomena that we can not describe within the framework of the SM. These include the experimental observations of neutrino masses and dark matter, which confirms there must be new physics. What this new physics may look like at colliders motivates the original work in this thesis, which comprises three studies: the prospects of future electron-positron colliders in testing a model with an extended Higgs sector with a scalar triplet, doublet and singlet; the discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of a non-minimal Supersymmetric model via conventional sparticle searches and via searches for displaced vertices; and the experimental search for long-lived massive particles via a displaced vertex signature using data of proton-proton...

  15. Neurocommunicology: A Model and Implications for Communication Fear Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaten, James A.

    Current models of communication fear and avoidance are analyzed (i.e., genetic, social and interactional). A new model is proposed, linking language, imagery, emotion, and behavior to complex neurological systems in the brain. Evidence for the model is taken from several related fields of study, especially neurolinguistics, neuropsychology,…

  16. Implementation of the Interteaching Model: Implications for Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Andrea; Kienhuis, Mandy; Wilson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the process of implementing a teaching innovation, the interteaching model, in a second-year psychology course. Interteaching is an evidence-based model that uses guided independent learning and reciprocal peer-tutoring to enhance student engagement and learning. The model shifts the focus from lectures to tutorials:…

  17. Phenomenology is not Phenomenalism. Is there such a thing as phenomenology of sport?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Halák; Ivo Jirásek; Mark Stephen Nesti

    2014-01-01

    Background: The application of the philosophical mode of investigation called "phenomenology" in the context of sport. Objective: The goal is to show how and why the phenomenological method is very often misused in sport-related research. Methods: Interpretation of the key texts, explanation of their meaning. Results: The confrontation of concrete sport-related texts with the original meaning of the key phenomenological notions shows mainly three types of misuse - the confusion of phenomenolo...

  18. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  19. Creep and damage in argillaceous rocks: microstructural change and phenomenological modeling; Fluage et endommagement des roches argileuses: evolution de la microstructure et modelisation phenomenologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, G

    2005-06-15

    The underground radioactive waste disposal far exceeds the period of exploitation of common civil engineering works. These specific projects require to predict the irreversible deformations over a large time scale (several centuries) in order to assess the extension and to forecast the evolution of the EDZ (Excavation Damage Zone) around the cavity. In this study, the viscosity of three sedimentary argillaceous rocks has been studied under different conditions of uniaxial compression: static or cyclic creep tests, monotonic and quasistatic tests, performed across various strata orientations. Argillaceous rocks are studied as a possible host layer for radioactive waste disposals. Indeed, they present some of the physical characteristics and mechanical properties, which are essential for being a natural barrier: low permeability, high creep potential and important holding capacity of radioactive elements. The purpose of the experimental study was to shed some light over the mechanisms governing the development of delayed deformations and damage of argillaceous rocks. It relates three rocks: an argillite from East of France, a Tournemire argillite and a marl from Jurassic Mountains. On atomic scale, viscoplastic deformations are due to irreversible displacements of crystalline defects, called dislocations. The experimental study was also supplemented with observations on thin sections extracted from the argillite and marl samples using a SEM. The aim was to identify the mechanisms responsible for the time-dependent behaviour on a microstructural scale. Analytical simulations of the mechanical behaviour of the three rocks gave parameters used in different viscoplastic models. The best modeling was obtained with the viscoplastic model which takes account of the development of volumetric strains and of the damage anisotropy. (author)

  20. Psychoanalysis--a phenomenology of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It is often said that there is an unbridgeable gap between phenomenology and psychoanalysis. But this is only half the truth. Starting from Merleau-Ponty's proposal of an objectivistic and an idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise the paper tries to reconstruct two possible movements: the objectivistic divergence of Husserl's enterprise as a phenomenological shift towards psychoanalysis and the idealistic divergence of Freud's enterprise as a psychoanalytical shift towards phenomenology. It is shown that this approach is possible on the field of language and semiotics where psychic life, as the essence of our subjectivity, may be rendered as a uniform phenomenon of an articulation in the world of signs. This thesis is elucidated at the end of the paper by discussing first (to the phenomenological side) a certain interpretation of the use of Husserl's reduction as a method of investigation in psychiatry and second (to the psychoanalytic side) the importance of Lacan's difference between repression and foreclosure for a psychopathological understanding of psychosis.

  1. Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents...... different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward...... and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....

  2. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , sexuality, cultural practice and personal preference. 2. The theoretical framework upon which submissions are founded should draw on the work of theoreticians from within Continental Philosophy and in particular phenomenology.

  3. The politics of phenomenological concepts in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C A

    1996-09-01

    This paper challenges those nurses who champion Heideggerian phenomenology, by outlining some of the possible political consequences of that philosophy. Some relationships between phenomenology and fascism are discussed, with special reference to anti-humanism and authenticity. Heidegger's commitment to Nazism is affirmed and, following the lead of other recent contributions to the debate, it is suggested that this was the likely, if not inevitable, result of his phenomenological philosophy. It is concluded that, because of its immanent fascism, Heideggerian phenomenology is at odds with the general value orientation publicly espoused by the nursing profession, and that this may render it not only unsuitable as a means of understanding and elaborating nursing knowledge, but also actively counter-productive to the conventional aspirations of nurses.

  4. Global Gridded Crop Model Evaluation: Benchmarking, Skills, Deficiencies and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Hoek, Steven; hide

    2017-01-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to simulate crop yields at the global scale, but so far there is no general framework on how to assess model performance. Here we evaluate the simulation results of 14 global gridded crop modeling groups that have contributed historic crop yield simulations for maize, wheat, rice and soybean to the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). Simulation results are compared to reference data at global, national and grid cell scales and we evaluate model performance with respect to time series correlation, spatial correlation and mean bias. We find that global gridded crop models (GGCMs) show mixed skill in reproducing time series correlations or spatial patterns at the different spatial scales. Generally, maize, wheat and soybean simulations of many GGCMs are capable of reproducing larger parts of observed temporal variability (time series correlation coefficients (r) of up to 0.888 for maize, 0.673 for wheat and 0.643 for soybean at the global scale) but rice yield variability cannot be well reproduced by most models. Yield variability can be well reproduced for most major producing countries by many GGCMs and for all countries by at least some. A comparison with gridded yield data and a statistical analysis of the effects of weather variability on yield variability shows that the ensemble of GGCMs can explain more of the yield variability than an ensemble of regression models for maize and soybean, but not for wheat and rice. We identify future research needs in global gridded crop modeling and for all individual crop modeling groups. In the absence of a purely observation-based benchmark for model evaluation, we propose that the best performing crop model per crop and region establishes the benchmark for all others, and modelers are encouraged to investigate how crop model performance can be increased. We make our evaluation system accessible to all

  5. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  6. Ethics in Husserl’s Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan FathZadeh

    2013-01-01

    Starting with the ego's consciousness and emphasizing on staying at this realm, Husserl is accused of ignoring the absolute alterity of the other and reducing it to the presence of consciousness. By reducing the other he misses ethics and so embeds the violence at the heart of phenomenological discourse. Here we discuss on this criticism and then we try to defend Husserl against it. By putting phenomenology in its eidetic realm, we will try to answer these criticisms.

  7. On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar Phenomenological foundations for grammar description of the natural language are under considerations. The picture of language world based on the factorization of communication and cognitivity is proposed. The problem of observability-unobservability in linguistics is discussed. The concept of the states of language units is formulated both with its interpretation in the formal definition of the noun's case. System analysis of the complexity in cognitive processes is considered.

  8. On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Shyrokov; Igor Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar Phenomenological foundations for grammar description of the natural language are under considerations. The picture of language world based on the factorization of communication and cognitivity is proposed. The problem of observability-unobservability in linguistics is discussed. The concept of the states of language units is formulated both with its interpretation in the formal definition of the noun's case. System analysis of the complexity in ...

  9. Cosmological implication of massive neutrinos in a horizontal model context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.

    1985-04-01

    An extended version of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model for the eletroweak interactions is studied in detail. It has an extra global horizontal symmetry, which allows the appearance of neutrino mass terms. The constraints imposed by the standard cosmological model were used to determine the allowed range of variations of the free parameters of this model. As applications, the solar neutrinos problem and the formation of large scale structures in the universe is studied. (Author) [pt

  10. Impact of semi-annihilations on dark matter phenomenology - an example of ZN symmetric scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, G.; Kannike, K.; Pukhov, A.; Raidal, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of semi-annihilations χχ ↔ χX; where χ is dark matter and X is any standard model particle, on dark matter phenomenology. We formulate scalar dark matter models with minimal field content that predict non-trivial dark matter phenomenology for different discrete Abelian symmetries Z N , N > 2, and contain semi-annihilation processes. We implement such an example model in micrOMEGAs and show that semi-annihilations modify the phenomenology of this type of models. (authors)

  11. Phenomenology and its application in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, Havi

    2011-02-01

    Phenomenology is a useful methodology for describing and ordering experience. As such, phenomenology can be specifically applied to the first person experience of illness in order to illuminate this experience and enable health care providers to enhance their understanding of it. However, this approach has been underutilized in the philosophy of medicine as well as in medical training and practice. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of phenomenology to clinical medicine. In order to describe the experience of illness, we need a phenomenological approach that gives the body a central role and acknowledges the primacy of perception. I present such a phenomenological method and show how it could usefully illuminate the experience of illness through a set of concepts taken from Merleau-Ponty. His distinction between the biological body and the body as lived, analysis of the habitual body, and the notions of motor intentionality and intentional arc are used to capture the experience of illness. I then discuss the applications this approach could have in medicine. These include narrowing the gap between objective assessments of well-being in illness and subjective experiences which are varied and diverse; developing a more attuned dialogue between physicians and patients based on a thick understanding of illness; developing research methods that are informed by phenomenology and thus go beyond existing qualitative methods; and providing medical staff with a concrete understanding of the impact of illness on the life-world of patients.

