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Sample records for models nodes high

  1. Modeling large Ethernet networks for the ATLAS high level trigger system using parameterized models of switches and nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Golonka, Piotr; Saka, F

    2001-01-01

    Large local area Ethernet networks are strong candidates to connect data sources and processing nodes in high energy physics experiments. In the high level trigger system of the ATLAS LHC experiment several Gbytes/s of data, distributed over 1700 buffers, have to be delivered to around a thousand processing nodes. Due to the network size, its performance and scalability can only be assessed by modeling. To avoid lengthy simulation runs, and concentrate only on characteristics important for network transfers, the components of the system need to be parameterized. The network performance depends on traffic patterns generated by processing nodes and switching capabilities of the network, we therefore evaluated and modeled both processing nodes and switches. We have developed a parameterized model of a class of switches, where a limited set of parameters, collected from measurements on real devices, is used to model switching characteristics. Another set of simple measurements is used to collect values for parame...

  2. Modeling fragmentation with new high order finite element technology and node splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olovsson Lars

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of fragmentation has historically been linked to the weapons industry where the main goal is to optimize a bomb or to design effective blast shields. Numerical modeling of fragmentation from dynamic loading has traditionally been modeled by legacy finite element solvers that rely on element erosion to model material failure. However this method results in the removal of too much material. This is not realistic as retaining the mass of the structure is critical to modeling the event correctly. We propose a new approach implemented in the IMPETUS AFEA SOLVER® based on the following: New High Order Finite Elements that can easily deal with very large deformations; Stochastic distribution of initial damage that allows for a non homogeneous distribution of fragments; and a Node Splitting Algorithm that allows for material fracture without element erosion that is mesh independent. The approach is evaluated for various materials and scenarios: -Titanium ring electromagnetic compression; Hard steel Taylor bar impact, Fused silica Taylor bar impact, Steel cylinder explosion, The results obtained from the simulations are representative of the failure mechanisms observed experimentally. The main benefit of this approach is good energy conservation (no loss of mass and numerical robustness even in complex situations.

  3. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  4. Modeling the envelope statistics of three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound echo signals from dissected human lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Minh; Coron, Alain; Mamou, Jonathan; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Yanagihara, Eugene; Machi, Junji; Bridal, S. Lori; Feleppa, Ernest J.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the statistics of the envelope of three-dimensional (3D) high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) data acquired from dissected human lymph nodes (LNs). Nine distributions were employed, and their parameters were estimated using the method of moments. The Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) metric was used to quantitatively compare the fit of each candidate distribution to the experimental envelope distribution. The study indicates that the generalized gamma distribution best models the statistics of the envelope data of the three media encountered: LN parenchyma, fat and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Furthermore, the envelope statistics of the LN parenchyma satisfy the pre-Rayleigh condition. In terms of high fitting accuracy and computationally efficient parameter estimation, the gamma distribution is the best choice to model the envelope statistics of LN parenchyma, while, the Weibull distribution is the best choice to model the envelope statistics of fat and PBS. These results will contribute to the development of more-accurate and automatic 3D segmentation of LNs for ultrasonic detection of clinically significant LN metastases. PMID:25346951

  5. Modeling the envelope statistics of three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound echo signals from dissected human lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Minh; Coron, Alain; Mamou, Jonathan; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Yanagihara, Eugene; Machi, Junji; Bridal, S Lori; Feleppa, Ernest J

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the statistics of the envelope of three-dimensional (3D) high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) data acquired from dissected human lymph nodes (LNs). Nine distributions were employed, and their parameters were estimated using the method of moments. The Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) metric was used to quantitatively compare the fit of each candidate distribution to the experimental envelope distribution. The study indicates that the generalized gamma distribution best models the statistics of the envelope data of the three media encountered: LN parenchyma, fat and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Furthermore, the envelope statistics of the LN parenchyma satisfy the pre-Rayleigh condition. In terms of high fitting accuracy and computationally efficient parameter estimation, the gamma distribution is the best choice to model the envelope statistics of LN parenchyma, while, the Weibull distribution is the best choice to model the envelope statistics of fat and PBS. These results will contribute to the development of more-accurate and automatic 3D segmentation of LNs for ultrasonic detection of clinically significant LN metastases.

  6. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 蒋国平; 宋玉蓉; 夏玲玲

    2015-01-01

    A tiny fraction of infl uential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the infl uential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-infl uential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-infl uential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-infl uential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods.

  7. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  8. Modelling Traffic in IMS Network Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Alassane

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IMS is well integrated with existing voice and data networks, while adopting many of their keycharacteristics.The Call Session Control Functions (CSCFs servers are the key part of the IMS structure. They are themain components responsible for processing and routing signalling messages.When CSCFs servers (P-CSCF, I-CSCF, S-CSCF are running on the same host, the SIP message can beinternally passed between SIP servers using a single operating system mechanism like a queue. It increasesthe reliability of the network [5], [6]. We have proposed in a last work for each type of service (between ICSCFand S-CSCF (call, data, multimedia.[23], to use less than two servers well dimensioned andrunning on the same operating system.Instead dimensioning servers, in order to increase performance, we try to model traffic on IMS nodes,particularly on entries nodes; it will provide results on separation of incoming flows, and then offer moresatisfactory service.

  9. Age-related differences in functional nodes of the brain cortex - a high model order group ICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Littow

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so called resting state networks (RSN of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. 168 healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 yrs, 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6yrs , and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 yrs, all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70 were calculated and dual regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN’s spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN’s reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs.

  10. Accurate energy model for WSN node and its optimal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan Baoqiang; Cai Li; Zhu Hongsong; Xu Yongjun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of CMOS and MEMS technologies, the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed micro-sensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. For better understanding of the design tradeoffs of wireless sensor network (WSN), a more accurate energy model for wireless sensor node is proposed, and an optimal design method of energy efficient wireless sensor node is described as well. Different from power models ever shown which assume the power cost of each component in WSN node is constant, the new one takes into account the energy dissipation of circuits in practical physical layer. It shows that there are some parameters, such as data rate, carrier frequency, bandwidth, Tsw, etc, which have a significant effect on the WSN node energy consumption per useful bit (EPUB). For a given quality specification, how energy consumption can be reduced by adjusting one or more of these parameters is shown.

  11. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  12. Small World Model-Based Polylogarithmic Routing Using Mobile Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Shu-Hui Yang

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile nodes to improve network system performance has drawn considerable attention recently.The movement-assisted model considers mobility as a desirable feature, where routing is based on the store-carry-forward paradigm with random or controlled movement of resource rich mobile nodes. The application of such a model has been used in several emerging networks, including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and delay tolerant networks (DTNs). It is well known that mobility increases the capacity of MANETs by reducing the number of relays for routing, prolonging the lifespan of WSNs by using mobile nodes in place of bottleneck static sensors, and ensuring network connectivity in DTNs using mobile nodes to connect different parts of a disconnected network. Trajectory planning and the coordination of mobile nodes are two important design issues aiming to optimize or balance several measures,including delay, average number of relays, and moving distance. In this paper, we propose a new controlled mobility model with an expected polylogarithmic number of relays to achieve a good balance among several contradictory goals, including delay, the number of relays, and moving distance. The model is based on the small-world model where each static node has "short" link connections to its nearest neighbors and "long" link connections to other nodes following a certain probability distribution. Short links are regular wireless connections whereas long links are implemented using mobile nodes. Various issues are considered, including trade-offs between delay and average number of relays, selection of the number of mobilenodes, and selection of the number of long links. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated analytically as well as through simulation.

  13. Shadow networks: Discovering hidden nodes with models of information flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrow, James P; Frank, Morgan R; Manukyan, Narine; Mitchell, Lewis; Reagan, Andrew; Bloedorn, Eric E; Booker, Lashon B; Branting, Luther K; Smith, Michael J; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter S; Bongard, Joshua C

    2013-01-01

    Complex, dynamic networks underlie many systems, and understanding these networks is the concern of a great span of important scientific and engineering problems. Quantitative description is crucial for this understanding yet, due to a range of measurement problems, many real network datasets are incomplete. Here we explore how accidentally missing or deliberately hidden nodes may be detected in networks by the effect of their absence on predictions of the speed with which information flows through the network. We use Symbolic Regression (SR) to learn models relating information flow to network topology. These models show localized, systematic, and non-random discrepancies when applied to test networks with intentionally masked nodes, demonstrating the ability to detect the presence of missing nodes and where in the network those nodes are likely to reside.

  14. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for metastatic sentinel nodes: test of a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Nielsen, Boye S.; Madsen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune-deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  15. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G. (Inventor); Atiya, Amir F. (Inventor); Fernandez, Benito (Inventor); Tsai, Wei K. (Inventor); Chong, Kil T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  16. Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficiency of lymph nodes depends on tissue structure and organization, which allow the coordination of lymphocyte traffic. Despite their essential role, our understanding of lymph node specific mechanisms is still incomplete and currently a topic of intense research. Results In this paper, we present a hybrid discrete/continuous model of the lymph node, accounting for differences in cell velocity and chemotactic response, influenced by the spatial compartmentalization of the lymph node and the regulation of cells migration, encounter, and antigen presentation during the inflammation process. Conclusion Our model reproduces the correct timing of an immune response, including the observed time delay between duplication of T helper cells and duplication of B cells in response to antigen exposure. Furthermore, we investigate the consequences of the absence of dendritic cells at different times during infection, and the dependence of system dynamics on the regulation of lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes. In both cases, the model predicts the emergence of an impaired immune response, i.e., the response is significantly reduced in magnitude. Dendritic cell removal is also shown to delay the response time with respect to normal conditions.

  17. Analysis of High Degree Nodes in a Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Akhtar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Online Social Network platforms(e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, Instant Messenger etc provide a deeper comprehension of social networks and hence render the basis for social network analysis. The huge amount of data from these sites has given a boost to the researchers who examine a network from different perspectives through various SNA methods. The development of network analysis tools have further helped to extract actionable patterns which are useful for business, consumers, and users. This study is a part of the growing body of research on Social Network Analysis and make use of a Facebook network to analyze the attributes of high degree nodes (users having greater number of friends and to uncover the hidden relationships of that network. Results show that there is little association among high degree nodes

  18. Reliability of sentinel node procedure for lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients at high risk for lymph node involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bergh, Laura; Joniau, Steven; Haustermans, Karin; Deroose, Christophe M.; Isebaert, Sofie; Oyen, Raymond; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Ameye, Filip; Berkers, Joost; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Lerut, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Accurate staging modalities to diagnose lymph node involvement in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) are lacking. We wanted to prospectively assess sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value of (11)C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)

  19. High definition infrared spectroscopic imaging for lymph node histopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Suzanne Leslie

    Full Text Available Chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field in which molecular information within samples can be used to predict biological function and recognize disease without the use of stains or manual identification. In Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, molecular absorption contrast provides a large signal relative to noise. Due to the long mid-IR wavelengths and sub-optimal instrument design, however, pixel sizes have historically been much larger than cells. This limits both the accuracy of the technique in identifying small regions, as well as the ability to visualize single cells. Here we obtain data with micron-sized sampling using a tabletop FT-IR instrument, and demonstrate that the high-definition (HD data lead to accurate identification of multiple cells in lymph nodes that was not previously possible. Highly accurate recognition of eight distinct classes - naïve and memory B cells, T cells, erythrocytes, connective tissue, fibrovascular network, smooth muscle, and light and dark zone activated B cells was achieved in healthy, reactive, and malignant lymph node biopsies using a random forest classifier. The results demonstrate that cells currently identifiable only through immunohistochemical stains and cumbersome manual recognition of optical microscopy images can now be distinguished to a similar level through a single IR spectroscopic image from a lymph node biopsy.

  20. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for Metastatic Sentinel Nodes: Test of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Chakera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1, in immune-deficient (nude mice with xenograft human breast cancer expressing the antigen if specific binding of the intratumorally injected, radioactively labelled, monoclonal antibody could be scintigraphically visualized, and (2 transportation to and retention in regional lymph nodes of the radioactively labelled antibody after subcutaneous injection in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging.

  1. Phylogenetic mixture models can reduce node-density artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Chris; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark

    2008-04-01

    We investigate the performance of phylogenetic mixture models in reducing a well-known and pervasive artifact of phylogenetic inference known as the node-density effect, comparing them to partitioned analyses of the same data. The node-density effect refers to the tendency for the amount of evolutionary change in longer branches of phylogenies to be underestimated compared to that in regions of the tree where there are more nodes and thus branches are typically shorter. Mixture models allow more than one model of sequence evolution to describe the sites in an alignment without prior knowledge of the evolutionary processes that characterize the data or how they correspond to different sites. If multiple evolutionary patterns are common in sequence evolution, mixture models may be capable of reducing node-density effects by characterizing the evolutionary processes more accurately. In gene-sequence alignments simulated to have heterogeneous patterns of evolution, we find that mixture models can reduce node-density effects to negligible levels or remove them altogether, performing as well as partitioned analyses based on the known simulated patterns. The mixture models achieve this without knowledge of the patterns that generated the data and even in some cases without specifying the full or true model of sequence evolution known to underlie the data. The latter result is especially important in real applications, as the true model of evolution is seldom known. We find the same patterns of results for two real data sets with evidence of complex patterns of sequence evolution: mixture models substantially reduced node-density effects and returned better likelihoods compared to partitioning models specifically fitted to these data. We suggest that the presence of more than one pattern of evolution in the data is a common source of error in phylogenetic inference and that mixture models can often detect these patterns even without prior knowledge of their presence in the

  2. 基于节点服务的高速铁路列车停站方案优化模型%High-speed Railway Stopping Schedule Optimization Model Based on Node Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李得伟; 韩宝明; 李晓娟; 张洪军

    2013-01-01

    Rational stopping schedules are of practical significance in formulating high-speed railway operation plans.Conventional stopping schedules are usually fixed through repeated manual adjustments and this is due to the influence of various technique and policy factors.In this paper,the high-speed railway stopping schedule optimization model was put forward,which was based on node services.Referring to the features of the model,the uncertain and not easy to be quantified factors were turned to be described as node services,to minimize the total number of stopping was set as the target of the model and the node service frequency,inter-station service accessibility and number of one-train stopping were made the main constraints of the model.The model was a non-linear planning model with the cross-product constraint.The model was solved by combining stopping probability with computer simulation.Through model sensitivity analysis,it was found that the number of onetrain stopping is the key issue to influence the feasibility of stopping schedules.The model was applied on a high speed railway line in China for case studyThe model is proved to possess good usability.%合理的列车停站方案对高速铁路运输计划的制定具有重要的现实意义,既有停站方案的编制受到各种技术与政策因素的影响,一般采用人工方法反复调整确定.本文提出一种基于节点服务的高速铁路列车停站方案优化模型,该模型的特点是将不确定性和不易量化的因素统一用节点服务表示,以方案总停站次数最少为目标,将节点服务频率、站间服务可达性、单个列车停站次数等作为主要约束条件,构建带有叉乘约束的非线性规划模型.运用停站概率与计算机模拟结合的方法有效解决了模型求解的问题.通过模型灵敏度分析发现,单个列车停站次数约束是影响停站方案求解可行性的关键问题.最后,以国内某高速铁路为例,进行实践应

  3. A bridge role metric model for nodes in software networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available A bridge role metric model is put forward in this paper. Compared with previous metric models, our solution of a large-scale object-oriented software system as a complex network is inherently more realistic. To acquire nodes and links in an undirected network, a new model that presents the crucial connectivity of a module or the hub instead of only centrality as in previous metric models is presented. Two previous metric models are described for comparison. In addition, it is obvious that the fitting curve between the Bre results and degrees can well be fitted by a power law. The model represents many realistic characteristics of actual software structures, and a hydropower simulation system is taken as an example. This paper makes additional contributions to an accurate understanding of module design of software systems and is expected to be beneficial to software engineering practices.

  4. A node-based version of the cellular Potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, Marco; Preziosi, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The cellular Potts model (CPM) is a lattice-based Monte Carlo method that uses an energetic formalism to describe the phenomenological mechanisms underlying the biophysical problem of interest. We here propose a CPM-derived framework that relies on a node-based representation of cell-scale elements. This feature has relevant consequences on the overall simulation environment. First, our model can be implemented on any given domain, provided a proper discretization (which can be regular or irregular, fixed or time evolving). Then, it allowed an explicit representation of cell membranes, whose displacements realistically result in cell movement. Finally, our node-based approach can be easily interfaced with continuous mechanics or fluid dynamics models. The proposed computational environment is here applied to some simple biological phenomena, such as cell sorting and chemotactic migration, also in order to achieve an analysis of the performance of the underlying algorithm. This work is finally equipped with a critical comparison between the advantages and disadvantages of our model with respect to the traditional CPM and to some similar vertex-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlated Node Behavior Model based on Semi Markov Process for MANETS

    CERN Document Server

    Azni, A H; Noh, Zul Azri Muhamad; Basari, Abd Samad Hasan; Hussin, Burairah

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model for node behavior namely Correlated Node Behavior Model which is an extension of Node Behavior Model. The model adopts semi Markov process in continuous time which clusters the node that has correlation. The key parameter of the process is determined by five probabilistic parameters based on the Markovian model. Computed from the transition probabilities of the semi-Markov process, the node correlation impact on network survivability and resilience can be measure quantitatively. From the result, the quantitative analysis of correlated node behavior on the survivability is obtained through mathematical description, and the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed model are verified through numerical analysis. The analytical results show that the effect from correlated failure nodes on network survivability is much severer than other misbehaviors.

  6. Development of polygonal-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms: Lymphatic node modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, Ngyen Tat; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Among radiosensitive organs/tissues considered in ICRP Publication 103, lymphatic nodes are many small size tissues and widely distributed in the ICRP reference phantoms. It is difficult to directly convert lymphatic nodes of ICRP reference voxel phantoms to polygonal surfaces. Furthermore, in the ICRP reference phantoms lymphatic nodes were manually drawn only in six lymphatic node regions and the reference number of lymphatic nodes reported in ICRP Publication 89 was not considered. To address aforementioned limitations, the present study developed a new lymphatic node modeling method for the polygonal-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms. By using the developed method, lymphatic nodes were modelled in the preliminary version of ICRP male polygonal-surface phantom. Then, lymphatic node dose values were calculated and compared with those of the ICRP reference male voxel phantom to validate the developed modeling method. The present study developed the new lymphatic node modeling method and successfully modeled lymphatic nodes in the preliminary version of the ICRP male polygonal-surface phantom. From the results, it was demonstrated that the developed modeling method can be used to model lymphatic nodes in polygonal-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms.

  7. Formal Modeling of Greedy Nodes in 802.15.4 WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Hammal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with formal specification of the non-slotted CSMA/CA protocol in wireless sensor networks(WSN whose some nodes own a greedy behavior. This protocol requires sensor nodes to wait some time before initiating a transmission, whereas greedy nodes may try to reduce their waiting duration, which may penalize other nodes. To analyze their impact on WSN mode in operation, we use timed automata of the model-checker UPPAAL to capture the abstract behavior of communication medium, sane, and greedy nodes in WSN. This enables the use of analysis tools to check whether these models satisfy intended properties.

  8. Modeling a Million-Node Slim Fly Network Using Parallel Discrete-Event Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Noah; Carothers, Christopher; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carns, Philip

    2016-05-15

    As supercomputers close in on exascale performance, the increased number of processors and processing power translates to an increased demand on the underlying network interconnect. The Slim Fly network topology, a new lowdiameter and low-latency interconnection network, is gaining interest as one possible solution for next-generation supercomputing interconnect systems. In this paper, we present a high-fidelity Slim Fly it-level model leveraging the Rensselaer Optimistic Simulation System (ROSS) and Co-Design of Exascale Storage (CODES) frameworks. We validate our Slim Fly model with the Kathareios et al. Slim Fly model results provided at moderately sized network scales. We further scale the model size up to n unprecedented 1 million compute nodes; and through visualization of network simulation metrics such as link bandwidth, packet latency, and port occupancy, we get an insight into the network behavior at the million-node scale. We also show linear strong scaling of the Slim Fly model on an Intel cluster achieving a peak event rate of 36 million events per second using 128 MPI tasks to process 7 billion events. Detailed analysis of the underlying discrete-event simulation performance shows that a million-node Slim Fly model simulation can execute in 198 seconds on the Intel cluster.

  9. Node Detection Using High-Dimensional Fuzzy Parcellation Applied to the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Vercelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several functional connectivity approaches require the definition of a set of regions of interest (ROIs that act as network nodes. Different methods have been developed to define these nodes and to derive their functional and effective connections, most of which are rather complex. Here we aim to propose a relatively simple “one-step” border detection and ROI estimation procedure employing the fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm. To test this procedure and to explore insular connectivity beyond the two/three-region model currently proposed in the literature, we parcellated the insular cortex of 20 healthy right-handed volunteers scanned in a resting state. By employing a high-dimensional functional connectivity-based clustering process, we confirmed the two patterns of connectivity previously described. This method revealed a complex pattern of functional connectivity where the two previously detected insular clusters are subdivided into several other networks, some of which are not commonly associated with the insular cortex, such as the default mode network and parts of the dorsal attentional network. Furthermore, the detection of nodes was reliable, as demonstrated by the confirmative analysis performed on a replication group of subjects.

  10. High-speed AFM for 1x node metrology and inspection: does it damage the features?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Dool, T.C. van den; Uziel, Y.; Bar Or, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at unraveling the mystery of damage in high speed AFMs for 1X node and below. With the device dimensions moving towards the 1X node and below, the semiconductor industry is rapidly approaching the point where existing metrology, inspection and review tools face huge challenges in ter

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INFLAMMATORY AND METASTATIC LYMPH NODES WITH DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING ON ANIMAL MODEL: COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-dan Xue; Shuo Li; Hong-yi Sun; Zheng-yu Jin; Fei Sun

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in discriminating inflammatory from VX2 carcinoma metastatic lymph nodes in rabbit model. Methods Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups. Complete Freund's adjuvant was injected into the bilateral dorsal footpads to set up ipsilateral lymphadenitis model (n = 10), and the other 10 rabbits received a subcutaneous implantation of VX2 tumor cell suspension (1.5×107 cells/mL) in both thighs to set up metastatic lymph node model. MR imaging scan covering the popliteal fossa and iliac fossa including short time inversion recovery echo-planar imaging DWI (STIR-EPI-DWI), T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was performed 2 weeks after injection. T2WI signal intensity (SI), DWI SI, long/short axial ratio (LSR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the lymph nodes were evaluated in all cases. Right after MR imaging scan, popliteal and iliac fossa lymph nodes were collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results Totally 33 lymph nodes larger than 5 mm, including 22 inflammatory and 11 metastatic ones, were successfully isolated and taken into pathological analysis. LSR showed no significant difference between the inflammatory and malignant lymph nodes (P > 0.05). Both benign and malignant lymph nodes appeared iso-intense on TIWI and hyperintense on both T2WI and DWI images with an even lower TIWI and higher T2WI SI core at the hilum. Both T2WI and DWI SI showed no significant difference between two pathological groups (P > 0.01) in popli-teal fossa. The mean ADC value of inflammatory nodes [(1.199 ± 0.281)×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of metastatic nodes [(0.858 ± 0.090)×10-3 mm2/s, p < 0.01]. On ADC map, a high ADC value central area could be seen in most of the lymph nodes no matter benign or malignant. ADC value gave out the largest area under curve (AUCADC = 0.955) compared with other

  12. Floating Node Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique for Modeling Matrix Cracking-Delamination Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarvalho, N. V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, S. T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.

  13. Floating Node Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique for Modeling Matrix Cracking-Delamination Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, Silvestre T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.

  14. A local-world node deleting evolving network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yuying [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Jitao [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: sunjt@sh163.net

    2008-06-16

    A new type network growth rule which comprises node addition with the concept of local-world connectivity and node deleting is studied. A series of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to the LWD network are conducted in this Letter. Firstly, the degree distribution p(k) of this network changes no longer pure scale free but truncates by an exponential tail and the truncation in p(k) increases as p{sub a} decreases. Secondly, the connectivity is tighter, as the local-world size M increases. Thirdly, the average path length L increases and the clustering coefficient decreases as generally node deleting increases. Finally, trends up when the local-world size M increases, so as to k{sub max}. Hence, the expanding local-world can compensate the infection of the node deleting.

  15. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed...

  16. Fuzzy Neural Network-Based Interacting Multiple Model for Multi-Node Target Tracking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoliang Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An interacting multiple model for multi-node target tracking algorithm was proposed based on a fuzzy neural network (FNN to solve the multi-node target tracking problem of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Measured error variance was adaptively adjusted during the multiple model interacting output stage using the difference between the theoretical and estimated values of the measured error covariance matrix. The FNN fusion system was established during multi-node fusion to integrate with the target state estimated data from different nodes and consequently obtain network target state estimation. The feasibility of the algorithm was verified based on a network of nine detection nodes. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could trace the maneuvering target effectively under sensor failure and unknown system measurement errors. The proposed algorithm exhibited great practicability in the multi-node target tracking of WSNs.

  17. Risk model in stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer with positive node after radical hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhilan Chen,1,2,* Kecheng Huang,1,* Zhiyong Lu,1,3 Song Deng,1,4 Jiaqiang Xiong,1 Jia Huang,1 Xiong Li,5 Fangxu Tang,1 Zhihao Wang,6 Haiying Sun,1 Lin Wang,1 Shasha Zhou,1 Xiaoli Wang,1 Yao Jia,1 Ting Hu,1 Juan Gui,7 Dongyi Wan,1 Ding Ma,1 Shuang Li,1 Shixuan Wang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan, 3Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Tai-He Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, 6Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Neurological Disorders, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors in patients with surgically treated node-positive IB1-IIB cervical cancer and to establish a risk model for disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. A total of 170 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy as primary treatment for node-positive International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer from January 2002 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Five published risk models were evaluated in this population. The variables, including common iliac lymph node metastasis and parametrial invasion, were independent predictors of outcome in a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. Three distinct prognostic groups (low, intermediate, and high risk

  18. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-11-02

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer. Embodiments include receiving, by an origin direct memory access (`DMA`) engine of an origin compute node, data for transfer to a target compute node; sending, by the origin DMA engine of the origin compute node to a target DMA engine on the target compute node, a request to send (`RTS`) message; transferring, by the origin DMA engine, a predetermined portion of the data to the target compute node using memory FIFO operation; determining, by the origin DMA engine whether an acknowledgement of the RTS message has been received from the target DMA engine; if the an acknowledgement of the RTS message has not been received, transferring, by the origin DMA engine, another predetermined portion of the data to the target compute node using a memory FIFO operation; and if the acknowledgement of the RTS message has been received by the origin DMA engine, transferring, by the origin DMA engine, any remaining portion of the data to the target compute node using a direct put operation.

  19. Modelling the chronotropic effect of isoprenaline on rabbit sinoatrial node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henggui eZhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: β-adrenergic stimulation increases the heart rate by accelerating the electrical activity of the pacemaker of the heart, the sinoatrial node (SAN. Ionic mechanisms underlying the actions of β-adrenergic stimulation are not yet fully understood. Isoprenaline (ISO, a β-adrenoceptor agonist, shifts voltage-dependent If activation to more positive potentials resulting in an increase of If, which has been suggested to be the main mechanism underlying the effect of β-adrenergic stimulation. However, ISO has been found to increase the firing rate of rabbit SAN cells when If is blocked. ISO also increases ICaL, Ist, IKr and IKs; and shifts the activation of IKr to more negative potentials and increases the rate of its deactivation. ISO has also been reported to increase the intracellular Ca2+ transient, which can contribute to chronotropy by modulating the Ca2+ clock. The aim of this study was to analyse the ionic mechanisms underlying the positive chronotropy of β-adrenergic stimulation using two distinct and well established computational models. Methods and results: We modified the Boyett et al. (2001 and Kurata et al. (2008 models of electrical activity for the central and peripheral rabbit SAN cells by incorporating equations for the known dose-dependent actions of ISO on various ionic channel currents (ICaL, Ist, IKr and IKs, kinetics of IKr and If, and the intracellular Ca2+ transient. These equations were constructed from experimental data. To investigate the ionic basis of the effects of ISO, we simulated the chronotropic effect of a range of ISO concentrations when ISO exerted all its actions or just a subset of them. Conclusions: In both the Boyett et al. and Kurata et al. SAN models, the chronotropic effect of ISO was found to result from an integrated action of ISO on ICaL, If, Ist, IKr and IKs, among which an increase in the rate of deactivation of IKr plays a prominent role, though the effect of ISO on If and [Ca]i also

  20. Locating Highly Connected Nodes in P2P Networks with Heterogeneous Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haoxiang; ZHANG Lin; SHAN Xiuming; Victor O. K. LI

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks aggregate enormous storage and processing resources while mini-mizing entry and scaling costs. Gnutella-like P2P networks are complex heterogeneous networks, in which the underlying overlay topology has a power-law node degree distribution. While scale-free networks have great robustness against random failures, they are vulnerable to deliberate attacks where highly connected nodes are eliminated. Since high degree nodes play an important role in maintaining the connectivity, this paper presents an algorithm based on random walks to locate high degree nodes in P2P networks. Simula-tions demonstrate that the algorithm performs well in various scenarios and that heterogeneous P2P net-works are very sensitive to deliberate attacks.

  1. Modeling Social Networks with Node Attributes using the Multiplicative Attribute Graph Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    technological and natural domains exhibit rich connectiv - ity patterns and nodes in such networks are often labeled with attributes or features. We...world networks demonstrate that the MAG model reliably captures the network connectiv - ity patterns and outperforms present state-of-the-art methods

  2. Model of myosin node aggregation into a contractile ring: the effect of local alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojkic, Nikola; Vavylonis, Dimitrios [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Wu Jianqiu, E-mail: vavylonis@lehigh.edu [Department of Molecular Genetics and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Actomyosin bundles frequently form through aggregation of membrane-bound myosin clusters. One such example is the formation of the contractile ring in fission yeast from a broad band of cortical nodes. Nodes are macromolecular complexes containing several dozens of myosin-II molecules and a few formin dimers. The condensation of a broad band of nodes into the contractile ring has been previously described by a search, capture, pull and release (SCPR) model. In SCPR, a random search process mediated by actin filaments nucleated by formins leads to transient actomyosin connections among nodes that pull one another into a ring. The SCPR model reproduces the transport of nodes over long distances and predicts observed clump-formation instabilities in mutants. However, the model does not generate transient linear elements and meshwork structures as observed in some wild-type and mutant cells during ring assembly. As a minimal model of node alignment, we added short-range aligning forces to the SCPR model representing currently unresolved mechanisms that may involve structural components, cross-linking and bundling proteins. We studied the effect of the local node alignment mechanism on ring formation numerically. We varied the new parameters and found viable rings for a realistic range of values. Morphologically, transient structures that form during ring assembly resemble those observed in experiments with wild-type and cdc25-22 cells. Our work supports a hierarchical process of ring self-organization involving components drawn together from distant parts of the cell followed by progressive stabilization.

  3. A multi-node model for transient heat transfer analysis of stratospheric airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Irfan; Pant, Rajkumar S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a seven-node thermal model for transient heat transfer analysis of a solar powered stratospheric airship in floating condition. The solar array is modeled as a three node system, viz., outer layer, solar cell and substrate. The envelope is also modeled in three nodes, and the contained gas is considered as the seventh node. The heat transfer equations involving radiative, infra-red and conductive heat are solved simultaneously using a fourth order Runge-Kutta Method. The model can be used to study the effect of solar radiation, ambient wind, altitude and location of deployment of the airship on the temperature of the solar array. The model has been validated against some experimental data and numerical results quoted in literature. The effect of change in the value of some operational parameters on temperature of the solar array, and hence on its power output is also discussed.

  4. Aspect Ratio of Receiver Node Geometry based Indoor WLAN Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Udaykumar; Bapat, Vishram N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents validation of indoor wireless local area network (WLAN) propagation model for varying rectangular receiver node geometry. The rectangular client node configuration is a standard node arrangement in computer laboratories of academic institutes and research organizations. The model assists to install network nodes for the better signal coverage. The proposed model is backed by wide ranging real time received signal strength measurements at 2.4 GHz. The shadow fading component of signal propagation under realistic indoor environment is modelled with the dependency on varying aspect ratio of the client node geometry. The developed new model is useful in predicting indoor path loss for IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN. The new model provides better performance in comparison to well known International Telecommunication Union and free space propagation models. It is shown that the proposed model is simple and can be a useful tool for indoor WLAN node deployment planning and quick method for the best utilisation of the office space.

  5. Aspect Ratio of Receiver Node Geometry based Indoor WLAN Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Udaykumar; Bapat, Vishram N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents validation of indoor wireless local area network (WLAN) propagation model for varying rectangular receiver node geometry. The rectangular client node configuration is a standard node arrangement in computer laboratories of academic institutes and research organizations. The model assists to install network nodes for the better signal coverage. The proposed model is backed by wide ranging real time received signal strength measurements at 2.4 GHz. The shadow fading component of signal propagation under realistic indoor environment is modelled with the dependency on varying aspect ratio of the client node geometry. The developed new model is useful in predicting indoor path loss for IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN. The new model provides better performance in comparison to well known International Telecommunication Union and free space propagation models. It is shown that the proposed model is simple and can be a useful tool for indoor WLAN node deployment planning and quick method for the best utilisation of the office space.

  6. Computational Approach to 3D Modeling of the Lymph Node Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kislitsyn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a computational approach to the generation of the major geometric structures of an idealized murine lymph node (LN. In this generation, we consider the major compartments such as the subcapsular sinus, B cell follicles, trabecular and medullar sinuses, blood vessels and the T cell zone with a primary focus on the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC network. Confocal microscopy data of LN macroscopic structures and structural properties of the FRC network have been generated and utilized in the present model. The methodology sets a library of modules that can be used to assemble a solid geometric LN model and subsequently generate an adaptive mesh model capable of implementing transport phenomena. Overall, based on the use of high-resolution confocal microscopy and morphological analysis of cell 3D reconstructions, we have developed a computational model of the LN geometry, suitable for further investigation in studies of fluid transport and cell migration in this immunologically essential organ.

  7. Energy-Aware Topology Evolution Model with Link and Node Deletion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex network theory, a new topological evolving model is proposed. In the evolution of the topology of sensor networks, the energy-aware mechanism is taken into account, and the phenomenon of change of the link and node in the network is discussed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are conducted to explore the topology characteristics and network performance with different node energy distribution. We find that node energy distribution has the weak effect on the degree distribution P(k that evolves into the scale-free state, nodes with more energy carry more connections, and degree correlation is nontrivial disassortative. Moreover, the results show that, when nodes energy is more heterogeneous, the network is better clustered and enjoys higher performance in terms of the network efficiency and the average path length for transmitting data.

  8. A mechanistic breast cancer survival modelling through the axillary lymph node chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobre, Juliana; Castro Perdoná, Gleici S; Peria, Fernanda M; Louzada, Francisco

    2013-04-30

    In this paper, we proposed a mechanistic breast cancer survival model based on the axillary lymph node chain structure, considering lymph nodes as a potential dissemination arrangement. We assume a naive breast cancer treatment protocol consisting of exposing patients first to a chemotherapy treatment on r intervals at k-cycles separated by equal time intervals, and then they proceed to surgery. Our model, different from former ones, accommodates a quantity of contaminated lymph nodes, which is observed during surgery. We assume a generalised negative binomial survival distribution for the unknown number of contaminated lymph nodes after surgery, which, during an unknown period, may potentially propagate the disease. Estimation is based on a maximum likelihood approach. A simulation study assesses the coverage probability of asymptotic confidence intervals when small or moderate samples are considered. A Brazilian breast cancer data illustrate the applicability of our modelling.

  9. Modeling the Effects of Node Heterogeneity on the Performance of Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cremonesi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance benefit when using grid systems comes from different strategies, among which partitioning the applications into parallel tasks is the most important. However, in most cases the enhancement coming from partitioning is smoothed by the effects of synchronization overheads, mainly due to the high variability in the execution times of the different tasks, which, in turn, is accentuated by the large heterogeneity of grid nodes. In this paper we design hierarchical, queuing network performance models able to accurately analyze grid architectures and applications. Thanks to the model results, we introduce a new allocation policy based on a combination between task partitioning and task replication. The models are used to study two real applications and to evaluate the performance benefits obtained with allocation policies based on task replication.

  10. Utility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, J E; Stolle, L B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently there is no consensual agreement on the standard use of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in staging of high-risk patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to define the predictive value and role of SLNB combined with the different high-risk factors to determine which patients...

  11. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paula Cristina Fada dos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Post-graduate Program on Plastic Surgery], e-mail: ppfada@hotmail.com; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery. Div. of Plastic Sugery; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculty of Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. Methods: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc{sup 99} radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. Results: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of lymphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. Conclusions: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement. (author)

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 is highly expressed in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Young Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC is not uncommon. However, prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection in all PTMC is debatable. Molecular markers of predicting CLNM would help to decide to either do or not do cervical lymph node dissection which might increase morbidities. Aims: We aimed to characterize gene expression profiles and molecular markers of CLNM in PTMC. Settings and Design: The thyroid frozen tissues were obtained with from six PTMC patients, who underwent total thyroidectomy. Methods: We performed oligonucleotide microarray analysis with three PTMCs with CLNM and three without CLNM. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the gene. Statistical Analysis Used: We used linear models for microarray data. Results: We identified 12 differentially expressed gene, and most one is endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2. Conclusion: ERAP2 might be associated with CLNM in PTMC.

  13. The effect of intraarterial high-dose cisplatin on lymph nodes in oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Kovács

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To assess the effect of strictly local treatment [intraarterial chemotherapy (iaCHT with high-dose cisplatin and parallel neutralization] in the primary oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OOSCC on the dependent cervical lymph nodes. Patients and Methods: Seventeen consecutive patients with OOSCC and clinically positive necks underwent a prospective blinded comparison of two pre-surgical fluor18-deoxyglucose (FDG-positron emission tomography (PET examinations: baseline examination 1 week before and follow-up examination 3 weeks after iaCHT. Maximal standardized uptake (SUVmax values of lymph nodes were measured and compared with each other and histopathology. Results: The SUVmax value of the primary and all neck lymph nodes with uptake decreased significantly. Twelve/17 patients having metastases revealed significant decrease (P = 0.03, and benign lymph nodes showed non-significant decrease of the SUVmax. All neck lymph nodes with uptake and nodal metastases showed a significant reduction (P = 0.004 of standard uptake values (SUV. Conclusion: A regional effect of intraarterial cisplatin is proven. To date, it is not clear whether this is due to decreasing inflammatory reaction or a translymphatic anti-neoplastic effect.

  14. EXAMINING THE MOVEMENTS OF MOBILE NODES IN THE REAL WORLD TO PRODUCE ACCURATE MOBILITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANWEER ALAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All communication occurs through a wireless median in an ad hoc network. Ad hoc networks are dynamically created and maintained by the individual nodes comprising the network. Random Waypoint Mobility Model is a model that includes pause times between changes in destination and speed. To produce a real-world environment within which an ad hoc network can be formed among a set of nodes, there is a need for the development of realistic, generic and comprehensive mobility models. In this paper, we examine the movements of entities in the real world and present the production of mobility model in an ad hoc network.

  15. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. A Logistic Regression Model for Predicting Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Early Breast Carcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nodal staging in breast cancer is a key predictor of prognosis. This paper presents the results of potential clinicopathological predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and develops an efficient prediction model to assist in predicting axillary lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with primary early breast cancer who underwent axillary dissection were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between clinicopathological factors and lymph node metastatic status. A logistic regression predictive model was built from 50 randomly selected patients; the model was also applied to the remaining 20 patients to assess its validity. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between lymph node involvement and absence of nm-23 (p = 0.010 and Kiss-1 (p = 0.001 expression. Absence of Kiss-1 remained significantly associated with positive axillary node status in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.018. Seven clinicopathological factors were involved in the multivariate logistic regression model: menopausal status, tumor size, ER, PR, HER2, nm-23 and Kiss-1. The model was accurate and discriminating, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.702 when applied to the validation group. Moreover, there is a need discover more specific candidate proteins and molecular biology tools to select more variables which should improve predictive accuracy.

  17. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  18. A new model for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in Chinese sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our goal is to validate the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC nomogram and Stanford Online Calculator (SOC for predicting non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN metastasis in Chinese patients, and develop a new model for better prediction of NSLN metastasis. METHODS: The MSKCC nomogram and SOC were used to calculate the probability of NSLN metastasis in 120 breast cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between NSLN metastasis and clinicopathologic factors, using the medical records of the first 80 breast cancer patients. A new model predicting NSLN metastasis was developed from the 80 patients. RESULTS: The MSKCC and SOC predicted NSLN metastasis in a series of 120 patients with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.688 and 0.734, respectively. For predicted probability cut-off points of 10%, the false-negative (FN rates of MSKCC and SOC were both 4.4%, and the negative predictive value (NPV 75.0% and 90.0%, respectively. Tumor size, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN and size of SLN metastasis were independently associated with NSLN metastasis (p<0.05. A new model (Peking University People's Hospital, PKUPH was developed using these three variables. The MSKCC, SOC and PKUPH predicted NSLN metastasis in the second 40 patients from the 120 patients with an AUC of 0.624, 0.679 and 0.795, respectively. CONCLUSION: MSKCC nomogram and SOC did not perform as well as their original researches in Chinese patients. As a new predictor, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN correlated independently with NSLN metastasis strongly. PKUPH model achieved higher accuracy than MSKCC and SOC in predicting NSLN metastasis in Chinese patients.

  19. Automatic localization of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT images using fuzzy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Beig, Niha G.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Archer, Steven; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is associated with the highest cancer mortality rates among men and women in the United States. The accurate and precise identification of the lymph node stations on computed tomography (CT) images is important for staging disease and potentially for prognosticating outcome in patients with lung cancer, as well as for pretreatment planning and response assessment purposes. To facilitate a standard means of referring to lymph nodes, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has recently proposed a definition of the different lymph node stations and zones in the thorax. However, nodal station identification is typically performed manually by visual assessment in clinical radiology. This approach leaves room for error due to the subjective and potentially ambiguous nature of visual interpretation, and is labor intensive. We present a method of automatically recognizing the mediastinal IASLC-defined lymph node stations by modifying a hierarchical fuzzy modeling approach previously developed for body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) in medical imagery. Our AAR-lymph node (AAR-LN) system follows the AAR methodology and consists of two steps. In the first step, the various lymph node stations are manually delineated on a set of CT images following the IASLC definitions. These delineations are then used to build a fuzzy hierarchical model of the nodal stations which are considered as 3D objects. In the second step, the stations are automatically located on any given CT image of the thorax by using the hierarchical fuzzy model and object recognition algorithms. Based on 23 data sets used for model building, 22 independent data sets for testing, and 10 lymph node stations, a mean localization accuracy of within 1-6 voxels has been achieved by the AAR-LN system.

  20. Comparing the Impact of Mobile Nodes Arrival Patterns in Manets using Poisson and Pareto Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tengviel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs are dynamic networks populated by mobile stations, or mobile nodes(MNs. Mobility model is a hot topic in many areas, for example, protocol evaluation, networkperformance analysis and so on.How to simulate MNs mobility is the problem we should consider if wewant to build an accurate mobility model. When new nodes can join and other nodes can leave the networkand therefore the topology is dynamic.Specifically, MANETs consist of a collection of nodes randomlyplaced in a line (not necessarily straight. MANETs do appear in many real-world network applicationssuch as a vehicular MANETs built along a highway in a city environment or people in a particularlocation. MNs in MANETs are usually laptops, PDAs or mobile phones.This paper presents comparative results that have been carried out via Matlab software simulation. Thestudy investigates the impact of mobility predictive models on mobile nodes’ parameters such as, thearrival rate and the size of mobile nodes in a given area using Pareto and Poisson distributions. Theresults have indicated that mobile nodes’ arrival rates may have influence on MNs population (as a largernumber in a location. The Pareto distribution is more reflective of the modeling mobility for MANETsthan the Poisson distribution.

  1. High stature and body mass might affect the occurrence of Schmorl’s nodes

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    Trzciński Dawid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schmorl’s nodes are vertical herniation of intervertebral discs into the body of neighbouring vertebral endplate. Notwithstanding extensive studies, no consensus has been reached in the subject of their possible etiology. It is hypothesized that physical stress, trauma and high axial loading are the key factors in the occurrence of this pathology. The main objective of the current work is to reevaluate the relationship between stature and body mass and Schmorl’s nodes. For this purpose, skeletal samples from Lithuania (44 males and 19 females and Poland (97 males and 60 females were used. The study confirmed that Schmorl’s nodes are age-independent, and more frequent in males (12.63% on the superior and 19.32% on the inferior surface of vertebrae than in females (6.23% and 12.29% respectively. Obtained results also suggest that high stature (e.g. Spearmann correlation for superior: R=0.20 p=0.017, and inferior: R=0.31 p=0.000 surface of vertebrae and body mass (R=0.25, p=0.002 and R=0.32, p<0.001, respectively are factors that increase the risk of Schmorl’s nodes. Authors hypothesize that the afore-mentioned body size traits alter loadings acting on intervertebral discs, and rigidity of the spine.

  2. High-SIR Transmission Capacity of Wireless Networks with General Fading and Node Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ganti, Radha Krishna; Haenggi, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In many wireless systems, interference is the main performance-limiting factor, and is primarily dictated by the locations of concurrent transmitters. In many earlier works, the locations of the transmitters is often modeled as a Poisson point process for analytical tractability. While analytically convenient, the PPP only accurately models networks whose nodes are placed independently and use ALOHA as the channel access protocol, which preserves the independence. Correlations between transmitter locations in non-Poisson networks, which model intelligent access protocols, makes the outage analysis extremely difficult. In this paper, we take an alternative approach and focus on an asymptotic regime where the density of interferers $\\eta$ goes to 0. We prove for general node distributions and fading statistics that the success probability $\\p \\sim 1-\\gamma \\eta^{\\kappa}$ for $\\eta \\rightarrow 0$, and provide values of $\\gamma$ and $\\kappa$ for a number of important special cases. We show that $\\kappa$ is lower ...

  3. The effects of node exclusion on the centrality measures in graph models of interacting economic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    This work concerns the study of the effects felt by a network as a whole when a specific node is perturbed. Many real world systems can be described by network models in which the interactions of the various agents can be represented as an edge of a graph. With a graph model in hand, it is possible to evaluate the effect of deleting some of its edges on the architecture and values of nodes of the network. Eventually a node may end up isolated from the rest of the network and an interesting problem is to have a quantitative measure of the impact of such an event. For instance, in the field of finance, the network models are very popular and the proposed methodology allows to carry out "what if" tests in terms of weakening the links between the economic agents, represented as nodes. The two main concepts employed in the proposed methodology are (i) the vibrational IC-Information Centrality, which can provide a measure of the relative importance of a particular node in a network and (ii) autocatalytic networks that can indicate the evolutionary trends of the network. Although these concepts were originally proposed in the context of other fields of knowledge, they were also found to be useful in analyzing financial networks. In order to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology, a case of study using the actual data comprising stock market indices of 12 countries is presented.

  4. An algorithm for merging part nodes of JT models exported by FORAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Xiongbing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cognominal parts exist in JT models exported by FORAN V70 R2.0 software, and this leads to an increase in time consumption and the space analysis results becoming hard to process when using clearance analysis software to perform distance computing for such JT models. Aiming at this problem, an algorithm for merging component nodes is put forward based on investigating the assembly configuration and inherent information (i.e. geometric and material information of JT models created by FORAN. The method is composed of four steps:coordinate transformation, model node renaming, node geometric data transferring and material attribute processing. Finally, the proposed method is implemented by C++ and JT Open Toolkit. The results show that the new JT models generated by the proposed method are comprised of only one assembly node, and they preserve the intrinsic information of the original JT models. Its validity is illustrated by a great deal of examples, and the content of the worked JT models are reduced by about 7% to 20%.

  5. Accessibility to Nodes of Interest: Demographic Weighting the Logistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino DE CANDIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research fits into the genre of spatial analysis, aimed at better understanding of population dynamics in relation to the presence and distribution of infrastructure and related services. Specifically, the analysis uses a model of the gravitational type, based on the assumption of the impedance (attractiveness territorial, based on a curve of type logistics to determine the accessibility of the same, to which to add a system of weights. In this sense, the model was weighted according to the population, to determine the level of “population served” in terms of infrastructure and related services included in the model.

  6. Performance analysis of an improved dynamic power management model in wireless sensor node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Pughat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption in the wireless sensor networks is a very critical issue which attracts immediate attention for the sake of the growing demand of the billion dollar market in future. The Dynamic Power Management (DPM technique is a way of controlling and saving the energy usage in a sensor node. Previously, researchers have proposed lifetime improving stochastic models for wireless sensor networks and limited work has been done focusing on the wireless sensor node. This paper proposes an analyser based Semi-Markov model for DPM in the event-driven sensor node. The power consumption comparison with previously proposed models without this analyser shows the analyser significant contributes to lifetime improvement. The improved model is more power efficient, presents how the DPM model observes the input event arrival and power states of the sensor node components, and then dynamically manages the power consumption of the overall system. Further, to observe the effect of event arrival, missed events, waiting time, processor utilization on the power consumption and lifetime, the proposed DPM system with the single server queuing model is developed.

  7. Development of a new high transmission phase shift mask technology for 10 nm logic node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Thomas; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Toda, Yusuke; Badger, Karen; Seki, Kazunori; Lawliss, Mark; Isogawa, Takeshi; Zweber, Amy; Kagawa, Masayuki; Wistrom, Richard; Xu, Yongan; Lobb, Granger; Viswanathan, Ramya; Hu, Lin; Inazuki, Yukio; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we will describe the development of a new 12% high transmission phase shift mask technology for use with the 10 nm logic node. The primary motivation for this work was to improve the lithographic process window for 10 nm node via hole patterning by reducing the MEEF and improving the depth of focus (DOF). First, the simulated MEEF and DOF data will be compared between the 6% and high T PSM masks with the transmission of high T mask blank varying from 12% to 20%. This resulted in selection of a 12% transmission phase shift mask. As part of this work a new 12% attenuated phase shift mask blank was developed. A detailed description and results of the key performance metrics of the new mask blank including radiation durability, dry etch properties, film thickness, defect repair, and defect inspection will be shared. In addition, typical mask critical dimension uniformity and mask minimum feature size performance for 10 nm logic node via level mask patterns will be shown. Furthermore, the results of work to optimize the chrome hard mask film properties to meet the final mask minimum feature size requirements will be shared. Lastly, the key results of detailed lithographic performance comparisons of the process of record 6% and new 12% phase shift masks on wafer will be described. The 12% High T blank shows significantly better MEEF and larger DOF than those of 6% PSM mask blank, which is consistent with our simulation data.

  8. Vascularized axillary lymph node transfer: A novel model in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Grzegorz J; Uygur, Safak; Korn, Jason; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Madajka, Maria; Djohan, Risal; Zins, James E; Schwarz, Graham S

    2015-11-01

    Vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) is a promising microvascular free flap technique for the surgical treatment of lymphedema. To date, few experimental animal models for VLNT have been described and the viability of lymph nodes after the transfer tested. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of axillary VLNT in the rat. Lymph node containing flaps were harvested from the axillary region in 10 Lewis rats based on the axillary vessels. Flaps were transferred to the ipsilateral groin and end-to-side microanastomosis was performed to the femoral vessels using 10-0 sutures. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography was used to confirm flap perfusion. On postoperative day 7, flaps were elevated to assess their structure and vessel patency. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to confirm the presence and survival of lymph nodes. All animals tolerated the procedure well. Immediate post-procedure ICG angiography confirmed flap perfusion. No signs of ischemia or necrosis were observed in donor extremities. At postoperative day 7, all flaps remained viable with patent vascular pedicles. Gross examination and histology confirmed the presence of 3.6 ± 0.5 lymph nodes in each flap without any signs of necrosis. This study showed that the transfer of axillary lymph nodes based on the axillary vessels is feasible. The flap can be used without the need for donor animals and it contains a consistent number of lymph nodes. This reliable VLNT can be further utilized in studies involving lymphedema, transplantation, and induction of immunologic tolerance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Significance of clearing differentiated thyroid carcinoma lymph node by high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Qin, Huadong; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Tiefeng; Li, Chuanle; Liu, Yao; Song, Meiyue

    2017-01-01

    We compared the clinical effects and prognosis of patients receiving lymph node dissection after surgical removal of the thyroid tissues and those not receiving it after the removal. A total of 80 patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) by our hospital from March 2012 to March 2014 were successively included in the study. The cases were divided into the control group (n=36 cases) and observation group (n=44 cases), and the two groups underwent total or subtotal resection of the thyroid. In the control group, patients underwent preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography, and the most suspicious lymph node was removed. In the observation group, patients underwent preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography, and the surgeons cleared the lymph node of the widest range. Difference in clinical effects and prognosis of the two groups were compared. After nearly a year's follow-up observation, the tumor recurrence rate of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group and the survival rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P0.05). When comparing the data of lymphatic metastasis tested by preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography with intraoperative diagnosed figures, sensitivity was 97.4%, specificity 33.3%, positive predictive value 90.2% and the negative predictive value 66.7%. In conclusion, removal of the lymph node for DTC patients having undergone thyroid tissue excision with preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography can be beneficial to improve the effects along with reduction in the recurrence rate.

  10. Identifying influential nodes in dynamic social networks based on degree-corrected stochastic block model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Dai, Weidi; Jiao, Pengfei; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-05-01

    Many real-world data can be represented as dynamic networks which are the evolutionary networks with timestamps. Analyzing dynamic attributes is important to understanding the structures and functions of these complex networks. Especially, studying the influential nodes is significant to exploring and analyzing networks. In this paper, we propose a method to identify influential nodes in dynamic social networks based on identifying such nodes in the temporal communities which make up the dynamic networks. Firstly, we detect the community structures of all the snapshot networks based on the degree-corrected stochastic block model (DCBM). After getting the community structures, we capture the evolution of every community in the dynamic network by the extended Jaccard’s coefficient which is defined to map communities among all the snapshot networks. Then we obtain the initial influential nodes of the dynamic network and aggregate them based on three widely used centrality metrics. Experiments on real-world and synthetic datasets demonstrate that our method can identify influential nodes in dynamic networks accurately, at the same time, we also find some interesting phenomena and conclusions for those that have been validated in complex network or social science.

  11. Optimising magnetic sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, M.; Anninga, Bauke; Pouw, Joost Jacob; Vreemann, S.; Peek, M.; van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Pinder, Sara E.; ten Haken, Bernard; Pankhurst, Quentin A.; Douek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been evaluated in several clinical trials. An in vivo porcine model was developed to optimise the magnetic technique by evaluating the effect of differing volume, concentration and time of injection of magnetic tracer. A total of 60

  12. Oscillatory Behavior on a Three-Node Neural Network Model with Discrete and Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the oscillatory behavior of the solutions for a three-node neural network with discrete and distributed delays. Two theorems are provided to determine the conditions for oscillating solutions of the model. The criteria for selecting the parameters in this network are derived. Some simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  13. A new ghost-node method for linking different models and initial investigations of heterogeneity and nonmatching grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J.E.; James, S.C.; Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.; Leake, S.A.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Eddebbarh, A.-A.

    2007-01-01

    A flexible, robust method for linking parent (regional-scale) and child (local-scale) grids of locally refined models that use different numerical methods is developed based on a new, iterative ghost-node method. Tests are presented for two-dimensional and three-dimensional pumped systems that are homogeneous or that have simple heterogeneity. The parent and child grids are simulated using the block-centered finite-difference MODFLOW and control-volume finite-element FEHM models, respectively. The models are solved iteratively through head-dependent (child model) and specified-flow (parent model) boundary conditions. Boundary conditions for models with nonmatching grids or zones of different hydraulic conductivity are derived and tested against heads and flows from analytical or globally-refined models. Results indicate that for homogeneous two- and three-dimensional models with matched grids (integer number of child cells per parent cell), the new method is nearly as accurate as the coupling of two MODFLOW models using the shared-node method and, surprisingly, errors are slightly lower for nonmatching grids (noninteger number of child cells per parent cell). For heterogeneous three-dimensional systems, this paper compares two methods for each of the two sets of boundary conditions: external heads at head-dependent boundary conditions for the child model are calculated using bilinear interpolation or a Darcy-weighted interpolation; specified-flow boundary conditions for the parent model are calculated using model-grid or hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities. Results suggest that significantly more accurate heads and flows are produced when both Darcy-weighted interpolation and hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities are used, while the other methods produce larger errors at the boundary between the regional and local models. The tests suggest that, if posed correctly, the ghost-node method performs well. Additional testing is needed for highly

  14. Comparison of three magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouw JJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joost J Pouw,1,* Muneer Ahmed,2,* Bauke Anninga,2 Kimberley Schuurman,1 Sarah E Pinder,2 Mieke Van Hemelrijck,3 Quentin A Pankhurst,4,5 Michael Douek,2 Bennie ten Haken1 1MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Research Oncology, Division of Cancer Studies, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London, UK; 3Cancer Epidemiology Group, Division of Cancer Studies, King’s College London, London, UK; 4Healthcare Biomagnetics Laboratory, University College London, London, UK; 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Breast cancer staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on the use of radioisotopes, which limits the availability of the procedure worldwide. The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and a handheld magnetometer provides a radiation-free alternative, which was recently evaluated in two clinical trials. The hydrodynamic particle size of the used magnetic tracer differs substantially from the radioisotope tracer and could therefore benefit from optimization. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three different-sized magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy within an in vivo porcine model.Materials and methods: Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed within a validated porcine model using three magnetic nanoparticle tracers, approved for use in humans (ferumoxytol, with hydrodynamic diameter dH =32 nm; Sienna+®, dH =59 nm; and ferumoxide, dH =111 nm, and a handheld magnetometer. Magnetometer counts (transcutaneous and ex vivo, iron quantification (vibrating sample magnetometry, and histopathological assessments were performed on all ex vivo nodes.Results: Transcutaneous “hotspots” were present in 12/12 cases within 30 minutes of injection for the 59 nm tracer, compared to 7/12 for the 32 nm tracer and 8/12 for

  15. The reliability model of the fault-tolerant computing system with triple-modular redundancy based on the independent nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, P. A.; Bobkova, E. Yu

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with a reliability model of the restorable non-stop computing system with triple-modular redundancy based on independent computing nodes, taking into consideration the finite time for node activation and different node failure rates in the active and passive states. The obtained by authors generalized reliability model and calculation formulas for reliability indices for the system based on identical and independent computing nodes with the given threshold for quantity of active nodes, at which system is considered as operable, are also discussed. Finally, the application of the generalized model to the particular case of the non-stop restorable computing system with triple-modular redundancy based on independent nodes and calculation examples for reliability indices are also provided.

  16. Automated generation of node-splitting models for assessment of inconsistency in network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Valkenhoef, Gert; Dias, Sofia; Ades, A E; Welton, Nicky J

    2016-03-01

    Network meta-analysis enables the simultaneous synthesis of a network of clinical trials comparing any number of treatments. Potential inconsistencies between estimates of relative treatment effects are an important concern, and several methods to detect inconsistency have been proposed. This paper is concerned with the node-splitting approach, which is particularly attractive because of its straightforward interpretation, contrasting estimates from both direct and indirect evidence. However, node-splitting analyses are labour-intensive because each comparison of interest requires a separate model. It would be advantageous if node-splitting models could be estimated automatically for all comparisons of interest. We present an unambiguous decision rule to choose which comparisons to split, and prove that it selects only comparisons in potentially inconsistent loops in the network, and that all potentially inconsistent loops in the network are investigated. Moreover, the decision rule circumvents problems with the parameterisation of multi-arm trials, ensuring that model generation is trivial in all cases. Thus, our methods eliminate most of the manual work involved in using the node-splitting approach, enabling the analyst to focus on interpreting the results.

  17. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day(- 1)) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  18. Computational modeling of three-dimensional electrodiffusion in biological systems: application to the node of Ranvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopreore, Courtney L; Bartol, Thomas M; Coggan, Jay S; Keller, Daniel X; Sosinsky, Gina E; Ellisman, Mark H; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2008-09-15

    A computational model is presented for the simulation of three-dimensional electrodiffusion of ions. Finite volume techniques were used to solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation, and a dual Delaunay-Voronoi mesh was constructed to evaluate fluxes of ions, as well as resulting electric potentials. The algorithm has been validated and applied to a generalized node of Ranvier, where numerical results for computed action potentials agree well with cable model predictions for large clusters of voltage-gated ion channels. At smaller channel clusters, however, the three-dimensional electrodiffusion predictions diverge from the cable model predictions and show a broadening of the action potential, indicating a significant effect due to each channel's own local electric field. The node of Ranvier complex is an elaborate organization of membrane-bound aqueous compartments, and the model presented here represents what we believe is a significant first step in simulating electrophysiological events with combined realistic structural and physiological data.

  19. Coverage of axillary lymph nodes with high tangential fields in breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alço, G; Iğdem, S I; Ercan, T; Dinçer, M; Sentürk, R; Atilla, S; Oral Zengin, F; Okkan, S

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the coverage of axillary nodal volumes with high tangent fields (HTF) in breast radiotherapy and to determine the utility of customised blocking. The treatment plans of 30 consecutive patients with early breast cancer were evaluated. The prescription dose was 50 Gy to the whole breast. Axillary level I-II lymph node volumes were delineated and the cranial border of the tangential fields was set just below the humeral head to create HTF. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to calculate the doses received by axillary nodal volumes. In a second planning set, HTF were modified with multileaf collimators (MLC-HTF) to obtain an adequate dose coverage of axillary nodes. The mean doses of the axillary nodes, the ipsilateral lung and heart were compared between the two plans (HTF vs MLC-HTF) using a paired sample t-test. The doses received by 95% of the breast volumes were not significantly different for the two plans. The doses received by 95% of the level I and II axillary volumes were 16.79 Gy and 11.59 Gy, respectively, for HTF, increasing to 47.2 Gy and 45.03 Gy, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Mean lung doses and per cent volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving 20 Gy (V20) were also increased from 6.47 Gy and 10.47%, respectively, for HTF, to 9.56 Gy and 16.77%, respectively, for MLC-HTF. Our results suggest that HTF do not adequately cover the level I and II axillary lymph node regions. Modification of HTF with MLC is necessary to obtain an adequate coverage of axillary levels without compromising healthy tissue in the majority of the patients.

  20. Modeling and Characterization of Modified Optical Burst Switching (OBS Ring Network Using Proxy Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model of an optical burst switching  ring network capable of handling WDM traffic intelligently. The network protocol and efficient architecture increases the data transport capability of a congested network. Here we propose an architecture to ease the traffic congestion in a ring network. The backbone of the proposed model is the use of a proxy node which is connected to a particular number of nodes, depending upon the traffic, then diverting their traffic and thereby increasing throughput. A probabilistic model for the proposed network architecture is developed employing packet queuing control to estimate the average waiting time of packets in the buffer and the average number of packets in the buffer for different incoming traffic arrival rate.

  1. The saddle-node-transcritical bifurcation in a population model with constant rate harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Saputra, K V I; Quispel, G R W

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of saddle-node and transcritical bifurcations in a Lotka-Volterra model with a constant term representing harvesting or migration. Because some of the equilibria of the model lie on an invariant coordinate axis, both the saddle-node and the transcritical bifurcations are of codimension one. Their interaction can be associated with either a single or a double zero eigenvalue. We show that in the former case, the local bifurcation diagram is given by a nonversal unfolding of the cusp bifurcation whereas in the latter case it is a nonversal unfolding of a degenerate Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation. We present a simple model for each of the two cases to illustrate the possible unfoldings. We analyse the consequences of the generic phase portraits for the Lotka-Volterra system.

  2. New ghost-node method for linking different models with varied grid refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.C.; Dickinson, J.E.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Leake, S.A.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Eddebbarh, A.-A.

    2006-01-01

    A flexible, robust method for linking grids of locally refined ground-water flow models constructed with different numerical methods is needed to address a variety of hydrologic problems. This work outlines and tests a new ghost-node model-linking method for a refined "child" model that is contained within a larger and coarser "parent" model that is based on the iterative method of Steffen W. Mehl and Mary C. Hill (2002, Advances in Water Res., 25, p. 497-511; 2004, Advances in Water Res., 27, p. 899-912). The method is applicable to steady-state solutions for ground-water flow. Tests are presented for a homogeneous two-dimensional system that has matching grids (parent cells border an integer number of child cells) or nonmatching grids. The coupled grids are simulated by using the finite-difference and finite-element models MODFLOW and FEHM, respectively. The simulations require no alteration of the MODFLOW or FEHM models and are executed using a batch file on Windows operating systems. Results indicate that when the grids are matched spatially so that nodes and child-cell boundaries are aligned, the new coupling technique has error nearly equal to that when coupling two MODFLOW models. When the grids are nonmatching, model accuracy is slightly increased compared to that for matching-grid cases. Overall, results indicate that the ghost-node technique is a viable means to couple distinct models because the overall head and flow errors relative to the analytical solution are less than if only the regional coarse-grid model was used to simulate flow in the child model's domain.

  3. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: A model for language competition

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, Adrián; Miguel, Maxi San

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system si...

  4. High-speed AFM for 1x node metrology and inspection: Does it damage the features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Hamed; van den Dool, Teun C.; Uziel, Yoram; Bar Or, Ron

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at unraveling the mystery of damage in high speed AFMs for 1X node and below. With the device dimensions moving towards the 1X node and below, the semiconductor industry is rapidly approaching the point where existing metrology, inspection and review tools face huge challenges in terms of resolution, the ability to resolve 3D, and throughput. In this paper, we critically asses the important issue of damage in high speed AFM for metrology and inspection of semiconductor wafers. The issues of damage in four major scanning modes (contact mode, tapping mode, non-contact mode, and peak force tapping mode) are described to show which modes are suitable for which applications and which conditions are damaging. The effects of all important scanning parameters on resulting damage are taken into account for materials such as silicon, photoresists and low K materials. Finally, we recommend appropriate scanning parameters and conditions for several use cases (FinFET, patterned photoresist, HAR structures) that avoid exceeding a critical contact stress such that sample damage is minimized. In conclusion, we show using our theoretical analysis that selecting parameters that exceed the target contact stress, indeed leads to significant damage. This method provides AFM users for metrology with a better understanding of contact stresses and enables selection of AFM cantilevers and experimental parameters that prevent sample damage.

  5. Considering mask pellicle effect for more accurate OPC model at 45nm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo

    2008-11-01

    Now it comes to the 45nm technology node, which should be the first generation of the immersion micro-lithography. And the brand-new lithography tool makes many optical effects, which can be ignored at 90nm and 65nm nodes, now have significant impact on the pattern transmission process from design to silicon. Among all the effects, one that needs to be pay attention to is the mask pellicle effect's impact on the critical dimension variation. With the implement of hyper-NA lithography tools, light transmits the mask pellicle vertically is not a good approximation now, and the image blurring induced by the mask pellicle should be taken into account in the computational microlithography. In this works, we investigate how the mask pellicle impacts the accuracy of the OPC model. And we will show that considering the extremely tight critical dimension control spec for 45nm generation node, to take the mask pellicle effect into the OPC model now becomes necessary.

  6. A Node Model Capturing Turning Lane Capacity and Physical Queuing for the Dynamic Network Loading Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical dynamic node-based model is proposed to represent flows on a traffic network and to be utilized as an integral part of a dynamic network loading (DNL process by solving a continuous DNL problem. The proposed model formulation has an integrate base to be structured with a link load computing component, where physical queuing and its influence were explicitly taken into account by dividing a link into two parts: running part and queuing part. The solution to the model is obtained by a hybridization algorithm of simulation and analytical approach, where an iteration process is conducted to update time-dependent network flow conditions after a reasonable discretization of the problem. The performance of the proposed model, as a DNL model, is tested on a sample network. It is seen that the proposed model provides consistent approximations to link flow dynamics. The dynamic node model proposed in this paper is unique in that it explicitly models directional queue in each turning lane and the First-In-First-Out (FIFO rule at lane level rather than link level is pursued.

  7. Combined resist and etch modeling and correction for the 45-nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beale, Dan

    2006-10-01

    Emerging resist and etch process technologies for the 45 nm node exhibit new types of non-optical proximity errors, thus placing new demands on OPC modeling tools. In a previous paper (SPIE Vol. 6283-75) we had experimentally demonstrated a full resist and etch model calibration and verified the stability of the model using 45nm node standard logic cells. The etch model used a novel non-linear etch modeling object in combination with conventional convolution Kernels. Building upon those results, this paper focuses on the correction of patterns. We demonstrate a two-stage optical/resist and etch correction using calibrated models, including the use of non-linear etch modeling objects. Optical/resist and etch models are built separately and used sequentially to correct a 45nm logic pattern. Critical areas of the pattern affected by etch are analyzed and used to verify the correction. Verification of the correction is obtained through comparison between the simulated contours with the design intent.

  8. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for data transfers between nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a buffer identifier for a buffer containing data for transfer to a target node; sending, by the origin DMA to the target node, a RTS message; transferring, by the origin DMA, a data portion to the target node using a memory FIFO operation that specifies one end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data; receiving, by the origin DMA, an acknowledgement of the RTS message from the target node; and transferring, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the acknowledgement, any remaining data portion to the target node using a direct put operation that specifies the other end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data, including initiating the direct put operation without invoking an origin processing core.

  9. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2014-04-22

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for data transfers between nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a buffer identifier for a buffer containing data for transfer to a target node; sending, by the origin DMA to the target node, a RTS message; transferring, by the origin DMA, a data portion to the target node using a memory FIFO operation that specifies one end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data; receiving, by the origin DMA, an acknowledgement of the RTS message from the target node; and transferring, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the acknowledgement, any remaining data portion to the target node using a direct put operation that specifies the other end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data, including initiating the direct put operation without invoking an origin processing core.

  10. A Micro-Grid Simulator Tool (SGridSim) using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udhay Ravishankar; Milos manic

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a micro-grid simulator tool useful for implementing and testing multi-agent controllers (SGridSim). As a common engineering practice it is important to have a tool that simplifies the modeling of the salient features of a desired system. In electric micro-grids, these salient features are the voltage and power distributions within the micro-grid. Current simplified electric power grid simulator tools such as PowerWorld, PowerSim, Gridlab, etc, model only the power distribution features of a desired micro-grid. Other power grid simulators such as Simulink, Modelica, etc, use detailed modeling to accommodate the voltage distribution features. This paper presents a SGridSim micro-grid simulator tool that simplifies the modeling of both the voltage and power distribution features in a desired micro-grid. The SGridSim tool accomplishes this simplified modeling by using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) models of components that typically make-up a micro-grid. The term EN2NCI models means that the impedance based components of a micro-grid are modeled as single impedances tied between their respective voltage nodes on the micro-grid. Hence the benefit of the presented SGridSim tool are 1) simulation of a micro-grid is performed strictly in the complex-domain; 2) faster simulation of a micro-grid by avoiding the simulation of detailed transients. An example micro-grid model was built using the SGridSim tool and tested to simulate both the voltage and power distribution features with a total absolute relative error of less than 6%.

  11. UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; Kampmann, Bernhard; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The UTCI-Fiala mathematical model of human temperature regulation forms the basis of the new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTC). Following extensive validation tests, adaptations and extensions, such as the inclusion of an adaptive clothing model, the model was used to predict human temperature and regulatory responses for combinations of the prevailing outdoor climate conditions. This paper provides an overview of the underlying algorithms and methods that constitute the multi-node dynamic UTCI-Fiala model of human thermal physiology and comfort. Treated topics include modelling heat and mass transfer within the body, numerical techniques, modelling environmental heat exchanges, thermoregulatory reactions of the central nervous system, and perceptual responses. Other contributions of this special issue describe the validation of the UTCI-Fiala model against measured data and the development of the adaptive clothing model for outdoor climates.

  12. Enabling Fair Pricing on High Performance Computer Systems with Node Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Breslow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-location, where multiple jobs share compute nodes in large-scale HPC systems, has been shown to increase aggregate throughput and energy efficiency by 10–20%. However, system operators disallow co-location due to fair-pricing concerns, i.e., a pricing mechanism that considers performance interference from co-running jobs. In the current pricing model, application execution time determines the price, which results in unfair prices paid by the minority of users whose jobs suffer from co-location. This paper presents POPPA, a runtime system that enables fair pricing by delivering precise online interference detection and facilitates the adoption of supercomputers with co-locations. POPPA leverages a novel shutter mechanism – a cyclic, fine-grained interference sampling mechanism to accurately deduce the interference between co-runners – to provide unbiased pricing of jobs that share nodes. POPPA is able to quantify inter-application interference within 4% mean absolute error on a variety of co-located benchmark and real scientific workloads.

  13. Tumor implantation model for rapid testing of lymphatic dye uptake from paw to node in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue - used in the sentinel lymph node procedure - in normal and tumor-bearing animals, and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  14. Global Bifurcation Structure and Variability of Pacemaker Rhythm in a Detailed Model of Cardiac Sinoatrial Node Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenxing; Doi, Shinji

    As a cardiac pacemaker, sinoatrial node spontaneously generates periodic electrical signals (action potentials) in its cells. The action potential generation is deeply related to various ion channels in cell membranes, and the abnormalities of ion channels cause sinus arrhythmia. We use the Zhang model of sinoatrial node cells to investigate the relation between pacemaker rhythm (frequency of action potential generation) and ion channels. The Zhang model is described by the Hodgkin-Huxley-type nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and its parameter values vary between periphery and center cells of sinoatrial node. We analyze the bifurcation structure of the Zhang model, and investigate the variability of pacemaker rhythm and its sensitivity on ion channel conductance changes for both periphery and center cells. Moreover, these results are compared with the previous results of another sinoatrial node cell model: Yanagihara-Noma-Irisawa model.

  15. Modeling complex metabolic reactions, ecological systems, and financial and legal networks with MIANN models based on Markov-Wiener node descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; López-Díaz, Antonio; Pazos, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-27

    (k)(i) values were used as inputs for different ANNs in order to discriminate correct node connectivity patterns from incorrect random patterns. The MIANN models obtained present good values of Sensitivity/Specificity (%): MRNs (78/78), IWDBNs (90/88), and SFLN (86/84). These preliminary results are very promising from the point of view of a first exploratory study and suggest that the use of these models could be extended to the high-throughput re-evaluation of connectivity in known complex networks (collation).

  16. Line nodes and surface Majorana flat bands in static and kicked p -wave superconducting Harper model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Qiang; Chen, M. N.; Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin; Xing, D. Y.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of introducing nearest-neighbor p -wave superconducting pairing to both the static and kicked extended Harper model with two periodic phase parameters acting as artificial dimensions to simulate three-dimensional systems. It is found that in both the static model and the kicked model, by varying the p -wave pairing order parameter, the system can switch between a fully gapped phase and a gapless phase with point nodes or line nodes. The topological property of both the static and kicked model is revealed by calculating corresponding topological invariants defined in the one-dimensional lattice dimension. Under open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, Majorana flat bands at energy zero (quasienergy zero and π ) emerge in the static (kicked) model at the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone. For certain values of pairing order parameter, (Floquet) Su-Schrieffer-Heeger-like edge modes appear in the form of arcs connecting different (Floquet) Majorana flat bands. Finally, we find that in the kicked model, it is possible to generate two controllable Floquet Majorana modes, one at quasienergy zero and the other at quasienergy π , at the same parameter values.

  17. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  18. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide a q...

  19. A Compact Energy Harvesting System for Outdoor Wireless Sensor Nodes Based on a Low-Cost In Situ Photovoltaic Panel Characterization-Modelling Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Diego; Medrano, Nicolás; Calvo, Belén; Martínez, Pedro A

    2017-08-04

    This paper presents a low-cost high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system to power outdoor wireless sensor nodes. It is based on a Voltage Open Circuit (VOC) algorithm that estimates the open-circuit voltage by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network model trained using local experimental characterization data, which are acquired through a novel low cost characterization system incorporated into the deployed node. Both units-characterization and modelling-are controlled by the same low-cost microcontroller, providing a complete solution which can be understood as a virtual pilot cell, with identical characteristics to those of the specific small solar cell installed on the sensor node, that besides allows an easy adaptation to changes in the actual environmental conditions, panel aging, etc. Experimental comparison to a classical pilot panel based VOC algorithm show better efficiency under the same tested conditions.

  20. Lymph node dissection in patients with malignant melanoma is associated with high risk of morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer types globally, and it is by far the most serious skin cancer. Patients with a melanoma ≥ 1 mm in Breslow thickness are offered sentinel node (SN) biopsy and subsequent radical lymph node dissection if the biopsy is positive. The obj......Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer types globally, and it is by far the most serious skin cancer. Patients with a melanoma ≥ 1 mm in Breslow thickness are offered sentinel node (SN) biopsy and subsequent radical lymph node dissection if the biopsy is positive...

  1. Towards a multi-node OpenACC Implementation of the ICON Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Will; Zaengl, Guenther; Linardakis, Leonidas

    2014-05-01

    We have ported the Icosahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) model's dynamics solver to Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), which is a task within the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Second Implementation Phase (2IP) Work Package 8 (WP8). Initial single-node OpenCL and CUDA-Fortran implementations of ICON's non-hydrostatic dynamical core (NHDC) resulted in a maximum factor of two speedup over the latest CPU nodes, e.g., a dual-socket Intel Sandybridge. While this performance was promising, ICON developers viewed neither OpenCL nor CUDA-Fortran as viable programming paradigms for the actual production code, and suggested instead the OpenACC standard as the proper paradigm for the multi-node GPU implementation, which was then undertaken in WP8. We will present the results of the multi-node OpenACC implementation of the ICON NHDC for hybrid multicore platforms. The code baseline is the ICON "DSL" (Domain Specific Language) testbed code, which is essentially a stripped-down version of the ICON model for dynamics simulations only. We will discuss on the OpenACC directives used for the port of the computational as well as the communication code to GPUs, and report the resulting GPU performance on NVIDIA K20x as compared to contemporary CPU architectures. In addition, the future roadmap for an accelerated ICON version will be presented. As a first step, we are now incorporating the OpenACC directives into the ICON development trunk, based on the feedback given to us from the ICON developers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) and the German Weather Service (DWD). Moreover, we plan to port the ICON Climate physical parameterizations stemming from the ECHAM model to OpenACC. This step should enable the full ICON on many core platforms which support OpenACC. The resulting model should benefit climate researchers world-wide who plan to transition from ECHAM to ICON in the coming years.

  2. Numerical Modeling Calcium and CaMKII Effects in the SA Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Victor A

    2014-01-01

    Sinoatrial node (SAN) is the primary heart pacemaker which initiates each heartbeat under normal conditions. Numerous experimental data have demonstrated that Ca(2+-) and CaMKII-dependent processes are crucially important for regulation of SAN cells. However, specific mechanisms of this regulation and their relative contribution to pacemaker function remain mainly unknown. Our review summarizes available data and existing numerical modeling approaches to understand Ca(2+) and CaMKII effects on the SAN. Data interpretation and future directions to address the problem are given within the coupled-clock theory, i.e., a modern view on the cardiac pacemaker cell function generated by a system of sarcolemmal and intracellular proteins.

  3. Lymph node dissection in patients with malignant melanoma is associated with high risk of morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer types globally, and it is by far the most serious skin cancer. Patients with a melanoma ≥ 1 mm in Breslow thickness are offered sentinel node (SN) biopsy and subsequent radical lymph node dissection if the biopsy is positive...

  4. Lymph node dissection in patients with malignant melanoma is associated with high risk of morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer types globally, and it is by far the most serious skin cancer. Patients with a melanoma ≥ 1 mm in Breslow thickness are offered sentinel node (SN) biopsy and subsequent radical lymph node dissection if the biopsy is positive. The obj...

  5. Density-based rough set model for hesitant node clustering in overlapping community detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Jiaxu Peng; Ou Liu

    2014-01-01

    Overlapping community detection in a network is a chal enging issue which attracts lots of attention in recent years. A notion of hesitant node (HN) is proposed. An HN contacts with multiple communities while the communications are not strong or even accidental, thus the HN holds an implicit community structure. However, HNs are not rare in the real world network. It is impor-tant to identify them because they can be efficient hubs which form the overlapping portions of communities or simple attached nodes to some communities. Current approaches have difficul-ties in identifying and clustering HNs. A density-based rough set model (DBRSM) is proposed by combining the virtue of density-based algorithms and rough set models. It incorporates the macro perspective of the community structure of the whole network and the micro perspective of the local information held by HNs, which would facilitate the further“growth”of HNs in community. We offer a theoretical support for this model from the point of strength of the trust path. The experiments on the real-world and synthetic datasets show the practical significance of analyzing and cluste-ring the HNs based on DBRSM. Besides, the clustering based on DBRSM promotes the modularity optimization.

  6. High-Performance, Multi-Node File Copies and Checksums for Clustered File Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Paul Z.; Ciotti, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Modern parallel file systems achieve high performance using a variety of techniques, such as striping files across multiple disks to increase aggregate I/O bandwidth and spreading disks across multiple servers to increase aggregate interconnect bandwidth. To achieve peak performance from such systems, it is typically necessary to utilize multiple concurrent readers/writers from multiple systems to overcome various singlesystem limitations, such as number of processors and network bandwidth. The standard cp and md5sum tools of GNU coreutils found on every modern Unix/Linux system, however, utilize a single execution thread on a single CPU core of a single system, and hence cannot take full advantage of the increased performance of clustered file systems. Mcp and msum are drop-in replacements for the standard cp and md5sum programs that utilize multiple types of parallelism and other optimizations to achieve maximum copy and checksum performance on clustered file systems. Multi-threading is used to ensure that nodes are kept as busy as possible. Read/write parallelism allows individual operations of a single copy to be overlapped using asynchronous I/O. Multinode cooperation allows different nodes to take part in the same copy/checksum. Split-file processing allows multiple threads to operate concurrently on the same file. Finally, hash trees allow inherently serial checksums to be performed in parallel. Mcp and msum provide significant performance improvements over standard cp and md5sum using multiple types of parallelism and other optimizations. The total speed-ups from all improvements are significant. Mcp improves cp performance over 27x, msum improves md5sum performance almost 19x, and the combination of mcp and msum improves verified copies via cp and md5sum by almost 22x. These improvements come in the form of drop-in replacements for cp and md5sum, so are easily used and are available for download as open source software at http://mutil.sourceforge.net.

  7. Tumor size interpretation for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis using a differentiated thyroid cancer risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Yang, Shu-wen; Ma, Ben; Lu, Zhong-wu; Wen, Duo; Sun, Guo-hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but management of clinically negative DTC is controversial. This study evaluated primary tumor size as a predictor of LNM. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for DTC patients who were treated with surgery between 2002 and 2012 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, to determine the association of tumor size at 10 mm increments with LNM. A predictive model was then developed to estimate the risk of LNM in DTC, using tumor size and other clinicopathological characteristics identified from the multivariate analysis. We identified 80,565 eligible patients with DTC in the SEER database. Final histology confirmed 9,896 (12.3%) cases affected with N1a disease and 8,194 (10.2%) cases with N1b disease. After the patients were classified into subgroups by tumor size, we found that the percentages of male sex, white race, follicular histology, gross extrathyroidal extension, lateral lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis gradually increased with size. In multivariate analysis, tumor size was a significant independent prognostic factor for LNM; in particular, the odds ratio for lateral lymph node metastasis continued to increase by size relative to a 1–10 mm baseline. The coefficient for tumor size in the LNM predictive model waŝ0.20, indicating extra change in log(odds ratio) for LNM as 0.2 per unit increment in size relative to baseline. In conclusion, larger tumors are likely to have aggressive features and metastasize to a cervical compartment. Multistratification by size could provide more precise estimates of the likelihood of LNM before surgery. PMID:27574443

  8. Nodes with high centrality in protein interaction networks are responsible for driving signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abedi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of huge efforts, chronic diseases remain an unresolved problem in medicine. Systems biology could assist to develop more efficient therapies through providing quantitative holistic sights to these complex disorders. In this study, we have re-analyzed a microarray dataset to identify critical signaling pathways related to diabetic nephropathy. GSE1009 dataset was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database and the gene expression profile of glomeruli from diabetic nephropathy patients and those from healthy individuals were compared. The protein-protein interaction network for differentially expressed genes was constructed and enriched. In addition, topology of the network was analyzed to identify the genes with high centrality parameters and then pathway enrichment analysis was performed. We found 49 genes to be variably expressed between the two groups. The network of these genes had few interactions so it was enriched and a network with 137 nodes was constructed. Based on different parameters, 34 nodes were considered to have high centrality in this network. Pathway enrichment analysis with these central genes identified 62 inter-connected signaling pathways related to diabetic nephropathy. Interestingly, the central nodes were more informative for pathway enrichment analysis compared to all network nodes and also 49 differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we here show that central nodes in protein interaction networks tend to be present in pathways that co-occur in a biological state. Also, this study suggests a computational method for inferring underlying mechanisms of complex disorders from raw high-throughput data.

  9. On Tandem Communication Network Model with DBA and Modified Phase Type Transmission Having NHP Arrivals for First Node and Poisson Arrival for Second Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.Rama Sundari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication network models play a predominant role in performance evaluation of many communication systems. The packet arrival processes for data networks are not matching with the Poisson processes due to the nature of bursty and time dependent arrivals. In this paper, a three node communication network model with non homogeneous Poisson arrivals having dynamic bandwidth allocation under modified phase type transmission is introduced for performance evaluation and monitoring of several tele and satellite communications. The system performance measures of the network are derived explicitly. The sensitivity analysis reveals the dynamic bandwidth allocation strategy and non homogeneous Poisson arrivals can reduce the burstyness in buffers and delay in transmission. This model also includes some of the earlier models as particular cases for specific and limiting of parameters.