  12. Astrophysical Phenomenology and the MRI: Progress, Challenges, and Laboratory Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The MRI shows excellent promise as a mechanism for generating turbulence with properties needed to transport angular momentum in sufficiently ionized accretion engines. However, it remains a long-term challenge to incorporate what is learned from the MRI into robust practical improvements to current mean field spectral and phenomenological models of accretion engines. We do not understand disk phenomenology nearly as well as stellar phenomenology. In this respect, I discuss how the study of accretion disk theory currently parallels that of mean field dynamo theory, the 21st century version of which has found success through a symbiosis of analytic modeling and numerical simulations. In fact, the two theories are actually complementary components of what should be a unified theory: mean field dynamos prioritize the induction equation whereas mean field accretion theory prioritize the momentum equation. Indeed, much of what has yet to be understood in the application of the MRI to realistic systems is its role in the generation of dynamically significant large-scale fields, which in turn can power coronae and jets. Finally, I discuss how our understanding of the interplay between disks, coronae, and jets may benefit from laboratory plasma studies.

  13. New Model of Wood Cell Wall Microfibril and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Rick S. Reiner; Carlos Baez

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally it has been accepted that the cell walls are made up of microfibrils which are partly crystalline. However, based on the recently obtained Raman evidence that showed that the interior of the microfibril was significantly disordered and water accessible, a new model is proposed. In this model, the molecular chains of cellulose are still organized along the...

  14. The 2007 Bengkulu earthquake, its rupture model and implications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a forward modelling approach, we estimated slip distribution on the causative rupture of the ... the rate of about 6cm/year in the north-east- north direction is partitioned into the arc ... Keywords. 2007 Bengkulu earthquake; GPS measurements; coseismic displacement; slip model; tsunami. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 119, No.

  15. MYSTICAL ASPECT OF EDITH STEIN'S ANTHROPOLOGY: FROM PHENOMENOLOGY TO THOMISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Shabanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to find mystical elements in Edith Stein's anthropology as a connecting principle between phenomenology and Thomism. Relying on methodological definition of philosophical mystic, as a matching of theological and philosophical doctrines, based upon reflection on experience of ecstatic unity with the Absolute, it was shown that phenomenology is implicitly directed towards research of real structure of immediate experience which in all its limits approaches to mystical experience. Not the mind and not the faith, but will (that directs knowledge to mystical unity of immanent subject and transcendental object in finding the truth is defining for the mystical character of Stein's creative method. Stein, being a bright representative of phenomenology, gradually disagrees with Husserl at some points: 1. Stein considers the world as an immediate contemplation on the entity that transcends the identity of being and thinking; 2. In her opinion, phenomenology neglects the ontological Absolute. As a result, there is misplace of the Absolute by structural-cognitive aims, that, in its turn, was a reason for amalgamation of onthology and epistemology, according to Stein's views. 3. Stein strives to overcome epistemological rationality and achieve a sphere of philosophical mystic where ontological object and epistemological subject are identical in the act of mystical contemplation. 4. Lack of metaphysical elements in phenomenology leads Stein to Thomism in which she potentially seeks a way out of metaphysical limits and the way which leads to the level of transpersonal states of mind. 5. Stein reproaches transcendentalism in loss of the world and she ignores the changes in Husserl's world outlook, his transcendental turn and genealogy of the trustworthy acquaintance with the world. An empathy, as a model of extrapolation of the principle (of to be get used to the experience of the Other onto mystical act of overcoming of subject

  16. Contribution to the study of corrosion in cementitious media for the phenomenological modelling of the long-term behaviour of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'hostis, V.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the facilities and structures involved in the nuclear industry call for reinforced concrete (RC) in their construction. The corrosion of rebars is the main ageing pathology that those RC structures will meet during their service life (leading to concrete cracking and structural bearing capacity decrease). Concrete carbonation and chloride ingress in concrete are both at the origin of the active corrosion state. Passive corrosion has also to be considered in a context of very long lifetime (waste management). It is of primary importance to dispose of accurate and validated tools in order to predict where and how damages will appear. In 2002, the Commissariat a l Energie atomique decided to develop an intensive research programme dedicated to predicting the long-term behaviour of RC structures affected by steel corrosion (CIMETAL Project). This document aims at synthesize the main outputs coming from the project and exposes the scientific strategy was drawn and applied in order to predict the long-term behaviour of RCs that were mainly exposed to carbonation conditions. That strategy includes experiments for the characterisation of 'short-term' and 'long-term' corrosion layouts and processes, as well as modelling stages, with a view not only to predicting the behaviour of RC, but also to pointing out phenomena that are further verified experimentally. (author)

  17. Phase separation and second-order phase transition in the phenomenological model for a Coulomb-frustrated two-dimensional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamin, R. F.; Shaposhnikova, T. S.; Kabanov, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    We have considered the model of the phase transition of the second order for the Coulomb frustrated 2D charged system. The coupling of the order parameter with the charge was considered as the local temperature. We have found that in such a system, an appearance of the phase-separated state is possible. By numerical simulation, we have obtained different types ("stripes," "rings," "snakes") of phase-separated states and determined the parameter ranges for these states. Thus the system undergoes a series of phase transitions when the temperature decreases. First, the system moves from the homogeneous state with a zero order parameter to the phase-separated state with two phases in one of which the order parameter is zero and, in the other, it is nonzero (τ >0 ). Then a first-order transition occurs to another phase-separated state, in which both phases have different and nonzero values of the order parameter (for τ <0 ). Only a further decrease of temperature leads to a transition to a homogeneous ordered state.

  18. Performance Implications of Business Model Change: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Poláková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in performance level introduced by the change of business model. The selected case is a small family business undergoing through substantial changes in reflection of structural changes of its markets. The authors used the concept of business model to describe value creation processes within the selected family business and by contrasting the differences between value creation processes before and after the change introduced they prove the role of business model as the performance differentiator. This is illustrated with the use of business model canvas constructed on the basis interviews, observations and document analysis. The two business model canvases allow for explanation of cause-and-effect relationships within the business leading to change in performance. The change in the performance is assessed by financial analysis of the business conducted over the period of 2006–2012 demonstrates changes in performance (comparing development of ROA, ROE and ROS having their lowest levels before the change of business model was introduced, growing after the introduction of the change, as well as the activity indicators with similar developments of the family business. The described case study contributes to the concept of business modeling with the arguments supporting its value as strategic tool facilitating decisions related to value creation within the business.

  19. Conducting phenomenological research: Rationalising the methods and rigour of the Phenomenology of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti-Ibarrondo, Begoña; Jordán-Sierra, José Antonio; Díez-Del-Corral, Mercedes P; Arantzamendi, María

    2018-03-15

    To offer a complete outlook in a readable easy way of van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological method to nurses interested in undertaking phenomenological research. Phenomenology, as research methodology, involves a certain degree of complexity. It is difficult to identify a single article or author which sets out the didactic guidelines that specifically guide research of this kind. In this context, the theoretical-practical view of Max van Manen's Phenomenology of Practice may be seen as a rigorous guide and directive on which researchers may find support to undertake phenomenological research. Discussion paper. This discussion paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory. Our central sources of data have been the books and writings of Max van Manen and his website "Phenomenologyonline". The principal methods of the hermeneutic-phenomenological method are addressed and explained providing an enriching overview of phenomenology of practice. A proposal is made for the way the suggestions made by van Manen might be organised for use with the methods involved in Phenomenology of Practice: Social sciences, philosophical and philological methods. Thereby, nurse researchers interested in conducting phenomenological research may find a global outlook and support to understand and conduct this type of inquiry which draws on the art. The approach in this article may help nurse scholars and researchers reach an overall, encompassing perspective of the main methods and activities involved in doing phenomenological research. Nurses interested in doing phenomenology of practice are expected to commit with reflection and writing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. New and Improved Superstring Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in string theory have important implications for cosmology. Topics discussed here are inflation, the cosmological constant, smoothing of cosmological singularities, and dark matter from parallel universes. Talk presented at the International Workshop on Particle Physics and the Early Universe (COSMO-98), 15-20 Nov, Asilomar, Monterey, CA.

  1. Meridional Flow Observations: Implications for the current Flux Transport Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernandez, Irene; Komm, Rudolf; Kholikov, Shukur; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Meridional circulation has become a key element in the solar dynamo flux transport models. Available helioseismic observations from several instruments, Taiwan Oscillation Network (TON), Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), have made possible a continuous monitoring of the solar meridional flow in the subphotospheric layers for the last solar cycle, including the recent extended minimum. Here we review some of the meridional circulation observations using local helioseismology techniques and relate them to magnetic flux transport models.