  10. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer based on sentinel node SPECT imaging for target volume definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadis Aristotelis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging. Methods Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV. Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed. Results Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29. 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10, that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss' only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG

  11. Performance Modeling of a Bottleneck Node in an IEEE 802.11 Ad-hoc Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Hans; Roijers, Frank; Mandjes, Michel R.H.; Kunz, T.; Ravi, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott

  12. Triangular node for Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) applied to bio-heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Hugo F M; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-12-01

    Transmission-Line Modeling (TLM) is a numerical method used to solve complex and time-domain bio-heat transfer problems. In TLM, rectangles are used to discretize two-dimensional problems. The drawback in using rectangular shapes is that instead of refining only the domain of interest, a large additional domain will also be refined in the x and y axes, which results in increased computational time and memory space. In this paper, we developed a triangular node for TLM applied to bio-heat transfer that does not have the drawback associated with the rectangular nodes. The model includes heat source, blood perfusion (advection), boundary conditions and initial conditions. The boundary conditions could be adiabatic, temperature, heat flux, or convection. A matrix equation for TLM, which simplifies the solution of time-domain problems or solves steady-state problems, was also developed. The predicted results were compared against results obtained from the solution of a simplified two-dimensional problem, and they agreed within 1% for a mesh length of triangular faces of 59µm±9µm (mean±standard deviation) and a time step of 1ms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Denise L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs, although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC, boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART, and multivariate logistic regression (MLR informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93% patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%. 101 (35% of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171 and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171. When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77, AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of

  14. A point-based angular analysis model for identifying attributes of spaces at nodes in street networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Kyu; Ban, Yong Un

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the axial map as the key representation of the original space syntax have been questioned by some researchers because of the map's discontinuity. To address this concern, angular segment analysis (ASA) was introduced. ASA calculates spatial depths by considering the turning angles of path segments in a street network. However, ASA cannot calculate the attributes of nodes connected to path segments in the network because it analyzes spaces by linear representation, as in the original space syntax. Because the attributes of the two ends (nodes) of a given path segment (link) are not equal to each other, and because they can affect pedestrian and vehicle movement and land use in a street network, the identification of the attributes at nodes (points) would be helpful in the detailed analysis of spaces in the network consisting of nodes and the segments connecting them. Accordingly, this study aims to develop an extended analysis model that can calculate the attributes of spaces at the nodes, including terminuses, bends, and junctions, in the network. To achieve this end, in this study we developed algorithms for a point-based angular analysis (PAA) to find the attributes of spaces at nodes (points), in contrast to ASA, which analyzes spaces using linear representations. As a result, this methodology can obtain distinct values for the attributes of two nodes at the ends of a path segment, through the calculation of spatial depths weighted by considering the turning angles and distances (lengths) along consecutive nodes for a route in the network. Through our methodology, it was identified that spatial configurations of street network affect the social and symbolic centralities of nodes in the network. We believe that our methodology can be a useful tool for planning urban streets and for deriving spatial and social relationships in street networks.

  15. Development of high level trigger for PANDA EMC using an FPGA-based compute node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); EPC, IHEP, Beijing (China); Jin, Dapeng; Liu, Zhen-an; Xu, Hao [EPC, IHEP, Beijing (China); Kopp, Andreas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liang, Yutie; Liu, Ming; Muechow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR has a rich physics program. The EMC detector provides almost 4{pi} coverage, good granularity and good energy resolution. Its data acquisition(DAQ) system features a novel self-trigger data pushed architecture. Data from EMC readout electronics are processed on the fly to reconstruct electromagnetic showers. The extracted features are combined with information from other detectors in order to discriminate photons from electrons and hadrons. The EMC detector, readout electronics and offline reconstruction algorithms are studied and an adaptive EMC DAQ scheme is proposed employing an FPGA based Compute Node(CN). The CN provides flexible connections with high bandwidth between processing modules, up to 10 GByte DDR2 memory per board for data buffering and five high-end FPGAs for sophisticated algorithm applications. The algorithm partition strategy is designed based on the readout electronics layout and the CN's processing architecture. The functional verification and performance evaluation methods for the algorithms are also covered.

  16. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie;

    2012-01-01

    for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...

  17. Effects of Mobility Models and Nodes Distribution on Wireless Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A.J.Al-Sabbagh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN is an important future technology, in several applications in military, health, environment and industries. Currently the integration of social and sensor is very important by considering the characteristics of social networks in designing wireless sensor networks WSN for improvement such as (number of messages from source to destination, radius of coverage, connectivity, and spreading. This area has not received much attention and few researches focus on the performance evaluation. In this paper we have studied the impact of different mobility and distribution models which is a variable one should define which model is best for the infrastructure given their differences, also study include the exact effect of nodes distribution and analyzed by calculation the number of messages of 12 cases to get a real performance evaluation under different conditions and same routing techniques. This work provides us a greater understanding and clear an idea of the effect of mobility plus distribution.

  18. ANALYSIS OF ASSEMBLY SUITABILITY OF THE HYBRID NODE BASED ON WELD DISTORTION PREDICTION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Urbański

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of assembly suitability of the innovative hybrid node. Weld distortions are a factor that affects significantly the quality of a structure during its pre-fabrication stage, thus increasing manufacturing costs . For the purposes of this analysis, such distortion forms were chosen that are the highest-ranking ones in the technological hierarchy. The analysis was performed taking advantage of significant parameters in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using mathematical models determined on the basis of a designed experiment to modify the construction technology as early as during the stage of the hybrid node’s manufacture. It was shown that using the above-mentioned theoretical models a technological assessment of the structural component can be performed by selecting such system of parameters that will produce distortions at a level acceptable from the point of view of further assembly suitability.

  19. Epidemic threshold of node-weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible models on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the epidemic spreading on random and regular networks through a pairwise-type model with a general transmission rate to evaluate the influence of the node-weight distribution. By using block matrix theory, an epidemic threshold index is formulated to predict the epidemic outbreak. An upper bound of the epidemic threshold is obtained by analyzing the monotonicity of spectral radius for nonnegative matrices. Theoretical results suggest that the epidemic threshold is dependent on both matrices {H}(1) and {H}(2) with the first matrix being related to the mean-field model while the second one reflecting the heterogeneous transmission rates. In particular, for a linear transmission rate, this study shows the negative correlation between the heterogeneity of weight distribution and the epidemic threshold, which is different from the results for existing results from the edge-weighted networks.

  20. Novel high-performance element in the electromagnetic finite-element method--node-edge element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xinqing; Peng Zhen

    2008-01-01

    It is known in the computational electromagnetics (CEM) that the node element has a relative well-conditioned matrix,but suffers from the spurious solution problem; whereas the edge element has no spurious solutions,but usually produces an ill-conditioned matrix.Particularly,when the mesh is over dense,the iterative solution of the matrix equation from edge element converges very slowly.Based on the node element and edge element,a node-edge element is presented,which has no spurious solutions and better-conditioned matrix.Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed node-edge element is more efficient than now-widely used edge element.

  1. Models predicting non-sentinel node involvement also predict for regional recurrence in breast cancer patients without axillary treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepels, M.J.; Vestjens, J.H.; Boer, M. de; Bult, P.; Dijck, J.A.A.M. van; Menke-Pluijmers, M.; Diest, P.J. van; Borm, G.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-SN prediction models are frequently used in clinical decision making to identify patients that may not need axillary treatment, but these models still need to be validated by follow-up data. Our purpose was the validation of non-sentinel node (SN) prediction models in predicting

  2. A high-efficiency self-powered wireless sensor node for monitoring concerning vibratory events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dacheng; Li, Suiqiong; Li, Mengyang; Xie, Danpeng; Dong, Chuan; Li, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a self-powered wireless alarming sensor node (SWASN), which was designed to monitor the occurrence of concerning vibratory events. The major components of the sensor node include a vibration-threshold-triggered energy harvester (VTTEH) that powers the sensor node, a dual threshold voltage control circuit (DTVCC) for power management and a radio frequency (RF) signal transmitting module. The VTTEH generates significant electric energy only when the input vibration reaches certain amplitude. Thus, the VTTEH serves as both the power source and the vibration-event-sensing element for the sensor node. The DTVCC was specifically designed to utilize the limited power supply from the VTTEH to operate the sensor node. Constructed with only voltage detectors and MOSFETs, the DTVCC achieved low power consumption, which was 65% lower compared with the power management circuit designed in our previous work. Meanwhile, a RF transmit circuit was constructed based on the commercially available CC1110-F32 wireless transceiver chip and a compact planar antenna was designed to improve the signal transmission distance. The sensor node was fabricated and was characterized both in the laboratory and in the field. Experimental results showed that the SWASN could automatically send out alarming signals when the simulated concerning event occurred. The waiting time between two consecutive transmission periods is less than 125 s and the transmission distance can reach 1.31 km. The SWASN will have broad applications in field surveillances.

  3. Efficient performance of the Met Office Unified Model v8.2 on Intel Xeon partially used nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermous, I.; Steinle, P.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric Unified Model (UM) developed at the UK Met Office is used for weather and climate prediction by forecast teams at a number of international meteorological centres and research institutes on a wide variety of hardware and software environments. Over its 25 year history the UM sources have been optimised for better application performance on a number of High Performance Computing (HPC) systems including NEC SX vector architecture systems and recently the IBM Power6/Power7 platforms. Understanding the influence of the compiler flags, Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries and run configurations is crucial to achieving the shortest elapsed times for a UM application on any particular HPC system. These aspects are very important for applications that must run within operational time frames. Driving the current study is the HPC industry trend since 1980 for processor arithmetic performance to increase at a faster rate than memory bandwidth. This gap has been growing especially fast for multicore processors in the past 10 years and it can have significant implication for the performance and performance scaling of memory bandwidth intensive applications, such as the UM. Analysis of partially used nodes on Intel Xeon clusters is provided in this paper for short- and medium-range weather forecasting systems using global and limited-area configurations. It is shown that on the Intel Xeon-based clusters the fastest elapsed times and the most efficient system usage can be achieved using partially committed nodes.

  4. Hybrid OPC modeling with SEM contour technique for 10nm node process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Keiichiro; Halle, Scott; Miller, Marshal; Graur, Ioana; Saulnier, Nicole; Dunn, Derren; Okai, Nobuhiro; Hotta, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Komuro, Hitoshi; Ishimoto, Toru; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Hojo, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid OPC modeling is investigated using both CDs from 1D and simple 2D structures and contours extracted from complex 2D structures, which are obtained by a Critical Dimension-Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM). Recent studies have addressed some of key issues needed for the implementation of contour extraction, including an edge detection algorithm consistent with conventional CD measurements, contour averaging and contour alignment. Firstly, pattern contours obtained from CD-SEM images were used to complement traditional site driven CD metrology for the calibration of OPC models for both metal and contact layers of 10 nm-node logic device, developed in Albany Nano-Tech. The accuracy of hybrid OPC model was compared with that of conventional OPC model, which was created with only CD data. Accuracy of the model, defined as total error root-mean-square (RMS), was improved by 23% with the use of hybrid OPC modeling for contact layer and 18% for metal layer, respectively. Pattern specific benefit of hybrid modeling was also examined. Resist shrink correction was applied to contours extracted from CD-SEM images in order to improve accuracy of the contours, and shrink corrected contours were used for OPC modeling. The accuracy of OPC model with shrink correction was compared with that without shrink correction, and total error RMS was decreased by 0.2nm (12%) with shrink correction technique. Variation of model accuracy among 8 modeling runs with different model calibration patterns was reduced by applying shrink correction. The shrink correction of contours can improve accuracy and stability of OPC model.

  5. Node security

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that will give you all the information you need to secure your Node applications.If you are a developer who wishes to secure your Node applications, whether you are already using Node Security in production, or are considering using it for your next project, then this book will enable you to ensure security of your applications. An understanding of JavaScript is a prerequisite, and some experience with Node is recommended, though not required.

  6. A risk score model for the metastasis of level Ib lymph node based on the clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei; Li, Xian; Liu, Zhigang; Jiang, Changbin; Niu, Daoli; Xia, Yunfei

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a metastatic risk score model of neck level Ib lymph nodes in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to guide the level Ib radiotherapy. There were a total of 1,557 patients enrolled in the study, and of these patients, 1,145 were included in the training set. Univariate χ(2) analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen the independent risk factors to construct the risk score model. A total of 85 patients in the validating set underwent a pathology biopsy of level Ib lymph nodes to test the model. The remaining 327 patients from the prognostic-research set were used to evaluate the prognostic impact of level Ib irradiation in high- and low-risk groups. The independent risk factors in the model were carotid sheath involvement, the maximal diameter of the neck lymph nodes (≥20 mm) and the involvement of the level II/III/IV lymph nodes. The involvement of level IV was assigned score 2 and the other risk factors were assigned score 1. According to the total scores, the patients were divided into the low- (total score, 0-1; level Ib metastasis rate, 0.5%) and high-risk groups (total score, 2-4; level Ib metastasis rate, 8.5%). In the validating set, the metastatic rate of level Ib in 43 low-risk patients was 0%, and the rate was 31.0% (13/42) in 42 high-risk patients. In the prognostic-research set, the prognosis of 137 low-risk patients was not affected by level Ib irradiation. However, level Ib unirradiation was an independent prognostic factor for the locoregional recurrence in 190 high-risk patients. According to the data, the novel score model could help assess the metastatic risk of level Ib in primary NPC, and the radiotherapy on level Ib may impact the locoregional recurrence in high-risk patients.

  7. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current, , in Mathematical Models of Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical feature of sinoatrial (SA node pacemaker cells is the presence of an ionic current that activates upon hyperpolarization. The role of this hyperpolarization-activated current, , which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” in the spontaneous pacemaker activity of SA nodal cells remains a matter of intense debate. Whereas some conclude that plays a fundamental role in the generation of pacemaker activity and its rate control, others conclude that the role of is limited to a modest contribution to rate control. The ongoing debate is often accompanied with arguments from computer simulations, either to support one's personal view or to invalidate that of the antagonist. In the present paper, we review the various mathematical descriptions of that have been used in computer simulations and compare their strikingly different characteristics with our experimental data. We identify caveats and propose a novel model for based on our experimental data.

  8. A Floating Node Method for the Modelling of Discontinuities Within a Finite Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Silvestre T.; Chen, B. Y.; DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Baiz, P. M.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the accurate numerical representation of complex networks of evolving discontinuities in solids, with particular emphasis on cracks. The limitation of the standard finite element method (FEM) in approximating discontinuous solutions has motivated the development of re-meshing, smeared crack models, the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the Phantom Node Method (PNM). We propose a new method which has some similarities to the PNM, but crucially: (i) does not introduce an error on the crack geometry when mapping to natural coordinates; (ii) does not require numerical integration over only part of a domain; (iii) can incorporate weak discontinuities and cohesive cracks more readily; (iv) is ideally suited for the representation of multiple and complex networks of (weak, strong and cohesive) discontinuities; (v) leads to the same solution as a finite element mesh where the discontinuity is represented explicitly; and (vi) is conceptually simpler than the PNM.

  9. Numerical Modeling Calcium and CaMKII Effects in the SA Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eYaniv

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinoatrial node (SAN is the primary heart pacemaker which initiates each heartbeat under normal conditions. Numerous experimental data have demonstrated that Ca2+- and CaMKII-dependent processes are crucially important for regulation of SAN cells. However specific mechanisms of this regulation and their relative contribution to pacemaker function remain mainly unknown. Our review summarizes available data and existing numerical modeling approaches to understand Ca2+ and CaMKII effects on the SAN. Data interpretation and future directions to address the problem are given within the coupled-clock theory, i.e. a modern view on the cardiac pacemaker cell function generated by a system of sarcolemmal and intracellular proteins.

  10. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: a model for language competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system size scaling analysis shows, on the one hand, that the probability of language extinction vanishes exponentially for increasing system sizes and, on the other hand, that the time scale of survival of the non-trivial dynamical metastable states increases linearly with the size of the system. Thus, non-trivial dynamical coexistence is the only possible outcome for large enough systems. Finally, we show how this coexistence is characterized by one of the languages becoming clearly predominant while the other one becomes increasingly confined to ‘ghetto-like’ structures: small groups of bilingual speakers arranged in triangles, with a strong preference for the minority language, and using it for their intra-group interactions while they switch to the predominant language for communications with the rest of the population.

  11. Prediction of pest pressure on corn root nodes: the POPP-Corn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatz, Annika; Ashauer, Roman; Sweeney, Paul; Brown, Colin D

    2017-01-01

    A model for the corn rootworm Diabrotica spp. combined with a temporally explicit model for development of corn roots across the soil profile was developed to link pest ecology, root damage and yield loss. Development of the model focused on simulating root damage from rootworm feeding in accordance with observations in the field to allow the virtual testing of efficacy from management interventions in the future. We present the model and demonstrate its applicability for simulating root damage by comparison between observed and simulated pest development and root damage (assessed according to the node injury scale from 0 to 3) for field studies from the literature conducted in Urbana, Illinois (US), between 1991 and 2014. The model simulated the first appearance of larvae and adults to within a week of that observed in 88 and 71 % of all years, respectively, and in all cases to within 2 weeks of the first sightings recorded for central Illinois. Furthermore, in 73 % of all years simulated root damage differed by pest pressure (i.e. number of eggs in the soil) was not measured at the sites or available from nearby locations. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that pest ecology, root damage and yield loss have been successfully interlinked to produce a virtual field. There are potential applications in investigating efficacy of different pest control measures and strategies.

  12. A new approach using the Pierce two-node model for different body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach, in applying the Pierce two-node model, to predict local skin temperatures of individual body parts with good accuracy. In this study, local skin temperature measurements at 24 sites on the bodies of 11 human subjects were carried out in a controlled environment under three different indoor conditions (i.e. neutral, warm and cold). The neutral condition measurements were used to adjust the local skin set-points in the model for each body part. Additional modifications to the calculation algorithm were introduced corresponding to different body parts. The local core set-points were then calculated, using a line search method, as the input values that allow the model to predict the skin temperatures with maximum deviation of ±0.1°C for the neutral condition. The model predictability was verified for the other two indoor conditions, and the results show that the modified model predicts local skin temperatures with average deviation of ±0.3°C.

  13. Node cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David Mark

    2014-01-01

    In Node Cookbook Second Edition, each chapter focuses on a different aspect of working with Node. Following a Cookbook structure, the recipes are written in an easy-to-understand language. Readers will find it easier to grasp even the complex recipes which are backed by lots of illustrations, tips, and hints.If you have some knowledge of JavaScript and want to build fast, efficient, scalable client-server solutions, then Node Cookbook Second Edition is for you. Knowledge of Node will be an advantage but is not required. Experienced users of Node will be able to improve their skills.

  14. Mesenteric lymph node CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) dendritic cells highly induce regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Aya; Kotaki, Ryutaro; Takano, Tomohiro; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to regulate immune responses to beneficial or non-harmful agents in the intestine, such as commensal bacteria and foods. Several studies in MLN DCs have revealed that the CD103(+) DC subset highly induces regulatory T cells, and another study has reported that MLN DCs from programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) -deficient mice could not induce regulatory T cells. Hence, the present study investigated the expression of these molecules on MLN CD11c(+) cells. Four distinct subsets expressing CD103 and/or PD-L1 were identified, namely CD11b(+) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) , CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) , CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(Low) and CD11b(+) CD103(-) PD-L1(Int) . Among them, the CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) DC subset highly induced Foxp3(+) T cells. This subset expressed Aldh1a2 and Itgb8 genes, which are involved in retinoic acid metabolism and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation, respectively. Exogenous TGF-β supplementation equalized the level of Foxp3(+) T-cell induction by the four subsets whereas retinoic acid did not, which suggests that high ability to activate TGF-β is determinant for the high Foxp3(+) T-cell induction by CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) DC subset. Finally, this subset exhibited a migratory DC phenotype and could take up and present orally administered antigens. Collectively, the MLN CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) DC subset probably takes up luminal antigens in the intestine, migrates to MLNs, and highly induces regulatory T cells through TGF-β activation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improvement of sweating model in 2-Node Model and its application to thermal safety for hot environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, Ryozo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 8505 (Japan); Minami, Yuriko [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Sakoi, Tomonori [International Young Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Tsuzuki, Kazuyo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Rijal, H.B. [Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Recently, due to global warming and the heat-island effect, more and more people are exposed to the dangers of heat disorders. A hot thermal environment can be evaluated using various indices, such as new Standard Effective Temperature (SET{sup *}) using the 2-Node Model (2 NM), Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model, and so on. The authors aim to develop a safety evaluation approach for hot environments. Subject experiments are performed in a laboratory to comprehend the physiological response of the human body. The results are compared with the computed values from the 2 NM and PHS models, and improved the sweating model in 2 NM in order to take into account the relationship with metabolic rate. A demonstration is provided of using the new sweating model for evaluating thermal safety in a hot environment. (author)

  16. Comparative study between original and traditional method in establishing a chronic sinus node damage model in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru-xiu; Wang, Yan-li; Li, Hui-bo; Wang, Ni-na; Bao, Mei-jing; Xu, Li-ya

    2012-12-01

    Sick Sinus Syndrome is a common and refractory arrhythmia, needing further study in which setting up a credible sinus node damage model is important. To explore the feasibility and superiority of an original formaldehyde pinpoint pressing permeation (FPPP) method for building a chronic sinus node damage (CSND) model, 5 rabbits were chosen from 35 as a sham-operation group, and the remaining were randomly divided into two groups: the formaldehyde wet compressing (FWC) group, in which models were established by applying a cotton bud dipped in 20% formaldehyde onto the sinus node (SN) area, and the FPPP group, in which models were established by injecting formaldehyde into the SN area through a self-made pinpointing and injecting electrode. We found that in both groups, the HR at 2 h, 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk after modeling decreased compared with premodeling; sinoatrial conduction time, sinus node recovery time, and corrected sinus node recovery time were prolonged compared with premodeling. The indexes mentioned shortened by 2 wk after modeling compared with 2 h in the FWC group, whereas they were stable after modeling in the FPPP group. The modeling achievement ratio in the FPPP group was higher and the death rate was lower. Under light microscope, paraffin sections of the SN tissue and cells showed severe injury in both groups. The results indicate that the CSND models in rabbits can be successfully established by the FPPP method, with higher achievement ratio, lower death rate, better stabilization effect, and less damaging comparing with the traditional method.

  17. A multi-class approach for ranking graph nodes: models and experiments with incomplete data

    CERN Document Server

    Del Corso, Gianna M

    2015-01-01

    After the phenomenal success of the PageRank algorithm, many researchers have extended the PageRank approach to ranking graphs with richer structures beside the simple linkage structure. In some scenarios we have to deal with multi-parameters data where each node has additional features and there are relationships between such features. This paper stems from the need of a systematic approach when dealing with multi-parameter data. We propose models and ranking algorithms which can be used with little adjustments for a large variety of networks (bibliographic data, patent data, twitter and social data, healthcare data). In this paper we focus on several aspects which have not been addressed in the literature: (1) we propose different models for ranking multi-parameters data and a class of numerical algorithms for efficiently computing the ranking score of such models, (2) by analyzing the stability and convergence properties of the numerical schemes we tune a fast and stable technique for the ranking problem, ...

  18. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    Design and technical advancements in sensing, processing, and wireless communication capabilities of small, portable devices known as wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) have drawn extensive research attention and are vastly applied in science and engineering applications. The WSNs are typically powered by a chemical battery source that has a load dependent finite lifetime. Most applications, including the nuclear industry applications, require WSNs to operate for an extended period of time beginning with their deployment. To ensure longevity, it is important to develop self-powered WSNs. The benefit of self-powered WSNs goes far beyond the cost savings of removing the need for cable installation and maintenance. Self-powered WSNs will potentially offer significant expansion in remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, and provide important data on plant equipment and component status during normal operation, as well as in case of abnormal operation, station blackouts or post-accident evaluation. Advancements in power harvesting technologies enable electric energy generation from many sources, including kinetic, thermal, and radiated energy. For the ongoing research at Idaho National Laboratory, a solid-state thermoelectric-based technology, the thermoelectric generator (TEG), is used to convert thermal energy to power a WSN. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other

  19. Effect of nutritional state on postoperative axillary leakage after axillary lymph node dissection in a new rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Aikou, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Axillary leakage after axillary lymph node dissection (ALD) in breast cancer surgery is a frequent and troublesome complication. We conducted this study to establish an experimental model of axillary leakage after ALD; to evaluate axillary leakage in different nutritional states; and to examine the effects of dietary management on axillary leakage. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to whether they were fed a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks before ALD. After ALD, a suction drain was placed in the axilla and continuous suction was started. Axillary leakage was monitored for 9 days, and the drainage fluid and serum were analyzed biochemically. The body weights of the two groups were not significantly different before or after ALD. The amount of cumulative drainage fluid was significantly higher on postoperative days 7 and 9 in the high-fat group. The serum phosphate lipid, total cholesterol, and free cholesterol levels, and the free cholesterol level in the drainage fluid were also significantly higher in the high-fat group. This model is useful for reproducing lymphatic leakage after ALD. Our findings also suggest that a low-fat diet may be advantageous for patients undergoing ALD as part of breast cancer surgery.

  20. Preoperative High-Resolution Ultrasound for the Assessment of Malignant Central Compartment Lymph Nodes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Mamoona T; Day, Kristopher M; Sangal, Rohit B; Ahmedli, Nigar N; Pisharodi, Latha R; Beland, Michael D; Monchik, Jack M

    2015-12-01

    The identification and removal of malignant central compartment lymph nodes (MCLN) is important to minimize the risk of persistent or recurrent local disease in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). While the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative ultrasound for the assessment of lateral compartment node metastases is well recognized, its role in the identification of central compartment node metastases in patients with PTC is less established. This study delineates the utility of high-resolution ultrasound (HUS) for the assessment of MCLN in patients with PTC. A retrospective chart review was performed of 227 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for biopsy-proven PTC by a single endocrine surgeon in an academic tertiary care center between 2004 and 2014. Preoperative sonographic results were compared to postoperative pathology reports to determine the accuracy of HUS for the assessment of MCLN. Statistical analysis also included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). HUS identified abnormal central compartment nodes in 51 (22.5%) patients. All 227 patients underwent a careful central compartment node exploration. One hundred and four (45.8%) patients had MCLN identified by surgery, of whom 65 (62.5%) had a negative preoperative central compartment HUS. The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative HUS for the assessment of MCLN were 0.38 and 0.90, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 0.76 and 0.63, with an accuracy of 0.66. Preoperative HUS is quite specific for the identification of MCLN in patients with PTC. The present findings emphasize, however, that a negative HUS does not obviate the need for careful exploration of the central compartment to minimize the risk of persistent or recurrent local disease.

  1. A mathematical model using computed tomography for the diagnosis of metastatic central compartment lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianrun [The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Su, Xuan; Chen, Weichao; Zheng, Lie; Li, Li; Yang, AnKui [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a potential mathematical model for the diagnosis of the central compartment lymph node (LN) metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) using CT imaging. 303 patients with PTC were enrolled. We determined the optimal cut-off points of LN size and nodal grouping by calculating the diagnostic value of each cut-off point. Then, calcification, cystic or necrotic change, abnormal enhancement, size, and nodal grouping were analysed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The mathematical model was obtained using binary logistic regression analysis, and a scoring system was developed for convenient use in clinical practice. 30 mm{sup 2} for LNs area (size) and two LNs as the nodal grouping criterion had the best diagnostic value. The mathematical model was: p = e{sup y} /(1+ e {sup y}), y = -0.670-0.087 x size + 1.010 x cystic or necrotic change + 1.371 x abnormal enhancement + 0.828 x nodal grouping + 0.909 x area. We assigned the value for cystic or necrotic change, abnormal enhancement, size and nodal grouping value as 25, 33, 20, and 22, respectively, yielding a scoring system. This mathematical model has a high diagnostic value and is a convenient clinical tool. (orig.)

  2. Isoprenaline: A Potential Contributor in Sick Sinus Syndrome—Insights from a Mathematical Model of the Rabbit Sinoatrial Node

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Li; Ji-qian Zhang; Jian-wei Shuai

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of isoprenaline exerting its effects on cardiac pacemaking and driving in sick sinus syndrome is controversial and unresolved. In this paper, mathematical models for rabbit sinoatrial node cells were modified by incorporating equations for the known dose-dependent actions of isoprenaline on various ionic channel currents, the intracellular Ca2+ transient, and i Na changes induced by SCN5A gene mutations; the cell models were also incorporated into an intact SAN-atrium model of t...

  3. Integration of highly-strained SiGe materials in 14 nm and beyond nodes FinFET technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guilei; Abedin, Ahmad; Moeen, Mahdi; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Luo, Jun; Guo, Yiluan; Chen, Tao; Yin, Huaxiang; Zhu, Huilong; Li, Junfeng; Zhao, Chao; Radamson, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    SiGe has been widely used as stressors in source/drain (S/D) regions of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) to enhance the channel mobility. In this study, selectively grown Si1-xGex (0.33 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.35) with boron concentration of 1 × 1020 cm-3 was used to elevate the S/D regions on bulk FinFETs in 14 nm technology node. The epitaxial quality of SiGe layers, SiGe profile and the strain amount of the SiGe layers were investigated. In order to in-situ clean the Si-fins before SiGe epitaxy, a series of prebaking experiments at temperature ranging from 740 to 825 °C were performed. The results showed that the thermal budget needs to be limited to 780-800 °C in order to avoid any damage to the shape of Si-fins but to remove the native oxide which is essential for high epitaxial quality. In this study, a kinetic gas model was also applied to predict the SiGe growth profile on Si-fins with trapezoidal shape. The input parameters for the model include growth temperature, partial pressures of reactant gases and the chip layout. By knowing the epitaxial profile, the strain to the Si-fins exerted by SiGe layers can be calculated. This is important in understanding the carrier transport in the FinFETs. The other benefit of the modeling is that it provides a cost-effective alternative for epitaxy process development as the SiGe profile can be readily predicted for any chip layout in advance.

  4. Channel Modeling and Time Delay Estimation for Clock Synchronization Among Seaweb Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, P; Rice, J; Clark, G A

    2012-07-08

    From simulations, tracking of the impulse response is feasible. Potential to benefit other functions such as ranging between two nodes. Potential to combine the features of different protocols to create a new and more realistic clock-synchronization protocol.

  5. 3D mask modeling with oblique incidence and mask corner rounding effects for the 32nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, Mazen; Foussadier, Franck; Belledent, Jérôme; Trouiller, Yorick; Schanen, Isabelle; Yesilada, Emek; Gardin, Christian; Urbani, Jean Christophe; Sundermann, Frank; Robert, Frédéric; Couderc, Christophe; Vautrin, Florent; LeCam, Laurent; Kerrien, Gurwan; Planchot, Jonathan; Martinelli, Catherine; Wilkinson, Bill; Rody, Yves; Borjon, Amandine; Morgana, Nicolo; Di-Maria, Jean-Luc; Farys, Vincent

    2007-10-01

    The perpetual shrinking in critical dimensions in semiconductor devices is driving the need for increased resolution in optical lithography. Increasing NA to gain resolution also increases Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) model complexity. Some optical effects which have been completely neglected in OPC modeling become important. Over the past few years, off-axis illumination has been widely used to improve the imaging process. OPC models which utilize such illumination still use the thin film mask approximation (Kirchhoff approach), during optical model generation, which utilizes a normal incidence. However, simulating a three dimensional mask near-field using an off-axis illumination requires OPC models to introduce oblique incidence. In addition, the use of higher NA systems introduces high obliquity field components that can no longer be assimilated as normal incident waves. The introduction of oblique incidence requires other effects, such as corner rounding of mask features, to be considered, that are seldom taken into account in OPC modeling. In this paper, the effects of oblique incidence and corner rounding of mask features on resist contours of 2D structures (i.e. line-ends and corners) are studied. Rigorous electromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the scattering properties of various lithographic 32nm node mask structures. Simulations are conducted using a three dimensional phase shift mask topology and an off-axis illumination at high NA. Aerial images are calculated and compared with those obtained from a classical normal incidence illumination. The benefits of using an oblique incidence to improve hot-spot prediction will be discussed.

  6. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current, I f, in Mathematical Models of Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Arie O.

    2013-01-01

    A typical feature of sinoatrial (SA) node pacemaker cells is the presence of an ionic current that activates upon hyperpolarization. The role of this hyperpolarization-activated current, I f, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” in the spontaneous pacemaker activity of SA nodal cells remains a matter of intense debate. Whereas some conclude that I f plays a fundamental role in the generation of pacemaker activity and its rate control, others conclude that the role of I f is limited to a modest contribution to rate control. The ongoing debate is often accompanied with arguments from computer simulations, either to support one's personal view or to invalidate that of the antagonist. In the present paper, we review the various mathematical descriptions of I f that have been used in computer simulations and compare their strikingly different characteristics with our experimental data. We identify caveats and propose a novel model for I f based on our experimental data. PMID:23936852

  7. The optimal dynamic immunization under a controlled heterogeneous node-based SIRS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Draief, Moez; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic immunizations, under which the state of the propagation network of electronic viruses can be changed by adjusting the control measures, are regarded as an alternative to static immunizations. This paper addresses the optimal dynamical immunization under the widely accepted SIRS assumption. First, based on a controlled heterogeneous node-based SIRS model, an optimal control problem capturing the optimal dynamical immunization is formulated. Second, the existence of an optimal dynamical immunization scheme is shown, and the corresponding optimality system is derived. Next, some numerical examples are given to show that an optimal immunization strategy can be worked out by numerically solving the optimality system, from which it is found that the network topology has a complex impact on the optimal immunization strategy. Finally, the difference between a payoff and the minimum payoff is estimated in terms of the deviation of the corresponding immunization strategy from the optimal immunization strategy. The proposed optimal immunization scheme is justified, because it can achieve a low level of infections at a low cost.

  8. High expression of osteoglycin decreases the metastatic capability of mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells to lymph nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaonan Cui; Bo Song; Li Hou; Zhiyi Wei; Jianwu Tang

    2008-01-01

    Osteoglycin, one of the matrix molecules, belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan gene family and might play important roles in cell growth and differentiation and in pathological processes such as fibrosis and cancer growth.In this study, a eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRESpuro3 osteoglycin(+) was constructed and transfected into mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells to evaluate the contribution of osteoglycin to the malignant behavior of Hca-F. It was foundthat Hca-F cells transfected with pIRESpuro3 osteoglycin(+) showed significantly decreased potential for both migration and invasion. Furthermore, Hca-F cells transfected with osteoglycin showed decreased metastatic potential to peripheral lymph nodes. However, proliferation potential and adhesive capacity of Hca-F cells to different protein substrates were not influenced by osteoglycin transfection. In summary,high expression of osteoglycin decreases the metastatic capability of Hca-F to lymph nodes.

  9. Self-Powered Wireless Smart Sensor Node Enabled by an Ultrastable, Highly Efficient, and Superhydrophobic-Surface-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2016-09-27

    Wireless sensor networks will be responsible for a majority of the fast growth in intelligent systems in the next decade. However, most of the wireless smart sensor nodes require an external power source such as a Li-ion battery, where the labor cost and environmental waste issues of replacing batteries have largely limited the practical applications. Instead of using a Li-ion battery, we report an ultrastable, highly efficient, and superhydrophobic-surface-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to scavenge wind energy for sustainably powering a wireless smart temperature sensor node. There is no decrease in the output voltage and current of the TENG after continuous working for about 14 h at a wind speed of 12 m/s. Through a power management circuit, the TENG can deliver a constant output voltage of 3.3 V and a pulsed output current of about 100 mA to achieve highly efficient energy storage in a capacitor. A wireless smart temperature sensor node can be sustainably powered by the TENG for sending the real-time temperature data to an iPhone under a working distance of 26 m, demonstrating the feasibility of the self-powered wireless smart sensor networks.

  10. An Anonymous Node State Transition Model Based on Semi-Markov Process%一种基于半马尔可夫过程的匿名节点状态转移模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建国; 刘卫东; 戴一奇

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the effect of node misbehaviors and defense mechanisms against them on the node cooperation in anonymous routing protocol for MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks) ,an anonymous node state transition model based on semi-Markov process is proposed on the features of anonymous node state transition. Under this model, according to the characteristics of large energy consumption and high de mand for privacy protection of anonymous node,we give a theoretical estimation of the limiting probability of node states,and present a model of the node state transition probability matrix and transition time expectation matrix. An experimental analysis to the effect of different model paranetres on the limiting probability of node states verifies the model' s validity at last.%为揭示MANET(Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks)匿名路由协议中节点不端行为及其抵御机制对节点协作性的影响,本文根据匿名节点状态转移的特点,提出了一种基于半马尔可夫过程的匿名节点状态转移模型.在该模型下,针对MANET匿名路由协议中节点能量消耗大和隐私保护要求高的特点,对节点状态极限概率进行了理论估计,给出了节点状态转移概率矩阵和转移期望时间矩阵的理论模型.最后,用实验分析了不同模型参数对节点状态极限概率的影响,验证了本文模型的有效性.

  11. Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

  12. Accurate mask model implementation in OPC model for 14nm nodes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Farys, Vincent; Huguennet, Frederic; Armeanu, Ana-Maria; Bork, Ingo; Chomat, Michael; Buck, Peter; Schanen, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    In a previous work [1] we demonstrated that current OPC model assuming the mask pattern to be analogous to the designed data is no longer valid. Indeed as depicted in figure 1, an extreme case of line-end shortening shows a gap up to 10 nm difference (at mask level). For that reason an accurate mask model, for a 14nm logic gate level has been calibrated. A model with a total RMS of 1.38nm at mask level was obtained. 2D structures such as line-end shortening and corner rounding were well predicted using SEM pictures overlaid with simulated contours. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the implementation of our improved model in current flow. The improved model consists of a mask model capturing mask process and writing effects and a standard optical and resist model addressing the litho exposure and development effects at wafer level. The second part will focus on results from the comparison of the two models, the new and the regular, as depicted in figure 2.

  13. Accurate mask model implementation in optical proximity correction model for 14-nm nodes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Farys, Vincent; Huguennet, Frederic; Armeanu, Ana-Maria; Bork, Ingo; Chomat, Michael; Buck, Peter; Schanen, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    In a previous work, we demonstrated that the current optical proximity correction model assuming the mask pattern to be analogous to the designed data is no longer valid. An extreme case of line-end shortening shows a gap up to 10 nm difference (at mask level). For that reason, an accurate mask model has been calibrated for a 14-nm logic gate level. A model with a total RMS of 1.38 nm at mask level was obtained. Two-dimensional structures, such as line-end shortening and corner rounding, were well predicted using scanning electron microscopy pictures overlaid with simulated contours. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the implementation of our improved model in current flow. The improved model consists of a mask model capturing mask process and writing effects, and a standard optical and resist model addressing the litho exposure and development effects at wafer level. The second part will focus on results from the comparison of the two models, the new and the regular.

  14. Exploring highly-efficient routing strategy on scale-free networks with limited and diverse node capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; He, Xuan; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Since the delivery capacity of each node is neither uniform nor strictly proportional to the degree in many real networked systems such as the Internet, we consider the node capacity is composed of a small uniform fraction and a large degree dependent proportion. By comparing the optimal routing strategy [B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 046106; B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Chaos 17 (2007) 026102] with the shortest path routing (SPR), the results show that the OR appears to be not efficient enough to enhance network traffic capacity. Then the efficient betweenness defined as the average betweenness for per delivery capacity is employed, and a so-called highly-efficient routing (HER) strategy is proposed. By iteratively minimizing the maximum efficient betweenness of any node in the network, the highest traffic capacity is achieved at the cost of a little average path lengthening. This work is very useful for network service providers to optimize the weight of each link incrementally to improve whole network transport ability.

  15. Based on Node.js to Constructthe High Concurrent WMTS Service%基于Node.js构建高并发WMTS服务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秉斌; 牛艳霞

    2015-01-01

    通过对WMTS服务功能接口的分析,基于Node.js平台非阻塞式I/O、事件驱动等高并发特性,实现了高并发响应的地图切片服务,并利用Openlayers实现了地图服务的调用和展示.

  16. Pelvic Radiotherapy versus Radical Prostatectomy with Limited Lymph Node Sampling for High-Grade Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Baker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare oncologic outcomes for patients with Gleason score (GS ≥ 8 prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy (RP versus external beam radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation (RT + ADT. Methods. Between 2001 and 2014, 121 patients with GS ≥ 8 were treated at our institution via RT + ADT (n=71 or RP (n=50 with ≥ 1 year of biochemical follow-up. Endpoints included biochemical failure (BF, distant metastasis, and initiation of salvage ADT. Results. The RT + ADT group was older, had higher biopsy GS, and had greater risk of lymph node involvement. All other pretreatment characteristics were similar between groups. Mean number of lymph nodes (LNs sampled for patients undergoing RP was 8.2 (±6.18. Mean biochemical follow-up for all patients was 61 months. Five-year estimates of BF for the RT + ADT and RP groups were 7.2% versus 42.3%, (p<0.001. The RT + ADT group also had lower rates of distant metastasis (2% versus 7.8% and salvage ADT (8% versus 33.8%. Conclusion. In this analysis, RT + ADT was associated with improved biochemical and metastatic control when compared to RP with limited LN sampling. How RT + ADT compares with more aggressive lymphadenectomy, as is currently our institutional standard, remains an important unanswered question.

  17. Raloxifene inhibits tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhong-Lian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of raloxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model expressing cytoplasmic ERα. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with raloxifene at 0, 18 and 27 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps. Results In vitro study demonstrated that the ERα in BJMC3879luc2 cells was smaller (between 50 and 64 kDa than the normal-sized ERα (66 kDa and showed cytoplasmic localization. A statistically significant but weak estradiol response was observed in this cell line. When BJMC3879luc2 tumors were implanted into mice, the ERα mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in males. In vitro studies showed that raloxifene induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1-phase and a decrease in the cell population in the S-phase. In animal experiments, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in the raloxifene-treated groups. The multiplicity of lymph node metastasis was significantly decreased in the 27 mg/kg group. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in the raloxifene-treated groups, whereas the levels of DNA synthesis were significantly decreased in these groups. No differences in microvessel density in tumors were observed between the control and raloxifene-treated groups. The numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells were significantly reduced in mammary tumors in the raloxifene-treated groups. The levels of ERα mRNA in mammary tumors tended to be decreased in the raloxifene-treated groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the antimetastatic activity of raloxifene in mammary cancer expressing cytoplasmic ERα may be a crucial finding with clinical applications and that raloxifene may be useful as an adjuvant therapy and for the chemoprevention of breast cancer development.

  18. An Activity Recognition Model Using Inertial Sensor Nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network for Frozen Shoulder Rehabilitation Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Chun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for recognizing motions performed during rehabilitation exercises for frozen shoulder conditions. The model consists of wearable wireless sensor network (WSN inertial sensor nodes, which were developed for this study, and enables the ubiquitous measurement of bodily motions. The model employs the back propagation neural network (BPNN algorithm to compute motion data that are formed in the WSN packets; herein, six types of rehabilitation exercises were recognized. The packets sent by each node are converted into six components of acceleration and angular velocity according to three axes. Motor features such as basic acceleration, angular velocity, and derivative tilt angle were input into the training procedure of the BPNN algorithm. In measurements of thirteen volunteers, the accelerations and included angles of nodes were adopted from possible features to demonstrate the procedure. Five exercises involving simple swinging and stretching movements were recognized with an accuracy of 85%–95%; however, the accuracy with which exercises entailing spiral rotations were recognized approximately 60%. Thus, a characteristic space and enveloped spectrum improving derivative features were suggested to enable identifying customized parameters. Finally, a real-time monitoring interface was developed for practical implementation. The proposed model can be applied in ubiquitous healthcare self-management to recognize rehabilitation exercises.