  2. MULTIFRACTAL SOLAR EUV INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Rivera, Y. J. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Jennings, P. J. [5174 S. Slauson Avenue, Culver City, CA 90230 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F., E-mail: ana.cadavid@csun.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/ Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15–45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  3. Multifractal Solar EUV Intensity Fluctuations and their Implications for Coronal Heating Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Rivera, Y. J.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jennings, P. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15-45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  4. GUT models at current and future hadron colliders and implications to dark matter searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Arcadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Grand Unified Theories (GUT offer an elegant and unified description of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions at high energy scales. A phenomenological and exciting possibility to grasp GUT is to search for TeV scale observables arising from Abelian groups embedded in GUT constructions. That said, we use dilepton data (ee and μμ that has been proven to be a golden channel for a wide variety of new phenomena expected in theories beyond the Standard Model to probe GUT-inspired models. Since heavy dilepton resonances feature high signal selection efficiencies and relatively well-understood backgrounds, stringent and reliable bounds can be placed on the mass of the Z′ gauge boson arising in such theories. In this work, we obtain 95% C.L. limits on the Z′ mass for several GUT-models using current and future proton–proton colliders with s=13 TeV,33 TeV,and100 TeV, and put them into perspective with dark matter searches in light of the next generation of direct detection experiments.

  5. Visualizations and Mental Models - The Educational Implications of GEOWALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.; Kendeou, P.

    2003-12-01

    Work in the earth sciences has outlined many of the faulty beliefs that students possess concerning particular geological systems and processes. Evidence from educational and cognitive psychology has demonstrated that students often have difficulty overcoming their na‹ve beliefs about science. Prior knowledge is often remarkably resistant to change, particularly when students' existing mental models for geological principles may be faulty or inaccurate. Figuring out how to help students revise their mental models to include appropriate information is a major challenge. Up until this point, research has tended to focus on whether 2-dimensional computer visualizations are useful tools for helping students develop scientifically correct models. Research suggests that when students are given the opportunity to use dynamic computer-based visualizations, they are more likely to recall the learned information, and are more likely to transfer that knowledge to novel settings. Unfortunately, 2-dimensional visualization systems are often inadequate representations of the material that educators would like students to learn. For example, a 2-dimensional image of the Earth's surface does not adequately convey particular features that are critical for visualizing the geological environment. This may limit the models that students can construct following these visualizations. GEOWALL is a stereo projection system that has attempted to address this issue. It can display multidimensional static geologic images and dynamic geologic animations in a 3-dimensional format. Our current research examines whether multidimensional visualization systems such as GEOWALL may facilitate learning by helping students to develop more complex mental models. This talk will address some of the cognitive issues that influence the construction of mental models, and the difficulty of updating existing mental models. We will also discuss our current work that seeks to examine whether GEOWALL is an

  6. A Phenomenological Research Study of the Experience of Teachers in the Virgin Islands Teacher Enhancement in Mathematics and Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurland, Karen C.

    The purpose of conducting this study was to describe the experience of elementary teachers in a mathematics and science staff development project in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The focus of this study was to describe the meaning teachers attribute to their experience in this three year project, in which many of the national mathematics and science reform efforts were implemented. A phenomenological approach was used in order to develop a complete picture of the teachers' experiences. Data collection consisted of interviews with seven elementary teachers. The data were subjective descriptions of the teachers pertaining to the initial summer institute, the follow-up sessions, and the new innovative methods. The transcendental phenomenological model was used. The textural and structural themes included enhanced learning and changes in teaching practice, and interactions with colleagues. From these themes, individual and composite textual descriptions of the experience of the teacher participants were developed. The synthesis of those descriptions illuminated the meanings and essence of their lived experience. The findings indicate that the essence of the experience was the development of a positive attitude towards the teaching of math and science. The teachers gained confidence in their ability to motivate students with the inquiry method and taught more math and science. The implications for the Virgin Islands Department of Education include establishing a partnership with the local university to offer staff development training in mathematics and science and to conduct evaluations of its training efforts.

  7. Phenomenology of hoarding in children with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The perceptions of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Fiona A; Moulding, Richard; McGillivray, Jane A

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with ADHD and comorbid hoarding disorder are vulnerable to severe consequences from hoarding symptoms. Despite this, and the early onset of hoarding disorder, the nature of hoarding symptoms in children with comorbid ADHD is unknown. We therefore explored the phenomenology of hoarding symptoms among ten 8-12year olds with ADHD and clinically significant hoarding symptoms through parental perceptions. Parents completed in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Six superordinate themes were identified: emotional distress; parental avoidance and accommodating behaviors; family impacts of hoarding; excessive acquisition and saving; executive functioning; parental insight and intervention. In contrast to previous suggestions that emotional distress was not associated with hoarding in ADHD, these findings highlight that emotional distress appeared to be core to the hoarding disorder profile of the present sample of children with ADHD. This has important implications for health practitioners who may consider conceptualizing, assessing, and treating hoarding symptoms in children with comorbid ADHD using a cognitive behavioral model of hoarding disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Dympna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499 were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C, height (H, BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing, and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p 0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6 and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3, indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross

  9. The clinical implications of mouse models of enhanced anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Simone B; Landgraf, Rainer; Singewald, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Mice are increasingly overtaking the rat model organism in important aspects of anxiety research, including drug development. However, translating the results obtained in mouse studies into information that can be applied in clinics remains challenging. One reason may be that most of the studies so far have used animals displaying ‘normal’ anxiety rather than ‘psychopathological’ animal models with abnormal (elevated) anxiety, which more closely reflect core features and sensitivities to therapeutic interventions of human anxiety disorders, and which would, thus, narrow the translational gap. Here, we discuss manipulations aimed at persistently enhancing anxiety-related behavior in the laboratory mouse using phenotypic selection, genetic techniques and/or environmental manipulations. It is hoped that such models with enhanced construct validity will provide improved ways of studying the neurobiology and treatment of pathological anxiety. Examples of findings from mouse models of enhanced anxiety-related behavior will be discussed, as well as their relation to findings in anxiety disorder patients regarding neuroanatomy, neurobiology, genetic involvement and epigenetic modifications. Finally, we highlight novel targets for potential anxiolytic pharmacotherapeutics that have been established with the help of research involving mice. Since the use of psychopathological mouse models is only just beginning to increase, it is still unclear as to the extent to which such approaches will enhance the success rate of drug development in translating identified therapeutic targets into clinical trials and, thus, helping to introduce the next anxiolytic class of drugs. PMID:21901080

  10. New Cosmological Model and Its Implications on Observational Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahovic Branislav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of ΛCDM cosmology works impressively well and with the concept of inflation it explains the universe after the time of decoupling. However there are still a few concerns; after much effort there is no detection of dark matter and there are significant problems in the theoretical description of dark energy. We will consider a variant of the cosmological spherical shell model, within FRW formalism and will compare it with the standard ΛCDM model. We will show that our new topological model satisfies cosmological principles and is consistent with all observable data, but that it may require new interpretation for some data. Considered will be constraints imposed on the model, as for instance the range for the size and allowed thickness of the shell, by the supernovae luminosity distance and CMB data. In this model propagation of the light is confined along the shell, which has as a consequence that observed CMB originated from one point or a limited space region. It allows to interpret the uniformity of the CMB without inflation scenario. In addition this removes any constraints on the uniformity of the universe at the early stage and opens a possibility that the universe was not uniform and that creation of galaxies and large structures is due to the inhomogeneities that originated in the Big Bang.

  11. Receiving group clinical supervision: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claire

    This study examined the process of group supervision as experienced by one team of biofeedback therapists working in the south of England. A phenomenological study was undertaken to examine the team's perceptions of attending group supervision over time. Ten one-to-one in-depth interviews were conducted, six of which were with biofeedback therapists currently receiving supervision, three with nurses who used to receive this supervision and one interview with the supervisor. A four-stage model detailing how supervisees' experiences changed as a consequence of continued group supervision was developed. Study data revealed how this process allowed the biofeedback therapists to examine their clinical interventions and align their approach and perspective alongside other team members. This was a valuable and safe way of learning 'on the job' for the newer members of the team. The opportunity for free-thinking and reflection on practice supported clinical decision-making and therapeutic nursing. The more experienced supervisees demonstrated how their continued attendance of the group supervision sessions not only confirmed their expertise in role, but also facilitated their colleagues' development, which enhanced role satisfaction. The data also indicated some of the essential supervisory features of this process.

  12. Constrained Supersymmetric Flipped SU(5) GUT Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, $M_{in}$, above the GUT scale, $M_{GUT}$. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino and the lighter stau is sensitive to $M_{in}$, as is the relationship between the neutralino mass and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons. For these reasons, prominent features in generic $(m_{1/2}, m_0)$ planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to $M_{in}$, as we illustrate for several cases with tan(beta)...

  13. Phenomenology of Flavon Fields at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumura, Koji; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2009-11-01

    We study low energy constraints from flavour violating processes, production and decay at the LHC of a scalar field φ (flavon) associated to the breaking of a non supersymmetric Abelian family symmetry at the TeV scale. This symmetry is constrained to reproduce fermion masses and mixing, up to O(1) coefficients. The non-supersymmetric gauged U(1) models considered are severely restricted by cancellation of anomalies and LEP bounds on contact interactions, consequently its phenomenology is out of the LHC reach. We therefore introduce an effective U(1) which is not gauged and it is broken explicitly by a CP odd term at the TeV scale. This help us to explore flavour violating processes, production and decay at the LHC for these kind of light scalars. In this context we first study the constraints on the flavon mass and its vacuum expectation value from low energy flavour changing processes such as μ→ eγ. We find that a flavon of about m φ φ >∼ m t , and τμ-bar for m t , which could be effectively useful to detect flavons. (author)

  14. Solar Energetic Particle Events: Phenomenology and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, S. B.; Patrick, G. J.

    2003-04-01

    Solar energetic particle events can cause major disruptions to the operation of spacecraft in earth orbit and outside the earth's magnetosphere and have to be considered for EVA and other manned activities. They may also have an effect on radiation doses received by the crew flying in high altitude aircraft over the polar regions. The occurrence of these events has been assumed to be random, but there would appear to be some solar cycle dependency with a higher annual fluence occuring during a 7 year period, 2 years before and 4 years after the year of solar maximum. Little has been done to try to predict these events in real-time with nearly all of the work concentrating on statistical modelling. Currently our understanding of the causes of these events is not good. But what are the prospects for prediction? Can artificial intelligence techniques be used to predict them in the absence of a more complete understanding of the physics involved? The paper examines the phenomenology of the events, briefly reviews the results of neural network prediction techniques and discusses the conjecture that the underlying physical processes might be related to self-organised criticality and turblent MHD flows.

  15. Therapeutic Implications from Sensitivity Analysis of Tumor Angiogenesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Enderling, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic cancer treatments induce tumor starvation and regression by targeting the tumor vasculature that delivers oxygen and nutrients. Mathematical models prove valuable tools to study the proof-of-concept, efficacy and underlying mechanisms of such treatment approaches. The effects of parameter value uncertainties for two models of tumor development under angiogenic signaling and anti-angiogenic treatment are studied. Data fitting is performed to compare predictions of both models and to obtain nominal parameter values for sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the success of different cancer treatments depends on tumor size and tumor intrinsic parameters. In particular, we show that tumors with ample vascular support can be successfully targeted with conventional cytotoxic treatments. On the other hand, tumors with curtailed vascular support are not limited by their growth rate and therefore interruption of neovascularization emerges as the most promising treatment target. PMID:25785600

  16. Force model for laparoscopic graspers: implications for virtual simulator design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha Wils, K; Devasahayam, Suresh R; Manivannan, M; Mathew, George

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic graspers limit haptic perception, which in turn leads to tissue damage. Using virtual simulators to train surgeons in handling these instruments would ensure safer grasp. The design of a laparoscopic virtual simulator with force feedback depends on effective implementation of the grasper force model. To develop a laparoscopic grasper tip force model theoretically from grasper mechanics and validate the same experimentally during laparoscopic pinching. We developed a force model for double and single jaw action graspers using grasper mechanics. For experimental validation, the handle angle and the forces at the tip and the handle of the instrumented graspers during laparoscopic pinching of porcine abdominal tissues were measured. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between experimental and calculated tip force was calculated. Excellent ICC (ICC ≥0.8, pvirtual simulator with force feedback and also for better ergonomic design of laparoscopic graspers.

  17. MMI: Multimodel inference or models with management implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a variety of regression modeling strategies for analyzing observational data associated with typical wildlife studies, including all subsets and stepwise regression, a single full model, and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC)-based multimodel inference. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, we suggest that there is no unique best way to analyze data. Further, we argue that, although multimodel inference can be useful in natural resource management, the importance of considering causality and accurately estimating effect sizes is greater than simply considering a variety of models. Determining causation is far more valuable than simply indicating how the response variable and explanatory variables covaried within a data set, especially when the data set did not arise from a controlled experiment. Understanding the causal mechanism will provide much better predictions beyond the range of data observed. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  19. Oil shocks in New Keynesian models: Positive and normative implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian

    Chapter 1 investigates optimal monetary policy response towards oil shocks in a New Keynesian model. We find that optimal policy, in general, becomes contractionary in response to an adverse oil shock. However, the optimal policy rule and the inflation-output trade-off depend on the specific structure of the model. The benchmark economy consists of a flexible-price energy sector and a sticky-price manufacturing sector where energy is used as an intermediate input. We show that optimal policy is to stabilize the sticky (core) price level. We then show that after incorporating a less oil-dependent sticky-price service sector, the model exhibits a trade-off in stabilizing prices and output gaps in the different sticky-price sectors. It predicts that central bank should not try to stabilize the core price level, and the economy will experience higher inflation and rising output gaps, even if central banks respond optimally. Chapter 2 addresses the observed volatility and persistence of real exchange rates and the terms of trade. It contributes to the literature with a quantitative study on the U.S. and Canada. A two-country New Keynesian model consisting of traded, non-traded, and oil production sectors is proposed to examine the time series properties of the real exchange rate, the terms of trade and the real oil price. We find that after incorporating several realistic features (namely oil price shocks, sector specific labor, non-traded goods, asymmetric pricing decisions of exporters and asymmetric consumer preferences over tradables), the benchmark model broadly matches the volatilities of the relative prices and some business cycle correlations. The model matches the data more closely after adding real demand shocks, suggesting their importance in explaining the relative price movements between the US and Canada. Chapter 3 explores several sources and transmission channels of international relative price movements. In particular, we elaborate on the role of

  20. Phenomenology and qualitative research: combining the transcendetal orientation of phenomenology with the diversities of lived experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    In different ways philosophers have emphasized that phenomenology aims at accounting for our capacity for being conscious – for example by aiming at describing the structure of subjective experiences. Accordingly, phenomenology involves a transcendental orientation. In the domain of qualitative r...... of dancing, martial arts and elite sports....

  1. Modeling Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe: demographic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galeta, P.; Sládek, Vladimír; Sosna, D.; Brůžek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 104-115 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0589 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : population projections * stochastic modeling * total fertility rate * growth rate Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2011

  2. Reconstructing Holocene geomagnetic field variation: new methods, models and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Holme, Richard; Korte, Monika; Suttie, Neil; Hill, Mimi

    2014-07-01

    Reconstructions of the Holocene geomagnetic field and how it varies on millennial timescales are important for understanding processes in the core but may also be used to study long-term solar-terrestrial relationships and as relative dating tools for geological and archaeological archives. Here, we present a new family of spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models spanning the past 9000 yr based on magnetic field directions and intensity stored in archaeological artefacts, igneous rocks and sediment records. A new modelling strategy introduces alternative data treatments with a focus on extracting more information from sedimentary data. To reduce the influence of a few individual records all sedimentary data are resampled in 50-yr bins, which also means that more weight is given to archaeomagnetic data during the inversion. The sedimentary declination data are treated as relative values and adjusted iteratively based on prior information. Finally, an alternative way of treating the sediment data chronologies has enabled us to both assess the likely range of age uncertainties, often up to and possibly exceeding 500 yr and adjust the timescale of each record based on comparisons with predictions from a preliminary model. As a result of the data adjustments, power has been shifted from quadrupole and octupole to higher degrees compared with previous Holocene geomagnetic field models. We find evidence for dominantly westward drift of northern high latitude high intensity flux patches at the core mantle boundary for the last 4000 yr. The new models also show intermittent occurrence of reversed flux at the edge of or inside the inner core tangent cylinder, possibly originating from the equator.

  3. An expansion for Neutrino Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We develop a formalism for constructing the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix and neutrino masses using an expansion that originates when a sequence of heavy right handed neutrinos are integrated out, assuming a seesaw mechanism for the origin of neutrino masses. The expansion establishes relationships between the structure of the PMNS matrix and the mass differences of neutrinos, and allows symmetry implications for measured deviations from tri-bimaximal form to be studied systematically. Our approach does not depend on choosing the rotation between the weak and mass eigenstates of the charged lepton fields to be diagonal. We comment on using this expansion to examine the symmetry implications of the recent results from the Daya-Bay collaboration reporting the discovery of a non zero value for theta_{13}, indicating a deviation from tri-bimaximal form, with a significance of 5.2 sigma.