  19. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  20. Deterministic model of the canine atrio-ventricular node as a periodically perturbed, biological oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tweel, I. van der; Herbschleb, J.N.; Borst, C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    The atrio-ventricular (AV) node may be regarded as a periodically perturbed, biologicaL oscillator. In that case the ventricular response to atrial excitation can be described by a latency-phase curve. The phase is approximated by the time between a QRS-complex and an atrial stimulus S (R-S interval

  1. Obesity as an independent risk factor for decreased survival in node-positive high-risk breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christoph; Andergassen, U; Hepp, P; Schindlbeck, C; Friedl, Thomas W P; Harbeck, N; Kiechle, M; Sommer, H; Hauner, H; Friese, K; Rack, B; Janni, W

    2015-06-01

    Obese breast cancer patients have a higher risk of lymph node metastasis and a poorer prognosis compared to patients with normal weight. For obese women with node-positive breast cancer, an association between body weight and prognosis remains unclear. In this retrospective study, we analyzed patient data from the Phase-III ADEBAR trial, in which high-risk breast cancer patients (pT1-4, pN2-3, pM0) were randomized into a docetaxel-based versus epirubicin-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients were grouped according to their BMI value as underweight/normal weight (BMI obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); n = 285). Overweight and obese patients were older, had larger tumors and were more likely to be postmenopausal at the time of diagnosis compared to underweight/normal-weight patients (all p obese patients had a significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS; HR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.11-1.86; p = 0.006) and overall survival (OS; HR 1.56; 95 % CI 1.14-2.14; p = 0.006) than non-obese patients. Subgroup analyses revealed that the differences in DFS and OS were significant for postmenopausal but not for premenopausal patients, and that the survival benefit of non-obese patients was more pronounced in women with hormone-receptor-positive disease. Obesity constitutes an independent, adverse prognostic factor in high-risk node-positive breast cancer patients, in particular for postmenopausal women and women with hormone-receptor-positive disease.

  2. Modifications to the steady-state 41-node thermoregulatory model including validation of the respiratory and diffusional water loss equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.

  3. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  4. Testing on a Large Scale Running the ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Software on 700 PC Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart-Chromek, Doris; Adragna, P; Alexandrov, L; Amorim, A; Armstrong, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J T M; Barros, N; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Blair, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Caprini, M; Caramarcu, C; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Della Pietra, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Ellis, Nick; Ermoline, Y; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; Gaudio, G; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haas, S; Haberichter, W N; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hansen, J; Hauser, R; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hughes-Jones, R E; Joos, M; Kazarov, A; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kohno, T; Kolos, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kugel, A; Landon, M; Lankford, A; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Le Vine, M J; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; Masik, J; McLaren, R; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Garcia-Murillo, R; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Albuquerque-Portes, M; Pretzl, K; Prigent, D; Roda, C; Ryabov, Yu; Salvatore, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Scholtes, I; Sole-Segura, E; Seixas, M; Sloper, J; Soloviev, I; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Strong, S; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Van Wasen, J; Vandelli, W; Vaz-Gil-Lopes, L; Vermeulen, J C; von der Schmitt, H; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wiesmann, M; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zema, F; Zobernig, H; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High Level Trigger (HLT) software system will be comprised initially of 2000 PC nodes which take part in the control, event readout, second level trigger and event filter operations. This high number of PCs will only be purchased before data taking in 2007. The large CERN IT LXBATCH facility provided the opportunity to run in July 2005 online functionality tests over a period of 5 weeks on a stepwise increasing farm size from 100 up to 700 PC dual nodes. The interplay between the control and monitoring software with the event readout, event building and the trigger software has been exercised the first time as an integrated system on this large scale. New was also to run algorithms in the online environment for the trigger selection and in the event filter processing tasks on a larger scale. A mechanism has been developed to package the offline software together with the DAQ/HLT software and to distribute it via peer-to-peer software efficiently to this large pc cluster. T...

  5. Testing on a Large Scale running the ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Software on 700 PC Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart-Chromek, Doris; Adragna, P; Albuquerque-Portes, M; Alexandrov, L; Amorim, A; Armstrong, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J T M; Barros, N; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Blair, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Caprini, M; Caramarcu, C; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Della Pietra, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Ellis, Nick; Ermoline, Y; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garcia-Murillo, R; Garitaonandia, H; Gaudio, G; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haas, S; Haberichter, W N; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hansen, J; Hauser, R; Hillier, S J; Hughes-Jones, R E; Höcker, A; Joos, M; Kazarov, A; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kohno, T; Kolos, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kugel, A; Landon, M; Lankford, A; Le Vine, M J; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; Masik, J; McLaren, R; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Mornacchi, G; Männer, R; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Pretzl, K; Prigent, D; Roda, C; Ryabov, Yu; Salvatore, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Scholtes, I; Seixas, M; Sloper, J; Sole-Segura, E; Soloviev, I; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Strong, S; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Van Wasen, J; Vandelli, W; Vaz-Gil-Lopes, L; Vermeulen, J C; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wiesmann, M; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zema, F; Zobernig, H; von der Schmitt, H; Ünel, G; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High Level Trigger (HLT) software system will be comprised initially of 2000 PC nodes which take part in the control, event readout, second level trigger and event filter operations. This high number of PCs will only be purchased before data taking in 2007. The large CERN IT LXBATCH facility provided the opportunity to run in July 2005 online functionality tests over a period of 5 weeks on a stepwise increasing farm size from 100 up to 700 PC dual nodes. The interplay between the control and monitoring software with the event readout, event building and the trigger software has been exercised the first time as an integrated system on this large scale. New was also to run algorithms in the online environment for the trigger selection and in the event filter processing tasks on a larger scale. A mechanism has been developed to package the offline software together with the DAQ/HLT software and to distribute it via peer-to-peer software efficiently to this large pc cluster. T...

  6. Lymph node histopathological studies in a combined adjuvant–collagen induced arthritis model in albino rat Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Ibraheem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 types of collagen. Antibodies, to collagens, in particular to types I and II have been reported in a number of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we used rat and bovine collagens to study the effects of anti-collagen antibodies on the lymphoid organs of rats Histological examination of the lymph node sections showed that immunization with different collagen types combined with the adjuvant used in this study induced arthritis and immune reaction in lymph nodes. The degrees of the disease symptoms and immune reaction depended on the foreignness of the stimulating collagen and on whether it was accompanied with adjuvant. Anti-collagen antibodies led to a decrease in the thickness of the lymph node cortex and atrophy, with medullary hyperplasia, small granulomas appeared in the section. Immunizing with either bovine collagen or BSA has shown a remarkable distortion in architecture appeared, follicular hyperplasia and reactive inflammatory hyperplasia of the LN. Passive transfer of rat anti-rat collagen antibodies either accompanied with Freund’s adjuvant or not with a lesser degree of severity, resulted in epithelioid cells forming granuloma surrounded by collar of lymphocytes, scattered apoptotic bodies, lymphatic sinus ectasia accompanied with lymphoid follicles atrophy. The results of our study present a reliable model for collagen induced arthritis which is suitable for the investigation of the mechanism of disease induction and treatment approaches.

  7. DAP1 high expression increases risk of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M; Maia, L L; Silva, C V M; Peterle, G T; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-09-08

    Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a member of the DAP family. Its expression is associated with cell growth and normal death of the neoplastic cells, regulated by the mammalian target of the rapamycin protein. Activated DAP1 negatively regulates autophagy, which has been associated with the development and progression of several diseases, such as cancer, and with prognosis and survival of diverse tumor types. Therefore, in this study we analyzed DAP1 expression in 54 oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor samples and in 20 non-tumoral margins by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that DAP1 is more frequently expressed in tumor tissues compared with marginal non-tumoral cells. Additionally, high DAP1 expression is associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of lymph node metastases. Our results suggest that the DAP1 protein can be used as a potential marker of lymph node metastases predisposition, helping define the best therapy for each patient to minimize risk of developing metastases.

  8. Prognostic factors for occult inguinal lymph node involvement in penile carcinoma and assessment of the high-risk EAU subgroup: a two-institution analysis of 342 clinically node-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafland, Niels M; Lam, Wayne; Leijte, Joost A P; Yap, Tet; Gallee, Maarten P W; Corbishley, Cathy; van Werkhoven, Erik; Watkin, Nick; Horenblas, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines advise an elective bilateral lymphadenectomy in clinically node-negative (cN0) patients with high-risk penile carcinoma (≥pT2, G3, or lymphovascular invasion [LVI]). Our aim was to assess prognostic factors for occult metastasis and to determine whether current EAU guidelines accurately stratify patients at high risk. Data of 342 cN0 patients with histologically proven invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone the current dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) protocol were analysed. A complete ipsilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy was only done if the sentinel node was tumour positive. The presence of occult metastasis was established by preoperative ultrasound and tumour-positive fine-needle aspiration cytology, tumour-positive sentinel nodes, and groin metastases during follow-up after a negative DSNB procedure. Median follow-up was 31 mo. Sixty-eight of 342 patients (20%) and 87 of 684 groins (13%) had occult nodal involvement including 6 patients (2%) with a groin metastasis after negative DSNB. Corpus spongiosum invasion, corpus cavernosum invasion, histologic grade, and LVI were each significant prognosticators for occult metastasis on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, grade (odds ratio [OR]: 3.3 for intermediate and 4.9 for poor, respectively) and LVI (OR: 2.2) remained predictive factors. In total, 245 patients (72%) were classified high risk according to EAU guidelines. Among them, the incidence of occult metastasis was 23% (57 of 245). A potential limitation of this study is the lack of external review. Histologic grade and LVI are independent prognostic factors for occult metastasis in penile carcinoma. Although both predictors are incorporated into the current EAU guidelines, the stratification of patients needing a lymph node dissection is inaccurate. Approximately 77% of high-risk patients (188 of 245) would have had a negative bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy. For the

  9. [Inappropriateness in ionizing imaging. The central node of the informed consent: from "event" model to "process" model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaro, Antonio; Recchia, Virginia

    2011-11-01

    The phenomenon of inappropriateness in ionizing imaging and medical interventions is large-scale and increasing. This tendency causes noteworthy damages to health and to patient's autonomy. Moreover, this trend causes a huge increment of health expenditures, waiting lists, organizational conflicts, judicial disputes, insurance compensations. The actual passive signature on unreadable templates of informed consent in the Italian hospital context constitutes, by a matter of facts, a central node of inappropriateness problem. This way to manage informed consent - "event" model - mortifies the patient's right to decide freely and deliberately, being him unaware of biological consequences of clinical-therapeutical interventions on himself and his progeny's health. Physician himself can generate arbitrary clinical acts, with heavy deontological and legal consequences. Hence, informed consent in ionizing imaging necessitates a particular "process" management, useful to convey a series of other clinical and organisational processes towards a full realisation of therapeutic alliance among physician and patient. This review aims at highlighting - in a juridical and communicative key - a range of tools which are applicable to contrasting the hospital abuse of ionizing radiations, for defending both patients' health and patients' dignity, being them primarily persons and citizens of a rule-of-law State.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of the Early CD8 T-Cell Immune Response in Lymph Nodes: An Integrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris A. Prokopiou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CD8 T-cells are critical  in controlling infection by intracellular  pathogens. Upon encountering antigen presenting cells, T-cell receptor activation promotes the differentiation of naïve CD8 T-cells into strongly proliferating  activated and effector stages. We propose a 2D-multiscale computational model to study the maturation of CD8 T-cells in a lymph node controlled by their molecular profile. A novel molecular pathway is presented and converted into an ordinary differential  equation model, coupled with a cellular Potts model to describe cell-cell interactions. Key molecular  players such as activated IL2 receptor and Tbet levels  control the differentiation  from naïve into activated and effector stages, respectively,  while caspases and Fas-Fas ligand interactions control cell apoptosis.  Coupling  this molecular model to the cellular scale successfully  reproduces  qualitatively the evolution of total CD8 T-cell counts observed in mice lymph node, between Day 3 and 5.5 post-infection. Furthermore, this model allows us to make testable predictions  of the evolution of the different CD8 T-cell stages.

  11. High CD10 expression in lymph node metastases from surgically treated prostate cancer independently predicts early death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Achim; Rocha, Carla; Saxer-Sekulic, Nikolina; Zlobec, Inti; Sauter, Guido; Thalmann, George N

    2011-06-01

    Patients with nodal positive prostate cancers are an important cohort with poorly defined risk factors. CD10 is a cell surface metallopeptidase that has been suggested to play a role in prostate cancer progression. CD10 expression was evaluated in 119 nodal positive prostate cancer patients using tissue microarrays constructed from primary tumors and lymph node metastases. All patients underwent radical prostatectomy and standardized extended lymphadenectomy. They had no neoadjuvant therapy and received deferred androgen deprivation. In the primary tumor, high CD10 expression was significantly associated with earlier death from disease when compared with low CD10 expression (5-year survival 73.7% vs. 91.8%; p = 0.043). In the metastases, a high CD10 expression was significantly associated with larger total size of metastases (median 11.4 vs. 6.5 mm; p = 0.015), earlier death of disease (5-year survival 71.5% vs. 87.3%; p = 0.017), and death of any cause (5-year survival 70.0% vs. 87.2%; p = 0.001) when compared with low CD10 expression. CD10 expression in the metastases added independent prognostic information for overall survival (p = 0.029) after adjustment for Gleason score of the primary tumor, nodal tumor burden, and resection margins. In conclusion, a high CD10 expression in prostate cancer predicts early death. This information is inherent in the primary tumors and in the lymph node metastases and might help to personalize patient management.

  12. NodeJS中 ModelProxy接口配置建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩

    2014-01-01

    NodeJS中使用前后端分离的开发模式形成了一些性能及开发流程上的优势,但同时也带来不少问题。互联网电子商务业务及技术架构复杂,后端必须依赖Java搭建基础架构,同时提供相关业务接口供前端使用。方便前端即Node端和浏览器端整合数据并完成页面渲染,代理这些业务接口是NodeJS最重要的工作之一。如何完成代理工作,使得前后端开发分离之后,仍然可以在流程上无缝衔接,对此问题作了相关分析,并提出了解决方案。

  13. High output efficiency in a one wavelength microcavity OLED with emitter layer positioned at an anti-node

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Mitchell C

    2015-01-01

    A novel OLED architecture is described in which a thin emitter layer is located at the anti-node of a resonant microcavity. In two realizations, the mode space is constrained by either multi-layer mirrors or by an emitter with transition dipole moments oriented normal to the vertical mode of the device. The multi-layer mirror device achieves 315 lm/W and shows linear light output versus current with a small offset. The symmetrized emitter device demonstrates a luminous efficiency of 340 lm/W. Rate equation analysis predicts the observed linear behavior with constant loss term for stimulated emission devices. For spontaneous emission devices a coefficient is obtained that is analogous to the out-coupling factor and goes to 1 for high finesse cavities. Both types of devices can approach unit efficiency, the stimulated emission device should be less susceptible to roll-off and may be easier to manufacture.

  14. Establishment of cervical lymph node metastasis model of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Rui; ZHANG Jian-gang; GUO Chuan-bin

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignant tumor in the head and neck region,comprising more than 90% of all oral malignancies. A feasible approach for an animal model to study OSCC lymph node metastasis was established and biological behaviors of three oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were compared.Methods After implanting three kinds of call lines (GDC185, Tca8113, Tca83) into three different anatomical sites in nude mice, namely the tongue, floor of the mouth, and axillary fossa, we observed the tumorigenicity and the metastatic capacity, which was confirmed by histopathology under a surgical microscope.Results The animal model injected with GDC185 cells into the floor of the mouth had the highest rate of neck lymph node metastasis (55.6%) and the call lines had significantly different biological behaviors.Conclusions Nude mice injected with GDC185 cells into the floor of the mouth could be used as a feasible animal model to study neck metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Proof of node densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, G.; Berg, van den J.L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an analytical model accurately describing the forwarding behaviour of a multi-hop broadcast protocol. Our model covers the scenario in which a message is forwarded over a straight road and inter-node distances are distributed exponentially. Intermediate forwarders draw a sma

  16. A QoS-Guanranteed Scheduling Algorithm with High Throughput for Edge Nodes of Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiling Wu; Jianping Chen; Xinwang Li; Junfeng Chen

    2003-01-01

    A scheduling algorithm for the edge nodes of optical burst switching (OBS) networks is proposed to guarantee the delay re quirement of services with different CoS (Class of Service) and provide lower burst loss ratio at the same time. The performance of edge nodes based on the proposed algorithm is presented.

  17. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  18. Abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis, atrial arrhythmogenesis and sinus node dysfunction in murine hearts modelling RyR2 modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin eZhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available RyR2 mutations are implicated in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia thought to result from altered myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis reflecting inappropriate ‘leakiness’ of RyR2-Ca2+ release channels arising from increases in their basal activity, alterations in their phosphorylation, or defective interactions with other molecules or ions. The latter include calstabin, calsequestrin-2, Mg2+, and extraluminal or intraluminal Ca2+. Recent clinical studies additionally associate RyR2 abnormalities with atrial arrhythmias including atrial tachycardia, fibrillation and standstill, and sinus node dysfunction. Some RyR2 mutations associated with CPVT in mouse models also show such arrhythmias that similarly correlate with altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Some examples show evidence for increased Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of RyR2. A homozygotic RyR2-P2328S variant demonstrates potential arrhythmic substrate resulting from reduced conduction velocity in addition to delayed afterdepolarizations and ectopic action potential firing. Finally, one model with an increased RyR2 activity in the sino-atrial node shows decreased automaticity in the presence of Ca2+-dependent decreases in ICa,L and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ depletion.

  19. Performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy in high-risk endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Ehrisman

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: SLN mapping rates for high-risk cancers are slightly lower than in prior reports of lower risk cancers. The NPV of the SLN mapping alone is 92% and rises to 100% when the SLN algorithm is applied. Such results are acceptable and consistent with larger subsets of lower risk endometrial cancers.

  20. Prognostic factors in patients with node-negative gastric carcinoma: A comparison with node-positive gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yi Kim; Kyeung Won Seo; Jae Kyoon Joo; Young Kyu Park; Seong Yeob Ryu; Hyeong Rok Kim; Young Jin Kim; Shin Kon Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the clinicopathological characteristics of lymph node-negative gastric carcinoma, and also to evaluate outcome indicators in the lymph node-negative patients.METHODS: Of 2848 gastric carcinoma patients, 1524(53.5%) were lymph node-negative. A statistical analysis was performed using the Cox model to estimate outcome indicators.RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the recurrence rate between lymph node-negative and lymph node-positive patients (14.4% vs 41.0%, P<0.001).The 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in lymph node-positive than in lymph node-negative patients (31.1% vs 77.4%, P<0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that the following factors influenced the 5-year survival rate: patient age, tumor size, depth of invasion,tumor location, operative type, and tumor stage at initial diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazard regression model revealed that tumor size, serosal invasion, and curability were independent, statistically significant, prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative gastric carcinoma.CONCLUSION: Lymph node-negative patients have a favorable outcome attributable to high curability, but the patients with relatively large tumors and serosal invasion have a poor prognosis. Curability is one of the most reliable predictors of long-term survival for lymph nodenegative gastric carcinoma patients.

  1. Visualisation of sentinel lymph node with indium-based near infrared emitting Quantum Dots in a murine metastatic breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Helle

    Full Text Available Due to its non-invasiveness, high temporal resolution and lower cost, fluorescence imaging is an interesting alternative to the current method (blue dye and radiocolloid of sentinel lymph node (SLN mapping in breast cancer. Near-infrared (NIR emitting cadmium-based Quantum Dots (QDs could be used for this purpose; however, their wide application is limited because of the toxicity of heavy metals composing the core. Our recent work demonstrated that indium-based QDs exhibit a weak acute local toxicity in vivo compared to their cadmium-based counterparts. In the present study we confirmed the weak toxicity of CuInS(2/ZnS QDs in different in vitro models. Further in vivo studies in healthy mice showed that In-based QDs could be visualised in SLN in a few minutes after administration with a progressive increase in fluorescence until 8 h. The quantity of indium was assessed in selected organs and tissues by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS as a function of post-injection time. QD levels decrease rapidly at the injection point in the first hours after administration with a parallel increase in the lymph nodes and to a lesser extent in the liver and spleen. In addition, we observed that 3.5% of the injected indium dose was excreted in faeces in the first 4 days, with only trace quantities in the urine. Metastatic spread to the lymph nodes may hamper its visualisation. Therefore, we further performed non-invasive fluorescence measurement of QDs in SLN in tumour-bearing mice. Metastatic status was assessed by immunohistology and molecular techniques and revealed the utmost metastatic invasion of 36% of SLN. Fluorescence signal was the same irrespective of SLN status. Thus, near-infrared emitting cadmium-free QDs could be an excellent SLN tracer.

  2. Deficiency of lymph node-resident dendritic cells (DCs) and dysregulation of DC chemoattractants in a malnourished mouse model of Leishmania donovani infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Osorio, E Yaneth; Anstead, Gregory M; Jimenez, Fabio; Osterholzer, John J; Travi, Bruno L; Ahuja, Seema S; White, A Clinton; Melby, Peter C

    2014-08-01

    Malnutrition is thought to contribute to more than one-third of all childhood deaths via increased susceptibility to infection. Malnutrition is a significant risk factor for the development of visceral leishmaniasis, which results from skin inoculation of the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani. We previously established a murine model of childhood malnutrition and found that malnutrition decreased the lymph node barrier function and increased the early dissemination of L. donovani. In the present study, we found reduced numbers of resident dendritic cells (conventional and monocyte derived) but not migratory dermal dendritic cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes of L. donovani-infected malnourished mice. Expression of chemokines and their receptors involved in trafficking of dendritic cells and their progenitors to the lymph nodes was dysregulated. C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) and its ligands (CCL2 and CCL7) were reduced in the lymph nodes of infected malnourished mice, as were CCR2-bearing monocytes/macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. However, CCR7 and its ligands (CCL19 and CCL21) were increased in the lymph node and CCR7 was increased in lymph node macrophages and dendritic cells. CCR2-deficient mice recapitulated the profound reduction in the number of resident (but not migratory dermal) dendritic cells in the lymph node but showed no alteration in the expression of CCL19 and CCL21. Collectively, these results suggest that the malnutrition-related reduction in the lymph node barrier to dissemination of L. donovani is related to insufficient numbers of lymph node-resident but not migratory dermal dendritic cells. This is likely driven by the altered activity of the CCR2 and CCR7 chemoattractant pathways.

  3. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy On This Page What are lymph nodes? What ... lymph node? What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy? What happens during an SLNB? What are the ...

  4. Lymph node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center. The ...

  5. Electromagnetic field modeling for defect detection in 7 nm node patterned wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Kedi; Davoudzadeh, Nima; Wang, Xiaozhen; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2016-03-01

    By 2017, the critical dimension in patterned wafers will shrink down to 7 nm, which brings great challenges to optics-based defect inspection techniques, due to the ever-decreasing signal to noise ratio with respect to defect size. To continue pushing forward the optics-based metrology technique, it is of great importance to analyze the full characteristics of the scattering field of a wafer with a defect and then to find the most sensitive signal type. In this article, the vector boundary element method is firstly introduced to calculate the scattering field of a patterned wafer at a specific objective plane, after which a vector imaging theory is introduced to calculate the field at an image plane for an imaging system with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The above methods enable the effective modeling of the image for an arbitrary vectorial scattering electromagnetic field coming from the defect pattern of the wafer.

  6. Efficient performance of the Met Office Unified Model v8.2 on Intel Xeon partially used nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bermous

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric Unified Model (UM developed at the UK Met Office is used for weather and climate prediction by forecast teams at a number of international meteorological centres and research institutes on a wide variety of hardware and software environments. Over its 25 year history the UM sources have been optimised for a better application performance on a number of HPC systems including NEC SX vector architecture systems and recently the IBM Power6/Power7 platforms. Understanding the influence of the compiler flags, MPI libraries and run configurations is crucial to achieving the shortest elapsed times for a UM application on any particular HPC system. These aspects are very important for applications that must run within operational time frames. Driving the current study is the HPC industry trend since 1980 for processor arithmetic performance to increase at a faster rate than memory bandwidth. This gap has been growing especially fast for multicore processors in the past 10 years and it can have significant implication for the performance and performance scaling of memory bandwidth intensive applications, such as the UM. Analysis of partially used nodes on Intel Xeon clusters is provided in this paper for short and medium range weather forecasting systems using global and limited-area configurations. It is shown that on the Intel Xeon based clusters the fastest elapsed times and the most efficient system usage can be achieved using partially committed nodes.

  7. Validation of a Node-Centered Wall Function Model for the Unstructured Flow Code FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jan-Renee; Vasta, Veer N.; White, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of two wall function models in the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational uid dynamics (CFD) code FUN3D is described. FUN3D is a node centered method for solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured computational grids. The first wall function model, based on the work of Knopp et al., is used in conjunction with the one-equation turbulence model of Spalart-Allmaras. The second wall function model, also based on the work of Knopp, is used in conjunction with the two-equation k-! turbulence model of Menter. The wall function models compute the wall momentum and energy flux, which are used to weakly enforce the wall velocity and pressure flux boundary conditions in the mean flow momentum and energy equations. These wall conditions are implemented in an implicit form where the contribution of the wall function model to the Jacobian are also included. The boundary conditions of the turbulence transport equations are enforced explicitly (strongly) on all solid boundaries. The use of the wall function models is demonstrated on four test cases: a at plate boundary layer, a subsonic di user, a 2D airfoil, and a 3D semi-span wing. Where possible, different near-wall viscous spacing tactics are examined. Iterative residual convergence was obtained in most cases. Solution results are compared with theoretical and experimental data for several variations of grid spacing. In general, very good comparisons with data were achieved.

  8. Which prediction models best identify additional axillary disease after a positive sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Tanya S; Lesperance, Mary; Truong, Pauline T; Walter, Caroline; Hayashi, Allen H; Olivotto, Ivo A

    2012-06-01

    To determine which web-based model best identifies women at low risk of further axillary disease after a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN+) biopsy. 673 women with T1-2cN0M0 SNB+ breast cancer who underwent completion axillary dissection (AxD) were identified. A subgroup not eligible to avoid AxD as part of the Z0011 study was defined (Z0011 exclusion group). Predicted risk of further axillary disease was generated using seven web-based models. "Low risk" was defined as a ≤10% risk of further axillary disease. False negative ("low risk" prediction but AxD+) rates (FNRs), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and Brier score were determined for each model. 6 of 7 models identified "low risk" patients but FNRs ranged from 14 to 30%. The Stanford and Memorial Sloan-Kettering (MSKCC) models had the best FNRs. FNRs were lower with SLN micrometastasis (7-15%) and higher in the Z0011 exclusion group (21-41%). All models under-predicted further nodal disease in low risk patients and over-predicted in higher-risk patients. The Stanford and MSKCC models were able to identify women with SLN micrometastasis with a ≤10% FNR. Models were not able to accurately identify low risk women from a cohort that would have been excluded from Z0011.

  9. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  10. Follicular dendritic cells, conduits, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules in tertiary lymphoid organs: Parallels with lymph node stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon eStranford

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, the contribution of stromal, or non-hematopoietic, cells to the structure and function of lymph nodes (LNs, as canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs, is compared to that of tertiary lymphoid tissue or organs (TLOs, also known as ectopic lymphoid tissues. TLOs can arise in non-lymphoid organs during chronic inflammation, as a result of autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infection, and cancer. The stromal components found in SLOs including follicular dendritic cells, fibroblast reticular cells, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules and possibly conduits are present in TLOs; their molecular regulation mimics that of LNs. Advances in visualization techniques and the development of transgenic mice that permit in vivo real time imaging of these structures will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions in the context of chronic inflammation. A clearer understanding of the inflammatory signals that drive non lymphoid stromal cells to reorganize into TLOs could allow the design of therapeutic interventions to impede the progression of autoimmune activity, or alternatively, to enhance anti-tumor responses.

  11. Monoclonal origin of peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits in serous borderline ovarian tumors (s-BOT) with high intratumoral homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Höhn, Anne K; Einenkel, Jens; Siebolts, Udo

    2014-11-01

    Molecular studies have shown that the most prevalent mutations in serous ovarian borderline tumors (s-BOT) are BRAF and/or KRAS alterations. About one third of s-BOT represent peritoneal implants and/or lymph node involvement. These extraovarian deposits may be monoclonal or polyclonal in origin. To test both the hypotheses, mutational analyses using pyrosequencing for BRAF codon 600 and KRAS codon 12/13 and 61 of microdissected tissue was performed in 15 s-BOT and their invasive and noninvasive peritoneal implants. Two to 6 implants from different peritoneal sites were examined in 13 cases. Lymph node deposits were available for the analysis in 3 cases. Six s-BOT showed mutation in exon 2 codon 12 of the KRAS proto-oncogen. Five additional cases showed BRAF p.V600E mutation representing an overall mutation rate of 73.3%. Multiple (2-6) peritoneal implants were analyzed after microdissection in 13 of 15 cases. All showed identical mutational results when compared with the ovarian site of the disease. All lymph node deposits, including those with multiple deposits in different nodes, showed identical results, suggesting high intratumoral mutational homogeneity. The evidence presented in this study and the majority of data reported in the literature support the hypothesis that s-BOT with their peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits show identical mutational status of BRAF and KRAS suggesting a monoclonal rather than a polyclonal disease regarding these both tested genetic loci. In addition, a high intratumoral genetic homogeneity can be suggested. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the monoclonal origin of s-BOT and their peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits.

  12. Molecular portrait-based correlation between primary canine mammary tumor and its lymph node metastasis: possible prognostic-predictive models and/or stronghold for specific treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beha Germana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the molecular phenotype of the primary mammary tumor and its related lymph node metastasis in the dog to develop prognostic-predictive models and targeted therapeutic options. Results Twenty mammary tumor samples and their lymph node metastases were selected and stained by immunohistochemistry with anti-estrogen receptor (ER, -progesterone receptor (PR, -human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erbB-2, -cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6, -cytokeratin 14 (CK14, -cytokeratin 19 (CK 19 and -protein 63 (p63 antibodies. Four phenotypes (luminal A, luminal B, c-erbB2 overexpressing and basal-like were diagnosed in primary tumors and five (luminal A, luminal B, c-erbB-2 overexpressing, basal-like and normal-like in the lymph node metastases. Phenotypic concordance was found in 13 of the 20 cases (65%, and seven cases (35% showed discordance with different lymph node phenotypic profile from the primary tumor. Conclusions The phenotype of the primary tumor assumes a predictive-therapeutic role only in concordant cases, meaning that both the primary tumor and its lymph node metastasis should be evaluated at the same time. A treatment plan based only on the primary tumor phenotype could lead to therapeutic failures if the phenotype of the lymph node metastasis differs from that of the primary tumor.

  13. Experiences modeling ocean circulation problems on a 30 node commodity cluster with 3840 GPU processor cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C.

    2008-12-01

    Low cost graphic cards today use many, relatively simple, compute cores to deliver support for memory bandwidth of more than 100GB/s and theoretical floating point performance of more than 500 GFlop/s. Right now this performance is, however, only accessible to highly parallel algorithm implementations that, (i) can use a hundred or more, 32-bit floating point, concurrently executing cores, (ii) can work with graphics memory that resides on the graphics card side of the graphics bus and (iii) can be partially expressed in a language that can be compiled by a graphics programming tool. In this talk we describe our experiences implementing a complete, but relatively simple, time dependent shallow-water equations simulation targeting a cluster of 30 computers each hosting one graphics card. The implementation takes into account the considerations (i), (ii) and (iii) listed previously. We code our algorithm as a series of numerical kernels. Each kernel is designed to be executed by multiple threads of a single process. Kernels are passed memory blocks to compute over which can be persistent blocks of memory on a graphics card. Each kernel is individually implemented using the NVidia CUDA language but driven from a higher level supervisory code that is almost identical to a standard model driver. The supervisory code controls the overall simulation timestepping, but is written to minimize data transfer between main memory and graphics memory (a massive performance bottle-neck on current systems). Using the recipe outlined we can boost the performance of our cluster by nearly an order of magnitude, relative to the same algorithm executing only on the cluster CPU's. Achieving this performance boost requires that many threads are available to each graphics processor for execution within each numerical kernel and that the simulations working set of data can fit into the graphics card memory. As we describe, this puts interesting upper and lower bounds on the problem sizes

  14. Modeling growth and dissemination of lymphoma in a co-evolving lymph node: a diffuse-domain approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Cristini, Vittorio; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Lowengrub, John

    2013-03-01

    While partial differential equation models of tumor growth have successfully described various spatiotemporal phenomena observed for in-vitro tumor spheroid experiments, one challenge towards taking these models to further study in-vivo tumors is that instead of relatively static tissue culture with regular boundary conditions, in-vivo tumors are often confined in organ tissues that co-evolve with the tumor growth. Here we adopt a recently developed diffuse-domain method to account for the co-evolving domain boundaries, adapting our previous in-vitro tumor model for the development of lymphoma encapsulated in a lymph node, which may swell or shrink due to proliferation and dissemination of lymphoma cells and treatment by chemotherapy. We use the model to study the induced spatial heterogeneity, which may arise as an emerging phenomenon in experimental observations and model analysis. Spatial heterogeneity is believed to lead to tumor infiltration patterns and reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy, leaving residuals that cause cancer relapse after the treatment. Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of in-vivo tumors can be an essential step towards more effective strategies of curing cancer. Supported by NIH-PSOC grant 1U54CA143907-01.

  15. Cross-validation of three predictive tools for non-sentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, T F; Meretoja, T J; Jensen, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We cross-validated three existing models for the prediction of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the sentinel node, developed in Danish and Finnish cohorts of breast cancer patients, to find the best model to identify patients...... who might benefit from further axillary treatment. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Based on 484 Finnish breast cancer patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel node a model has been developed for the prediction of non-sentinel node metastases. Likewise, two separate models have been developed in 1577...... metastases while less than 1% was identified by the Finish model. In contrast, the Finish model predicted a much larger proportion of patients being in the low-risk group with less than 10% risk of non-sentinel node metastases. CONCLUSION: The Danish model for micrometastases worked well in predicting high...

  16. High voltage direct current modelling in optimal power flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz-Perez, H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, Unidad de Ingenieria Especializada, Rio Rodano No. 14 - Piso 10, Sala 1002, Col. Cuauhtemoc, C.P. 06598, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Acha, E. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G128LT, Scotland (United Kingdom); Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia 58030, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-03-15

    Two-terminal high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission links are in operation throughout the world. They are key elements in electrical power networks; their representation is oversimplified or ignored in most power system studies. This is particularly the case in Optima Power Flow (OPF) studies. Hence, an OPF program has been extended to incorporate HVDC links, taking due account of overlapping and power transfer control characteristics. This is a new development in Newton Optimal Power Flows, where the converter equations are included directly in the matrix W. The method is indeed a unified one since the solution vector is extended to accommodate the DC variables. The HVDC link model correctly takes into account the relevant DC limit variables. The impact of HVDC links on OPF studies is illustrated by numeric examples, which includes a 5-node system, the AEP 14-node and a 166-node system. (author)

  17. Isoprenaline: A Potential Contributor in Sick Sinus Syndrome—Insights from a Mathematical Model of the Rabbit Sinoatrial Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of isoprenaline exerting its effects on cardiac pacemaking and driving in sick sinus syndrome is controversial and unresolved. In this paper, mathematical models for rabbit sinoatrial node cells were modified by incorporating equations for the known dose-dependent actions of isoprenaline on various ionic channel currents, the intracellular Ca2+ transient, and iNa changes induced by SCN5A gene mutations; the cell models were also incorporated into an intact SAN-atrium model of the rabbit heart that is based on both heterogeneities of the SAN electrophysiology and histological structure. Our results show that, in both central and peripheral cell models, isoprenaline could not only shorten the action potential duration, but also increase the amplitude of action potential. The mutation impaired the SAN pacemaking. Simulated vagal nerve activity amplified the bradycardic effects of the mutation. However, in tissue case, the pacemaker activity may show temporal, spatial, or even spatiotemporal cessation caused by the mutation. Addition of isoprenaline could significantly diminish the bradycardic effect of the mutation and the SAN could restart pacing and driving the surrounding tissue. Positive effects of isoprenaline may primarily be attributable to an increase in iNa and iCa,T which were reduced by the mutation.

  18. Isoprenaline: a potential contributor in sick sinus syndrome--insights from a mathematical model of the rabbit sinoatrial node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ji-qian; Shuai, Jian-wei

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of isoprenaline exerting its effects on cardiac pacemaking and driving in sick sinus syndrome is controversial and unresolved. In this paper, mathematical models for rabbit sinoatrial node cells were modified by incorporating equations for the known dose-dependent actions of isoprenaline on various ionic channel currents, the intracellular Ca²⁺ transient, and i(Na) changes induced by SCN5A gene mutations; the cell models were also incorporated into an intact SAN-atrium model of the rabbit heart that is based on both heterogeneities of the SAN electrophysiology and histological structure. Our results show that, in both central and peripheral cell models, isoprenaline could not only shorten the action potential duration, but also increase the amplitude of action potential. The mutation impaired the SAN pacemaking. Simulated vagal nerve activity amplified the bradycardic effects of the mutation. However, in tissue case, the pacemaker activity may show temporal, spatial, or even spatiotemporal cessation caused by the mutation. Addition of isoprenaline could significantly diminish the bradycardic effect of the mutation and the SAN could restart pacing and driving the surrounding tissue. Positive effects of isoprenaline may primarily be attributable to an increase in i(Na) and i(Ca,T) which were reduced by the mutation.

  19. Energy Storage in Power System Operation: The Power Nodes Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    such as power rating, ramprate constraints, eciencies, and storage capacity are modeled, while the individual physical properties of the interconnected units are not taken into account. This allows the modeling of a physically very diverse unit portfolio with a single approach. The concept can be used...... for designing operation strategies for power systems based on ubiquitous energy storage, for example to buer non-dispatchable generation, as well as for the evaluation of the operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability and cost. After introducing the modeling approach and a categorization...

  20. Construction of High Performance Instant Messaging System Based on Socket.io+Node.js+Redis%基于Socket.io+Node.js+Redis构建高效即时通讯系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄经赢

    2014-01-01

    随着互联网技术的发展,市场上已有一些比较成熟的即时通讯系统,但大多数都是基于C/S结构,而基于B/S结构的即时通讯系统还处于发展阶段,主要受制于不同浏览器版本的兼容问题,且该类系统对高并发和数据快速存取有着较高的要求。而基于Socket.io、Node.js和Redis的技术,可以较好地解决B/S结构所遇到的问题。%With the development of Internet, there have been some mature instant messaging systems on the market, but most of them are based on C/S structure, the instant messaging system based on B/S structure is still developing, the main reason is subject to the different versions of browser compatibility issues, and the instant messaging system require high concurrency and fast data access. Based on Socket.io, Node.js and Redis technology can be better to solve the problem of B/S structure encountered.

  1. Reconfigureable network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  2. Reconfigureable network node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderveen, Keith B. (Tracy, CA); Talbot, Edward B. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Laurence E. (Davis, CA)

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  3. Concomitant high expression of BRAFV600E, P-cadherin and cadherin 6 is associated with High TNM stage and lymph node metastasis in conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Le; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Man; Zhu, Ping; Mo, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Ni; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2016-05-01

    BRAFV600E mutation is the most common activating mutation associated with aggressive behaviours in human tumours including conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). P-cadherin and cadherin 6 have been shown to be mesenchymal-associated cadherins and promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to examine BRAFV600E, P-cadherin and cadherin 6 expressions in cPTC and to assess the association of their expression with clinicopathological indicators. BRAFV600E, P-cadherin and cadherin 6 protein expressions in 80 cPTCs, 61 nodular hyperplasia and 76 normal thyroid tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of their protein expression with clinicopathological indicators of cPTC was statistically analysed. Protein expression of BRAFV600E, P-cadherin and cadherin 6 was upregulated in cPTC. High protein expression of BRAFV600E, P-cadherin and cadherin 6 was significantly correlated with high TNM stage and lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P TNM stage and LNM when compared with BRAFV600E high expression combined with either P-cadherin or cadherin-6 high expression (P = 0·042, 0·017 for TNM stage and P = 0·003, 0·006 for LNM, respectively) and only BRAFV600E high expression (P TNM stage and LNM). Concomitant high expression of BRAFV600E, P-cadherin and cadherin 6 is strongly associated with high TNM stage and LNM in cPTC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. External Validation of Models for Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyeon Ku

    Full Text Available To externally validate models to predict LN metastsis; Karakiewicz nomogram, clinical nodal staging score (cNSS, and pathologic nodal staging score (pNSS using a different cohort.Clinicopathologic data from 500 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were analyzed. The overall predictive values of models were compared with the criteria of overall performance, discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness.Presence of pN+ stages was recorded in 117 patients (23.4%. Agreement between clinical and pathologic stage was noted in 174 (34.8%. Based on Nagelkerke's peudo-R2 and brier score, pNSS demonstrated best overall performance. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, showed that pNSS had the best discriminatory ability. In all models, calibration was on average correct (calibration-in-the-large coefficient = zero. On decision curve analysis, pNSS performed better than other models across a wide range of threshold probabilities.When compared to pNSS, current precystectomy models such as the Karakiewicz nomogram and cNSS cannot predict the probability of LN metastases accurately. The findings suggest that the application of pNSS to Asian patients is feasible.

  5. Artificial microtubule cytoskeleton construction, manipulation, and modeling via holographic trapping of network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J.; Doval, F.; Vershinin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cytoskeletal networks are 3D arrangements of filaments whose complex spatial structure contributes significantly to their intracellular functions, e.g. biomechanics and cargo motility. Microtubule networks in cells are a particular challenge for in vitro modeling because they are sparse and possess overall structure and so cannot be approximated experimentally as a random hydrogel. We have used holographic optical trapping to precisely position and hold multiple microtubule filaments in an in vitro assay, where chemical and environmental variables can be carefully controlled. Below we describe the relevant practical details of the approach and demonstrate how our approach can scale to accommodate modeling of molecular motor transport and biomechanics experiments.

  6. SISL and SIRL: Two knowledge dissemination models with leader nodes on cooperative learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yumei; Man, Jiayu; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Cooperative learning is one of the most effective teaching methods, which has been widely used. Students' mutual contact forms a cooperative learning network in this process. Our previous research demonstrated that the cooperative learning network has complex characteristics. This study aims to investigating the dynamic spreading process of the knowledge in the cooperative learning network and the inspiration of leaders in this process. To this end, complex network transmission dynamics theory is utilized to construct the knowledge dissemination model of a cooperative learning network. Based on the existing epidemic models, we propose a new susceptible-infected-susceptible-leader (SISL) model that considers both students' forgetting and leaders' inspiration, and a susceptible-infected-removed-leader (SIRL) model that considers students' interest in spreading and leaders' inspiration. The spreading threshold λcand its impact factors are analyzed. Then, numerical simulation and analysis are delivered to reveal the dynamic transmission mechanism of knowledge and leaders' role. This work is of great significance to cooperative learning theory and teaching practice. It also enriches the theory of complex network transmission dynamics.