  4. On the Baltic Sea Response to Climate Change: Model Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Leppaeranta, Matti

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Baltic Sea to climate change is reviewed on the basis of recent model studies. In general, the presently available models indicate that the Baltic Sea is a most sensitive system to climate change, particularly in air temperature, wind, fresh water inflow and the barotropic forcing in the entrance area. Available scenarios for ice conditions and climate warming around year 2100 show 2-3 months' shortening of the ice season in the Bothnian Bay and about 0.4 m decrease in the maximum annual ice thickness. Corresponding scenarios for climate cooling show 1-2 months' longer ice season in the Bothnian Bay and 0.2 - 0.5 m increase in the maximum annual ice thickness

  5. Phenomenological theory of size effects in ultrafine ferroelectric particles (PbTiO3-type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B.; Bursill, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed and discussed to study the size effects on phase transitions in PbTiO 3 -type ferroelectric particles. This model, by taking size effects on the phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire coefficients into consideration, can successfully explain the size effects on Curie temperature, c/a ratio, thermal and dielectric properties of lead-titanate-type ferroelectric particles. Theoretical and experimental results for PbTiO 3 fine particles are also compared and discussed. The relationship between the current model and the model of Zhong et al (Phys. Rev. B 50, 698 (1994)) is also presented. (authors)

  6. Self-esteem: models and implications for management

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Manfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis presents a literature review of self-esteem, primarily as it relates to organizations and management. Based on this literature review, self-esteem is defined as the emotional valuation individuals have of themselves and the degree of certainty of this valuation. Several models of self-esteem are presented. The relationship of coping and avoidance to self-esteem is considered. Coping is presented as being one of the primary so...

  7. Time-symmetric universe model and its observational implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamase, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1987-08-01

    A time-symmetric closed-universe model is discussed in terms of the radiation arrow of time. The time symmetry requires the occurrence of advanced waves in the recontracting phase of the Universe. We consider the observational consequences of such advanced waves, and it is shown that a test observer in the expanding phase can observe a time-reversed image of a source of radiation in the future recontracting phase.

  8. A time-symmetric Universe model and its observational implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1987-01-01

    A time-symmetric closed-universe model is discussed in terms of the radiation arrow of time. The time symmetry requires the occurrence of advanced waves in the recontracting phase of the Universe. The observational consequences of such advanced waves are considered, and it is shown that a test observer in the expanding phase can observe a time-reversed image of a source of radiation in the future recontracting phase

  9. A Phenomenological Model of Soil Breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    predicts a phenom- enological dependence of V0 and tB of Vot0B n-os hr i prxmtl 3/8. 1. CORONA ATTACHMENT In shot 302 (Exp. A) the voltage on...published, 1. Smiith predicts a phenom- enological dependence among streamer closure distance d(cm) between a high voltage electrode and a ground plane, time

  10. An overview of interpretive phenomenology as a research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Dympna; Cooney, Adeline; Dowling, Maura; Murphy, Kathy; Sixsmith, Jane

    2013-07-01

    To provide an overview of interpretive phenomenology. Phenomenology is a philosophy and a research approach. As a research approach, it is used extensively in nursing and 'interpretive' phenomenology is becoming increasingly popular. Online and manual searches of relevant books and electronic databases were undertaken. Literature review on papers on phenomenology, research and nursing (written in English) was undertaken. A brief outline of the origins of the concept, and the influence of 'descriptive' phenomenology on the development of interpretive phenomenology is provided. Its aim, origins and philosophical basis, including the core concepts of dasein, fore-structure/pre-understanding, world view existential themes and the hermeneutic circle, are described and the influence of these concepts in phenomenological nursing research is illustrated. This paper will assist readers when deciding whether interpretive phenomenology is appropriate for their research projects. This paper adds to the discussion on interpretive phenomenology and helps inform readers of its use as a research methodology.

  11. The current dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry: a problematic misunderstanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abettan, Camille

    2015-11-01

    A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

  12. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  13. Phenomenology as a resource for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, Havi

    2012-04-01

    Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical approach, phenomenology, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a phenomenological toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of phenomenological reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using phenomenological concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of phenomenology.

  14. modelling of directed evolution: Implications for experimental design and stepwise evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wedge , David C.; Rowe , William; Kell , Douglas B.; Knowles , Joshua

    2009-01-01

    In silico modelling of directed evolution: Implications for experimental design and stepwise evolution correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +441613065145. (Wedge, David C.) (Wedge, David C.) Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester - 131 Princess Street--> , Manchester--> , M1 7ND--> - UNITED KINGDOM (Wedge, David C.) UNITED KINGDOM (Wedge, David C.) Man...

  15. Implications of Building Information Modeling on Interior Design Education: The Impact on Teaching Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roehl, MFA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, major shifts occur in design processes effecting business practices for industries involved with designing and delivering the built environment. These changing conditions are a direct result of industry adoption of relatively new technologies called BIM or Building Information Modeling. This review of literature examines implications of these changing processes on interior design education.

  16. The Implications of Selective Learning Models on Teaching Junior High School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Roosevelt L.

    1978-01-01

    Providing practitioners with synopses, illustrations based on classroom experiences, and research findings, this article analyzes the learning models of Jean Piaget, Robert Gagne, Robert Karplus, David Ausubel, and Jerome Bruner in terms of the implications for teaching junior high school mathematics. (JC)

  17. Models of Parenting: Implications for Adolescent Well-Being within Different Types of Family Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucksmith, J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines parenting models and parent-child relationships from early to middle adolescence. Focuses on implications for adolescent functioning, including school integration and psychological well being. Results identify four distinct types of parenting styles characterized by different degrees of acceptance and control of young people's behavior.…

  18. Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Kakizaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be a good thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. In this paper, we focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino LSP is of the order of GeV so the sneutrino dark matter is still viable complying with the limits by current and near future direct detection experiments. We investigate phenomenological constraints in the parameter space of the models, as well as the vacuum stability bound. Finally, we show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.

  19. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  20. What a public-relations-model regarding radioactive waste implicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)]|[Energy Research Center Wakasa Bay, Fukui (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of public attitude to radioactive waste with time was investigated by using a mathematical model which was developed for estimating the extent of attitude change, being based on the assumption that the change of public attitude to a certain subject is caused by the information environment mainly formed by the newsmedia. Investigations were also made on the extent the public relations activity can contribute to the change of public opinion for the radioactive waste, and on the method of assortment and execution of various types of activity which brings the maximum change of attitude under a given condition of budget.

  1. Implications of a Light Higgs in Composite Models

    CERN Document Server

    Redi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We study the Higgs mass in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness, extending the results of Ref. [1] to different representations of the composite sector for SO(5)/SO(4) and to the coset SO(6)/SO(5). For a given tuning we find in general a strong correlation between the mass of the top partners and the Higgs mass, akin to the one in supersymmetry. If the theory is natural a Higgs mass of 125 GeV typically requires fermionic partners below TeV which might be within the reach of the present run of LHC. A discussion of CP properties of both cosets is also presented.

  2. Development and implication of a human-volcano system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Monreal, Matthias; Sartohadi, Junun

    2014-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the complexity of human-environment systems, models help to define, quantify, describe, or simulate complex interactions. With regards to the human-volcano system, we develop a conceptual model in order to assist analysis of its two basic elements, the physical and the social environment. A field survey of the human environment interaction of two of the most active volcanic areas in Indonesia (Mt. Merapi and Mt. Bromo) and a corresponding literature review from other case studies was carried out. A differentiated understanding of human interaction with hazard potential elements within the human-volcano system is the main focus of the model development. We classified volcanic processes and effects as three pairs of dichotomies: positive or negative impacts, on society or environment in an indirect or direct way. Each volcanically induced process or effect characterized accordingly leads to eight distinct process/effect classes. They are positive direct effects on society (PDS); positive direct effects on natural resources (PDN); positive indirect effects on society (PIS); positive indirect effects on natural resources (PIN); negative direct effects on society (NDS); negative direct effects on natural resources (NDN); negative indirect effects on society (NIS) and lastly negative indirect effects on natural resources (NIN). Such differentiated view of volcanic process/effects bears several advantages. First, whereas volcanic processes have hitherto been viewed as hazards only, it becomes possible now to describe a particular process/effect in a particular context as negative or positive. Secondly, such a categorization makes it possible to account for processes of the human-volcano system that do not have a direct physical expression but are of socio-cultural relevance. Thirdly, the greater degree of differentiation that is made possible when evaluating volcanic processes has significant repercussions on the way volcanic risk must be

  3. Implications of the hospitalist model for medical students' education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, K E; Wachter, R M

    2001-04-01

    At many academic health centers, medical students in internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics are working with a new form of attending physician, the hospitalist. Although a growing literature demonstrates the benefits of hospitalists for patients and housestaff, the influence of hospitalists on students has been underemphasized. Advantages of the hospitalist model for students can include hospitalists' expertise in general inpatient medicine, their availability to teach throughout the day, and their role-modelpan>ing of the provision of high-quality and efficient care. However, the change in the ward attending workforce from non-hospitalist generalists, subspecialists, and biomedical researchers to generalist-hospitalists potentially limits students' exposure to the broad range of career opportunities the former group represents. The authors propose a research agenda to investigate the educational impact of the hospitalist model, suggest strategies to mitigate the limitations in students' exposures to subspecialty faculty, and recommend professional development in teaching for hospitalists to ensure that student education thrives in this new environment of inpatient medicine.

  4. Annotation modeling with formal ontologies: Implications for informal ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, L. I.; Freemantle, J. R.; Lederman, J. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge representation is increasingly recognized as an important component of any cyberinfrastructure (CI). In order to expediently address scientific needs, geoscientists continue to leverage the standards and implementations emerging from the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Web effort. In an ongoing investigation, previous efforts have been aimed towards the development of a semantic framework for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP). In contrast to other efforts, the approach taken has emphasized the development of informal ontologies, i.e., ontologies that are derived from the successive extraction of Resource Description Framework (RDF) representations from eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and then Web Ontology Language (OWL) from RDF. To better understand the challenges and opportunities for incorporating annotations into the emerging semantic framework, the present effort focuses on knowledge-representation modeling involving formal ontologies. Although OWL's internal mechanism for annotation is constrained to ensure computational completeness and decidability, externally originating annotations based on the XML Pointer Language (XPointer) can easily violate these constraints. Thus, the effort of modeling with formal ontologies allows for recommendations applicable to the case of incorporating annotations into informal ontologies.

  5. Implications of Information Theory for Computational Modeling of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Wibral, Michael; Phillips, William A

    2017-10-01

    Information theory provides a formal framework within which information processing and its disorders can be described. However, information theory has rarely been applied to modeling aspects of the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. The goal of this article is to highlight the benefits of an approach based on information theory, including its recent extensions, for understanding several disrupted neural goal functions as well as related cognitive and symptomatic phenomena in schizophrenia. We begin by demonstrating that foundational concepts from information theory-such as Shannon information, entropy, data compression, block coding, and strategies to increase the signal-to-noise ratio-can be used to provide novel understandings of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and metrics to evaluate their integrity. We then describe more recent developments in information theory, including the concepts of infomax, coherent infomax, and coding with synergy, to demonstrate how these can be used to develop computational models of schizophrenia-related failures in the tuning of sensory neurons, gain control, perceptual organization, thought organization, selective attention, context processing, predictive coding, and cognitive control. Throughout, we demonstrate how disordered mechanisms may explain both perceptual/cognitive changes and symptom emergence in schizophrenia. Finally, we demonstrate that there is consistency between some information-theoretic concepts and recent discoveries in neurobiology, especially involving the existence of distinct sites for the accumulation of driving input and contextual information prior to their interaction. This convergence can be used to guide future theory, experiment, and treatment development.

  6. Husserlian phenomenology and nursing in a unitary-transformative paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    . The phenomenological methodology according to Spiegelberg is described, and exemplified through the author's ongoing study. Different critiques of phenomenology and phenomenological reports are mentioned, and the phenomenological description is illustrated as the metaphor «using a handful of colors». The metaphor...... is used to give phenomenological researchers and readers an expanding reality picturing, including memories and hopes and not only a reality of the five senses. It is concluded that phenomenology as a world view and methodology can contribute to nursing research and strengthen the identity of nursing...

  7. The Use of Phenomenology in Nursing Education: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derico, Sherika P

    The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize research to address two questions about phenomenology in nursing education: How has Husserlian phenomenology been used in nursing education? What is the importance of Husserlian phenomenology in nursing education? Phenomenology is utilized in nursing education to explore the experiences of faculty and students. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative method guided the analysis of the research. Nine articles meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Studies addressed faculty student experiences. The reviewed research revealed that phenomenology is used in nursing education to understand, identify, describe, and explore various phenomena. New knowledge gained from this integrative review about phenomenology is beneficial to nursing education.

  8. Mathematical and information-geometrical entropy for phenomenological Fourier and non-Fourier heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2017-09-01

    The second law of thermodynamics governs the direction of heat transport, which provides the foundational definition of thermodynamic Clausius entropy. The definitions of entropy are further generalized for the phenomenological heat transport models in the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics and extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). In this work, entropic functions from mathematics are combined with phenomenological heat conduction models and connected to several information-geometrical conceptions. The long-time behaviors of these mathematical entropies exhibit a wide diversity and physical pictures in phenomenological heat conductions, including the tendency to thermal equilibrium, and exponential decay of nonequilibrium and asymptotics, which build a bridge between the macroscopic and microscopic modelings. In contrast with the EIT entropies, the mathematical entropies expressed in terms of the internal energy function can avoid singularity paired with nonpositive local absolute temperature caused by non-Fourier heat conduction models.

  9. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L

    2009-04-01

    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

  10. Modeling seed dispersal distances: implications for transgenic Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G; LaDeau, Shannon L; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel G

    2006-02-01

    Predicting forest-tree seed dispersal across a landscape is useful for estimating gene flow from genetically engineered (GE) or transgenic trees. The question of biocontainment has yet to be resolved, although field-trial permits for transgenic forest trees are on the rise. Most current field trials in the United States occur in the Southeast where Pinus taeda L., an indigenous species, is the major timber commodity. Seed dispersal distances were simulated using a model where the major determinants were: (1) forest canopy height at seed release, (2) terminal velocity of the seeds, (3) absolute seed release, and (4) turbulent-flow statistics, all of which were measured or determined within a P. taeda plantation established from seeds collected from wild forest-tree stands at the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina, USA. In plantations aged 16 and 25 years our model results showed that most of the seeds fell within local-neighborhood dispersal distances, with estimates ranging from 0.05 to 0.14 km from the source. A fraction of seeds was uplifted above the forest canopy and moved via the long-distance dispersal (LDD) process as far as 11.9-33.7 km. Out of 10(5) seeds produced per hectare per year, roughly 440 seeds were predicted to be uplifted by vertical eddies above the forest canopy and transported via LDD. Of these, 70 seeds/ha traveled distances in excess of 1 km from the source, a distance too great to serve as a biocontainment zone. The probability of LDD occurrence of transgenic conifer seeds at distances exceeding 1 km approached 100%.

  11. Heidegger’s phenomenology of the invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej SERAFIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin Heidegger has retrospectively characterized his philosophy as “phenomenology of the invisible”. This paradoxical formula suggests that the aim of his thinking was to examine the origin of the phenomena. Furthermore, Heidegger has also stated that his philosophy is ultimately motivated by a theological interest, namely the question of God’s absence. Following the guiding thread of those remarks, this essay analyzes the essential traits of Heidegger’s thought by interpreting them as an attempt to develop a phenomenology of the invisible. Heidegger’s attitude towards physics and metaphysics, his theory of truth, his reading of Aristotle, his concept of Dasein, his understanding of nothingness are all situated within the problematic context of the relation between the invisible and the revealed. Heidegger’s thought is thereby posited at the point of intersection of phenomenology, ontology, and theology.

  12. Some thoughts on phenomenology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Phenomenology in medicine's main contribution is to present a first-person narrative of illness, in an effort to aid medicine in reaching an accurate disease diagnosis and establishing a personal relationship with patients whose lived experience changes dramatically when severe disease and disabling condition is confirmed. Once disease is diagnosed, the lived experience of illness is reconstructed into a living-with-disease narrative that medicine's biological approach has widely neglected. Key concepts like health, sickness, illness, disease and the clinical encounter are being diversely and ambiguously used, leading to distortions in socio-medical practices such as medicalization, pharmaceuticalization, emphasis on surveillance medicine. Current definitions of these concepts as employed in phenomenology of medicine are revised, concluding that more stringent semantics ought to reinforce an empirical phenomenological or postphenomenological approach.

  13. Kriegel on the Phenomenology of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    I focus on Uriah Kriegel's account of conative phenomenology. I agree with Kriegel's argument that some conative phenomenology is primitive in that some conative phenomenal properties cannot be reduced to another kind of property (e.g., perceptual or cognitive). I disagree, however, with Kriegel's specific characterization of the properties in question. Kriegel argues that the experience of deciding-and-then-trying is the core of conative phenomenology. I argue, however, that the experiences of trying and acting better occupy this place. Further, I suggest that the attitudinal component of the experiences of trying and acting is not, as Kriegel suggests, best characterized in terms of commitment to the rightness or goodness of the objects of experience. Rather, I argue that the attitudinal component is best characterized in imperatival terms.

  14. Fundamental phenomenological categories of garden and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zgarbová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current scientific methods describing gardens and landscapes all over the world are not always sufficient for the purpose of deep understanding of specific and close relations between landscape/garden and its inhabitants/visitors. A new dimension of qualitative investigation of these phenomena and relations between humans and the environment, as distinguished from the common mechanistic methods, has to be acquired. While a systematic anti-mechanistic research on the interaction of humans and living space is carried out especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, Continental Europe persist mechanistic in its core.In Continental Europe phenomenology as well as hermeneutics are regarded mostly as the particular areas of abstract philosophical studies that do not refer enough to practical sciences such as, for example, garden and landscape architecture. However, there are some especially transatlantic centres of applied phenomenological research. This article examines the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach as it might be used to explore the specific field of garden and landscape issues. In the first step, the nature of hermeneutics and phenomenology as compared to the common mechanistic scientific methods is discussed and the parallels between hermeneutics and phenomenology are outlined. Then, using the phenomenological method helps we give evidence on the fundamental categories of garden and landscape. These categories, in contrast to mechanistic constructions, represent garden and landscape as they are intimately experienced by humans. The focus of this research is both methodological (it is an effort to articulate a method alternative to the objectivity and abstraction of strict science, to be used in the field of garden and landscape architecture and related areas and hermeneutical (it is an effort to achieve a deeper and profound understanding of garden and landscape as the irreplaceable base for every responsible

  15. Syndetic model of fundamental interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The standard model of quarks and leptons is extended to connect three outstanding issues in particle physics and astrophysics: (1 the absence of strong CP nonconservation, (2 the existence of dark matter, and (3 the mechanism of nonzero neutrino masses, and that of the first family of quarks and leptons, all in the context of having only one Higgs boson in a renormalizable theory. Some phenomenological implications are discussed.