  7. Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Backoff Misbehaving Nodes in CSMA/CA Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    range of backoff misbehaviors on network performance in CSMA/CA-based wireless networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...consider the same transmission process under a different MAC protocol, such as ZigBee or even different 802.11 models, the packet delay will change because...Layer Misbeha- vior in Wireless Networks,” ACM Trans. Information and Systems Security , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 19:1-19:28, July 2008. [10] S. Choi, K

  8. New optimization model for routing and spectrum assignment with nodes insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Hejun; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Zhanqi; Hao, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-04-01

    By adopting the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technology, elastic optical networks can provide the flexible and variable bandwidth allocation to each connection request and get higher spectrum utilization. The routing and spectrum assignment problem in elastic optical network is a well-known NP-hard problem. In addition, information security has received worldwide attention. We combine these two problems to investigate the routing and spectrum assignment problem with the guaranteed security in elastic optical network, and establish a new optimization model to minimize the maximum index of the used frequency slots, which is used to determine an optimal routing and spectrum assignment schemes. To solve the model effectively, a hybrid genetic algorithm framework integrating a heuristic algorithm into a genetic algorithm is proposed. The heuristic algorithm is first used to sort the connection requests and then the genetic algorithm is designed to look for an optimal routing and spectrum assignment scheme. In the genetic algorithm, tailor-made crossover, mutation and local search operators are designed. Moreover, simulation experiments are conducted with three heuristic strategies, and the experimental results indicate that the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm framework.

  9. Quantitative analysis and prediction of regional lymph node status in rectal cancer based on computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Chunyan; Liu, Lizhi; Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Cai, Hongmin; Tian, Haiying [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Automation, School of Science Information and Technology, Guangzhou (China); Li, Liren [Sun Yat-sen University, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Abdominal (colon and rectal) Surgery, Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-11-15

    To quantitatively evaluate regional lymph nodes in rectal cancer patients by using an automated, computer-aided approach, and to assess the accuracy of this approach in differentiating benign and malignant lymph nodes. Patients (228) with newly diagnosed rectal cancer, confirmed by biopsy, underwent enhanced computed tomography (CT). Patients were assigned to the benign node or malignant node group according to histopathological analysis of node samples. All CT-detected lymph nodes were segmented using the edge detection method, and seven quantitative parameters of each node were measured. To increase the prediction accuracy, a hierarchical model combining the merits of the support and relevance vector machines was proposed to achieve higher performance. Of the 220 lymph nodes evaluated, 125 were positive and 95 were negative for metastases. Fractal dimension obtained by the Minkowski box-counting approach was higher in malignant nodes than in benign nodes, and there was a significant difference in heterogeneity between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. The overall performance of the proposed model is shown to have accuracy as high as 88% using morphological characterisation of lymph nodes. Computer-aided quantitative analysis can improve the prediction of node status in rectal cancer. (orig.)

  10. Bifurcation of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle with Homoclinic Orbits Satisfying the Small Lobe Condition in a Leech Neuron Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOOER Chi-Feng; XU Jian-Xue; ZHANG Xin-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node limit cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the "small lobe condition",instead of the blue-sky catastrophe.In every spiking adding,the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.

  11. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gritti

    Full Text Available The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions.

  12. Ad Hoc网络节点毁坏的拟生灭模型%Quasi-Birth-and-Death Model for Destruction of Ad Hoc Network Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文洁; 严悍; 刘凤玉

    2011-01-01

    在Ad hoc网络中由于节点通信是分布式的,网络中的节点毁坏会影响通信链路的中断甚至导致某些书点不可达.为此,基于M/M/C排队系统,通过合理假设,建它一个Ad hoc网络中节点毁坏及处理过程的拟生灭模型.运用矩阵分析法,在给定参数下,求得稳态概率、毁坏节点的平均队长、毁坏节点到达时无需等待的概率等.该模型能够在保证系统正常工作的情况下,提高Ad hoc网络节点维护效率,为制定维护策略提供参考.%This paper presents a Quasi-Birth-and-Death(QBD) model for damaged nodes in Ad hoc network.Since the communication in Ad hoc network is distributed, the destruction of nodes in the route between transmitter and receiver will break off the communication.Too many damaged nodes will result in some nodes unreachable.By assuming damaged vehicles' arrival be subject to Poisson process, repair time and vacation time be exponentially distributed, it creats QBD model for Ad hoc network nodes damage and fix process, uses matrix analysis method to get stationary distribution, and then obtains damage nodes average queue length, the probability of no need to wait and so on.It is helpful on saving resources while keeping the network stability, can be a reference when make maintenance strategy.

  13. Remote, Real-time Investigations of Extreme Environments Using High Power and Bandwidth Cabled Observatories: The OOI Regional Scale Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate deposits and hydrothermal vents are two of the most extreme environments on Earth. Seismic events and flow of gases from the seafloor support and modulate novel microbial communities within these systems. Although studied intensely for several decades, significant questions remain about the flux of heat, volatiles and microbial material from the subsurface to the hydrosphere in these dynamic environments. Quantification of microbial communities, their structure and abundances, and metabolic activities is in an infant state. To better understand these systems, the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative has installed high power (8 kW), high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) nodes on the seafloor that provide access to active methane seeps at Southern Hydrate Ridge, and at the most magmatically robust volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge - Axial Seamount. The real-time interactive capabilities of the cabled observatory are critical to studying gas-hydrate systems because many of the key processes occur over short time scales. Events such as bubble plume formation, the creation of collapse zones, and increased seepage in response to earthquakes require adaptive response and sampling capabilities. To meet these challenges a suite of instruments will be connected to the cable in 2013. These sensors include full resolution sampling by upward-looking sonars, fluid and gas chemical characterization by mass spectrometers and osmo samplers, long-term duration collection of seep imagery from cameras, and in situ manipulation of chemical sensors coupled with flow meters. In concert, this instrument suite will provide quantification of transient and more stable chemical fluxes. Similarly, at Axial Seamount the high bandwidth and high power fiber optic cables will be used to communicate with and power a diverse array of sensors at the summit of the volcano. Real-time high definition video will provide unprecedented views of macrofaunal and microbial communities

  14. Targeting COX-2 and EP4 to control tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes in a breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiping; Majumder, Mousumi; Girish, Gannareddy V; Mohindra, Vik; Maruyama, Takayuki; Lala, Peeyush K

    2012-08-01

    We reported that cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human breast cancer stimulated cancer cell migration and invasiveness, production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and lymphangiogenesis in situ, largely from endogenous PGE2-mediated stimulation of prostaglandin E (EP)1 and EP4 receptors, presenting them as candidate therapeutic targets against lymphatic metastasis. As human breast cancer xenografts in immuno-compromised mice have limitations for preclinical testing, we developed a syngeneic murine breast cancer model of spontaneous lymphatic metastasis mimicking human and applied it for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. We tested the roles of COX-2 and EP receptors in VEGF-C and -D production by a highly metastatic COX-2 expressing murine breast cancer cell line C3L5. These cells expressed all EP receptors and produced VEGF-C and -D, both inhibited with COX-2 inhibitors or EP4 (but not EP1, EP2 or EP3) antagonists. C3H/HeJ mice, when implanted SC in both inguinal regions with C3L5 cells suspended in growth factor-reduced Matrigel, exhibited rapid tumor growth, tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis (respectively measured with CD31 and LYVE-1 immunostaining), metastasis to the inguinal and axillary lymph nodes and the lungs. Chronic oral administration of COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin, COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and an EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208, but not an EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 at nontoxic doses markedly reduced tumor growth, lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. Residual tumors in responding mice revealed reduced VEGF-C and -D proteins, AkT phosphorylation and increased apoptotic/proliferative cell ratios consistent with blockade of EP4 signaling. We suggest that EP4 antagonists deserve clinical testing for chemo-intervention of lymphatic metastasis in human breast cancer.

  15. 水声定位的正三角形网状节点部署模型%EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE MESH NODES DEPLOYMENT MODEL FOR UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC POSITIONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁佳敏; 刘广钟; 徐明

    2015-01-01

    定位问题是水声传感器网络研究领域的关键技术之一。目前大部分定位算法集中在定位算法的改进,忽视节点部署模型对定位精度的影响。提出一种用于定位的正三角形节点部署模型,在二维空间下,将锚节点以正三角的形式均匀部署,在定位区域内,未知节点总会处于以锚节点为顶点的正三角形中。在这个部署模型下,提出一种定位算法。通过Matlab进行仿真实验,结果表明,最小二乘法,Chan算法和改进算法按正三角形部署的节点模型的平均定位误差小于同节点密度下的均匀随机部署模型。在相同的节点部署密度下,正三角形模型部署下的改进算法稳定性要好于最小二乘法和Chan算法。%Localisation problem is one of the key technologies in underwater acoustic sensor network research.Currently,most of positioning algorithms focus on improving the positioning algorithm,but neglect the impact of node deployment model on positioning accuracy. We put forward an equilateral triangle nodes deployment model for positioning,in which the anchor nodes are deployed uniformly in equilateral triangle form in two-dimensional space,making the unknown nodes be always in the equilateral triangle,which takes the anchor points as vertices,within the localisation area.Based on this deployment model we put forward a positioning algorithm.Through simulation experiments on Matlab,the results showed that the average position errors of the node models deployed in equilateral triangle using three algorithms of the least square algorithm,the Chan algorithm and the improved algorithm were all less than that of the uniform random deployment model under same node density.Under same node deployment density,the improved algorithm had better stability than the least square algorithm and Chan algorithm in equilateral triangle-deployed model.

  16. Mobile Ad Hoc Network Security for Reactive Routing Protocol with Node Reputation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile node’s reputation in the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET identifies its trust worthiness for secured multiple data communication. Unknown nature of the node’s communication status for initial period has great impact in the effective data transfer as MANET is self-organized and distributed. Problem statement: The functional operation of the mobile network relies on the trusty cooperation between the nodes. The major factor in securing the MANET is based on the quantification of node’s reputation and trustworthiness. The previous literatures provided uncertainty model to reflect a node’s confidence in sufficiency of its past experience and effect of collecting trust information from the unknown node status. With node mobility characteristic, it reduces unknown nature and speed up trust convergence. Approach: Mobility-assisted uncertainty reduction schemes comprised of, proactive schemes, that achieve trust convergence and reactive schemes provide node authentication and their reputation. They provide an acceptable trade-off between delay and uncertainty. The mobility based node reputation scheme presented in this study, identifies and monitor the node’s trustworthiness in sharing the information within the ad hoc network. Mobile nodes information uncertainty is handled with the mobility characteristics and its reputation is evaluated to trust or discard the node’s communication. Results: Simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of mobility based node reputation scheme by measuring the nodes consistency behavior, neighboring communication rate and path diversity. Conclusion: The average node’s neighboring communication rate is high for the proposed mobility based reputation scheme compared to the reactive routing protocols.

  17. Node Deployment and the Impact of Relay Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudranath Mitra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Node deployment is a fundamental issue to be solved in wireless sensor network. A proper node deployment can reduce the complexity of problems in WSN as for eg, routing, data fusion, communication etc. Different node deployment models have been proposed to reduce the complexity. In this paper we will discuss about the three models- Tri-hexagon-tiling (THT, Uniform Random and Square Grid. The nature of deployment of sensor nodes depend on the type of sensors, application and the environment where the networks will operate. Deployment of sensor nodes can be random or pre-determined. In random deployment nodes are deployed in a random manner. In pre-determined deployment, location of the nodes are specified. Most commonly used cell structure is Regular Hexagonal Cell Architecture. Here we will discuss the concept of relay nodes and its impact in sensor nodes

  18. The impact of previous para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the localization of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; de Meneses e Silva, João Marcos; de Moura Torres-de-Melo, José Ricardo; Pinheiro, Karine Bessa Porto; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses the influence of a para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the location of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model. METHODS: The sentinel lymph node was marked with technetium-99, which was injected into the subareolar skin of the cranial breast. After the marker had migrated to the axilla, an arcuate para-areolar incision was performed 2 cm from the nipple in the upper outer quadrant. Patent blue dye was then injected above the upper border of the incision. At the marked site, an axillary incision was made, and the sentinel lymph node was identified by gamma probe and/or by direct visualization of the dye. The agreement between the two injection sites and the two sentinel lymph node identification methods was determined. Our sample group consisted of 40 cranial breasts of 23 adult females of the species Canis familiaris. The data were analyzed by using the McNemar test and by determining the kappa agreement coefficient. RESULT: Our findings showed that in 95% of the breasts, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of technetium-99 m into the subareolar region, and in 82% of the cases, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of patent blue dye above the upper border of the incision. The methods agreed 82% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Previous para-areolar incisions in the upper outer quadrant did not interfere significantly with the biopsy when the dye was injected above the upper border of the incision. PMID:21915493

  19. Repeated-game model of node cooperation in opportunistic networks%一种机会网络节点重复博弈模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蔓蔓; 张振宇; 杨文忠; 张珍

    2014-01-01

    在资源受限的机会网络中,节点在转发过程中所表现出的自私行为将严重影响网络性能。针对这一问题,建立基于认错机制的“礼尚往来”策略的节点重复博弈模型。节点考虑到将来的利益,迫于对惩罚的恐惧而参与转发。通过该策略,节点协作可以使网络性能达到最优。仿真结果表明,节点间的相互协作增强,在自私节点较多时也能保证较好的网络性能。%In opportunistic networks with limited resources, the performance of network is seriously affected by selfish behavior of the nodes during the packet forwarding. To solve this problem, the paper establishes a repeated-game model of node cooperation based on a admit mechanism of“Tit-For-Tat”strategy. The nodes consider the long-term interests and participate in forwarding forced by the fear of punishment. By using the strategy, cooperation of nodes in the network can make the network performance to achieve optimal. The simulation results show that the mutual cooperation of nodes is enhanced and the performance of the network can be guaranteed when more selfish nodes exist in network.

  20. Postmastectomy radiotherapy improves disease-free survival of high risk of locoregional recurrence breast cancer patients with T1-2 and 1 to 3 positive nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu He

    Full Text Available The indications for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT with T1-2 breast cancer and 1-3 positive axillary lymph nodes is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of PMRT in T1-2 breast cancer with 1-3 positive axillary lymph node.We retrospectively reviewed the file records of 79 patients receiving PMRT and not receiving PMRT (618 patients.The median follow-up was 65 months. Multivariate analysis showed that PMRT was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS (P = 0.010. Subgroup analysis of patients who did not undergo PMRT showed that pT stage, number of positive axillary lymph nodes, and molecular subtype were independent prognostic factors of LRFS. PMRT improved LRFS in the entire group (P = 0.005, but did not affect distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS (P = 0.494, disease-free survival (DFS (P = 0.215, and overall survival (OS (P = 0.645. For patients without PMRT, the 5-year LRFS of low-risk patients (0-1 risk factor for locoregional recurrence of 94.5% was significantly higher than that of high-risk patients (2-3 risk factors for locoregional recurrence (80.9%, P < 0.001. PMRT improved LRFS (P = 0.001 and DFS (P = 0.027 in high-risk patients, but did not improve LRFS, DMFS, DFS, and OS in low-risk patients.PMRT is beneficial in patients with high risk of locoregional recurrence breast cancer patients with T1-2 and 1 to 3 positive nodes.

  1. One node driving synchronisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2015-12-11

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  2. One node driving synchronisation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chengwei; Baptista, Murilo S

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  3. Establishment of sinoatrial node damage model in canine induced by formaldehyde wet dressing of sinoatrial node aera%窦房结区甲醛湿敷法建立犬窦房结损伤模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志辉; 程军; 宋治远

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility and reliability to build a sinoatrial node damage model in canine induced by formaldehyde wet dressing. Methods Twenty dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups (5 in each group) by means of random number table: 2-hour, 24-hour, 1-week and 4-week groups after wet dressing. The sinoatrial node area of canine was damaged by wet dressing with 20% formaldehyde. Sinus node function was measured before, 2 h after wet dressing and corresponding times of each group. Electrocardiogram (ECG)of body surface were recorded synchronically. Results Average wet dressing time was 6.2±2.6 (3 to 12) rain. Five dogs showed significantly decrease of heart rate (HR) (140±11 vs 89±6 beat/min, P < 0.01)after wet dressing without arrhythmia. Sinus arrhythmia, sinus arrest and premature atrial contraction appeared after wet dressing in 4 dogs, but regular sinus rhythm was observed quickly. In 11 dogs, P waves disappeared after wet dressing and their ECG displayed junctional rhythm. Among of them, 4 dogs had sinus arrhythmia 24 h later with a significantly slower HR in comparison to those before wet dressing. HR of each group was sig-nificantly decreased than that of before wet dressing (P <0.01), while sinus node recovery time (SNRT) and corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) were increased significantly. Conclusion Formaldehyde wet dressing can be used to establish sinoatrial node damage model in canine. This method is convenient and relia-ble relatively, and the change of electrophysiology resemble sick sinus syndrome.%目的 探讨甲醛湿敷法建立犬窦房结损伤模犁的可行性和电生理特征变化.方法 20只实验犬按随机数字表法随机分为湿敷后2 h、4 h、1周及4周组(n=5).用20%甲醛湿敷窦房结区建立窦房结损伤模型.各组于湿敷前、湿敷后各自相对应时间点行电生理功能检测,同步记录体表心电图(electrocardiogram,ECG).结果 20只实验犬甲醛湿敷时间为3~12(6.2±2

  4. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for Metastatic Sentinel Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A.H.; Nielsen, B.S.; Madsen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune- deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  5. High prevalence of human cytomegalovirus proteins and nucleic acids in primary breast cancer and metastatic sentinel lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chato Taher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is associated with several malignancies. We aimed to examine whether HCMV is present in breast cancer and sentinel lymph node (SLN metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from breast cancer and paired sentinel lymph node (SLN samples were obtained from patients with (n = 35 and without SLN metastasis (n = 38. HCMV immediate early (IE and late (LA proteins were detected using a sensitive immunohistochemistry (IHC technique and HCMV DNA by real-time PCR. RESULTS: HCMV IE and LA proteins were abundantly expressed in 100% of breast cancer specimens. In SLN specimens, 94% of samples with metastases (n = 34 were positive for HCMV IE and LA proteins, mostly confined to neoplastic cells while some inflammatory cells were HCMV positive in 60% of lymph nodes without metastases (n = 35. The presence of HCMV DNA was confirmed in 12/12 (100% of breast cancer and 10/11 (91% SLN specimens from the metastatic group, but was not detected in 5/5 HCMV-negative, SLN-negative specimens. There was no statistically significant association between HCMV infection grades and progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and Elston grade status. CONCLUSIONS: The role of HCMV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is unclear. As HCMV proteins were mainly confined to neoplastic cells in primary breast cancer and SLN samples, our observations raise the question whether HCMV contributes to the tumorigenesis of breast cancer and its metastases.

  6. High-throughput multi-beam SEM: quantitative analysis of imaging capabilities at IMEC-N10 logic node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J. T.; Garbowski, T.; Högele, W.; Korb, T.; Halder, S.; Leray, P.; Garreis, R.; le Maire, M.; Zeidler, D.

    2017-03-01

    We use the ZEISS MultiSEM to inspect patterns on separated chips of a semiconductor wafer suited for process window characterization at imec-N10 logic node. We systematically analyze the impact of imaging parameters of the MultiSEM on quantitative metrics extracted from the images, e.g., CD repeatability and relative defect capture, and demonstrate that the MultiSEM is able to image the wafer patterns, track their variations through the process conditions of the lithography scanner, and consistently find patterning defects limiting the lithographic process window.

  7. OPC model data collection for 45-nm technology node using automatic CD-SEM offline recipe creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Daniel; Talbi, Mohamed; Wei, Alex; Menadeva, Ovadya; Cornell, Roger

    2007-03-01

    Optical and Process Correction in the 45nm node is requiring an ever higher level of characterization. The greater complexity drives a need for automation of the metrology process allowing more efficient, accurate and effective use of the engineering resources and metrology tool time in the fab, helping to satisfy what seems an insatiable appetite for data by lithographers and modelers charged with development of 45nm and 32nm processes. The scope of the work referenced here is a 45nm design cycle "full-loop automation", starting with gds formatted target design layout and ending with the necessary feedback of one and two dimensional printed wafer metrology. In this paper the authors consider the key elements of software, algorithmic framework and Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CDSEM) functionality necessary to automate its recipe creation. We evaluate specific problems with the methodology of the former art, "on-tool on-wafer" recipe construction, and discuss how the implementation of the design based recipe generation improves upon the overall metrology process. Individual target-by-target construction, use of a one pattern recognition template fits all approach, a blind navigation to the desired measurement feature, lengthy sessions on tool to construct recipes and limited ability to determine measurement quality in the resultant data set are each discussed as to how the state of the art Design Based Metrology (DBM) approach is implemented. The offline created recipes have shown pattern recognition success rates of up to 100% and measurement success rates of up to 93% for line/space as well as for 2D Minimum/Maximum measurements without manual assists during measurement.

  8. Characterization of dendritic cells in testicular draining lymph nodes in a rat model of experimental autoimmune orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzone, V A; Hollwegs, S; Mardirosian, M; Jacobo, P; Hackstein, H; Wygrecka, M; Schneider, E; Meinhardt, A; Lustig, L; Fijak, M

    2011-06-01

    The maturation state of dendritic cells (DC) is regarded as a control point for the induction of peripheral tolerance or autoimmunity. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) serves as a model to investigate inflammatory-based testicular impairment, which ranks as a significant cause of male infertility. This work aimed to determine whether DC enrichment occurs organotypically in testicular draining lymph nodes (TLN) compared with LN draining the site of immunization (ILN) and thus contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune orchitis. In this regard, we quantified and characterized the DC from TLN and ILN in rats with EAO. Flow cytometric analysis showed a significant increase in the percentage of DC (OX62+) only in TLN from EAO rats compared with normal (N) and adjuvant control (C) groups. The number of DC from ILN and TLN expressing CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II was comparable among N, C and experimental (E) groups at 30 and 50 days after the first immunization. However, TLN DC from EAO rats (50 days) showed an increase in mean fluorescence intensity for MHC II compared with N, C and E groups (30 days). The mRNA expression level of IL-10 and IL-12p35 was significantly upregulated in enriched DC fraction from TLN in EAO rats with no significant changes observed in ILN DC. The expression of IL-23p19 mRNA remained unchanged. Functional data, using proliferation assays showed that EAO-DC from TLN, but not from ILN, significantly enhanced the proliferation of naïve T cells compared with C-DC. In summary, our data suggest that the DC in TLN from orchitis rats are mature, present antigens to T cells and stimulate an autoimmune response against testicular antigens, thus causing immunological infertility.

  9. Nonadiabatic eigenfunctions can have conical nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Peter W.; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-09-01

    It has been argued the total vibrational probability amplitude for a molecular nonadiabatic eigenfunction should not have nodes unless required by symmetry. For a model with two nonadiabatically coupled electronic states, exact factorization of nonadiabatic eigenfunctions into a total vibrational probability amplitude and a normalized electronic factor reveals zero-dimensional nodes in nonadiabatic eigenfunctions over a two-dimensional vibrational space. These conical nodes have the shape of a right elliptical cone with the node at the vertex. Low dimensionality nodes are likely when the number of nonadiabatically coupled electronic states is less than or equal to the dimensionality of the vibrational space.

  10. Identifying Vulnerable Nodes of Complex Networks in Cascading Failures Induced by Node-Based Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research on network security, distinguishing the vulnerable components of networks is very important for protecting infrastructures systems. Here, we probe how to identify the vulnerable nodes of complex networks in cascading failures, which was ignored before. Concerned with random attack (RA and highest load attack (HL on nodes, we model cascading dynamics of complex networks. Then, we introduce four kinds of weighting methods to characterize the nodes of networks including Barabási-Albert scale-free networks (SF, Watts-Strogatz small-world networks (WS, Erdos-Renyi random networks (ER, and two real-world networks. The simulations show that, for SF networks under HL attack, the nodes with small value of the fourth kind of weight are the most vulnerable and the ones with small value of the third weight are also vulnerable. Also, the real-world autonomous system with power-law distribution verifies these findings. Moreover, for WS and ER networks under both RA and HL attack, when the nodes have low tolerant ability, the ones with small value of the fourth kind of weight are more vulnerable and also the ones with high degree are easier to break down. The results give us important theoretical basis for digging the potential safety loophole and making protection strategy.

  11. Determination of the counting efficiency of phoswich detectors for the assessment of internal contamination in lungs and lymph nodes by using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, M. A.; Hernandez, D.; Spano, F.

    1989-08-01

    This article presents the comparison between the results obtained by applying a mathematical and a physical model to the determination of the calibration factors for the direct measurements of the 239Pu and 241Am burden in lungs and lymph nodes. The mathematical model simulates the photon transport through a modified MIRD-V male phantom using the Monte Carlo technique. The physical model is a Livermore phantom supplied by the IAEA under the frame of the contract no. 3698/RI/CF. The results obtained show a good agreement between both models, since the differences are smaller than 13%.

  12. Detecting Ferrite Nanobeads for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with a Highly Sensitive Hall Differential Magnetic Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Ueda, T.; Masaki, T.; Kitamoto, Y.; Matsushita, N.; Handa, H.

    2012-03-01

    We fabricated a novel type of Hall differential magnetic field sensor for anti-cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using ferrofluid as a marker. A pair of Hall devices are mounted on both end surfaces of a ferrite core (10 mm phi ×32 mm) of an electromagnetic coil which generates an AC exciting magnetic field at 2.5 kHz. The signals are retrieved by a digital phase sensitive detection circuit. Mapping a ferrofluid (ResovistR) sample of l00μg in Fe atomic amount (comparable to that accumulated in human SLNs) was attained when the sample was placed within 6 mm distance from the sensor head. The detectable distance is limited primarily due to the magnetic induction effect of the metal XYZ stage which held the sample.

  13. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  14. Modular sensor network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  15. Multiple node remote messaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  16. Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Node-only Recurrence of Prostate Cancer: Ready for Prime Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Nazareno; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-12-30

    Several studies show that salvage lymph-node dissection for node-only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical treatment might represent a viable treatment modality for node-only recurrent PCa. However, as long as high quality data is not available, this approach should still be considered experimental.

  17. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  18. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  19. Local administration of liposomal adriamycin inhibited proliferation of metastatic cells in axillary lymph nodes in rabbit breast cancer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaojun; Qin Hong; Yao Jia; Wang Jiansheng; Xian Yinsheng; Zhang Yunfeng; Ren Hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the inhibitory effects of liposomal adriamycin (LADR) locally injected into mammary glands of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits on proliferation of lymph nodal metastatic cells. Methods: Twenty-one VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups. Rabbits were randomized to receive sham treatment (Group I), subcutaneous LADR around tumor (Group II) and intravenous free adriamycin (Group III), respectively. Breast tumor and axillary lymph nodes were harvested after 3 repeated treatment. Nodal sizes of both pre- and post-treatment were measured. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA in both tumor and lymph nodes were determined by RT-PCR. Results: The mean size of axillary lymph nodes in Group I, II and III increased by 3.70%, 1.55% and 2.89%, respectively, with significant difference between Group III and I (P=0.004) and between Group II and III (P=0.002). Relative expression values of PCNA mRNA in breast tumors of Group I, II and III were 0.486, 0.513 and 0.396, respectively. For Group III, PCNA mRNA was significantly less expressed than that in Group I (P=0.023) and II (P=0.005). Relative expression values of PCNA mRNA in axillary lymph nodes of Group I, II and III were 0.541, 0.329 and 0.450, respectively. Compared with Group I, Group III showed a markedly decreased expression of PCNA (P=0.021). The least level of PCNA mRNA was found in Group II, with a significant difference from that in Group HI (P=0.004). Conclusion: Local injection of LADR was an effective therapeutic regimen for lymphatic metastases from breast cancer, regardless of its little effect on primary tumor.

  20. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, R L; McSweeney, M B

    1983-05-15

    Radiographic, gross, and histopathologic studies on 158 whole breasts with primary operable carcinoma revealed intramammary lymph nodes in 28%, and of these breasts, 10% contained a metastatic deposit of carcinoma. Cancerous and noncancerous nodes were found in all quadrants of the breast with the positive ones being in the same quadrant as the carcinoma only 50% of the time. There was no demonstrable connection with the usual lymphatic drainage of the breast. With Stage II carcinoma, positive intramammary lymph nodes had no direct effect on prognosis, merely representing advanced disease and indicating a greater likelihood of axillary metastatic disease. There was a trend toward poorer prognosis in Stage I lesions with positive intramammary lymph nodes. This may indicate the Stage I carcinomas that have a similar prognosis as Stage II tumors. Conceivably, a Stage Ia, positive intramammary lymph node(s) but normal axillary lymph nodes, could be defined and used.

  1. 11C-acetate PET/CT in pre-therapeutic lymph node staging in high-risk prostate cancer patients and its influence on disease management - a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Sara; Karlsson, Camilla Thellenberg; Sundström, Torbjörn; Ögren, Mattias; Ögren, Margareta; Axelsson, Jan; Riklund, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment with simultaneous integrated boost against suspected lymph node metastases may be a curative therapeutic option in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (> 15% estimated risk of pelvic lymph node metastases according to the Cagiannos nomogram). C-11-acetate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be used for primary staging as well as for detection of suspected relapse of prostate cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate the as...

  2. Target volume definition in high-risk prostate cancer patients using sentinel node SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vees Hansjörg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN involvement. Methods Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV. Results A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10. Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden. Conclusions Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning.

  3. Otiy: Loactors tracking nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Boc, Mathias; de Amorim, Marcelo dias

    2007-01-01

    We propose Otiy, a node-centric location service that limits the impact of location updates generate by mobile nodes in IEEE802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Existing location services use node identifiers to determine the locator (aka anchor) that is responsible for keeping track of a node's location. Such a strategy can be inefficient because: (i) identifiers give no clue on the node's mobility and (ii) locators can be far from the source/destination shortest path, which increases both location delays and bandwidth consumption. To solve these issues, Otiy introduces a new strategy that identifies nodes to play the role of locators based on the likelihood of a destination to be close to these nodes- i.e., locators are identified depending on the mobility pattern of nodes. Otiy relies on the cyclic mobility patterns of nodes and creates a slotted agenda composed of a set of predicted locations, defined according to the past and present patterns of mobility. Correspondent nodes fetch this agenda only once a...

  4. Using Model-based Overlapping Seed Expansion to detect highly overlapping community structure

    CERN Document Server

    McDaid, Aaron F

    2010-01-01

    As research into community finding in social networks progresses, there is a need for algorithms capable of detecting overlapping community structure. Many algorithms have been proposed in recent years that are capable of assigning each node to more than a single community. The performance of these algorithms tends to degrade when the ground-truth contains a more highly overlapping community structure, with nodes assigned to more than two communities. Such highly overlapping structure is likely to exist in many social networks, such as Facebook friendship networks. In this paper we present a scalable algorithm, MOSES, based on a statistical model of community structure, which is capable of detecting highly overlapping community structure, especially when there is variance in the number of communities each node is in. In evaluation on synthetic data MOSES is found to be superior to existing algorithms, especially at high levels of overlap. We demonstrate MOSES on real social network data by analyzing the netwo...

  5. Cycle length restitution in sinoatrial node cells: a theory for understanding spontaneous action potential dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Glynn

    Full Text Available Normal heart rhythm (sinus rhythm is governed by the sinoatrial node, a specialized and highly heterogeneous collection of spontaneously active myocytes in the right atrium. Sinoatrial node dysfunction, characterized by slow and/or asynchronous pacemaker activity and even failure, is associated with cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart failure, atrial fibrillation. While tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular and ionic basis of automaticity in sinoatrial node cells, the dynamics governing sinoatrial nodel cell synchrony and overall pacemaker function remain unclear. Here, a well-validated computational model of the mouse sinoatrial node cell is used to test the hypothesis that sinoatrial node cell dynamics reflect an inherent restitution property (cycle length restitution that may give rise to a wide range of behavior from regular periodicity to highly complex, irregular activation. Computer simulations are performed to determine the cycle length restitution curve in the computational model using a newly defined voltage pulse protocol. The ability of the restitution curve to predict sinoatrial node cell dynamics (e.g., the emergence of irregular spontaneous activity and susceptibility to termination is evaluated. Finally, ionic and tissue level factors (e.g. ion channel conductances, ion concentrations, cell-to-cell coupling that influence restitution and sinoatrial node cell dynamics are explored. Together, these findings suggest that cycle length restitution may be a useful tool for analyzing cell dynamics and dysfunction in the sinoatrial node.

  6. Cycle length restitution in sinoatrial node cells: a theory for understanding spontaneous action potential dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Patric; Onal, Birce; Hund, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Normal heart rhythm (sinus rhythm) is governed by the sinoatrial node, a specialized and highly heterogeneous collection of spontaneously active myocytes in the right atrium. Sinoatrial node dysfunction, characterized by slow and/or asynchronous pacemaker activity and even failure, is associated with cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart failure, atrial fibrillation). While tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular and ionic basis of automaticity in sinoatrial node cells, the dynamics governing sinoatrial nodel cell synchrony and overall pacemaker function remain unclear. Here, a well-validated computational model of the mouse sinoatrial node cell is used to test the hypothesis that sinoatrial node cell dynamics reflect an inherent restitution property (cycle length restitution) that may give rise to a wide range of behavior from regular periodicity to highly complex, irregular activation. Computer simulations are performed to determine the cycle length restitution curve in the computational model using a newly defined voltage pulse protocol. The ability of the restitution curve to predict sinoatrial node cell dynamics (e.g., the emergence of irregular spontaneous activity) and susceptibility to termination is evaluated. Finally, ionic and tissue level factors (e.g. ion channel conductances, ion concentrations, cell-to-cell coupling) that influence restitution and sinoatrial node cell dynamics are explored. Together, these findings suggest that cycle length restitution may be a useful tool for analyzing cell dynamics and dysfunction in the sinoatrial node.

  7. Oscillatory Dynamics and Oscillation Death in Complex Networks Consisting of Both Excitatory and Inhibitory Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立升; 廖旭红; 弭元元; 谷伟风; 胡岗

    2012-01-01

    Zn neural networks, both excitatory and inhibitory cells play important roles in determining the functions of systems. Various dynamical networks have been proposed as artificial neural networks to study the properties of biological systems where the influences of excitatory nodes have been extensively investigated while those of inhibitory nodes have been studied much less. In this paper, we consider a model of oscillatory networks of excitable Boolean maps consisting of both excitatory and inhibitory nodes, focusing on the roles of inhibitory nodes. We find that inhibitory nodes in sparse networks (smM1 average connection degree) play decisive roles in weakening oscillations, and oscillation death occurs after continual weakening of oscillation for sufficiently high inhibitory node density. In the sharp contrast, increasing inhibitory nodes in dense networks may result in the increase of oscillation amplitude and sudden oscillation death at much lower inhibitory node density and the nearly highest excitation activities. Mechanism under these peculiar behaviors of dense networks is explained by the competition of the duplex effects of inhibitory nodes.

  8. Glutaminase expression is a poor prognostic factor in node-positive triple-negative breast cancer patients with a high level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Young; Heo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Seul Ki; Song, In Hye; Park, In Ah; Kim, Young-Ae; Park, Hye Seon; Park, Suk Young; Bang, Won Seon; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin

    2017-04-01

    Glutamine metabolism is emerging as one aspect of dysregulated metabolism of tumors. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are glutamine dependent, whereas luminal-type cells tend to be glutamine independent. Therefore, TNBC patients might benefit from therapies targeting glutamine metabolism. To investigate the clinical significance of glutamine metabolism, we examined expression and prognostic significance of glutaminase in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in TNBC. We retrieved 658 surgically resected TNBCs and analyzed glutaminase expression in tumor cells and TILs by immunohistochemical staining. Glutaminase expression was observed in 237 cases (36.0%) in tumor cells and 104 cases (15.5%) in TILs. Although glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with a low level of TILs (p = 0.018), glutaminase expression in TILs was significantly higher in cases with a high level of TILs (p = 0.031). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival in patients with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs (p = 0.020). In addition, it was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 10.643, 95% confidence interval = 1.999-56.668; p = 0.006). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was observed in a subset of TNBC patients. It was significantly associated with a low level of TILs and poor disease-free survival in TNBCs presenting with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs.

  9. Identifying Super-Spreader Nodes in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the most influential individuals spreading information or infectious diseases can assist or hinder information dissemination, product exposure, and contagious disease detection. Hub nodes, high betweenness nodes, high closeness nodes, and high k-shell nodes have been identified as good initial spreaders, but efforts to use node diversity within network structures to measure spreading ability are few. Here we describe a two-step framework that combines global diversity and local features to identify the most influential network nodes. Results from susceptible-infected-recovered epidemic simulations indicate that our proposed method performs well and stably in single initial spreader scenarios associated with various complex network datasets.

  10. Adaptive transmission mode selection algorithm with node state model%基于节点状态模型的传输模式自适应选择算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯磷; 张兴明; 沈剑良

    2013-01-01

    Since the existing transmission mode for streaming media system can not guarantee the reception quality of the data while keeping the high distribution efficiency,this paper presented a new adaptive transmission mode selection algorithm.With a new node state model,this algorithm divided the node state into data receive quality and consolidated state value,so as to achieve the comprehensive determination for each node,and then selected the transmission mode adaptively based on the existing data buffer model.The simulation results show that this algorithm is effective to enhance the distribution efficiency of the data,meanwhile,the system scalability is improved under a certain degree control of the server load.%针对现有的流媒体传输方法不能在高效分发数据的同时保证数据接收质量的问题,提出了一种传输模式自适应选择算法.该算法首先根据节点状态模型,将节点状态分为数据接收质量和综合状态值两部分,对各节点本身稳定状态和节点重要性进行综合判定,再结合现有数据缓冲模型进行传输模式自适应选择.仿真结果表明,该算法有效地提高了数据在传输过程中的分发效率,同时通过对服务器负载一定程度的控制,在保证数据接收质量的同时,提高了系统的可扩展性.

  11. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  12. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  13. A prognostic model of triple-negative breast cancer based on miR-27b-3p and node status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjie Shen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive but heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. This study aimed to identify and validate a prognostic signature for TNBC patients to improve prognostic capability and to guide individualized treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic performance of clinicopathological characteristics and miRNAs in a training set of 58 patients with invasive ductal TNBC diagnosed between 2002 and 2012. A prediction model was developed based on independent clinicopathological and miRNA covariates. The prognostic value of the model was further validated in a separate set of 41 TNBC patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2008. RESULTS: Only lymph node status was marginally significantly associated with poor prognosis of TNBC (P = 0.054, whereas other clinicopathological factors, including age, tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, P53 status, Ki-67 index, and type of surgery, were not. The expression levels of miR-27b-3p, miR-107, and miR-103a-3p were significantly elevated in the metastatic group compared with the disease-free group (P value: 0.008, 0.005, and 0.050, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that lymph node status and miR-27b-3p were independent predictors of poor prognosis (P value: 0.012 and 0.027, respectively. A logistic regression model was developed based on these two independent covariates, and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently confirmed in a separate validation set. The two different risk groups, which were stratified according to the model, showed significant differences in the rates of distant metastasis and breast cancer-related death not only in the training set (P value: 0.001 and 0.040, respectively but also in the validation set (P value: 0.013 and 0.012, respectively. CONCLUSION: This model based on miRNA and node status covariates may be used to stratify TNBC patients into different

  14. Nodular Histologic Subtype and Ulceration are Tumor Factors Associated with High Risk of Recurrence in Sentinel Node-Negative Melanoma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faut, Marloes; Wevers, Kevin P; van Ginkel, Robert J; Diercks, Gilles F H; Hoekstra, Harald J; Kruijff, Schelto; Been, Lukas B; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since its introduction, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard staging procedure in clinical node-negative melanoma patients. A negative SLNB, however, does not guarantee a recurrence-free survival. Insight into metastatic patterns and risk factors for recurrence i

  15. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. (Nigata Univ. (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  16. Theoretical Modeling Based on Granular Computing in Logistics Nodes Location%基于粒计算的物流节点选址理论建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽岩; 马健

    2012-01-01

    The paper firstly cireumscribes a new concept of the logistics node from the three-dimensional aspect. Accord-ing to the characteristics of the logistics node and the nature of human decision-making, it puts forward a theoretical framework of pyramid, which starts from objective data and is based on " bounded rationality", "limited memory", " group decision" and " granular computing". Simultaneously, it pre- sents the application framework of logistics location from the process of the decision-making thought and the point of view of data mining, which can provide the reference pattern and standardized application flow for the pyramid model under the actual scenario of logistics location.%首先对物流节点进行了三维界定,从物流节点选址问题的特点及人的决策思维模式,以客观数据为出发点,以"有限理性"、"有限记忆"、"群体决策"和"粒计算"为理论基础,提出了金字塔理论架构,并应用于物流节点选址问题,进而提出了数据挖掘模型。该模型与选址的决策思维过程相适应,具有很好的理论指导意义。

  17. Research on Critical Nodes Algorithm in Social Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications and has attracted more and more institutions and scholars. How to determine the K critical nodes with the most influence in a social network is a NP (define) problem. Considering the widespread community structure, this paper presents an algorithm for discovering critical nodes based on two information diffusion models and obtains each node's marginal contribution by using a Monte-Carlo method in social networks. The solution of the critical nodes problem is the K nodes with the highest marginal contributions. The feasibility and effectiveness of our method have been verified on two synthetic datasets and four real datasets.

  18. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices.

  19. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure.

  20. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasprit; McCaig, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure. PMID:25383226

  1. Complete response of highly advanced colon cancer with multiple lymph node metastases to irinotecan combined with UFT: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Yujiro; Ikeda, Masataka; Seshimo, Iwao; Ezumi, Koji; Hata, Taishi; Shingai, Tatsushi; Yasui, Masayoshi; Takayama, Osamu; Fukunaga, Hiroki; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Takemasa, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Ohue, Masayuki; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Hirota, Seiichi; Monden, Morito

    2006-01-01

    Massive lymph node metastasis of the para-aortic region and supraclavicular lymph nodes, Virchow's lymph node metastasis due to colon cancer, is extremely rare. We herein report a case of such systemic lymph node metastasis that was successfully treated with a combination of irinotecan (CPT-11) and UFT, a combination drug of tegafur and uracil. The patient was a 57-year-old woman who had a tumor in the ascending colon, and massively swollen para-aortic and supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. She was treated with combination chemotherapy of CPT-11 and UFT. The main tumor was detected as a decompressed scar, and the supraclavicular and para-aortic lymph nodes had completely disappeared after the second cycle of treatment. A histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry with cytokeratin showed complete remission of adenocarcinoma in the tumor and para-aortic lymph nodes. She remains alive without recurrence 52 months after chemotherapy. Combination chemotherapy of CPT-11 and UFT may be of potential value in the treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma, and both histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of a complete remission may indicate prolonged disease-free survival.

  2. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines. phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node.