  16. Phenomenology as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of phenomenology's uses in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Vicki

    2010-10-01

    In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.

  17. Habitat connectivity and ecosystem productivity: implications from a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The import of resources (food, nutrients) sustains biological production and food webs in resource-limited habitats. Resource export from donor habitats subsidizes production in recipient habitats, but the ecosystem-scale consequences of resource translocation are generally unknown. Here, I use a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model to show how dispersive connectivity between a shallow autotrophic habitat and a deep heterotrophic pelagic habitat can amplify overall system production in metazoan food webs. This result derives from the finite capacity of suspension feeders to capture and assimilate food particles: excess primary production in closed autotrophic habitats cannot be assimilated by consumers; however, if excess phytoplankton production is exported to food-limited heterotrophic habitats, it can be assimilated by zooplankton to support additional secondary production. Transport of regenerated nutrients from heterotrophic to autotrophic habitats sustains higher system primary production. These simulation results imply that the ecosystem-scale efficiency of nutrient transformation into metazoan biomass can be constrained by the rate of resource exchange across habitats and that it is optimized when the transport rate matches the growth rate of primary producers. Slower transport (i.e., reduced connectivity) leads to nutrient limitation of primary production in autotrophic habitats and food limitation of secondary production in heterotrophic habitats. Habitat fragmentation can therefore impose energetic constraints on the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The outcomes of ecosystem restoration through habitat creation will be determined by both functions provided by newly created aquatic habitats and the rates of hydraulic connectivity between them.

  18. Clinical practice models in nursing education: implication for students' mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, B; McGonagle, I; Jackson, C; Kane, R; Cabrera, E; Cooney-Miner, D; Di Cara, V; Pajnkihar, M; Prlić, N; Sigurdardottir, A K; Kekuš, D; Wells, J; Palese, A

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the process of nursing globalization, issues related to the increasing national and international mobility of student and qualified nurses are currently being debated. Identifying international differences and comparing similarities for mutual understanding, development and better harmonization of clinical training of undergraduate nursing students is recommended. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the nature of the nursing clinical practice education models adopted in different countries. A qualitative approach involving an expert panel of nurses was adopted. The Nominal Group Technique was employed to develop the initial research instrument for data collection. Eleven members of the UDINE-C network, representing institutions engaged in the process of professional nursing education and research (universities, high schools and clinical institutes), participated. Three data collection rounds were implemented. An analysis of the findings was performed, assuring rigour. Differences and homogeneity are reported and discussed regarding: (a) the clinical learning requirements across countries; (b) the prerequisites and clinical learning process patterns; and (c) the progress and final evaluation of the competencies achieved. A wider discussion is needed regarding nursing student exchange and internalization of clinical education in placements across European and non-European countries. A clear strategy for nursing education accreditation and harmonization of patterns of organization of clinical training at placements, as well as strategies of student assessment during this training, are recommended. There is also a need to develop international ethical guidelines for undergraduate nursing students gaining international experience. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  19. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  20. Towards a Relational Phenomenology of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Michael

    This article elaborates a relational phenomenology of violence. Firstly, it explores the constitution of all sense in its intrinsic relation with our embodiment and intercorporality. Secondly, it shows how this relational conception of sense and constitution paves the path for an integrative understanding of the bodily and symbolic constituents of violence. Thirdly, the author addresses the overall consequences of these reflections, thereby identifying the main characteristics of a relational phenomenology of violence. In the final part, the paper provides an exemplification of the outlined conception with regard to a concrete phenomenon of violence, i.e., slapping, and a concluding reflection upon its overall significance for research on violence.

  1. Physiological Phenomenology of Neurally-Mediated Syncope with Management Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Christoph; Tank, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, Andr?; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to lack of efficacy in recent trials, current guidelines for the treatment of neurally-mediated (vasovagal) syncope do not promote cardiac pacemaker implantation. However, the finding of asystole during head-up tilt -induced (pre)syncope may lead to excessive cardioinhibitory syncope diagnosis and treatment with cardiac pacemakers as blood pressure is often discontinuously measured. Furthermore, physicians may be more inclined to implant cardiac pacemakers in older patients. W...

  2. Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology: an implication for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papadopoulos, I Rena; Beadsmoore, Alan

    2008-12-01

    Researchers and educators are increasingly implementing qualitative research methods to investigate issues of concern and interest. Hermeneutics has risen as an option for the qualitative research paradigm particularly after the 1970s. The precedence of the sciences that have applied hermeneutics as their approach to investigation is provided with special reference to nursing. In the nursing science, hermeneutics have been used extensively as a qualitative research method to investigate a variety of issues, through the lived experiences of the participants. In this paper, we introduce important aspects of the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur and we discuss the reasons why we have applied this approach in our study titled 'Quality Nursing Care: perspectives of patients with cancer and the nursing response'. The arguments that are presented here can be generalised to fit other areas of Nursing Science. Through this paper our aim is not only to familiarise the reader with Ricoeur's work, but also to arrive at an appreciation of his philosophy as a methodological approach for future nursing research.

  3. Clinical Implications of a Phenomenological Study: Being Regarded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural messages promote putting forward one's best effort, and yet any level of success, or the effort itself, can lead to being regarded as a threat. People forming everyday social comparisons may feel threatened by those attempting to do their best, and may react to neutralize the perceived threat. The urge to undermine ...

  4. Physiological phenomenology of neurally-mediated syncope with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Christoph; Tank, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Due to lack of efficacy in recent trials, current guidelines for the treatment of neurally-mediated (vasovagal) syncope do not promote cardiac pacemaker implantation. However, the finding of asystole during head-up tilt -induced (pre)syncope may lead to excessive cardioinhibitory syncope diagnosis and treatment with cardiac pacemakers as blood pressure is often discontinuously measured. Furthermore, physicians may be more inclined to implant cardiac pacemakers in older patients. We hypothesized that true cardioinhibitory syncope in which the decrease in heart rate precedes the fall in blood pressure is a very rare finding which might explain the lack of efficacy of pacemakers in neurally-mediated syncope. We studied 173 consecutive patients referred for unexplained syncope (114 women, 59 men, 42 ± 1 years, 17 ± 2 syncopal episodes). All had experienced (pre)syncope during head-up tilt testing followed by additional lower body negative suction. We classified hemodynamic responses according to the modified Vasovagal Syncope International Study (VASIS) classification as mixed response (VASIS I), cardioinhibitory without (VASIS IIa) or with asystole (VASIS IIb), and vasodepressor (VASIS III). Then, we defined the exact temporal relationship between hypotension and bradycardia to identify patients with true cardioinhibitory syncope. Of the (pre)syncopal events during tilt testing, 63% were classified as VASIS I, 6% as VASIS IIb, 2% as VASIS IIa, and 29% as VASIS III. Cardioinhibitory responses (VASIS class II) progressively decreased from the youngest to the oldest age quartile. With more detailed temporal analysis, blood pressure reduction preceded the heart-rate decrease in all but six individuals (97%) overall and in 10 out of 11 patients with asystole (VASIS IIb). Hypotension precedes bradycardia onset during head-up tilt-induced (pre)syncope in the vast majority of patients, even in those classified as cardioinhibitory syncope according to the modified VASIS classification. Furthermore, cardioinhibitory syncope becomes less frequent with increasing age.

  5. Physiological phenomenology of neurally-mediated syncope with management implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to lack of efficacy in recent trials, current guidelines for the treatment of neurally-mediated (vasovagal syncope do not promote cardiac pacemaker implantation. However, the finding of asystole during head-up tilt -induced (presyncope may lead to excessive cardioinhibitory syncope diagnosis and treatment with cardiac pacemakers as blood pressure is often discontinuously measured. Furthermore, physicians may be more inclined to implant cardiac pacemakers in older patients. We hypothesized that true cardioinhibitory syncope in which the decrease in heart rate precedes the fall in blood pressure is a very rare finding which might explain the lack of efficacy of pacemakers in neurally-mediated syncope. METHODS: We studied 173 consecutive patients referred for unexplained syncope (114 women, 59 men, 42 ± 1 years, 17 ± 2 syncopal episodes. All had experienced (presyncope during head-up tilt testing followed by additional lower body negative suction. We classified hemodynamic responses according to the modified Vasovagal Syncope International Study (VASIS classification as mixed response (VASIS I, cardioinhibitory without (VASIS IIa or with asystole (VASIS IIb, and vasodepressor (VASIS III. Then, we defined the exact temporal relationship between hypotension and bradycardia to identify patients with true cardioinhibitory syncope. RESULTS: Of the (presyncopal events during tilt testing, 63% were classified as VASIS I, 6% as VASIS IIb, 2% as VASIS IIa, and 29% as VASIS III. Cardioinhibitory responses (VASIS class II progressively decreased from the youngest to the oldest age quartile. With more detailed temporal analysis, blood pressure reduction preceded the heart-rate decrease in all but six individuals (97% overall and in 10 out of 11 patients with asystole (VASIS IIb. CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension precedes bradycardia onset during head-up tilt-induced (presyncope in the vast majority of patients, even in those classified as cardioinhibitory syncope according to the modified VASIS classification. Furthermore, cardioinhibitory syncope becomes less frequent with increasing age.

  6. A two process model of burnout and work engagement: distinct implications of demands and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, M P

    2008-01-01

    A model of job burnout proposes two distinct processes. The first process concerns balance of demands to resources. A poor balance leads to chronic exhaustion, an integral aspect of the burnout syndrome. The second process concerns the congruence of individual and organizational values. The model proposes that value conflicts have implications for all three aspects of burnout. It also proposes that the impact of value conflicts has only minor implications for the exhaustion aspect of burnout; they are more relevant for the cynicism and inefficacy aspects of the syndrome. The model considers distinct processes at work that concern employees' perception of organizational justice and their trust in leadership. With a sample of 725 nurses, the analysis tested one component of the theory: the extent to which value congruence enhances the prediction of burnout beyond the prediction provided by demands and resources. Future directions are discussed.

  7. Extensions of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirner, Fabio

    1996-01-01

    Rapporteur talk at the International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, Brussels (Belgium), July 27-August 2, 1995. This talk begins with a brief general introduction to the extensions of the Standard Model, reviewing the ideology of effective field theories and its practical implications. The central part deals with candidate extensions near the Fermi scale, focusing on some phenomenological aspects of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The final part discusses some possible low-energy implications of further extensions near the Planck scale, namely superstring theories.

  8. Dark matter phenomenology of SM and enlarged Higgs sectors extended with vector-like leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelescu, Andrei [Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France); Arcadi, Giorgio [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    We will investigate the scenario in which the Standard Model (SM) Higgs sector and its two-doublet extension (called the Two Higgs Doublet Model or 2HDM) are the ''portal'' for the interactions between the Standard Model and a fermionic Dark Matter (DM) candidate. The latter is the lightest stable neutral particle of a family of vector-like leptons (VLLs). We will provide an extensive overview of this scenario combining the constraints coming purely from DM phenomenology with more general constraints like Electroweak Precision Test (EWPT) as well as with collider searches. In the case that the new fermionic sector interacts with the SM Higgs sector, constraints from DM phenomenology force the new states to lie above the TeV scale. This requirement is relaxed in the case of 2HDM. Nevertheless, strong constraints coming from EWPTs and the Renormalization Group Equations (RGEs) limit the impact of VLFs on collider phenomenology. (orig.)

  9. Dark matter phenomenology of SM and enlarged Higgs sectors extended with vector-like leptons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, Andrei; Arcadi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    We will investigate the scenario in which the Standard Model (SM) Higgs sector and its two-doublet extension (called the Two Higgs Doublet Model or 2HDM) are the "portal" for the interactions between the Standard Model and a fermionic Dark Matter (DM) candidate. The latter is the lightest stable neutral particle of a family of vector-like leptons (VLLs). We will provide an extensive overview of this scenario combining the constraints coming purely from DM phenomenology with more general constraints like Electroweak Precision Test (EWPT) as well as with collider searches. In the case that the new fermionic sector interacts with the SM Higgs sector, constraints from DM phenomenology force the new states to lie above the TeV scale. This requirement is relaxed in the case of 2HDM. Nevertheless, strong constraints coming from EWPTs and the Renormalization Group Equations (RGEs) limit the impact of VLFs on collider phenomenology.

  10. Phenomenology of flavor-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenology of a new economical supersymmetric model that utilizes dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation for the generation of the sparticle spectrum and the hierarchy of fermion masses is discussed. Similarities between the communication of supersymmetry breaking through a messenger sector and the generation of flavor using the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism are exploited, leading to the identification of vector-like messenger fields with FN fields and the messenger U(1) as a flavor symmetry. An immediate consequence is that the first and second generation scalars acquire flavor-dependent masses, but do not violate flavor changing neutral current bounds since their mass scale, consistent with ''effective supersymmetry,'' is of order 10 TeV. We define and advocate a ''minimal flavor-mediated model'' (MFMM), recently introduced in the literature, which successfully accommodates the small flavor-breaking parameters of the standard model using order 1 couplings and ratios of flavon field VEVs. The mediation of supersymmetry breaking occurs via two-loop logarithm-enhanced gauge-mediated contributions, as well as several one-loop and two-loop Yukawa-mediated contributions for which we provide analytical expressions. The MFMM is parametrized by a small set of masses and couplings, with values restricted by several model constraints and experimental data. Full two-loop renormalization group evolution is performed, correctly taking into account the negative two-loop gauge contributions from heavy first and second generations. Electroweak symmetry is radiatively broken with the value of μ determined by matching to the Z mass. The weak scale spectrum is generally rather heavy, except for the lightest Higgs boson, the lightest stau, the lightest chargino, the lightest two neutralinos, and of course a very light gravitino. The next-to-lightest sparticle always has a decay length that is larger than the scale of a detector, and is either the lightest stau

  11. The phenomenology of a small break LOCA in a complex thermal hydraulic loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzo, M.; Almenas, K.K.; Hsu, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A phenomenological description of the thermal hydraulics events that take place during a simulated Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SB-LOCA) is presented. The SB-LOCA transient is described in detail and the various mass and energy transport modes are identified. Similar behavior is observed in other facilities designed for the simulation of this type of accidents. Previous investigations suggest a simple modelling of the phenomena based on fluid mechanic considerations. An extensive experimental program conducted at the experimental facility of the University of Maryland reveals that condensation is a dominant driving force for this type of transients. This finding has significant implications in the modelling of enthalpy transport for some of the flow modes which occur during the transient. In particular it affects the Interruption and Resumption Mode (IRM) during which enthalpy is transported by periodic flow of a two phase mixture. The efforts to predict the flow interruption based on fluid mechanic criteria of phase separation in the hot leg are shown to be misdirected since thermodynamic phenomena taking place in the horizontal portion of the cold legs and in the reactor vessel downcomer are mostly responsible for that transition. For flow resumption to occur the liquid-vapor mixture swelling in the vertical portion of the hot leg determines the occurrence of the liquid spill over the top of the candy cane. (orig.)

  12. Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer

  13. “Higher than Actuality” - The Possibility of Phenomenology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possibility' to consider the methodological significance of Heidegger's conception of what is essential in phenomenology as inhering not "in its actuality as a philosophical 'movement'", but in the understanding of phenomenology "as a possibility".

  14. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute

  15. Phenomenology of spinless adjoints in two universal extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Kirtiman; Datta, Anindya

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of (1,1)-mode adjoint scalars in the framework of two Universal Extra Dimensions. The Kaluza-Klein (KK) towers of these adjoint scalars arise in the 4-dimensional effective theory from the 6th component of the gauge fields after compactification. Adjoint scalars can have KK-number conserving as well as KK-number violating interactions. We calculate the KK-number violating operators involving these scalars and two Standard Model fields. Decay widths of these scalars into different channels have been estimated. We have also briefly discussed pair-production and single production of such scalars at the Large Hadron Collider

  16. A phenomenological π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2004-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length a h extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α 2 logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length a h π - p =0.0870(5)m π -1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation g c 2 /(4π)=14.04(17)

  17. A phenomenological $\\pi^{-}p$ scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2004-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length a/sup h/ extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order alpha /sup 2/ log alpha using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic pi N scattering length a/sub pi -p//sup h/ = 0.0870(5)m/sub pi //sup -1/ is deduced leading to a pi NN coupling constant from the GMO relation g/sub c //sup 2//(4 pi ) = 14.04(17). (28 refs).

  18. The experience of watching dance: phenomenological-neuroscience duets

    OpenAIRE

    Jola, C; Ehrenberg, S; Reynolds, D

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses possible correspondences between neuroscientific findings and phenomenologically informed methodologies in the investigation of kinesthetic empathy in watching dance. Interest in phenomenology has recently increased in cognitive science (Gallagher and Zahavi 2008) and dance scholars have recently contributed important new insights into the use of phenomenology in dance studies (e.g. Legrand and Ravn (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8(3):389–408, 2009); Parviainen...

  19. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Phenomenology Research Group is a circle of postgraduate scholars who have a range of research interests which cross a broad spectrum of areas including education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology. The journal is published by NISC SA (IPJP on NISC) and has its own website online ...

  20. Dreaming Consciousness: A Contribution from Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zippel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The central aim of this paper is to offer a historical reconstruction of phenomenological studies on dreaming and to put forward a draft for a phenomenological theory of the dream state. Prominent phenomenologists have offered an extremely valuable interpretation of the dream as an intentional process, stressing its relevance in understanding the complexity of the mental life of subject, the continuous interplay between reality and unreality, and the possibility of building parallel spheres of experience influencing the development of personal identity. Taking into consideration the main characteristics of dream experience emphasized by these scholars, in the final part of the paper I propose to elaborate a new phenomenology of dreaming, which should be able to offer a theoretical description of dream states. My sketched proposal is based on Eugen Fink’s notion of the dream as “presentification”. By combining the past and the present of phenomenological investigation, I aim at suggesting a philosophical framework to explain the intentional features of dreaming as Erlebnis.