  3. Overcoming silicon limitations: new 3D-AFM carbon tips with constantly high-resolution for sub-28nm node semiconductor requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Johann; Schmidt, Sebastian W.; Penzkofer, Christian; Irmer, Bernd

    2012-03-01

    The demands on atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a reference technique for precisely determining surface properties and structural designs of multiple patterns in the semiconductor industry are steadily increasing. With the aim to meet ITRS requirements and simultaneously improve the accuracy of AFM-based critical dimension (CD) measurements at constant resolution, the AFM tip more and more becomes a factor crucially determining the AFM performance. In this context, AFM tip limitations are given by lack of sharpness with too large tip radii/diameter, insufficient wear resistance, and high total cost, which does not conform to production environment needs. One technical approach to overcome these tip limitations is provided by electron beam induced processing (EBIP), which allows for manufacturing AFM tips of desired sharpness, shape, and mechanical stability. Here, we present T-shape-like 3D-AFM tips made of bulk amorphous, high density diamond-like carbon (HDC/DLC), and compare their performance and wear resistance to standard silicon tips. We show the advantages of this approach for the semiconductor industry, in particular on AFM3D technology in order to answer to sub-28 nm nodes requirements, and present tips with 15 nm diameter at 10 nm vertical edge height.

  4. 基于重复博弈的P2P网络节点行为策略模型%A Game Model of Behavior Strategies for Nodes in P2P Networks Based on the Repeated Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春枝; 陈莉; 陈宏伟; 周可

    2011-01-01

    目前提出的P2P网络节点的博弈模型大多没有考虑节点的类型,没有考虑重复博弈所产生的和一次博弈不同的结果.针对这些问题,根据节点的推荐信任值来对节点进行分类,并分析节点类型的行为特征和重复博弈的特征,提出了一种基于重复博弈的P2P网络节点行为策略模型.在此基础上,利用重复博弈的贴现率来分析博弈双方采取何种策略才能获得最大收益以及节点行为策略调整的约束性条件.使用博弈论仿真工具Gambit验证了该模型的有效性.%The existing game model of P2P nodes always do not consider types of nodes, and also the different between repeated game and one-time game. To solve these problems, this paper classify nodes with the recommendation trust of nodes, after deeply study on the behavioral characteristics of nodes and the character of repeated game theory, this paper presents a game model of behavior strategies for nodes in P2P networks based on the repeated game theory. In this model, it discuss about how the peer can achieve the most profit by using discount rate of repeated game theory, even the constraint condition of behavior strategies for nodes. Furthermore, this model is proved to be availability with game theory simulation tools named Gambit.

  5. Swollen lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gingivitis ) Mononucleosis Mouth sores Sexually transmitted illness (STI) Tonsillitis Tuberculosis Skin infections Immune or autoimmune disorders that ... goes away in a couple of days, without treatment. The lymph node may not return to its ...

  6. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  7. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  8. NRC/UBC Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis-Perry, B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Yogendran, Y. [NRC Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a

  9. Indirect lymph node lymphangiography using an iodine-based contrast medium and projection radiography following submucosal injection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A; Wuttke, M; Walter, F; De Leon, I; Kloeppel, R; Schoenfelder, M

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the possibility of local lymph node detection and lymphatic mapping following submucosal injection of an iodine-based contrast medium. We established a contrast medium (oil/water emulsion on iodine basis) with a particle size of mainly 1.7+/-0.1 micro m. Ten rabbits received rectal submucosal injections of the contrast medium and underwent repeated projection radiography. Passage of the contrast medium into lymphatic vessels and storage in lymph nodes was seen in all ten animals. The best contrast was achieved within 24 and 48 h after injection. Lymph nodes were still seen in eight cases with the final radiograph on day 14. There were no clinical side effects observed. Injection sites showed mild signs of inflammation in histological examinations. Pathological signs were not detectable in lymph nodes containing the contrast media. This method appears useful when investigating local lymph nodes following submucosal injection due to its passage into lymphatic vessels and storage in lymph nodes.

  10. 基于贝叶斯和层次模型的传感器网络节点故障预测研究%Study on fault prognosis of sensor network nodes using Bayesian and hierarchical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永强; 宫玉荣; 朱予聪

    2015-01-01

    提出了运用贝叶斯理论和层次模型对传感器网络节点故障进行预测的方法,结合传感器网络各节点处理信息的时序关系,用定性分析将时间信息融合到节点中分析故障传播机制和故障预测。根据节点的历史信息和当前运行情况,预测和确定节点的故障概率;利用参数学习和概率推理,预测上层节点的故障概率。通过仿真实验并与其他预测方法进行比较分析,验证了该方法的可靠性和精确性,为传感器网络节点的故障预测提供了新的思路和方法。%This paper presents the method for sensor network node failure prediction with the relationship between timing and level using Bayesian model methods. The method combines processing information in each node sensor network and uses qualitative analysis to integrate time information into the node to analyze the fault propagation mechanism and failure prediction. According to the probabili-ty of failure history information of node and the current operating conditions,nodes failure probabilities are forecasted and determined. Using the parameters of learning and probabilistic reasoning,the probability of failure of the upper node is predicted. Through simula-tion analysis and comparative analysis with other forecasting methods,the accuracy and precision of the method for sensor network node failure prediction is verified,providing new ideas and methods for nodes failure detection.

  11. Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Endometrial Cancer Using Serum CA125 Combined with Immunohistochemical Markers PR and Ki67, and a Comparison with Other Prediction Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyi Yang

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the value of immunohistochemical markers and serum CA125 in predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM in women with endometrial cancer and to identify a low-risk group of LNM. The medical records of 370 patients with endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical staging in the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were collected and retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical markers were screened. A model using serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125 level, the immunohistochemical markers progesterone receptor (PR and Ki67 was created for prediction of LNM. A predicted probability of 4% among these patients was defined as low risk. The developed model was externally validated in 200 patients from Shanghai Cancer Center. The efficiency of the model was compared with three other reported prediction models. Patients with serum CA125 50% and Ki67 < 40% in cancer lesion were defined as low risk for LNM. The model showed good discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. The model classified 61.9% (229/370 of patients as being at low risk for LNM. Among these 229 patients, 6 patients (2.6% had LNM and the negative predictive value was 97.4% (223/229. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 84.6% and 67.4% respectively. In the validation cohort, the model classified 59.5% (119/200 of patients as low-risk, 3 out of these 119 patients (2.5% has LNM. Our model showed a predictive power similar to those of two previously reported prediction models. The prediction model using serum CA125 and the immunohistochemical markers PR and Ki67 is useful to predict patients with a low risk of LNM and has the potential to provide valuable guidance to clinicians in the treatment of patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer.

  12. Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Considering Link and Node Stability protocol: A characteristic Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhayaya, Shuchita

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks are highly dynamic networks. Quality of Service (QoS) routing in such networks is usually limited by the network breakage due to either node mobility or energy depletion of the mobile nodes. Also, to fulfill certain quality parameters, presence of multiple node-disjoint paths becomes essential. Such paths aid in the optimal traffic distribution and reliability in case of path breakages. Thus, to cater various challenges in QoS routing in Mobile Add hoc Networks, a Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Considering Link and Node Stability (NDMLNR) protocol has been proposed by the authors. The metric used to select the paths takes into account the stability of the nodes and the corresponding links. This paper studies various challenges in the QoS routing and presents the characteristic evaluation of NDMLNR w.r.t various existing protocols in this area.

  13. The regulatory logic of m-xylene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 exposed by dynamic modelling of the principal node Ps/Pr of the TOL plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Lam, Ming-Chi; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Godinho, Miguel; Livingston, Andrew G; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; de Lorenzo, Victor; Dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2010-06-01

    The structure of the extant transcriptional control network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for biodegradation of m-xylene is far more complex than one would consider necessary from a mere engineering point of view. In order to penetrate the underlying logic of such a network, which controls a major environmental cleanup bioprocess, we have developed a dynamic model of the key regulatory node formed by the Ps/Pr promoters of pWW0, where the clustering of control elements is maximal. The model layout was validated with batch cultures estimating parameter values and its predictive capability was confirmed with independent sets of experimental data. The model revealed how regulatory outputs originated in the divergent and overlapping Ps/Pr segment, which expresses the transcription factors XylS and XylR respectively, are computed into distinct instructions to the upper and lower catabolic xyl operons for either simultaneous or stepwise consumption of m-xylene and/or succinate. In this respect, the model reveals that the architecture of the Ps/Pr is poised to discriminate the abundance of alternative and competing C sources, in particular m-xylene versus succinate. The proposed framework provides a first systemic understanding of the causality and connectivity of the regulatory elements that shape this exemplary regulatory network, facilitating the use of model analysis towards genetic circuit optimization.

  14. Node influence calculation mechanism based on Bayesian and semiring algebraic model in social networks∗%社交网络中基于贝叶斯和半环代数模型的节点影响力计算机理*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In social networks, many applications and spreading depend on the nodes with high influence to do viral marketing, which indicates that nodes’ influence should be measured in a comprehensive and reasonable way. The appearance of fake fans results in change of network topology and brings new challenge to topology-based traditional methods. This paper incorporates both the network topology and interactions among nodes into our new distribution mechanism of node influence calculation in social networks. Considering the similarity of node behaviors in time domain and several key factors, this paper presents by a discounted Bayesian model for direct influence between nodes at first. Then a semi-ring-based aggregation implements for indirect influence and the composite influence are obtained by the combination of both direct and indirect influences. Simulation shows that this mechanism not only performs well against fake fans attack and restrains the fluctuation of nodes’ influence, but also spreads to more nodes when we choose several nodes with high influence under our method to be source nodes.%  本文综合考虑网络结构及节点间的互动等关键因素,提出了一种节点影响力分布式计算机理。首先根据节点交互行为在时域上的自相似特性,运用带折扣因子的贝叶斯模型计算节点间的直接影响力;然后运用半环模型来分析节点间接影响力的聚合;最后根据社交网络的小世界性质及传播门限,综上计算出节点的综合影响力。仿真结果表明,本文给出的模型能有效抑制虚假粉丝导致的节点影响力波动,消除了虚假粉丝的出现对节点影响力计算带来的干扰,从中选择影响力高的若干节点作为传播源节点,可以将信息传播到更多数目的节点,促进了信息在社交网络中的传播。

  15. Visual Through Infrared: Modeling Components and Methodologies for Estimating High Fidelity Ground Vehicle Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    model is being designed to run on modern computing clusters and high performance multi- processor computing resources. For example, a 16 node Beowulf ... cluster , with gigahertz plus processors can reach 180 gflops of peak computational speed for the cost of a low end Silicon Graphics workstation in the...realistic and first principles. To support these approaches inexpensive computing clusters will become the norm for future signature modeling and simulation

  16. Prognostic Implications of Lymph Node Yield and Lymph Node Ratio in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Jonathan H. Vas; Clark, Jonathan R.; Gao, Kan; Chua, Elizabeth; Campbell, Peter; Niles, Navin; Gargya, Ash; Elliott, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lymph node yield (LNY) and the lymph node ratio (LNR) have been shown to be important prognostic factors in oral, colon, and gastric cancers. The role of the LNY and LNR in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine if a high LNR and a low LNY

  17. Research of the Node Operating System (NodeOS) in an Active Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUABei; LIZheng; XIONGYan; GELin

    2005-01-01

    This paper firstly proposes a three-layered NodeOS structural model that divides the functionality of NodeOS among hardware abstraction layer, resource man-agement layer and API layer, and discusses the primary functions of each layer. NodeOS built on this model will be open and programmable. Then, from the view of supporting fair and customized services, this paper puts forward a general NodeOS service model that defines threetypes of NodeOS services according to the tradeoiT between quality of service and cost of service, then specifies a general method to map special application-oriented services to NodeOS services, and lastly discusses the resource allocation policies and corresponding enforcement mechanisms. Finally, after analyzing the security requirements of active net, this paper puts forward a general but powerful security architecture for NodeOS, which embeds elementary security mechanisms in NodeOS by enforcing well-designed domain relations and encapsulating sensitive underlying interfaces, and provides further security services of authorization management and packet checking by integrating additional service facilities.

  18. Lesson Nine Sinus node dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 吴文烈

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinus node dysfunction most often is found in the elderly as an isolated phenomenon. Although interruption of the blood supply to the sinus node may produce dysfunction, the correlation between obstruction of the sinus node artery and clinical evidence of sinus node dysfunction is poor.

  19. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-06-03

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required.

  20. Lymph node and circulating T cell characteristics are strongly correlated in end-stage renal disease patients, but highly differentiated T cells reside within the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, B; de Weerd, A E; Huang, L; Langerak, A W; Dor, F J; Klepper, M; Verschoor, W; Reijerkerk, D; Baan, C C; Litjens, N H R; Betjes, M G H

    2017-05-01

    Ageing is associated with changes in the peripheral T cell immune system, which can be influenced significantly by latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. To what extent changes in circulating T cell populations correlate with T cell composition of the lymph node (LN) is unclear, but is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of the T cell system. T cells from peripheral blood (PB) and LN of end-stage renal disease patients were analysed for frequency of recent thymic emigrants using CD31 expression and T cell receptor excision circle content, relative telomere length and expression of differentiation markers. Compared with PB, LN contained relatively more CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells (P T cells and thymic output parameters showed a strong linear correlation between PB and LN. Highly differentiated CD28(null) T cells, being CD27(-) , CD57(+) or programmed death 1 (PD-1(+) ), were found almost exclusively in the circulation but not in LN. An age-related decline in naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell frequency was observed (P = 0·035 and P = 0·002, respectively) within LN, concomitant with an increase in central memory CD8(+) T cells (P = 0·033). Latent CMV infection increased dramatically the frequency of circulating terminally differentiated T cells, but did not alter T cell composition and ageing parameters of LN significantly. Overall T cell composition and measures of thymic function in PB and LN are correlated strongly. However, highly differentiated CD28(null) T cells, which may comprise a large part of circulating T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals, are found almost exclusively within the circulation.

  1. Development and evaluation of a local grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using shared nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    A new method of local grid refinement for two-dimensional block-centered finite-difference meshes is presented in the context of steady-state groundwater-flow modeling. The method uses an iteration-based feedback with shared nodes to couple two separate grids. The new method is evaluated by comparison with results using a uniform fine mesh, a variably spaced mesh, and a traditional method of local grid refinement without a feedback. Results indicate: (1) The new method exhibits quadratic convergence for homogeneous systems and convergence equivalent to uniform-grid refinement for heterogeneous systems. (2) Coupling the coarse grid with the refined grid in a numerically rigorous way allowed for improvement in the coarse-grid results. (3) For heterogeneous systems, commonly used linear interpolation of heads from the large model onto the boundary of the refined model produced heads that are inconsistent with the physics of the flow field. (4) The traditional method works well in situations where the better resolution of the locally refined grid has little influence on the overall flow-system dynamics, but if this is not true, lack of a feedback mechanism produced errors in head up to 3.6% and errors in cell-to-cell flows up to 25%. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling to very high strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, P. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Griera, A.; Evans, L. A.; Wilson, C. J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile strains in shear zones often reach extreme values, resulting in typical structures, such as winged porphyroclasts and several types of shear bands. The numerical simulation of the development of such structures has so far been inhibited by the low maximum strains that numerical models can normally achieve. Typical numerical models collapse at shear strains in the order of one to three. We have implemented a number of new functionalities in the numerical platform "Elle" (Jessell et al. 2001), which significantly increases the amount of strain that can be achieved and simultaneously reduces boundary effects that become increasingly disturbing at higher strain. Constant remeshing, while maintaining the polygonal phase regions, is the first step to avoid collapse of the finite-element grid required by finite-element solvers, such as Basil (Houseman et al. 2008). The second step is to apply a grain-growth routine to the boundaries of polygons that represent phase regions. This way, the development of sharp angles is avoided. A second advantage is that phase regions may merge or become separated (boudinage). Such topological changes are normally not possible in finite element deformation codes. The third step is the use of wrapping vertical model boundaries, with which optimal and unchanging model boundaries are maintained for the application of stress or velocity boundary conditions. The fourth step is to shift the model by a random amount in the vertical direction every time step. This way, the fixed horizontal boundary conditions are applied to different material points within the model every time step. Disturbing boundary effects are thus averaged out over the whole model and not localised to e.g. top and bottom of the model. Reduction of boundary effects has the additional advantage that model can be smaller and, therefore, numerically more efficient. Owing to the combination of these existing and new functionalities it is now possible to simulate the

  3. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Vine, G.; Cottinet, P. J.; Arnaud, A.; Boisseau, S.; Duret, A. B.; Quenard, S.; Puscasu, O.; Maitre, C.; Trochut, S.; Hasbani, F.; Di Gilio, T.; Heinrich, V.; Urard, P.; Grasset, J. C.; Boeuf, F.; Guyomar, D.; Skotnicki, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%.

  4. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  5. [Lymph node staging in gastrointestinal cancer. Combination of methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection and ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, B; Arnholdt, H

    2012-11-01

    The histopathological lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in gastrointestinal cancer. However, the recommended numbers of lymph nodes that should be evaluated are often not reached in routine practice. Methylene blue assisted lymph node dissection was introduced as a new, simple and efficient technique to improve lymph node harvest in gastrointestinal cancer. This method is inexpensive, causes no delay and needs no toxic substances. All studies performed revealed a highly significantly improved lymph node harvest in comparison to the conventional technique. Moreover, this technique can be combined with a new ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping that for the first time is based on histological sentinel lymph node detection. The success rate of this method is similar to conventional techniques and it enables an efficient application of extended investigation methods, such as immunohistochemistry or the polymerase chain reaction.

  6. Wireless Sensor Node Power Profiling Based on IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 Communication Protocols. Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Richardson, Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yanliang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Most wireless sensor network (comprising of thousands of WSNs) applications require operation over extended periods of time beginning with their deployment. Network lifetime is extremely critical for most applications and is one of the limiting factors for energy-constrained networks. Based on applications, there are wide ranges of different energy sources suitable for powering WSNs. A battery is traditionally used to power WSNs. The deployed WSN is required to last for long time. Due to finite amount of energy present in batteries, it is not feasible to replace batteries. Recently there has been a new surge in the area of energy harvesting were ambient energy in the environment can be utilized to prolong the lifetime of WSNs. Some of the sources of ambient energies are solar power, thermal gradient, human motion and body heat, vibrations, and ambient RF energy. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other considerations that must also be taken into account when computing the power consumption associated with each task. The considerations includes: number of events occurring in a fixed active time period and the duration of each event, event-information processing time, total communication time, number of retransmission, etc. Additionally, at the network level the communication of information data packets between WSNs involves collisions, latency, and

  7. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF, we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI, fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS, summer-fall (SF, and fall-winter (FW seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF with constant electrical conductivity (EC in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2 · m(-2; the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  8. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takafumi; Yano, Takayoshi; Sugiura, Makoto; Nagasaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF), we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI), fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS), summer-fall (SF), and fall-winter (FW) seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF) with constant electrical conductivity (EC) in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2) · m(-2); the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  9. On Prolonging Network Lifetime through Load-Similar Node Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the study of the energy hole problem in the Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC-structure, a highly scalable wireless sensor network (WSN architecture. Based on an analysis on the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL scheme to address the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. In this strategy, sensor nodes are deployed in the network area according to the load distribution. That is, more nodes shall be deployed in the range where the average load is higher, and then the loads among different areas in the sensor network tend to be balanced. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy prolongs network lifetime and reduces the average packet latency in comparison with existing nonuniform node distribution and uniform node distribution strategies. Note that, besides the PMRC structure, the analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy are also applicable to other multi-hop WSN structures.

  10. On prolonging network lifetime through load-similar node deployment in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Qin; Gong, Haigang; Liu, Ming; Yang, Mei; Zheng, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the energy hole problem in the Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC)-structure, a highly scalable wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture. Based on an analysis on the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL) scheme to address the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. In this strategy, sensor nodes are deployed in the network area according to the load distribution. That is, more nodes shall be deployed in the range where the average load is higher, and then the loads among different areas in the sensor network tend to be balanced. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy prolongs network lifetime and reduces the average packet latency in comparison with existing nonuniform node distribution and uniform node distribution strategies. Note that, besides the PMRC structure, the analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy are also applicable to other multi-hop WSN structures.

  11. Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing - Towards Enhancing OpenMP for Manycore and Heterogeneous Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Chapman

    2012-02-01

    OpenMP was not well recognized at the beginning of the project, around year 2003, because of its limited use in DoE production applications and the inmature hardware support for an efficient implementation. Yet in the recent years, it has been graduately adopted both in HPC applications, mostly in the form of MPI+OpenMP hybrid code, and in mid-scale desktop applications for scientific and experimental studies. We have observed this trend and worked deligiently to improve our OpenMP compiler and runtimes, as well as to work with the OpenMP standard organization to make sure OpenMP are evolved in the direction close to DoE missions. In the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing project, the HPCTools team at the University of Houston (UH), directed by Dr. Barbara Chapman, has been working with project partners, external collaborators and hardware vendors to increase the scalability and applicability of OpenMP for multi-core (and future manycore) platforms and for distributed memory systems by exploring different programming models, language extensions, compiler optimizations, as well as runtime library support.

  12. A random network based, node attraction facilitated network evolution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, I present a method of network evolution that based on random network, and facilitated by node attraction. In this method, I assume that the initial network is a random network, or a given initial network. When a node is ready to connect, it tends to link to the node already owning the most connections, which coincides with the general rule (Barabasi and Albert, 1999 of node connecting. In addition, a node may randomly disconnect a connection i.e., the addition of connections in the network is accompanied by the pruning of some connections. The dynamics of network evolution is determined of the attraction factor Lamda of nodes, the probability of node connection, the probability of node disconnection, and the expected initial connectance. The attraction factor of nodes, the probability of node connection, and the probability of node disconnection are time and node varying. Various dynamics can be achieved by adjusting these parameters. Effects of simplified parameters on network evolution are analyzed. The changes of attraction factor Lamda can reflect various effects of the node degree on connection mechanism. Even the changes of Lamda only will generate various networks from the random to the complex. Therefore, the present algorithm can be treated as a general model for network evolution. Modeling results show that to generate a power-law type of network, the likelihood of a node attracting connections is dependent upon the power function of the node's degree with a higher-order power. Matlab codes for simplified version of the method are provided.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Transplanted Endometrial Carcinoma and Its Lymph Node Metastasis in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rabbit model of transplanted endometrial carcinoma with lymph node metastasis and observe its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. Methods: VX2 tumor grafts were orthotopically embedded in the endometrium of rabbits, and 3 weeks after the transplantation, thetumor and its metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes were examined by MRI, and the signal intensities and size of the lymph nodes were compared with those of normal rabbits. Results: The orthotopic transplantation of the tumor grafts resulted in tumor growth in all the 12 recipient rabbits. The tumors infiltrated the serosa of the uterus and metastasized to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes 3 w after transplantation. MRI demonstrated that the lymph nodes of the tumor-bearing rabbits were larger in size than those of normal control rabbits, but the signal intensity of the lymph nodes was not significantly different between them. Conclusion: This transplanted endometrial carcinoma model is characterized by high success rate and similar tumor metastasis behaviors with human endometrial carcinoma, therefore may serve as a good model for testing the efficacy of contrast agents for MR lymphography.

  14. Investigation Of Tribologic Processes in Bearing Nodes with the Use of the Fam-C And Fdm-A Methods – The Model With Elevated Passive Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrzej Gębura

    2014-01-01

    The paper discloses selected results of application of the FAM-C (a.c. generator) and FDM-A (d.c. generator) methods for comprehensive troubleshooting of bearing nodes in single-spool turbojet engines...

  15. Investigation Of Tribologic Processes in Bearing Nodes with the Use of the Fam-C And Fdm-A Methods – The Model With Elevated Passive Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discloses selected results of application of the FAM-C (a.c. generator and FDM-A (d.c. generator methods for comprehensive troubleshooting of bearing nodes in single-spool turbojet engines.

  16. NIM: a node influence based method for cancer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Yao, Min; Yang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The classification of different cancer types owns great significance in the medical field. However, the great majority of existing cancer classification methods are clinical-based and have relatively weak diagnostic ability. With the rapid development of gene expression technology, it is able to classify different kinds of cancers using DNA microarray. Our main idea is to confront the problem of cancer classification using gene expression data from a graph-based view. Based on a new node influence model we proposed, this paper presents a novel high accuracy method for cancer classification, which is composed of four parts: the first is to calculate the similarity matrix of all samples, the second is to compute the node influence of training samples, the third is to obtain the similarity between every test sample and each class using weighted sum of node influence and similarity matrix, and the last is to classify each test sample based on its similarity between every class. The data sets used in our experiments are breast cancer, central nervous system, colon tumor, prostate cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and lung cancer. experimental results showed that our node influence based method (NIM) is more efficient and robust than the support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, C4.5, naive Bayes, and CART.

  17. NIM: A Node Influence Based Method for Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of different cancer types owns great significance in the medical field. However, the great majority of existing cancer classification methods are clinical-based and have relatively weak diagnostic ability. With the rapid development of gene expression technology, it is able to classify different kinds of cancers using DNA microarray. Our main idea is to confront the problem of cancer classification using gene expression data from a graph-based view. Based on a new node influence model we proposed, this paper presents a novel high accuracy method for cancer classification, which is composed of four parts: the first is to calculate the similarity matrix of all samples, the second is to compute the node influence of training samples, the third is to obtain the similarity between every test sample and each class using weighted sum of node influence and similarity matrix, and the last is to classify each test sample based on its similarity between every class. The data sets used in our experiments are breast cancer, central nervous system, colon tumor, prostate cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and lung cancer. experimental results showed that our node influence based method (NIM is more efficient and robust than the support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, C4.5, naive Bayes, and CART.

  18. Bayesian Network Based Fault Prognosis via Bond Graph Modeling of High-Speed Railway Traction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    component-level faults accurately for a high-speed railway traction system, a fault prognosis approach via Bayesian network and bond graph modeling techniques is proposed. The inherent structure of a railway traction system is represented by bond graph model, based on which a multilayer Bayesian network is developed for fault propagation analysis and fault prediction. For complete and incomplete data sets, two different parameter learning algorithms such as Bayesian estimation and expectation maximization (EM algorithm are adopted to determine the conditional probability table of the Bayesian network. The proposed prognosis approach using Pearl’s polytree propagation algorithm for joint probability reasoning can predict the failure probabilities of leaf nodes based on the current status of root nodes. Verification results in a high-speed railway traction simulation system can demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes’ popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology.

  20. Design of WSN Vibration Sensor Node for High Physical Environment%一种可适用于高温物理环境下的WSN振动传感节点设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张具琴; 司小平

    2016-01-01

    针对WSN在高温差环境下传感节点敏感性大幅降低的问题。设计了一种适用于高温物理环境下的WSN振动传感节点。利用钛酸锶铋作为振动传感器的材料进行耐高温物理环境设计,以振动烈度的时、频作为传感节点振动的监测内容,并重点对节点的处理器、振动监测电路和时间同步机制的设计方法进行详细阐述。实际实验结果表明,设计的WSN振动传感节点具有灵敏度高,耐高温的特点,效果令人满意。%For in high temperature environment, WSN aiming at the problem of sensor nodes at a much lower sensitivity. We design a suitable for WSN vibration sensor nodes under high temperature and the physical environment. Using strontium bismuth titanate as the material of vibration sensor for high temperature physical environment design, when the vibration intensity and frequency as the sensor node vibration monitoring content, and the key of node processor, vibration monitoring circuit and design method of time synchronization mechanism are expounded in details. Actual experimental results show that the design of WSN vibration sensor with high sensitivity, high temperature resistant characteristics, effect is satisfactory.

  1. [Lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer. Ex vivo methylene blue injection as a novel technique to improve lymph node visualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, B; Kerwel, T; Jähnig, H; Anthuber, M; Arnholdt, H

    2008-07-01

    The UICC requires investigation of a minimum of 12 lymph nodes for adequate lymph node staging in colorectal cancer. Despite that, many authors recommend investigation of a larger number, and different techniques, such as fat clearance, have therefore been developed. In this study we introduce a novel technique involving ex vivo lymph node staining with intraarterial methylene blue injection in colon cancer. We compared 14 cases in which methylene injection was used with 14 cases from our records in which conventional investigation techniques were applied. The lymph node harvest differed highly significantly (pmethylene blue group and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference occurred in the size group 2-4 mm (191 vs 70 lymph nodes). In 6 cases in the unstained group additional embedding of fatty tissue was necessary to reach an adequate number of investigated lymph nodes. Methylene blue injection is a novel and highly effective method that will improve lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer.

  2. Modeling Fatigue Damage Onset and Progression in Composites Using an Element-Based Virtual Crack Closure Technique Combined With the Floating Node Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Nelson V.; Krueger, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed to model the onset and propagation of matrix cracks and delaminations in carbon-epoxy composites subject to fatigue loading. An extended interface element, based on the Floating Node Method, is developed to represent delaminations and matrix cracks explicitly in a mesh independent fashion. Crack propagation is determined using an element-based Virtual Crack Closure Technique approach to determine mixed-mode energy release rates, and the Paris-Law relationship to obtain crack growth rate. Crack onset is determined using a stressbased onset criterion coupled with a stress vs. cycle curve and Palmgren-Miner rule to account for fatigue damage accumulation. The approach is implemented in Abaqus/Standard® via the user subroutine functionality. Verification exercises are performed to assess the accuracy and correct implementation of the approach. Finally, it was demonstrated that this approach captured the differences in failure morphology in fatigue for two laminates of identical stiffness, but with layups containing ?deg plies that were either stacked in a single group, or distributed through the laminate thickness.

  3. TM1-IR680 peptide for assessment of surgical margin and lymph node metastasis in murine orthotopic model of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya S., Annie A.; Kochurani, K. J.; Nair, Madhumathy G.; Louis, Jiss Maria; Sankaran, Santhosh; Rajagopal, R.; Kumar, K. Santhosh; Abraham, Parvin; P. G., Balagopal; Sebastian, Paul; Somananthan, Thara; Maliekal, Tessy Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Treatment outcome after surgical removal in oral carcinoma is poor due to inadequate methodologies available for marking surgical margins. Even though some methodologies for intraoperative margin assessment are under clinical and preclinical trials for other solid tumours, a promising modality for oral cancer surgery is not developed. Fluorescent-based optical imaging using Near Infrared (NIR) dyes tagged to tumour specific target will be an optimal tool for this purpose. One such target, Gastrin Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) was selected for the study, and its binding peptide, TM1-IR680, was tested for its efficacy for surgical margin prediction in murine orthotopic model of oral cancer, derived from primary samples. Here, for the first time in a preclinical analysis, we show that the size and margin of oral cancer can be predicted, as revealed by 3D-imaging. Interestingly, the peptide was sensitive enough to detect lymph nodes that harboured dispersed tumour cells before colonization, which was impossible to identify by conventional histopathology. We recommend the use of TM1-NIR dyes alone or in combination with other technologies to improve the clinical outcome of oral cancer surgery. PMID:27827443

  4. Sublingual Immunotherapy Induces Regulatory Function of IL-10-Expressing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T Cells of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Murine Allergic Rhinitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Yamada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been considered to be a painless and efficacious therapeutic treatment of allergic rhinitis which is known as type I allergy of nasal mucosa. Nevertheless, its mechanisms need to be further investigated. In this study, we constructed an effective murine model of sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis, in which mice were sublingually administered with ovalbumin (OVA followed by intraperitoneal sensitization and nasal challenge of OVA. Sublingually treated mice showed significantly decreased specific IgE responses as well as suppressed Th2 immune responses. Sublingual administration of OVA did not alter the frequency of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, but led to upregulation of Foxp3- and IL-10-specific mRNAs in the Tregs of cervical lymph nodes (CLN, which strongly suppressed Th2 cytokine production from CD4+CD25− effector T cells in vitro. Furthermore, sublingual administration of plasmids encoding the lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CCL21-Ser DNA together with OVA suppressed allergic responses. These results suggest that IL-10-expressing CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs in CLN are involved in the suppression of allergic responses and that CCL19/CCL21 may contribute to it in mice that received SLIT.

  5. A multi-mode multi-node high-speed transmission design%一种多模式多节点高速传输系统的方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清涛; 凌小峰; 宫新保

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the insufficiency of single transfer mode and high-speed requirement of current transmission system, a novel design of multi-mode, multi-node and high-speed transmission system is proposed in this paper. Through data filtering and flow control, the proposed method can accomplish multi-mode transmission and multi-node collaborative work, and has the feature of high speed, huge multi-node, and controllable transmission data rate. Through hardware implementation and system testing based on FPCA and gigabit Ethernet technology, conclusion can be drawn that the proposed system can work effectively in high-speed transmission system.%针对目前传输系统传输模式单一和无法满足高速需求的不足,提出了一种多模式多节点高速传输系统的方案设计.该方案通过数据筛选和流量控制完成数据多模式的传输和多节点的协同工作,具有速度快、节点数量多和数据率可控的特点.基于FPGA和千兆以太网技术的硬件实现和系统测试表明,方案可以有效地适用于高速数据传输的应用场合.

  6. 小流域山洪监测网络节点布设模型的研究%Research on Deploying Nodes Model in Small Watershed Flash Floods Monitoring network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张捐净; 苏健民; 刘嘉新

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize the flash flood forecasting and reduce the mountain torrent disasters, an almost linear monitoring network was constructed, which is consisted of a cluster node and some sensor nodes. The cluster node collected the information from the sensor nodes, therefore the closer the nodes to the cluster node, the greater its data traffic and energy consumption. Based on the analysis of energy consumption on sensor nodes, the parameter of idle-state energy consumption of nodes was added, then a mathemat- ical model of the sensor nodes' distribution was obtained. The model can balance the ratio between the energy consumption rate of the linear network in each area and its total energy. The theoretical research and simulation results showed that the approach is effective in extending the network lifetime,%为实现山洪预测进而减少山洪灾害,构造趋近于线型的山洪监测网络,它由一个汇聚节点和若干传感器节点构成。汇聚节点负责接收传感器节点采集的信息,这样距离汇聚节点近的节点,接收处理的数据流量大,能耗也越大。在传感器节点能耗分析的基础上,加入节点空闲状态能耗参数,得到山洪监测网络传感器节点分布的数学模型,可以使线型网络各个区域的能量消耗速度和该区域的总能量之比保持平衡。理论研究和仿真结果表明,这种节点布设方式有效的延长了网络的生命期。

  7. Node seniority ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Fioriti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in graph theory suggest that is possible to identify the oldest nodes of a network using only the graph topology. Here we report on applications to heterogeneous real world networks. To this end, and in order to gain new insights, we propose the theoretical framework of the Estrada communicability. We apply it to two technological networks (an underground, the diffusion of a software worm in a LAN) and to a third network representing a cholera outbreak. In spite of errors introduced in the adjacency matrix of their graphs, the identification of the oldest nodes is feasible, within a small margin of error, and extremely simple. Utilizations include the search of the initial disease-spreader (patient zero problem), rumors in social networks, malware in computer networks, triggering events in blackouts, oldest urban sites recognition.

  8. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  9. Node web development

    CERN Document Server

    Herron, David

    2013-01-01

    Presented in a simple, step-by-step format, this book is an introduction to web development with Node.This book is for anybody looking for an alternative to the ""P"" languages (Perl, PHP, Python), or anyone looking for a new paradigm of server-side application development.The reader should have at least a rudimentary understanding of JavaScript and web application development.

  10. Evaluation of the potential for lymph node metastasis using CRP 1846C>T genetic polymorphism in invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terata, Kaori; Motoyama, Satoru; Kamata, Shuichi; Hinai, Yudai; Miura, Masatomo; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Ito, Aki; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-01

    Lymph node status is a key indicator of the best approach to treatment of invasive breast cancer. However, the accuracy with which lymph node metastasis is diagnosed is not currently satisfactory. New and more reliable methods that enable one to know who has a greater potential for lymph node metastasis would be highly desirable. We previously reported that lymph node involvement in esophageal and lung cancer may have a genetic component: C-reactive protein (CRP) 1846C>T genetic polymorphism. Here we examined the diagnostic value of CRP 1846C>T polymorphism for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis in cases of invasive breast cancer. The study participants were 185 women with invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery with lymph node dissection. Using DNA from blood samples and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, the utility of CRP genetic 1846C>T polymorphism (rs1205) for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Fifty-two (28 %) patients had lymph node metastasis. After the patients were divided into two groups based on their CRP 1846 genotypes (C/C+C/T and T/T), the clinical characteristics did not differ between the groups, but there was a significantly greater incidence of lymph node metastasis among patients in the T/T group. Moreover, the odds ratio for lymph node involvement in patients carrying the 1846 T/T genotype was more than 2.2 in multivariate logistic regression models. CRP genetic polymorphism may be a novel predictor of the risk of lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer.

  11. Highly enhanced optical properties of indocyanine green/perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for efficient lymph node mapping using near-infrared and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Pan Kee; Jung, Juyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence probe has better tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an NIR organic dye for extensive biological application, and it has been clinically approved for human medical imaging and diagnosis. However, application of this dye is limited by its numerous disadvantageous properties in aqueous solution, including its concentration-dependent aggregation, poor aqueous stability in vitro, and low quantum yield. Its use in molecular imaging probes is limited because it loses fluorescence after binding to nonspecific plasma proteins, leading to rapid elimination from the body with a half-life of 2 - 4 min. In this study, the multifunctional perfluorocarbon (PFC)/ICG nanoemulsions were investigated with the aim of overcoming these limitations. The PFC/ICG nanoemulsions as a new type of delivery vehicle for contrast agents have both NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging moieties. These nanoemulsions exhibited less aggregation, increased fluorescence intensity, long-term stability, and physicochemical stability against external light and temperature compared to free aqueous ICG. Also, the PFC/ICG bimodal nanoemulsions allow excellent detection of lymph nodes in vivo through NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging. This result showed the suitability of the proposed nanoemulsions for non-invasive lymph node mapping as they enable long-time detection of lymph nodes.

  12. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has ...

  13. Node Classification in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Smriti; Cormode, Graham; Muthukrishnan, S.

    When dealing with large graphs, such as those that arise in the context of online social networks, a subset of nodes may be labeled. These labels can indicate demographic values, interest, beliefs or other characteristics of the nodes (users). A core problem is to use this information to extend the labeling so that all nodes are assigned a label (or labels).

  14. The performance of a new Geant4 Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model in high throughput computing (HTC) cluster architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatos, Heikkinen; Andi, Hektor; Veikko, Karimaki; Tomas, Linden [Helsinki Univ., Institute of Physics (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    We study the performance of a new Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model implemented in the general detector simulation tool-kit Geant4 with a High Throughput Computing (HTC) cluster architecture. A 60 node Pentium III open-Mosix cluster is used with the Mosix kernel performing automatic process load-balancing across several CPUs. The Mosix cluster consists of several computer classes equipped with Windows NT workstations that automatically boot, daily and become nodes of the Mosix cluster. The models included in our study are a Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with excitons, consisting of a pre-equilibrium model, a nucleus explosion model, a fission model and an evaporation model. The speed and accuracy obtained for these models is presented. (authors)

  15. The performance of a new Geant4 Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model in high throughput computing (HTC) cluster architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatos, Heikkinen; Andi, Hektor; Veikko, Karimaki; Tomas, Linden [Helsinki Univ., Institute of Physics (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    We study the performance of a new Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model implemented in the general detector simulation tool-kit Geant4 with a High Throughput Computing (HTC) cluster architecture. A 60 node Pentium III open-Mosix cluster is used with the Mosix kernel performing automatic process load-balancing across several CPUs. The Mosix cluster consists of several computer classes equipped with Windows NT workstations that automatically boot, daily and become nodes of the Mosix cluster. The models included in our study are a Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with excitons, consisting of a pre-equilibrium model, a nucleus explosion model, a fission model and an evaporation model. The speed and accuracy obtained for these models is presented. (authors)

  16. Improving Network Performance with Affinity based Mobility Model in Opportunistic Network

    CERN Document Server

    Batabyal, Suvadip; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4213

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic network is a type of Delay Tolerant Network which is characterized by intermittent connectivity amongst the nodes and communication largely depends upon the mobility of the participating nodes. The network being highly dynamic, traditional MANET protocols cannot be applied and the nodes must adhere to store-carry-forward mechanism. Nodes do not have the information about the network topology, number of participating nodes and the location of the destination node. Hence, message transfer reliability largely depends upon the mobility pattern of the nodes. In this paper we have tried to find the impact of RWP (Random Waypoint) mobility on packet delivery ratio. We estimate mobility factors like number of node encounters, contact duration(link time) and inter-contact time which in turn depends upon parameters like playfield area (total network area), number of nodes, node velocity, bit-rate and RF range of the nodes. We also propose a restricted form of RWP mobility model, called the affinity based ...

  17. Ex vivo MRI of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, Alain [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France)], E-mail: luciani@hmn.ap-hop-paris.fr; Pigneur, Frederic [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Ghozali, Faridah [Department of Pathology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Dao, Thu-Ha [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Cunin, Patrick [Unite de Recherche Clinique, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Meyblum, Evelyne [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); De Baecque-Fontaine, Cecile [Department of Pathology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Alamdari, Ali [Department of Plastic Surgery, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Maison, Patrick [Unite de Recherche Clinique, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Deux, Jean Francois [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Lagrange, Jean Leon [Department of Radiotherapy, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Lantieri, Laurent [Department of Plastic Surgery, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [Department of Radiology, AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, 94010 Creteil (France)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To provide a strategy for precise co-localization of lymph nodes on axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) specimens both on pathology and MR. To identify nodal features suggestive of metastatic involvement on a node-to-node basis. Materials and methods: National Institutional review-board approved this prospective study of 18 patients with breast cancer referred for ALND. Ex vivo T1 and inversion recovery (IR) T2 WI of ALND specimens tightly positioned within scaled plastic cranes was performed immediately after surgery. The correspondence of MR-based or pathologically based nodes location was assessed. The MR size and morphological presentation of metastatic and normal nodes were compared (Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test). Quantitative variables were compared using Pearson coefficient. Results: 207 nodes were retrieved on pathology and 165 on MR. MR-pathological correlation of nodes location was high regarding MR-identified nodes (r = 0.755). An MR short axis threshold of 4 mm yielded the best predictive value for metastatic nodal involvement (Se = 78.6%; Sp = 62.3%). Irregular contours (Se = 35.7%; Sp = 96.7%), central nodal hyper-intensity on IR T2 WI (Se = 57.1%; Sp = 91.4%), and a cortical thickness above 3 mm (Se = 63.6%; Sp = 83.2%) were significantly associated with metastatic involvement. Conclusion: Ex vivo MR allows node-to-node correlation with pathology. Morphological MR criteria can suggest metastatic involvement.

  18. Investigation of Wireless Sensor Nodes with Energy Awareness for Multichannel Signal Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhenhuan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNets), consisting of a lot of Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSNs), play an important role in structural health and machine condition monitoring. But the WSNs provided by the current market cannot meet the diversity of application requirements because they have limited functions, unreliable node performance, high node cost, high system redundancy, and short node lifespan.The aim of the research is to design the architecture of a WSN with low power consumption and node cos...

  19. Learning High-Dimensional Mixtures of Graphical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anandkumar, A; Kakade, S M

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning mixtures of discrete graphical models in high dimensions and propose a novel method for estimating the mixture components with provable guarantees. The method proceeds mainly in three stages. In the first stage, it estimates the union of the Markov graphs of the mixture components (referred to as the union graph) via a series of rank tests. It then uses this estimated union graph to compute the mixture components via a spectral decomposition method. The spectral decomposition method was originally proposed for latent class models, and we adapt this method for learning the more general class of graphical model mixtures. In the end, the method produces tree approximations of the mixture components via the Chow-Liu algorithm. Our output is thus a tree-mixture model which serves as a good approximation to the underlying graphical model mixture. When the union graph has sparse node separators, we prove that our method has sample and computational complexities scaling as poly(p, ...

  20. Data driven CAN node reliability assessment for manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leiming; Yuan, Yong; Lei, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the Controller Area Network(CAN) is critical to the performance and safety of the system. However, direct bus-off time assessment tools are lacking in practice due to inaccessibility of the node information and the complexity of the node interactions upon errors. In order to measure the mean time to bus-off(MTTB) of all the nodes, a novel data driven node bus-off time assessment method for CAN network is proposed by directly using network error information. First, the corresponding network error event sequence for each node is constructed using multiple-layer network error information. Then, the generalized zero inflated Poisson process(GZIP) model is established for each node based on the error event sequence. Finally, the stochastic model is constructed to predict the MTTB of the node. The accelerated case studies with different error injection rates are conducted on a laboratory network to demonstrate the proposed method, where the network errors are generated by a computer controlled error injection system. Experiment results show that the MTTB of nodes predicted by the proposed method agree well with observations in the case studies. The proposed data driven node time to bus-off assessment method for CAN networks can successfully predict the MTTB of nodes by directly using network error event data.

  1. Calculating Node Importance Considering Cascading Failure in Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic network is a scale-free network. In selective attack, invalidation of few key nodes may lead to network failure so it is important to find these key nodes. In this study, the key nodes are determined by establishing calculating methods of node importance based on cascading failure behaviors. First, a cascading failure model of traffic network is posed. Its differences from current models are as follows: 1 The upper travel network and lower road network are influenced each other, 2 Capacity of nodes and links are given at first but not in direct proportion to initial flow that is related to initial capacity, 3 Travel time is used to describe status of links, 4 Capacity of links may change. The evaluation method of node importance of traffic network considering cascading failure is proposed then based on node deletion. It uses congestion status of cascading failure network to describe the node importance and algorithm procedures are designed to estimate importance of all nodes. At the end, the experiment analysis shows that network structure and traveler behaviors have in significant influence on node importance.

  2. Final Report for ?Queuing Network Models of Performance of High End Computing Systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckwalter, J

    2005-09-28

    The primary objective of this project is to perform general research into queuing network models of performance of high end computing systems. A related objective is to investigate and predict how an increase in the number of nodes of a supercomputer will decrease the running time of a user's software package, which is often referred to as the strong scaling problem. We investigate the large, MPI-based Linux cluster MCR at LLNL, running the well-known NAS Parallel Benchmark (NPB) applications. Data is collected directly from NPB and also from the low-overhead LLNL profiling tool mpiP. For a run, we break the wall clock execution time of the benchmark into four components: switch delay, MPI contention time, MPI service time, and non-MPI computation time. Switch delay is estimated from message statistics. MPI service time and non-MPI computation time are calculated directly from measurement data. MPI contention is estimated by means of a queuing network model (QNM), based in part on MPI service time. This model of execution time validates reasonably well against the measured execution time, usually within 10%. Since the number of nodes used to run the application is a major input to the model, we can use the model to predict application execution times for various numbers of nodes. We also investigate how the four components of execution time scale individually as the number of nodes increases. Switch delay and MPI service time scale regularly. MPI contention is estimated by the QNM submodel and also has a fairly regular pattern. However, non-MPI compute time has a somewhat irregular pattern, possibly due to caching effects in the memory hierarchy. In contrast to some other performance modeling methods, this method is relatively fast to set up, fast to calculate, simple for data collection, and yet accurate enough to be quite useful.

  3. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hao

    Full Text Available We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  4. Traffic congestion and the lifetime of networks with moving nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianxia; Li, Jie; Pu, Cunlai; Yan, Meichen; Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Yang, Jian; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2017-01-01

    For many power-limited networks, such as wireless sensor networks and mobile ad hoc networks, maximizing the network lifetime is the first concern in the related designing and maintaining activities. We study the network lifetime from the perspective of network science. In our model, nodes are initially assigned a fixed amount of energy moving in a square area and consume the energy when delivering packets. We obtain four different traffic regimes: no, slow, fast, and absolute congestion regimes, which are basically dependent on the packet generation rate. We derive the network lifetime by considering the specific regime of the traffic flow. We find that traffic congestion inversely affects network lifetime in the sense that high traffic congestion results in short network lifetime. We also discuss the impacts of factors such as communication radius, node moving speed, routing strategy, etc., on network lifetime and traffic congestion.

  5. Animal model for training in sentinel lymph node biopsy of the stomach through combined methods Modelo animal para treinamento em pesquisa de linfonodo sentinela em estômago mediante métodos combinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Create and validate a proposed animal model for training in sentinel lymph node biopsy of the stomach. METHODS: In thirty-two rabbits, through a laparotomy, they received a subserosal injection of 0.1 ml of phytate labeled with technetium-99m (0.2 mCi in the anterior wall of the gastric corpus, followed by 0.2 ml of Blue Patent V® 2.5%, through the same puncture site. Suspicious lymph nodes were searched in vivo at five, ten and 20 minutes, both visually (Blue Patent stained lymph nodes and with a manual gamma radiation detector (to detect suspected radioactive lymph nodes. After 20 minutes, was performed resection of these for further evaluation of radioactivity (ex vivo and histological study. RESULTS: Lymph nodes were identified in 30 rabbits (Average of 2.2 lymph nodes per animal. Of the 90 suspected lymph nodes that occurred in the study, 70 cases (77.8% were histologically confirmed for lymphoid tissue. Of these, the majority were located in the periesophageal region of the gastric fundus. The sample presented a mortality rate of 6.25% and nine complications related to the method, which interfered in the identification of the lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: The animal model for sentinel node biopsy in rabbit stomachs proved to be feasible, with low complexity and reproduced the difficulties encountered for gastric lymph node biopsy in humans, being adequate for surgical training.OBJETIVO: Criar e validar uma proposta de modelo animal para o treinamento em pesquisa de linfonodos sentinelas no estômago. MÉTODOS: Em trinta e dois coelhos, mediante laparotomia, foi injetado na subserosa da parede anterior do corpo gástrico, 0,1 ml de fitato marcado com tecnécio-99m (0,2 mCi, seguido pelo mesmo orifício, de 0,2 ml de Azul Patente V® 2,5%. A cavidade abdominal foi avaliada, in vivo, por meio de inspeção para pesquisa de suspeitas de linfonodos azuis e com detector manual de radiação gamma aos cinco, dez e 20 minutos para pesquisa de

  6. Procedure guidelines for sentinel lymph node diagnosis; Verfahrensanweisung fuer die nuklearmedizinische Waechter-Lymphknoten-Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schmidt, Matthias [Universitaeten zu Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bares, R. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a procedure guideline for scintigraphic detection of sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and other skin tumours, in breast cancer, in head and neck cancer, and in prostate and penile carcinoma. Important goals of sentinel lymph node scintigraphy comprise reduction of the extent of surgery, lower postoperative morbidity and optimization of histopathological examination focussing on relevant lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy itself does not diagnose tumorous lymph node involvement and is not indicated when lymph node metastases have been definitely diagnosed before sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Procedures are compiled with the aim to reliably localise sentinel lymph nodes with a high detection rate typically in early tumour stages. Radiation exposure is low so that pregnancy is not a contraindication for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Even with high volumes of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node procedures surgeons, theatre staff and pathologists receive a radiation exposure <1 mSv/year so that they do not require occupational radiation surveillance. (orig.)

  7. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  8. 基于云模型粒子群算法的WSN节点部署优化%Deployment of wireless sensor network nodes by particle swarm optimization algorithm based on cloud model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红庆

    2013-01-01

    The node deployment optimization techniques is the main point of application of wireless sensor networks , is the hot issues of domestic and foreign scholars in recent years in the military, civil defense, environmental and other fields has broad application prospects. For wireless sensor node deployment methods exist uneven distribution of nodes, covering the incomplete wait, proposed a cloud model to improve particle swarm optimization for wireless sensor node deployment. The experimental results show that this method can be completed relatively small cost sensor aware node deployment, fast convergence in the optimal solution can reduce network deployment costs, and improve overall network coverage.%节点部署优化技术是无线传感器网络的主要应用点,也是近年来国内外学者研究的热点问题,它在军事、民防、环境等多个领域中具有广阔的应用前景.针对目前无线传感节点部署方法存在节点分布不均匀、覆盖不完全等问题,提出一种采用云模型改进粒子群算法,并将该算法用于无线传感器网络节点部署.对比实验结果表明,该方法能够以相对较小的代价完成传感器感知节点部署,能快速收敛于最优解,能够降低网络部署的成本,提高网络的整体覆盖率.

  9. Embedded Nanowire Network Growth and Node Device Fabrication for GaAs-Based High-Density Hexagonal Binary Decision Diagram Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiro; Tamai, Isao; Kasai, Seiya; Sato, Taketomo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2006-04-01

    The basic feasibility of constructing hexagonal binary decision diagram (BDD) quantum circuits on GaAs-based selectively grown (SG) nanowires was investigated from viewpoints of electrical connections through embedded nanowires and electrical uniformity of devices formed on nanowires. For this, - and -oriented nanowires and hexagonal network structures combining these nanowires were formed on (001) GaAs substrates by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. The width and vertical position of the nanowires could be controlled by growth conditions for both - and -directions. By current-voltage (I-V) measurements, good electrical connection was confirmed at the node point where vertical alignment of embedded GaAs nanowire pieces was found to be important. SG quantum wire (QWR) switches formed on the nanowires showed good gate control over a wide temperature range with clear conductance quantization at low temperatures. Good device uniformities were obtained on the test chips, providing a good prospect for future integration. BDD node devices using SG QWR switches showed clear path switching characteristics. Estimated power-delay product values were very small, confirming the feasibility of ultra low-power operation of future circuits.

  10. Development of a New Outcome Prediction Model in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Based on Histopathologic Parameters With Multivariate Analysis: The Aditi-Nuzhat Lymph-node Prediction Score (ANLPS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Aditi; Husain, Nuzhat; Bansal, Ankur; Neyaz, Azfar; Jaiswal, Ritika; Jain, Kavitha; Chaturvedi, Arun; Anand, Nidhi; Malhotra, Kiranpreet; Shukla, Saumya

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients. The parameters, including T stage, grading of tumor, tumor budding, tumor thickness, depth of invasion, shape of tumor nest, lymphoid response at tumor-host interface and pattern of invasion, eosinophilic reaction, foreign-body giant cell reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, were examined. Ninety-two patients had metastasis in lymph nodes. On univariate and multivariate analysis, independent variables for predicting lymph node metastasis in descending order were depth of invasion (P=0.003), pattern of invasion (P=0.007), perineural invasion (P=0.014), grade (P=0.028), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.038), lymphoid response (P=0.037), and tumor budding (P=0.039). We designed a scoring system on the basis of these statistical results and tested it. Cases with scores ranging from 7 to 11, 12 to 16, and ≥17 points showed LN metastasis in 6.4%, 22.8%, and 77.1% of cases, respectively. The difference between these 3 groups in relation to nodal metastasis was very significant (P<0.0001). A patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis (score, 7 to 11) had a 5-year survival of 93%, moderate-risk patients (score, 12 to 16) had a 5-year survival of 67%, and high-risk patients (score, 17 to 21) had a 5-year survival of 39%. The risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC is influenced by many histologic parameters that are not routinely analyzed in

  11. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  12. Optimal Placement of Wavelength Converting Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotti, Pietro; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2001-01-01

    The all optical network using WDM and optical nodes (OXC's) seems to be a possibility in a near future. The consensus to day seems to be that optical wavelength conversions is un-realistic for several decades, hence wavelength blocking will happen in the all optical networks. A possible solution ...... to this problem could be to include digital nodes (DXC's) in the network at the right places. In this article we present a linear programming model which optimizes the placement of these more expensive DXC's in the network....

  13. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node, and make the rest of neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally tree-like networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  14. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  15. Node discovery problem for a social network

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a practical heuristic algorithm to address a node discovery problem. The node discovery problem is to discover a clue on the person, who does not appear in the observed records, but is relevant functionally in affecting decision-making and behavior of an organization. We define two topological relevance of a node in a social network (global and local relevance). Association between the topological relevance and the functional relevance is studied with a few example networks in criminal organizations. We propose a heuristic algorithm to infer an invisible, functionally relevant person. Its performance (precision, recall, and F value) is demonstrated with a simulation experiment using a network derived from the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model.

  16. [METHODOLOGIC PROBLEMS OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivorotko, P V; Kanaev, S V; Semiglazov, V F; Novikov, S N; Krzhivitsky, P I; Semenov, I I; Turkevich, E A; Busko, E A; Donskikh, R V; Bryantseva, Zh V; Piskunov, E A; Trufanova, E S; Chernaya, A V

    2015-01-01

    The study included data on 168 patients with breast cancer, surgical treatment of whom was supplemented by axillary dissection (133 patients or 79.2%) or biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes (35 patients or 20.8%). The examination included ultrasound, planar scintigraphy of the breast and zones of regional lymph drainage. In 122 patients with primary breast cancer stage cT1-2N0M0 retrospective analysis of radionuclide imaging sentinel lymph node was performed. In 89 patients the introduction of colloidal radiopharmaceutical was carried out using a particle diameter of not more than 80-100 nm, in 33 patients study was conducted after administration of radiocolloid with a particle diameter of 200 to 1000 nm. Based on the data obtained by scintigraphy and ultrasonography of zones of regional lymph drainage there were offered two diagnostics models: the first, in which the presence of metastatic axillary lymph nodes was established when there were changes according to at least one of the diagnostic methods--scintigraphy or ultrasound; the second, in which the defeat of lymph nodes was determined only in the case of simultaneous detection of ultrasound and scintigraphic evidence of axillary lymph nodes. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the combination of ultrasound and planar scintigraphy axillary lymph nodes using the first model accounted for 82.7%, 67.7% and 74.4%, respectively. In the second model, the specificity was 94.6%, sensitivity--56%. Rapid transport of radiopharmaceuticals from the injection site, a high gradient of radiopharmaceuticals accumulation in sentinel lymph nodes, effective their visualization, approaching to 100%, were undoubted advantages of radiocolloids having a particle diameter up to 100 nm.

  17. Analyzing and Modeling of Nodes Churn for Large-Scale P2P Reliable Media Streaming%P2P大规模可信流媒体节点抖动分析与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐光学; 李仁发

    2012-01-01

    With the springing up and development of broad-band network technology, such as IPV6, and 3G, etc. , media streaming has become an important application of Internet. Because of the media streaming service's high bandwidth requirement and long duration, providing larger scale media streaming service over the Internet is a challenging problem. In existing P2P networks, the churn caused by nodes dynamic behavior has serious effect on reliability, usability, service response speed and lifetime of P2P large-scale reliable media streaming service. Churn is one of the main problems faced by P2P large-scale reliable media streaming service. Consequently, analyzing the impact of churn on network and finding approaches for reasonable and effective inhibitory mechanisms have become pivotal research issues in this field. This paper surveys the existing theories and methods about churn. Based on the impact on network performance rendered by dynamic behavior of nodes, the paper puts forward models to measure the important indicators such as churn period, churn frequency, and churning node connections. It also presents rules and strategies to handle churn. The simulation results show that the model can effectively reduce churn, and improve the network performance and service quality for P2P reliable media streaming. Therefore, the P2P reliable media streaming network can be more stable and get sustainable serving ability.%随着宽带技术、IPV6,3G等技术的发展,流媒体已成为Internet承载的重要业务.在现实网络中,节点动态行为导致的抖动对P2P大规模可信流媒体网络的健壮性、可用性、服务响应速度和生命周期等产生了重要的影响.抖动对网络的影响分析和设计合理且有效的抑制策略已成为P2P大规模可信流媒体研究的一个重要方向.在全面分析节点动态行为导致抖动对网络性能影响的基础上,对描述抖动的时间、频度和连接3个重要指标进行了量化分析和

  18. Predicting missing links via correlation between nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental problem in many different fields, link prediction aims to estimate the likelihood of an existing link between two nodes based on the observed information. Since this problem is related to many applications ranging from uncovering missing data to predicting the evolution of networks, link prediction has been intensively investigated recently and many methods have been proposed so far. The essential challenge of link prediction is to estimate the similarity between nodes. Most of the existing methods are based on the common neighbor index and its variants. In this paper, we propose to calculate the similarity between nodes by the correlation coefficient. This method is found to be very effective when applied to calculate similarity based on high order paths. We finally fuse the correlation-based method with the resource allocation method, and find that the combined method can substantially outperform the existing methods, especially in sparse networks.

  19. Nodular Histologic Subtype and Ulceration are Tumor Factors Associated with High Risk of Recurrence in Sentinel Node-Negative Melanoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faut, Marloes; Wevers, Kevin P; van Ginkel, Robert J; Diercks, Gilles F H; Hoekstra, Harald J; Kruijff, Schelto; Been, Lukas B; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

    2017-01-01

    Since its introduction, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard staging procedure in clinical node-negative melanoma patients. A negative SLNB, however, does not guarantee a recurrence-free survival. Insight into metastatic patterns and risk factors for recurrence in SLNB negative melanoma patients can provide patient tailored guidelines. Data concerning melanoma patients who underwent SLNB between 1996 and 2015 in a single center were prospectively collected. Cox regression analyses were used to determine variables associated with overall recurrence and distant first site of recurrence in SLNB-negative patients. In 668 patients, SLNBs were performed between 1996 and 2015. Of these patients, 50.4 % were male and 49.6 % female with a median age of 55.2 (range 5.7-88.8) years. Median Breslow thickness was 2.2 (range 0.3-20) mm. The SLNB was positive in 27.8 % of patients. Recurrence rates were 53.2 % in SLNB-positive and 17.9 % in SLNB-negative patients (p < 0.001). For SLNB-negative patients, the site of first recurrence was distant in 58.5 %. Melanoma located in the head and neck region (hazard ratio 4.88, p = 0.003) and increasing Breslow thickness (hazard ratio 1.15, p = 0.013) were predictive for distant first site of recurrence in SLNB-negative patients. SLNB-negative patients with a nodular melanoma and ulceration had a recurrence rate of 43.1 %; the site of recurrence was distant in 64 % of these patients. The recurrence rates of SLNB-negative nodular ulcerative melanoma patients approach those of SLNB-positive patients. Stringent follow-up is recommended in this subset of patients.

  20. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, AY; Arends, PPAM; Eggermont, AMM; Wiggers, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model. Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissecti

  1. Research on Internal Layout Optimization of Logistics Node under the Conditions of Complex Terrain Based on Computer Vision and Geographical Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of logistics node space relationship beyond expression based on computer vision technology, proposes internal layout optimization mathematical model of logistics node on the basis of overall consideration of function zone geometry shape, the optimal area utilization rate, and the minimum material handling cost, and then designs a highly mixed genetic simulated annealing algorithm based on multiagent to get layout solution. Through contrasting, the result has shown that the model and algorithms put forward in this paper can realize large-scale internal layout optimization of logistics node under the conditions of complex terrain and multiple constraints.

  2. Transient Surface CCR5 Expression by Naive CD8+ T Cells within Inflamed Lymph Nodes Is Dependent on High Endothelial Venule Interaction and Augments Th Cell-Dependent Memory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, David; Su, Charles A; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Dorand, R Dixon; Myers, Jay; Liou, Rachel; Nthale, Joseph; Huang, Alex Y

    2016-05-01

    In inflamed lymph nodes, Ag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells encounter Ag-bearing dendritic cells and, together, this complex enhances the release of CCL3 and CCL4, which facilitate additional interaction with naive CD8(+) T cells. Although blocking CCL3 and CCL4 has no effect on primary CD8(+) T cell responses, it dramatically impairs the development of memory CD8(+) T cells upon Ag rechallenge. Despite the absence of detectable surface CCR5 expression on circulating native CD8(+) T cells, these data imply that naive CD8(+) T cells are capable of expressing surface CCR5 prior to cognate Ag-induced TCR signaling in inflamed lymph nodes; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been characterized to date. In this study, we show that CCR5, the receptor for CCL3 and CCL4, can be transiently upregulated on a subset of naive CD8(+) T cells and that this upregulation is dependent on direct contact with the high endothelial venule in inflamed lymph node. Binding of CD62L and CD11a on T cells to their ligands CD34 and CD54 on the high endothelial venule can be enhanced during inflammation. This enhanced binding and subsequent signaling promote the translocation of CCR5 molecules from intracellular vesicles to the surface of the CD8(+) T cell. The upregulation of CCR5 on the surface of the CD8(+) T cells increases the number of contacts with Ag-bearing dendritic cells, which ultimately results in increased CD8(+) T cell response to Ag rechallenge.

  3. High Ki-67 score is indicative of a greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy when added to endocrine therapy in luminal B HER2 negative and node-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Disalvatore, Davide; De Laurentiis, Michele; Gelao, Lucia; Fumagalli, Luca; Locatelli, Marzia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Rotmensz, Nicole; Esposito, Angela; Minchella, Ida; De Placido, Sabino; Santangelo, Michele; Viale, Giuseppe; Goldhirsch, Aron; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with highly proliferative estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer is controversial. We analyzed the predictive value of Ki67 for the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-positive breast cancer. We identified 1241 patients with Luminal B early stage breast cancer with 1-3 axillary positive nodes who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2005 at the European Institute of Oncology and received adjuvant hormonotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Differences in the distribution of characteristics according to treatment were evaluated by the Chi-square test. To evaluate the effect of adding chemotherapy to hormonotherapy, the propensity score method was used to match patients' characteristics minimizing bias related to the non-random assignment of treatment. The probability of receiving chemotherapy was significantly associated with age, tumor grade, degree of hormone responsiveness, tumor size and peripheral vascular invasion. The propensity score distribution was statistically different between the two treatment groups (p value 0.663). The 5-year DFS percentages were 84.6% (95% CI, 81.0-87.6%) in the hormonotherapy group and 84.2% (95% CI, 81.3-86.7%) in the hormonotherapy/chemotherapy group (log-rank test p-value 0.388). However, when analyzing the 5-year DFS by Ki-67 distribution, Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis showed a beneficial effect of chemotherapy in patients with highly proliferative tumor (Ki-67 ≥ 32%). The interaction between Ki-67 and treatment was statistically significant (p = 0.027). Ki67 expression identifies a subset of patients with Luminal B and node-positive breast cancer who could benefit from addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to hormonotherapy. Dichotomy was observed for Ki67 at 32% level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 一种新的MANET节点—链路稳定度模糊评估模型%New fuzzy link-node stability evaluation model for mobile Ad hoe networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桐

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a stability assessment model: node-link fuzzy stability model for MANET based on fuzzy mathematical thinking. This model' s central idea was to integrate fuzzy modeling of the critical location point and speed. It used fuzzy values to accurately measure the stability of the level of nodes and links in MANET. Compared to other assessment methods , this fuzzy stability model could be more effective in its quantitative evaluation of the stability of the survival parameters of MANET. Under this model, the stability of node and link in MANET at large-scale time interval is higher than that of the one at small-scale time interval.%利用模糊数学思想,针对MANET提出了一种稳定性评估模型,即节点—链路模糊稳定度模型.该模型通过对位置临界点和速度进行综合模糊建模,用模糊值精确衡量MANET中节点与链路的稳定性高低.理论和模拟分析证明了该模型能更有效地对MANET的稳定性和生存能力进行定量评估.在该模型下,MANET中节点与链路在大尺度时间区间内的稳定性要高于小尺度时间区间内的稳定性.

  5. Efficient Node Cooperation and Security in MANET using Closeness Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyakumar C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By description, a mobile ad hoc network does not stay on any permanent infrastructure; in its place, all networking utilities (e.g., routing, mobility management, etc. are accessed by the nodes themselves in a self-organizing manner. On the other hand, it is rigid to support cooperativeness among the nodes for their own restricted resources that require to be conserved. These scrupulous nodes which are also termed as selfish nodes decline to help other nodes in forwarding packets owing to the anxiety of having resource. Several researches design a new method that aims at attaining confidentiality of the location for an efficient communication. Thus, privacy appears from the mobile network and users gain control over the disclosure of their locations. In this work, we propose closeness mechanism accepted from the assumption of small-world event or also termed as degrees of separation to persuade cooperativeness among nodes in a trusted node’s community. This paper also provides some general idea on how to develop security on the trusted MANET community by adapting security features of trust. The simulation of the proposed Efficient Node Cooperation and Security [ENCS] in MANET work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model.

  6. Network expansion by adding arcs and/or nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoguang; ZHANG Jianzhong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a new network improvement model, which is to expand a network by adding new arcs and/or new nodes to satisfy the excess demand. For the new arcs and new nodes, there are constructing costs for. building these new facilities.The purpose of. our model is to minimize the total constructing cost. It is found that even if the constructing costs for all new nodes are zero or all new arcs are zero, solving the problem within an approximation ratio O(ln(|V1|+|V2|)) remains NP-hard, where V1 is the original node set, and V2 is thecandidate node set. We also present an MIP formulation for the problem and propose some heuristic ideas to solve the problem.

  7. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Kazuo [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamachi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-8511 (Japan); Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi [Department of Urology, Kawasaki Medical University, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-City, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Okuyama, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nonomura, Norio, E-mail: nono@uro.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  8. Lithography strategy for 65-nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Yan A.; Schenker, Richard E.; Allen, Gary A.; Tejnil, Edita; Hwang, David H.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Singh, Vivek K.; Gleason, Robert E.; Brandenburg, Joseph E.; Bigwood, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    Intel will start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the 65nm node in 2005. Microprocessor density and performance trends will continue to follow Moore's law and cost-effective patterning solutions capable of supporting it have to be found, demonstrated and developed during 2002-2004. Given the uncertainty regarding the readiness and respective capabilities of 157nm and 193nm lithography to support 65nm technology requirements, Intel is developing both lithographic options and corresponding infrastructure with the intent to use both options in manufacturing. Development and use of dual lithographic options for a given technology node in manufacturing is not a new paradigm for Intel: whenever introduction of a new exposure wavelength presented excessive risk to the manufacturing schedule, Intel developed parallel patterning approaches in time for the manufacturing ramp. Both I-line and 248nm patterning solutions were developed and successfully used in manufacturing of the 350nm node at Intel. Similarly, 248nm and 193nm patterning solutions were fully developed for 130nm node high volume manufacturing.

  9. Effects of Gate Stack Structural and Process Defectivity on High-k Dielectric Dependence of NBTI Reliability in 32 nm Technology Node PMOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hussin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simulation study on negative bias temperature instability (NBTI induced hole trapping in E′ center defects, which leads to depassivation of interface trap precursor in different geometrical structures of high-k PMOSFET gate stacks using the two-stage NBTI model. The resulting degradation is characterized based on the time evolution of the interface and hole trap densities, as well as the resulting threshold voltage shift. By varying the physical thicknesses of the interface silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hafnium oxide (HfO2 layers, we investigate how the variation in thickness affects hole trapping/detrapping at different stress temperatures. The results suggest that the degradations are highly dependent on the physical gate stack parameters for a given stress voltage and temperature. The degradation is more pronounced by 5% when the thicknesses of HfO2 are increased but is reduced by 11% when the SiO2 interface layer thickness is increased during lower stress voltage. However, at higher stress voltage, greater degradation is observed for a thicker SiO2 interface layer. In addition, the existence of different stress temperatures at which the degradation behavior differs implies that the hole trapping/detrapping event is thermally activated.

  10. Computed Tomography–Guided Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Combination With Regional Positive Lymph Node Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Peripheral Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 1 Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Jian-wen; Lin, Sheng; Luo, Hui-Qun; Wen, Qing-Lian; He, Li-Jia; Shang, Chang-Ling; Ren, Pei-Rong; Yang, Hong-Ru; Pang, Hao-Wen; Yang, Bo; He, Huai-Lin [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Chen, Yue, E-mail: chenyue5523@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Wu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: wjb6147@163.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical safety, adverse events, and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in combination with regional positive lymph node intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced peripheral non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a prospective, officially approved phase 1 trial. Primary tumors were treated with HDR brachytherapy. A single 30-Gy dose was delivered to the 90% isodose line of the gross lung tumor volume. A total dose of at least 70 Gy was administered to the 95% isodose line of the planning target volume of malignant lymph nodes using 6-MV X-rays. The patients received concurrent or sequential chemotherapy. We assessed treatment efficacy, adverse events, and radiation toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 7-44 months). There were 3 cases of mild pneumothorax but no cases of hemothorax, dyspnea, or pyothorax after the procedure. Grade 3 or 4 acute hematologic toxicity was observed in 5 patients. During follow-up, mild fibrosis around the puncture point was observed on the CT scans of 2 patients, but both patients were asymptomatic. The overall response rates (complete and partial) for the primary mass and positive lymph nodes were 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90.9% and 67%, respectively, with a median OS of 22.5 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HDR brachytherapy is safe and feasible for peripheral locally advanced NSCLC, justifying a phase 2 clinical trial.

  11. Axillary Irradiation as an Imperative Alternative to Axillary Dissection in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative but Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsche, Mirko; Hermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    At the moment, positive sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) of the axilla is followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard of care. Recent data proves that omitting ALND after positive SLND in clinically lymph node-negative early stage breast cancer patients is feasible with low recurrence rates. The well known effect of radiotherapy to destroy occult tumor cells highly contributes to these results as a large extent of level I and II lymph nodes are unavoidably included in s...

  12. A Strong Self-adaptivity Localization Algorithm Based on Gray Prediction Model for Mobile Nodes%一种使用灰度预测模型的强自适应性移动节点定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单志龙; 刘兰辉; 张迎胜; 黄广雄

    2014-01-01

    定位技术是无线传感器网络的关键技术,而关于移动节点的定位又是其中的技术难点。该文针对移动节点定位问题提出基于灰度预测模型的强自适应性移动节点定位算法(GPLA)。算法在基于蒙特卡罗定位思想的基础上,利用灰度预测模型进行运动预测,精确采样区域,用估计距离进行滤波,提高采样粒子的有效性,通过限制性的线性交叉操作来生成新粒子,从而加快样本生成,减少采样次数,提高算法效率。仿真实验中,该算法在通信半径、锚节点密度、样本大小等条件变化的情况下,表现出较好的性能与较强的自适应性。%Localization of sensor nodes is an important issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), and positioning of the mobile nodes is one of the difficulties. To deal with this issue, a strong self-adaptive Localization Algorithm based on Gray Prediction model for mobile nodes (GPLA) is proposed. On the background of Monte Carlo Localization Algoritm, gray prediction model is used in GPLA, which can accurate sampling area is used to predict nodes motion situation. In filtering process, estimated distance is taken to improve the validity of the sample particles. Finally, restrictive linear crossover is used to generate new particles, which can accelerate the sampling process, reduce the times of sampling and heighten the efficiency of GPLA. Simulation results show that the algorithm has excellent performance and strong self-adaptivity in different communication radius, anchor node, sample size, and other conditions.

  13. Connectivity of Large Scale Networks: Distribution of Isolated Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Guoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Connectivity is one of the most fundamental properties of wireless multi-hop networks. A network is said to be connected if there is a path between any pair of nodes. A convenient way to study the connectivity of a random network is by investigating the condition under which the network has no isolated node. The condition under which the network has no isolated node provides a necessary condition for a connected network. Further the condition for a network to have no isolated node and the condition for the network to be connected can often be shown to asymptotically converge to be the same as the number of nodes approaches infinity, given a suitably defined random network and connection model. Currently analytical results on the distribution of the number of isolated nodes only exist for the unit disk model. This study advances research in the area by providing the asymptotic distribution of the number of isolated nodes in random networks with nodes Poissonly distributed on a unit square under a generic rando...

  14. Three-dimensional local grid refinement for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using iteratively coupled shared nodes: A new method of interpolation and analysis of errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes work that extends to three dimensions the two-dimensional local-grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models of Mehl and Hill [Development and evaluation of a local grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using shared nodes. Adv Water Resour 2002;25(5):497-511]. In this approach, the (parent) finite-difference grid is discretized more finely within a (child) sub-region. The grid refinement method sequentially solves each grid and uses specified flux (parent) and specified head (child) boundary conditions to couple the grids. Iteration achieves convergence between heads and fluxes of both grids. Of most concern is how to interpolate heads onto the boundary of the child grid such that the physics of the parent-grid flow is retained in three dimensions. We develop a new two-step, "cage-shell" interpolation method based on the solution of the flow equation on the boundary of the child between nodes shared with the parent grid. Error analysis using a test case indicates that the shared-node local grid refinement method with cage-shell boundary head interpolation is accurate and robust, and the resulting code is used to investigate three-dimensional local grid refinement of stream-aquifer interactions. Results reveal that (1) the parent and child grids interact to shift the true head and flux solution to a different solution where the heads and fluxes of both grids are in equilibrium, (2) the locally refined model provided a solution for both heads and fluxes in the region of the refinement that was more accurate than a model without refinement only if iterations are performed so that both heads and fluxes are in equilibrium, and (3) the accuracy of the coupling is limited by the parent-grid size - A coarse parent grid limits correct representation of the hydraulics in the feedback from the child grid.

  15. Distributed Detection of Randomly Located Targets in Mobility-Assisted Sensor Networks with Node Mobility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera SudharmanK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance gain achieved by adding mobile nodes to a stationary sensor network for target detection depends on factors such as the number of mobile nodes deployed, mobility patterns, speed and energy constraints of mobile nodes, and the nature of the target locations (deterministic or random. In this paper, we address the problem of distributed detection of a randomly located target by a hybrid sensor network. Specifically, we develop two decision-fusion architectures for detection where in the first one, impact of node mobility is taken into account for decisions updating at the fusion center, while in the second model the impact of node mobility is taken at the node level decision updating. The cost of deploying mobile nodes is analyzed in terms of the minimum fraction of mobile nodes required to achieve the desired performance level within a desired delay constraint. Moreover, we consider managing node mobility under given constraints.

  16. Biodistribution of ~(99)Tc~m Labelled Dextran Conjugates for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Mannosylated dextran conjugates showed high receptor affinity to the receptors on the surface of macrophages in the lymph node. 99Tcm labelled mannosylated dextran conjugates could be used for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection. In this paper,

  17. IDIS Small Bodies and Dust Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Giacomini, L.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroPlaNet information service provides access to lists of researchers, laboratories and data archives relevant to many aspects of planetary and space physics. Information can be accessed through EuroPlaNet website or, for advanced searches, via web-services available at the different thematic nodes. The goal of IDIS is to provide easy-to-use access to resources like people, laboratories, modeling activities and data archives related to planetary sciences. The development of IDIS is an international effort started under the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme and which will expand its capabilities during the 7th Framework Programme, as part of the Capacities Specific Programme/Research Infrastructures. IDIS is complemented by a set of other EuroPlaNet web-services maintained under the responsibility of separate institutions. Each activity maintains its own web-portal with cross-links pointing to the other elements of EuroPlaNet. General access is provided via the EuroPlaNet Homepage. IDIS is not a repository of original data but rather supports the access to various data sources. The final goal of IDIS is to provide Virtual Observatory tools for the access to data from laboratory measurements and ground- and spaced-based observations to modeling results, allowing the combination of as divergent data sources as feasible. IDIS is built around four scientific nodes located in different European countries. Each node deals with a subset of the disciplines related to planetary sciences and, working in cooperation with international experts in these fields, provides a wealth of information to the international planetary science community. The EuroPlaNet IDIS thematic node "Small Bodies and Dust Node" is hosted by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario and is established in close cooperation with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. Both these institutes are part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). The IDIS Small Bodies and Dust

  18. Methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection technique is not associated with an increased detection of lymph node metastases in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, Bruno; Schaller, Tina; Krammer, Ines; Cacchi, Claudio; Arnholdt, Hans M; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kretsinger, Hallie; Anthuber, Matthias; Spatz, Hanno

    2013-09-01

    Lymph node staging is of paramount importance for prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in colorectal cancer. A high number of harvested lymph nodes is associated with an improved outcome. Methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection effectively improves the lymph node harvest and ensures sufficient staging. Now, the effect on node positivity rate and stage-related outcome was investigated. The study cohort with advanced lymph node dissection consisted of 669 colorectal cancer cases of all stages, which were collected between 2007 and 2012. A historical collection of 663 cases investigated with conventional techniques between 2002 and 2004 served as control. Lymph node harvest was dramatically improved in the study group with mean lymph node numbers of 34 ± 17 vs 13 ± 5 (Pcancer and is therefore extremely helpful. The hypothesis that it also provides a higher sensitivity in detecting metastases, however, could be not proved.

  19. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless......Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because...

  20. Lymph node melanocytic nevi: pathogenesis and differential diagnoses, with special reference to p16 reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Simonetta; Tagliavini, Elena; Ragazzi, Moira; Zanelli, Magda; Zalaudek, Iris; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Valli, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Lymph node nevi (NN) have been occasionally described, yet little is currently known on their origin. According to a theoretical model of nevogenesis, the dissemination of nevus progenitor cells through lymphatic routes is responsible for the development of both nodal and skin nevi. The true incidence of NN is largely unknown but it has been reported to vary from 0.017% to as high as 22%. The frequency of NN nevi has increased since the introduction of sentinel lymph node mapping as a routine prognostic procedure in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and morphological findings of NN, to discuss possible pathogenetic pathways in their evolution, and to verify the consistency of p16 immunostaining in the critical differential approach between NN and melanoma metastases. We therefore morphologically and immunohistochemically evaluated a series of 60 NN from 58 patients. In 21 patients, the lymph nodes had been removed during the staging for a skin melanoma; in all these patients NN immunostaining with p16 was strongly positive and p16 proved to be a reliable marker for the crucial differential diagnosis between NN and melanoma metastasis, strongly reacting in NN and lacking in melanoma deposits. A deeper knowledge on NN could help to clarify some important topics such as lymph node metastatic melanoma with unknown primary and the current debate on the lymph node involvement from atypical spitzoid tumors.

  1. Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing Algorithm for Efficient Packet Forwarding in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications are one of the hottest research topics. It has also gained much attention in industry as well as academia. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are advances of the wireless communication technologies. Routing is one of the key research issues in VANETs as long as it plays an important role in public safety and commercial applications. In VANET, routing of data is a challenging task due to high speed of nodes (i.e., vehicles movement and rapidly changing topology. Recent research showedthat existing routing algorithm solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are not able to meet the unique requirements of vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing(GNGR, a reliable greedy position-based routing approach algorithm. In GNGR, we forward the packets to any of the nodes in the corner of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop. With this consideration, the nodes move towards the direction of the destination. We propose Dynamic TransitionMobility Model (DTMM to evaluate our routing technique. This paper gives a complete description of our packet forwarding approach and simulation results. The simulation results are carried out based on Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR. Our routing technique is compared with other routing techniques; the PDR is improved significantly compared with other routing techniques of VANET.

  2. Eradicating Catastrophic Collapse in Interdependent Networks via Reinforced Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Xin; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    In interdependent networks, it is usually assumed, based on percolation theory, that nodes become nonfunctional if they lose connection to the network giant component. However, in reality, some nodes, equipped with alternative resources, together with their connected neighbors can still be functioning once disconnected from the giant component. Here we propose and study a generalized percolation model that introduces a fraction of reinforced nodes in the interdependent networks that can function and support their neighborhood. We analyze, both analytically and via simulations, the order parameter$-$the functioning component$-$comprising both the giant component and smaller components that include at least one reinforced node. Remarkably, we find that for interdependent networks, we need to reinforce only a small fraction of nodes to prevent abrupt catastrophic collapses. Moreover, we find that the universal upper bound of this fraction is 0.1756 for two interdependent Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi (ER) networks, regula...

  3. Number of Lymph Nodes Harvested From a Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S.; Decker, Paul A.; Ballman, Karla; Malthaner, Richard A.; Inculet, Richard I.; Jones, David R.; McKenna, Robert J.; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Putnam, Joe B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status is a major determinant of stage and survival in patients with lung cancer; however, little information is available about the expected yield of a mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Methods: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0030 prospective, randomized trial of mediastinal lymph node sampling vs complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary resection enrolled 1,111 patients from July 1999 to February 2004. Data from 524 patients who underwent complete mediastinal lymph node dissection were analyzed to determine the number of lymph nodes obtained. Results: The median number of additional lymph nodes harvested from a mediastinal lymphadenectomy following systematic sampling was 18 with a range of one to 72 for right-sided tumors, and 18 with a range of four to 69 for left-sided tumors. The median number of N2 nodes harvested was 11 on the right and 12 on the left. A median of at least six nodes was harvested from at least three stations in 99% of patients, and 90% of patients had at least 10 nodes harvested from three stations. Overall, 21 patients (4%) were found to have occult N2 disease. Conclusions: Although high variability exists in the actual number of lymph nodes obtained from various nodal stations, complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy removes one or more lymph nodes from all mediastinal stations. Adequate mediastinal lymphadenectomy should include stations 2R, 4R, 7, 8, and 9 for right-sided cancers and stations 4L, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for left-sided cancers. Six or more nodes were resected in 99% of patients in this study. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00003831; URL: clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20829340

  4. Estimating High-Dimensional Time Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros, Marcelo C.; Mendes, Eduardo F.

    We study the asymptotic properties of the Adaptive LASSO (adaLASSO) in sparse, high-dimensional, linear time-series models. We assume both the number of covariates in the model and candidate variables can increase with the number of observations and the number of candidate variables is, possibly...

  5. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  6. The Sentinel Lymph Node Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node concept is meeting with steadily growing interest and is being extended to the different sites of the primaries. In addition, the concept is being applied in an increasingly sophisticated manner. In this book the practical

  7. Automatic Network Fingerprinting through Single-Node Motifs

    CERN Document Server

    Echtermeyer, Christoph; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kaiser, Marcus; 10.1371/journal.pone.0015765

    2011-01-01

    Complex networks have been characterised by their specific connectivity patterns (network motifs), but their building blocks can also be identified and described by node-motifs---a combination of local network features. One technique to identify single node-motifs has been presented by Costa et al. (L. D. F. Costa, F. A. Rodrigues, C. C. Hilgetag, and M. Kaiser, Europhys. Lett., 87, 1, 2009). Here, we first suggest improvements to the method including how its parameters can be determined automatically. Such automatic routines make high-throughput studies of many networks feasible. Second, the new routines are validated in different network-series. Third, we provide an example of how the method can be used to analyse network time-series. In conclusion, we provide a robust method for systematically discovering and classifying characteristic nodes of a network. In contrast to classical motif analysis, our approach can identify individual components (here: nodes) that are specific to a network. Such special nodes...

  8. [Accumulation of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürle, S; Schulte, K W; Homey, B

    2009-10-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a superficial spreading melanoma on her right thigh (tumor thickness 1.0 mm, Clark-Level III). She also had decorative tattoos on her right ankle, right groin and coccyx. The staging results gave no indication for metastases. Intra-operatively, we observed a black pigmented lymph node highly suspicious for metastatic disease, but histological examination excluded metastatic spread and detected the accumulation of black pigment within the lymph node. Clinical differentiation between tattoo pigments and metastatic disease within lymph nodes is not possible. Histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented lymph node is therefore essential before radical surgery is performed. Hence, accumulation of tattoo pigment within enlarged and pigmented lymph nodes needs to be included into the differential diagnosis and the documentation of decorative tattoos is important during skin cancer screening as well as during the follow-up of melanoma patients.

  9. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    The mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome consists of central necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes and may occur with either celiac disease or a sprue-like intestinal disease that fails to respond to a gluten-free diet. Splenic hypofunction may also be present. The cause is not known but its development during the clinical course of celiac disease is usually indicative of a poor prognosis for the intestinal disorder, a potential for signif icant compli-cations including sepsis and malignancy, particularly...

  10. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...

  11. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu PF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peng-Fei Qiu, Yan-Bing Liu, Yong-Sheng Wang Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients. Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach – more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy – clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary lymph node, axillary lymph node, sentinel lymph node biopsy 

  12. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model Equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Fada dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. METHODS: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc99 radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. RESULTS: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of limphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. CONCLUSIONS: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement.OBJETIVO: Investigar o equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos machos, adultos jovens. Depois de anestesiados, os animais foram distribuidos em dois grupos de 15 animais cada. O grupo A recebeu radiofármaco dextran 500 - Tc99 e azul patente V e o grupo B, somente azul patente V para realização do mapeamento linfático. Foi realizada a medição da captação radioativa da região de fundo, do sítio de injeção e do linfonodo sentinela ex vivo do grupo A. Após a ex

  13. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  14. The research of underwater sensor node coverage model based on perception factor%基于感知因子的水下传感器节点覆盖模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹍鹏; 姜卫东

    2015-01-01

    It was found in our study that the sensor node model used in the previous underwater sensor network simulation has the defects that are difficult to overcome.Boolean model has sacrificed more coverage performance to enhance the efficiency of simulation calculation,while continuous probability model (CPM)has given up the computational efficiency to approach the actual coverage performance simulation.In order to find a sensor node model which can not only meet the need of the covering performance but improve the calculation efficiency,we first proposed the concept of perception factor(PF)from the point of view of the effective detection of targets;and then puted forward a sensor node discrete model based on PF.After that,it was hypothesized that the nodes could be divided without limit;discrete perceptual factor model(DPFM)was extended to continuous perceptual factor model (CPFM),and the validity of CPFM was proved.Finally,CPFM was further optimized for multi ring perceptual factor model(MRPFM)to avoid the calculation of the logarithm.In this paper,the coverage performance and compu-tational efficiency of MRPFM were simulated and compared with other models.The same model parameters and en-vironmental parameters were set up by simulation.First,the coverage performance of CPFM in the condition of positive triangle,regular and regular hexagon deployment was simulated.It was found that the best way was not a regular hexagon deployment,but a positive triangle deployment.Then,we simulated the positive triangle optimal de-ployment of MRPFM and continuous probability model,and compared the coverage performance of the three models.It was obvious that the performance of MRPFM was a bit lower than that of continuous exponential probability model(CEPM),but significantly higher than Boolean model;Finally,this research simulated the time of the deployment of Boolean model,CEPM,multi ring probability model (MRPM)and MRPFM,based on different node numbers.The simulation map clearly

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considerable controversy exists regarding the merits of elective neck dissection in patients with early stage oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It is highly desirable to have a method of identifying those patients who would benefit from further treatment of the neck when they are clinically node-negative. The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in identifying occult neck disease in a cohort of patients with node-negative oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: We evaluated a total of 13 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer who were clinically and radiologically node-negative. RESULTS: A sentinel lymph node was found in all 13 patients, revealing metastatic disease in five patients, four of whom had one or more positive sentinel lymph nodes. There was one false negative result, in which the sentinel lymph node was negative for tumour whereas histological examination of the neck dissection specimen showed occult disease. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, we would recommend the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cases of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in order to aid the differentiation of those patients whose necks are harbouring occult disease and who require further treatment.

  16. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols under Varying Node Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Balaji Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system containing a cluster of mobile nodes which can dynamically change their network topology. It requires no pre-existing fixed network infrastructureor centralized administration. It operates in a standalone fashion. All the mobile nodes in the network are connected by wireless links. These nodes are free to move anywhere and organize themselves into a network. Each node behaves as a router and should therefore forward packets to other nodes in the network. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. Mobile ad-hoc network has certain characteristics such as dynamic topology that inserts new demands on the routing protocol which often limits resources such as storage capacityof CPU, battery power and bandwidth. Mobility models emulate the realistic conditions and dictate the movement of nodes. This paper aims to evaluate the performance and compare the three MANET routingprotocols AODV, DSR and DSDV in different mobility conditions while varying pause time and node density. Three mobility models included are Random Waypoint, Random Walk and Random Direction. Lastly, wepresent simulation results that illustrate how the performance of a MANET protocols drastically change, as a result of changing the mobility taking Throughput, Average End-End Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio and Normalized Routing Load as differentials. The conclusion, which routing protocol is best in each of the varying mobility is also stated. Simulations are carried out using Ns2.

  17. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  18. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  19. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  20. ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ПЛАТФОРМИ NODE.JS ДЛЯ РОЗРОБКИ СУЧАСНИХ ВЕБ-СЕРВІСІВ

    OpenAIRE

    Остапенко, Сергій Олександрович; Прищепа, Татьяна Алексеевна

    2016-01-01

    Usage of Node.js platform for web-application development             Node.js - platform for developing high-load server-side web applications. Synchronous and asynchronous input - output model. Advantages of using technology for developing multi-user applications. Common mistakes in the use of Node.js.  Huge growth in popularity of technology.

  1. Quantification Model Considering Uncertainties for Node Reputation in Trusted Networks%可信网络中一种考虑不确定性的节点信誉量化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范艳峰; 杨志晓

    2011-01-01

    可信网络中节点信誉是一种重要而带有不确定性的信任关系.信誉及其聚合过程具有模糊性和随机性特征.云模型能够科学地描述节点信誉及其形成过程的不确定性.采用逆向云生成算法,揭示了节点信誉及其聚合过程在整个生命期的模糊性和随机性规律;获得其信誉云的数字特征值,指导在局部窗口内其信誉的量化.基于服务满意度评价的确定度值这一具有稳定倾向的随机数,结合衰减系数,设计了信誉度量化模型.模型中的权值是与满意度值有关的有稳定倾向的随机数.所提信誉量化模型切合开放网络信任关系的不确定性规律.仿真结果表明,与其它信誉量化模型相比,所提出的模型计算结果稳定,且具有较强的抗攻击性.%Node reputation in trusted networks is an important trust relationship with many uncertainties. Reputation and the process of its aggregation are companied with characteristics of fuzziness and randomness. Cloud model can scientifically describe uncertainties of reputation during the process of its aggregation. Converse cloud generation algorithm is adopted to discover the laws of fuzziness and randomness of node reputation and its aggregation process during its whole life. Obtained numeric eigenvalues of reputation cloud are to direct the quantification of node reputation in local computation widows. Based on certainty degree of service satisfaction degree,together with attenuation factor,a reputation quantifaction model was proposed. Certainty degree is a random number with stable tendency. Weights in the model are also random numbers with stable tendency related to service satisfaction degrees. The proposed reputation quantifaction model well fits with uncertainty laws of trust relationship in open networks. Simulation results show that the proposed model maintains stable output and has good anti-attacking abilities,compared with other models.

  2. Fractional Dynamics of Network Growth Constrained by Aging Node Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Safdari

    Full Text Available In many social complex systems, in which agents are linked by non-linear interactions, the history of events strongly influences the whole network dynamics. However, a class of "commonly accepted beliefs" seems rarely studied. In this paper, we examine how the growth process of a (social network is influenced by past circumstances. In order to tackle this cause, we simply modify the well known preferential attachment mechanism by imposing a time dependent kernel function in the network evolution equation. This approach leads to a fractional order Barabási-Albert (BA differential equation, generalizing the BA model. Our results show that, with passing time, an aging process is observed for the network dynamics. The aging process leads to a decay for the node degree values, thereby creating an opposing process to the preferential attachment mechanism. On one hand, based on the preferential attachment mechanism, nodes with a high degree are more likely to absorb links; but, on the other hand, a node's age has a reduced chance for new connections. This competitive scenario allows an increased chance for younger members to become a hub. Simulations of such a network growth with aging constraint confirm the results found from solving the fractional BA equation. We also report, as an exemplary application, an investigation of the collaboration network between Hollywood movie actors. It is undubiously shown that a decay in the dynamics of their collaboration rate is found, even including a sex difference. Such findings suggest a widely universal application of the so generalized BA model.

  3. Community Detection in Networks with Node Features

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for community detection in networks, but most of them do not take into account additional information on the nodes that is often available in practice. In this paper, we propose a new joint community detection criterion that uses both the network edge information and the node features to detect community structures. One advantage our method has over existing joint detection approaches is the flexibility of learning the impact of different features which may differ across communities. Another advantage is the flexibility of choosing the amount of influence the feature information has on communities. The method is asymptotically consistent under the block model with additional assumptions on the feature distributions, and performs well on simulated and real networks.

  4. Influence of racemic higenamine on the sinus node

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Fengxia; KONG, LINGTING; Wang, Shujuan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of racemic higenamine in the treatment of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). A total of 40 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal sinus node and damaged sinus node (SND) groups, and each group was randomly divided into treatment and control groups (n=10). The SND model was established by formaldehyde wet dressing of the sinus node area. The treatment groups were administered an intravenous infusion of 0.04 mg/kg racemic higenamine via ...

  5. An analytical high value target acquisition model

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Kevin J.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An Analytical High Value Target (HVT) acquisition model is developed for a generic anti-ship cruise missile system. the target set is represented as a single HVT within a field of escorts. The HVT's location is described by a bivariate normal probability distribution. the escorts are represented by a spatially homogeneous Poisson random field surrounding the HVT. Model output consists of the probability that at least one missile of...

  6. Sub-2y node NAND flash characteristics using spot beam technology for low energy, high tilt implant for n-poly doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chong-Il; Lee, Sangsun; Jeon, Young-Ho; Cheon, Youngil; Choi, Jin-Kwan; Yang, Young-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Won; Hong, Rympyo; Yoon, Jong-Yoon; Reece, Ron; Rubin, Leonard M.

    2012-11-01

    Reduction of polysilicon sheet resistivity and polysilicon depletion ratio (PDR) are two major challenges for improving the memory cell characteristics of sub-20 nm NAND Flash devices. High phosphorus doses are implanted into in situ doped polysilicon floating gates to improve PDR, but phosphorus concentrations that are too high can degrade cell characteristics by increasing trapped charge in the TNOX(Tunnel Oxide). It is also important to prevent the bending of narrow polysilicon lines during floating gate implantation. We explored various conditions of low energy, high tilt phosphorus implants for floating gate doping using a spot beam high current implanter. The optimal concentration of implant energy, tilt angle, and thermal annealing has been shown to improve PDR and floating gate TOP CD control.

  7. Modeling of intensified high dynamic star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-23

    An intensified high dynamic star tracker (IHDST) is a photoelectric instrument and stably outputs three-axis attitude for a spacecraft at very high angular velocity. The IHDST uses an image intensifier to multiply the incident starlight. Thus, high sensitivity of the star detection is achieved under short exposure time such that extremely high dynamic performance is achieved. The IHDST differs from a traditional star tracker in terms of the imaging process. Therefore, we establish a quantum transfer model of IHDST based on stochastic process theory. By this model, the probability distribution of the output quantum number is obtained accurately. Then, we introduce two-dimensional Lorentz functions to describe the spatial spreading process of the IHDST. Considering the interaction of these two processes, a complete star imaging model of IHDST is provided. Using this model, the centroiding accuracy of the IHDST is analyzed in detail. Accordingly, a working parameter optimizing strategy is developed for high centroiding accuracy and improved dynamic performance. Finally, the laboratory tests and the night sky experiment support the conclusions.

  8. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rachna Ram; Jasprit Singh; Eddie McCaig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients wi...

  9. Node Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sania Bhatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed considerable growth in the development and deployment of clustering methods which are not only used to maintain network resources but also increases the reliability of the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Network and the facts manifest by the wide range of clustering solutions. Node clustering by selecting key parameters to tackle the dynamic behaviour of resource constraint WSN is a challenging issue. This paper highlights the recent progress which has been carried out pertaining to the development of clustering solutions for the WSNs. The paper presents classification of node clustering methods and their comparison based on the objectives, clustering criteria and methodology. In addition, the potential open issues which need to be considered for future work are high lighted.

  10. Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

  11. Modelling Galaxy Formation at high z

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    I describe a semi-analytical model for the formation and evolution of galaxies in hierarchical clustering models, and its predictions for the properties of the galaxy population at high z. The predictions are found to agree well with the observed properties of the Lyman break galaxies found at z sim 3 by Steidel et al. The models predict that the star formation rate per comoving volume should have peaked at z sim 1-2, which also agrees well with recent observational data.

  12. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  13. Cancer stem cell marker ALDH1 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a study from high incidence area of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhe, H; Gao, P; Zhang, N; Li, G; Qin, J

    2012-08-01

    Tumor recurrence and metastasis is the leading cause of death in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Cancer stem cell (CSC) may be responsible for tumor growth and maintenance of aggressive behavior. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been proposed as one of the possible candidates for a CSC marker. The expression of ALDH1 may be correlated with the clinicopathologic factor and clinical outcome of patients with ESCC. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of ALDH1 protein in human ESCC tissues, and evaluated the clinical implication of ALDH1 expression for these patients. All 79 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC between January 2005 and June 2006 were enrolled in this study. The expression of ALDH1 in ESCC and adjacent noncancerous tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ALDH1 was mainly expressed in ESCC cell nucleus. For the 79 ESCC patients, increased nuclear accumulation of ALDH1 was found in 12 (15.2%) specimens. ALDH1 expression was correlated with poor histological differentiation (P= 0.003), lymph node metastasis (P= 0.011), and late pathologic TNM classification (pTNM) staging (P= 0.003). Patients in ALDH1 positive group had a significantly poor 5-year overall survival than those in the negative group (8.3% vs. 52.2%, P= 0.025). We have demonstrated for the first time that the CSC marker, ALDH1, is expressed in human ESCC. The expression of ALDH1 protein in nucleus of the ESCC is significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. Our results highly indicate the involvement of ALDH1 in the aggressive behavior of ESCC.

  14. A Grooming Nodes Optimal Allocation Method for Multicast in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengying Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grooming node has the capability of grooming multicast traffic with the small granularity into established light at high cost of complexity and node architecture. In the paper, a grooming nodes optimal allocation (GNOA method is proposed to optimize the allocation of the grooming nodes constraint by the blocking probability for multicast traffic in sparse WDM networks. In the proposed GNOA method, the location of each grooming node is determined by the SCLD strategy. The improved smallest cost largest degree (SCLD strategy is designed to select the nongrooming nodes in the proposed GNOA method. The simulation results show that the proposed GNOA method can reduce the required number of grooming nodes and decrease the cost of constructing a network to guarantee a certain request blocking probability when the wavelengths per fiber and transmitter/receiver ports per node are sufficient for the optical multicast in WDM networks.

  15. Visualization of fluid drainage pathways in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes using a mouse model to test a lymphatic drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tetsuya; Hatakeyama, Yuriko; Kato, Shigeki; Mori, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Curing/preventing micrometastasis to lymph nodes (LNs) located outside the surgically resected area is essential for improving the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer and head and neck cancer. However, no lymphatic therapy system exists that can deliver drugs to LNs located outside the dissection area. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for a drug delivery system using MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice that exhibit systemic lymphadenopathy, with some peripheral LNs being as large as 10 mm in diameter. We report that a fluorescent solution injected into the subiliac LN (defined as the upstream LN within the dissection area) was delivered successfully to the proper axillary LN (defined as the downstream LN outside the dissection area) through the lymphatic vessels. Our results suggest that this approach could be used before surgical resection to deliver drugs to downstream LNs outside the dissection area. We anticipate that our methodology could be applied clinically, before surgical resection, to cure/prevent micrometastasis in LNs outside the dissection area, using techniques such as ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization. PMID:25657881

  16. Swiss EMBnet node web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquet, Laurent; Bordoli, Lorenza; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Pagni, Marco; Jongeneel, C Victor

    2003-07-01

    EMBnet is a consortium of collaborating bioinformatics groups located mainly within Europe (http://www.embnet.org). Each member country is represented by a 'node', a group responsible for the maintenance of local services for their users (e.g. education, training, software, database distribution, technical support, helpdesk). Among these services a web portal with links and access to locally developed and maintained software is essential and different for each node. Our web portal targets biomedical scientists in Switzerland and elsewhere, offering them access to a collection of important sequence analysis tools mirrored from other sites or developed locally. We describe here the Swiss EMBnet node web site (http://www.ch.embnet.org), which presents a number of original services not available anywhere else.

  17. 移动社会网络信息传播模型构建与top-k节点挖掘%Diffusion model and top-k nodes mining for mobile social networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文国; 王瑜

    2012-01-01

    在移动社会网络中挖掘出有影响力的top-k节点,对于移动运营商作出新产品或服务战略营销决策至关重要.针对移动社会网络的特点,提出一种充分考虑移动社会网络特点的信息传播模型以及基于该模型的top-k节点挖掘算法.实验证明,该方法能准确高效地定位移动社会网络中的活跃节点,这对于移动运营商作出营销决策起着至关重要的作用.%The top-k nodes in those network systems often play critical roles in information exchanges and spreading. Thus finding those influential carriers in mobile social networks is very useful for mobile operators to make strategy, such as sales marketing etc. This paper proposed a top-k mining algorithm based on the information diffusion model. The experiments prove that the proposed algorithm can mine influential nodes efficiently and accurately in mobile social networks.

  18. Exploring the evolution of node neighborhoods in Dynamic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Günce Keziban; Labatut, Vincent; Naskali, Ahmet Teoman

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Networks are a popular way of modeling and studying the behavior of evolving systems. However, their analysis constitutes a relatively recent subfield of Network Science, and the number of available tools is consequently much smaller than for static networks. In this work, we propose a method specifically designed to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of dynamic networks. It characterizes each individual node by studying the evolution of its direct neighborhood, based on the assumption that the way this neighborhood changes reflects the role and position of the node in the whole network. For this purpose, we define the concept of neighborhood event, which corresponds to the various transformations such groups of nodes can undergo, and describe an algorithm for detecting such events. We demonstrate the interest of our method on three real-world networks: DBLP, LastFM and Enron. We apply frequent pattern mining to extract meaningful information from temporal sequences of neighborhood events. This results in the identification of behavioral trends emerging in the whole network, as well as the individual characterization of specific nodes. We also perform a cluster analysis, which reveals that, in all three networks, one can distinguish two types of nodes exhibiting different behaviors: a very small group of active nodes, whose neighborhood undergo diverse and frequent events, and a very large group of stable nodes.

  19. Improving and Extending Indoor Connectivity Using Relay Nodes for 60 GHz Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alkhawatra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available a 60 GHz wireless system can provide very high data rates. However, it has a tremendous amount of both Free Space Path Loss (FSPL and penetration loss. To mitigate these losses and extend the system range; we propose techniques for using relay nodes. The relay node has been positioned correctly in order to shorten the distance between a source and a destination, this gave a reduction in the FSPL value. In addition, the positioning of the relay node correctly gave an alternative Line of Sight (LoS to overcome the penetration loss caused by human bodies. For the last challenge, the considerably short range of the wireless network in the 60 GHz band, the range has been extended by applying the multi-hop communication with the concept of relay nodes selection. The length of the room was doubled and still get the same losses as if there was no expansion. All three techniques were modeled inside ‘Wireless InSite’ by three scenarios. The first scenario was a conference room with no obstacles to focus on FSPL. In the second scenario, the same conference room was modeled but human bodies have been taken into consideration to check the penetration loss effect. The final scenario was the extended version of the first scenario to deal with the small range issue.

  20. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  1. The Gravity Model for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)

  2. Clinical outcomes after sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hee Ji; Keun Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Ree [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate non-sentinel lymph node (LN) status after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the predictive factors for disease failure. From January 2006 to December 2007, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection after SNB was performed for patients with primary invasive breast cancer who had no clinical evidence of LN metastasis. A total of 320 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. The median age of patients was 48 years, and the median follow-up time was 72.8 months. Close resection margin (RM) was observed in 13 patients. The median number of dissected SNB was two, and that of total retrieved ALNs was 11. Sentinel node accuracy was 94.7%, and the overall false negative rate (FNR) was 5.3%. Eleven patients experienced treatment failure. Local recurrence, regional LN recurrence, and distant metastasis were identified in 0.9%, 1.9%, and 2.8% of these patients, respectively. Sentinel LN status were not associated with locoregional recurrence (p > 0.05). Close RM was the only significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. The 5-year overall survival, DFS, and locoregional DFS were 100%, 96.8%, and 98.1%, respectively. In this study, SNB was performed with high accuracy and low FNR and high locoregional control was achieved.

  3. P2P trust model for resisting collusion and dynamic behavior of node%对抗共谋及节点行为动态性的P2P信任模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈作汉; 任旭鹏; 卢鹏丽

    2011-01-01

    针对现有P2P信任模型存在的网络开销大、不能很好地处理节点行为的动态性改变及共谋攻击等问题,提出了一种新的信任模型.通过直接交互节点的局部评价加权其评价可信度计算节点的全局信誉值;采用基于局部评价标准差、局部评价集中度的方法识别和抑制共谋攻击;根据节点行为的改变动态更新其信誉值和评价可信度.仿真实验表明,提出的模型较现有模型在网络开销、抑制共谋攻击和节点行为的动态性等方面有较大改进.%To solve the problems of great network costs, the deficiency in dealing with dynamic characteristic and collusion attack in current P2P trust model, a new trust model was proposed. It computed global reputation value through that the direct interaction peers' local evaluation weighted its evaluation credibility to avoid iterative computing process. The standard deviation and concentration ratio of local evaluation was used to identify and control collusion attack. Moreover,according to the node changes, its reputation value and evaluation credibility were updated dynamically. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the new model has advantages in reducing network costs, controlling dynamic characteristic of node and collusion attack over the existing trust models.

  4. DAC 22 High Speed Civil Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Between tests, NASA research engineer Dave Hahne inspects a tenth-scale model of a supersonic transport model in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The model is being used in support of NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program. Langley researchers are applying advance aerodynamic design methods to develop a wing leading-edge flap system which significantly improves low-speed fuel efficiency and reduces noise generated during takeoff operation. Langley is NASA's lead center for the agency's HSR program, aimed at developing technology to help U.S. industry compete in the rapidly expanding trans-oceanic transport market. A U.S. high-speed civil transport is expected to fly in about the year 2010. As envisioned, it would fly 300 passengers across the Pacific in about four hours at Mach 2.4 (approximately 1,600 mph/1950 kph) for a modest increase over business class fares.

  5. High dimensional decision dilemmas in climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An important source of uncertainty in climate models is linked to the calibration of model parameters. Interest in systematic and automated parameter optimization procedures stems from the desire to improve the model climatology and to quantify the average sensitivity associated with potential changes in the climate system. Building upon on the smoothness of the response of an atmospheric circulation model (AGCM to changes of four adjustable parameters, Neelin et al. (2010 used a quadratic metamodel to objectively calibrate the AGCM. The metamodel accurately estimates global spatial averages of common fields of climatic interest, from precipitation, to low and high level winds, from temperature at various levels to sea level pressure and geopotential height, while providing a computationally cheap strategy to explore the influence of parameter settings. Here, guided by the metamodel, the ambiguities or dilemmas related to the decision making process in relation to model sensitivity and optimization are examined. Simulations of current climate are subject to considerable regional-scale biases. Those biases may vary substantially depending on the climate variable considered, and/or on the performance metric adopted. Common dilemmas are associated with model revisions yielding improvement in one field or regional pattern or season, but degradation in another, or improvement in the model climatology but degradation in the interannual variability representation. Challenges are posed to the modeler by the high dimensionality of the model output fields and by the large number of adjustable parameters. The use of the metamodel in the optimization strategy helps visualize trade-offs at a regional level, e.g., how mismatches between sensitivity and error spatial fields yield regional errors under minimization of global objective functions.

  6. High dimensional decision dilemmas in climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important source of uncertainty in climate models is linked to the calibration of model parameters. Interest in systematic and automated parameter optimization procedures stems from the desire to improve the model climatology and to quantify the average sensitivity associated with potential changes in the climate system. Neelin et al. (2010 used a quadratic metamodel to objectively calibrate an atmospheric circulation model (AGCM around four adjustable parameters. The metamodel accurately estimates global spatial averages of common fields of climatic interest, from precipitation, to low and high level winds, from temperature at various levels to sea level pressure and geopotential height, while providing a computationally cheap strategy to explore the influence of parameter settings. Here, guided by the metamodel, the ambiguities or dilemmas related to the decision making process in relation to model sensitivity and optimization are examined. Simulations of current climate are subject to considerable regional-scale biases. Those biases may vary substantially depending on the climate variable considered, and/or on the performance metric adopted. Common dilemmas are associated with model revisions yielding improvement in one field or regional pattern or season, but degradation in another, or improvement in the model climatology but degradation in the interannual variability representation. Challenges are posed to the modeler by the high dimensionality of the model output fields and by the large number of adjustable parameters. The use of the metamodel in the optimization strategy helps visualize trade-offs at a regional level, e.g. how mismatches between sensitivity and error spatial fields yield regional errors under minimization of global objective functions.

  7. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic......-ready" intraoperative diagnostic test (one step nucleic acid amplification-OSNA, sysmex). METHODS: Two cohorts were assembled: cohort 1, OSCC with stage and site that closely match cases suitable for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); cohort 2, HNSCC with sufficient fresh tumour tissue available for the OSNA assay (>50...

  8. In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (=89) and good resolution (~500 µm). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740-820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer.

  9. The Association between Abnormal Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Expression and Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated that the expression levels of MALAT-1 were higher in cancerous tissues than matched histologically normal tissues. And, to some extent, overexpression of MALAT-1 was inclined to lymph node metastasis. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored the association between MALAT-1 expression levels and lymph node metastasis. We searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and OVID to address the level of MALAT-1 expression in cancer cases and noncancerous controls (accessed February 2015. And 8 studies comprising 696 multiple cancer patients were included to assess this association. The odds ratio (OR and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to assess the strength of the association using Stata 12.0 version software. The results revealed there was a significant difference in the incidence of lymph node metastasis between high MALAT-1 expression group and low MALAT-1 expression group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.15–3.28, P=0.013 random-effects model. Subgroup analysis indicated that MALAT-1 high expression had an unfavorable impact on lymph node metastasis in Chinese patients (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.01–2.46. This study demonstrated that the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients detected with high MALAT-1 expression was higher than that in patients with low MALAT-1 expression in China.

  10. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND during radical prostatectomy (RP for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement.

  11. Data Accuracy Model for Distributed Clustering Algorithm based on Spatial Data Correlation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karjee, Jyotirmoy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this paper is to construct a distributed clustering algorithm based upon spatial data correlation among sensor nodes and perform data accuracy for each distributed cluster at their respective cluster head node. Design Procedure/Approach: We investigate that due to deployment of high density of sensor nodes in the sensor field, spatial data are highly correlated among sensor nodes in spatial domain. Based on high data correlation among sensor nodes, we propose a non -overlapping irregular distributed clustering algorithm with different sizes to collect most accurate or precise data at the cluster head node for each respective distributed cluster. To collect the most accurate data at the cluster head node for each distributed cluster in sensor field, we propose a Data accuracy model and compare the results with Information accuracy model. Finding: Simulation results shows that our propose Data accuracy model collects more accurate data and gives better performance than Informati...

  12. Allocating resources between network nodes for providing a network node function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a method wherein a first network node advertises available resources that a second network node may use to offload network node functions transparently to the first network node. Examples of the first network node are a client device (e.g. PC, notebook, tablet, smart phone), a

  13. A Simulation Method for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using a Cohesive Zone Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Turon, A.; Lindgaard, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    on parameter fitting of any kind. The method has been implemented as a zero-thickness eight-node interface element for Abaqus and as a spring element for a simple finite element model in MATLAB. The method has been validated in simulations of mode I, mode II, and mixed-mode crack loading for both self......A novel computational method for simulating fatigue-driven mixed-mode delamination cracks in laminated structures under cyclic loading is presented. The proposed fatigue method is based on linking a cohesive zone model for quasi-static crack growth and a Paris' law-like model described......-similar and non-self-similar crack propagation. The method produces highly accurate results compared with currently available methods and is capable of simulating general mixed-mode non-self-similar crack growth problems....

  14. 鱼群启发的三维Ad hoc网络节点随机移动优化模型%Fish swarm inspired Ad hoc networks node random mobility optimization model in 3D environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明; 陈秋丽; 陈希亮; 郑翔; 陈剑

    2014-01-01

    In order to deploy mobile Ad-Hoc wireless networks (MAWN) effectively in 3D environment and improve its detection capability, inspired by the fish swarm, a new three-dimensional semi-random node mobility model (3D_NMM) is proposed. In this paper, a new node state of exclusive motion is added in 3D smooth Gauss Semi-Markov mobility model (3D-SGM), and a new way of node state transition is also presented. The virtual boundary is built in random waypoint mobility model (RWP), and a new boundary treatment method is presented. The simulation experiments show that the 3D_NMM has superior performance in space detection rate, real-time coverage rate and the time cost of the initial detection compared with 3D-SGM. The real-time coverage rate increases by 62.2%, and the time cost for initial detection area of 95% reduces by 77%, and 3D_NMM can improve the application efficiency of mobile wireless self-organized network effectively.%为有效指导三维环境中的移动自组织无线网络(MAWN)的部署,并提高网络感知能力,受鱼群启发,构建了一种新型三维节点半随机移动模型(3D_NMM)。本文在三维高斯半马尔科夫移动模型(3D-SGM)上增加节点排斥运动状态,设计了新的节点状态转换方式;在随机路点移动模型上构建虚拟边界,提出了一种新的边界处理方法。仿真实验表明,3D_NMM较3D-SGM在空间探测率、实时覆盖率及初始探测花费上具有优势,其中实时覆盖率提高了62.2%,初始探测95%区域的时间花费降低了77%,有效提升了移动无线自组织网络的应用效能。

  15. Sarcoidal Granuloma in Cervical Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease, the most common head and neck manifestation of which is cervical lymphadenopathy. Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male who had a 2-month history of a progressively increasing mass with soreness in his right neck. The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes. The differential diagnoses of mycobacterial or fungal infections were excluded. Thoracic evaluations, including chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography, revealed no abnormal findings. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in improved clinical symptoms. No recurrence of the neck mass or other signs of systemic sarcoidosis were noted during 1.5 years of follow-up. Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.

  16. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar.

  17. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  18. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-12-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper levels of the modeling learning progression defined by Schwarz et al. (2009) are attainable by Israeli K-12 students. Nine Israeli high school students studying physics, chemistry, biology, or general science were interviewed individually, once using a context related to the science subject that they were learning and once using an unfamiliar context. All the interviewees displayed MMK superior to that of elementary and middle school students, despite the lack of formal instruction on the practice. Their MMK was independent of content area, but their ability to engage in the practice of modeling was content dependent. This study indicates that, given proper support, the upper levels of the learning progression described by Schwarz et al. (2009) may be attainable by K-12 science students. The value of explicitly focusing on MMK as a learning goal in science education is considered.

  19. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  20. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  1. A high-order electromagnetic gyrokinetic model

    CERN Document Server

    Miyato, N

    2013-01-01

    A high-order extension is presented for the electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation in which the parallel canonical momentum is taken as one of phase space coordinates. The high-order displacement vector associated with the guiding-center transformation should be considered in the long wavelength regime. This yields addtional terms in the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian which lead to modifications to the gyrokinetic Poisson and Amp\\`ere equations. In addition, the high-order piece of the guiding-center transformation for the parallel canonical momentum should be also kept in the electromagnetic model. The high-order piece contains the Ba\\~nos drift effect and further modifies the gyrokinetic Amp\\`ere equation.

  2. Maintenance Optimization of High Voltage Substation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The real system from practice is selected for optimization purpose in this paper. We describe the real scheme of a high voltage (HV substation in different work states. Model scheme of the HV substation 22 kV is demonstrated within the paper. The scheme serves as input model scheme for the maintenance optimization. The input reliability and cost parameters of all components are given: the preventive and corrective maintenance costs, the actual maintenance period (being optimized, the failure rate and mean time to repair - MTTR.

  3. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...

  4. Node.js by example

    CERN Document Server

    Tsonev, Krasimir

    2015-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer with no experience with Node.js or server-side web development, this book is for you. It will lead you through creating a fairly complex social network. You will learn how to work with a database and create real-time communication channels.

  5. Network structure exploration in networks with node attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Bu, Junzhao; Tang, Buzhou; Xiang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful way to represent complex systems and have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of network analysis is to detect structures (also called structural regularities) embedded in networks by determining group number and group partition. Most of network structure exploration models only consider network links. However, in real world networks, nodes may have attributes that are useful for network structure exploration. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) model to explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes, called Bayesian nonparametric attribute (BNPA) model. This model does not only take full advantage of both links between nodes and node attributes for group partition via shared hidden variables, but also determine group number automatically via the Bayesian nonparametric theory. Experiments conducted on a number of real and synthetic networks show that our BNPA model is able to automatically explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models.

  6. Advances in sentinel node dissection in prostate cancer from a technical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cenk; Kleinjan, Gijs H; van den Berg, Nynke S; Wit, Esther Mk; van Leeuwen, Fijs Wb; van der Poel, Henk G

    2015-10-01

    The most important feature of sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer procedure is that staging can be improved. Sentinel nodes might be found outside the extended pelvic lymph node dissection template what renders the sentinel node additive of extended pelvic lymph node dissection. At the same time, staging within the template can be further refined. We reviewed the literature regarding the sentinel node biopsy procedure for prostate cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched for all English-language publications from January 1999 to September 2014 by using the keywords as "prostate cancer" and "sentinel lymph node" plus "biopsy" "dissection" and/or "procedure." The present review discusses step-by-step sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer. Topics of discussion are: (i) preoperative sentinel node mapping (tracers and imaging); (ii) intraoperative sentinel node identification (surgical procedure and outcome); and (iii) novelties to improve sentinel node identification (pre- and intraoperative approaches). Conventional sentinel node mapping is carried out after the injection of a (99m) Tc-based tracer and subsequent preoperative imaging; for example, lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. This approach allowed the detection of sentinel nodes outside the extended lymph node dissection template in 3.6-36% of men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Hereby, an overall false negative rate of sentinel nodes was reported between 0% and 24.4%. To further refine the intraoperative sampling procedure, novel imaging methods such as fluorescence imaging have been introduced. Prospective randomized comparison studies are required to confirm the added benefit of sentinel template directed nodal dissection. A proper and obtainable end-point of such a study could be the number of removed positive nodes for carrying out nodal dissection with or without sentinel template directed dissection. Similarly, the clinical

  7. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  8. Pro-Active Prevention of Clone Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Anandkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wireless mobile sensor networks are deploying large, self-organized and adaptable sets of sensors for many applications such as military, environmental, health care, remote monitoring and other applications. Unfortunately, the simplicity and low-cost of these sensors make eases cloning of compromised nodes by attackers in the network. Due to the unattended nature of wireless sensor networks, an adversary can capture and compromise sensor nodes, make replicas of them and then mount a variety of attacks with these clones. This cloning attack is the entry point for a large span of creepy attacks. In such attack, an adversary uses the credentials of a compromised node to introduce the replicas secretly into the network. These replicas are then used to launch a variety of attacks that challenge the sensor applications. Therefore the detection of node replication or called clone attacks in a wireless sensor network is a fundamental problem. Approach: These clone node attacks are highly dangerous because they allow the attacker to compromise a few nodes to exert control over much of the network. Several clone node detection schemes have been proposed in the literature to defend against such attacks in static sensor networks. A few distributed solutions to address this fundamental problem have been recently proposed. However, these solutions are not satisfactory in Pro-active context. First, they are energy and memory demanding: A serious drawback for any protocol to be used in the WSN-resource-constrained environment. Further, they are vulnerable to the specific adversary models introduced in this study. To overcome the above problems we propose the improved version of Randomized, Efficient and Distributed protocol named SRED-Secure, Randomized and Efficient and Distributed protocol. We show that our emergent algorithms represent a promising new approach to sensor network security by improving its trust aspects with the witness node

  9. An Efficient Algorithm for Detection of Selfish Packet Dropping Nodes in Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    In a wireless mesh network (WMN), high speed routers equipped with advanced antennas, communicate with each other in a multi-hop fashion over wireless channels and form a broadband backhaul. WMNs provide reliable connectivity and fault-tolerance, as each node is connected to several other nodes. If a node fails due to hardware problems, its neighbors can find another route. Extra capacity can be achieved by introducing additional nodes in the network. However, the throughput of a WMN may be severely degraded due to presence of some selfish routers that avoid forwarding packets for other nodes even as they send their own traffic through the network. This paper presents an algorithm for detection of selfish nodes in a WMN that uses statistical theory of inference for reliable clustering of the nodes. Simulation results show that the algorithm has a high detection rate and a low rate of false positives.

  10. Key nodes of a microRNA network associated with the integrated mesenchymal subtype of high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Da Yang; Wei Zhang; Fei Guo; Marina Bagnoli; Feng-Xia Xue; Bao-Cun Sun; Ilya Shmulevich; Delia Mezzanzanica; Ke-Xin Chen; Anil K. Sood

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of cancer mortality. One of the initiating events of cancer metastasis of epithelial tumors is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), during which cells dedifferentiate from a relatively rigid cell structure/morphology to a flexible and changeable structure/morphology often associated with mesenchymal cells. The presence of EMT in human epithelial tumors is reflected by the increased expression of genes and levels of proteins that are preferentialy present in mesenchymal cels. The combined presence of these genes forms the basis of mesenchymal gene signatures, which are the foundation for classifying a mesenchymal subtype of tumors. Indeed, tumor classification schemes that use clustering analysis of large genomic characterizations, like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), have defined mesenchymal subtype in a number of cancer types, such as high-grade serous ovarian cancer and glioblastoma. However, recent analyses have shown that gene expression-based classifications of mesenchymal subtypes often do not associate with poor survival. This“paradox” can be ameliorated using integrated analysis that combines multiple data types. We recently found that integrating mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) data revealed an integrated mesenchymal subtype that is consistently associated with poor survival in multiple cohorts of patients with serous ovarian cancer. This network consists of 8 major miRNAs and 214 mRNAs. Among the 8 miRNAs, 4 are known to be regulators of EMT. This review provides a summary of these 8 miRNAs, which were associated with the integrated mesenchymal subtype of serous ovarian cancer.

  11. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  12. Mobile Anchor Assisted Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongyang; Huang, Pei; Poor, H Vincent; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a cooperative localization algorithm is proposed that considers the existence of obstacles in mobilityassisted wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this scheme, a mobile anchor (MA) node cooperates with static sensor nodes and moves actively to refine location performance. The localization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be improved further by changing the transmission range of mobile anchor node. The algorithm takes advantage of cooperation betweenMAs and static sensors while, at the same time, taking into account the relay node availability to make the best use of beacon signals. For achieving high localization accuracy and coverage, a novel convex position estimation algorithm is proposed, which can effectively solve the localization problem when infeasible points occur because of the effects of radio irregularity and obstacles. This method is the only range-free based convex method to solve the localization problem when the feasible set of localization inequalities is empty. Simulatio...

  13. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna M; Fascelli, Michele; Law, Yan Mee; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-05-01

    Nodal staging is important in prostate cancer treatment. While surgical lymph node dissection is the classic method of determining whether lymph nodes harbor malignancy, this is a very invasive technique. Current noninvasive approaches to identifying malignant lymph nodes are limited. Conventional imaging methods rely on size and morphology of lymph nodes and have notoriously low sensitivity for detecting malignant nodes. New imaging techniques such as targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) with iron oxide particles are promising for nodal staging of prostate cancer. In this review, the strengths and limitations of imaging techniques for lymph node staging of prostate cancer are discussed.

  14. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in bladder cancer: Systematic review and technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Liss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sentinel lymph node (SLN is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND; its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100. The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56 with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity.

  16. Probabilistic Analysis on Connectivity for Sensor Grids with Unreliable Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaocai; LIN Chuang; CHEN Jianer

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly investigates the connectivity of the unreliable sensor grid network. We consider an unreliable sensor grid network with mn nodes placed in a certain planar area A, and we assume that each node has independent failure probability p and has the same transmission range R. This paper presents a new method for calculating the connectivity probability of the network, which uses thorough mathematical methods to derive the relationship among the network connectivity probability, the probability that a node is "failed"(not active), the numbers of node, and the node's transmission range in unreliable sensor networks. Our approach is more useful and efficient for given problem and conditions. Such as the numerical calculating results indicate that, for a 100×100 size sensor network, if node failure probability is bounded 0.5%, even if the transmission range is small (such as R=10), we can still maintain very high connectivity probability (reach 95.8%). On the other hand, the simulation results show that building high connectivity probability is entirely possible on unreliable sensor grid networks.

  17. Decellularized Lymph Nodes as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineered Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzone, Daniel A.; Albano, Nicholas J.; Aschen, Seth Z.; Ghanta, Swapna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The lymphatic system is commonly injured during cancer treatment. However, despite the morbidity of these injuries, there are currently no options for replacing damaged lymphatics. The purpose of this study was to optimize methods for decellularization of murine lymph nodes (LN) and to determine if these scaffolds can be used to tissue engineer lymph node-like structures. Methods and Results: LNs were harvested from adult mice and subjected to various decellularization protocols. The degree of decellularization and removal of nuclear material was analyzed histologically and quantitatively using DNA isolation. In addition, we analyzed histological architecture by staining for matrix proteins. After the optimal method of decellularization was identified, decellularized constructs were implanted in the renal capsule of syngeneic or allogeneic recipient mice and analyzed for antigenicity. Finally, to determine if decellularized constructs could deliver lymphocytes to recipient animals, the matrices were repopulated with splenocytes, implanted in submuscular pockets, and harvested 14 days later. Decellularization was best accomplished with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in negligible residual cellular material but maintenance of LN architecture. Implantation of decellularized LNs into syngeneic or allogeneic mice did not elicit a significant antigenic response. In addition, repopulation of decellularized LNs with splenocytes resulted in successful in vivo cellular delivery. Conclusions: We show, for the first time, that LNs can be successfully decellularized and that these matrices have preserved extracellular matrix architecture and the potential to deliver leukocytes in vivo. Future studies are needed to determine if tissue engineered lymph nodes maintain immunologic function. PMID:25144673

  18. Underwater Multi-Node Radio Communication Solutions for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawar, Zaid Fares Yousef; Haddad, Sanad Atef Sari; Mestariheh, Feras R. M.; Jonsson, Lars Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of the presumably life harboring subsurface ocean of Europa will provide scientists with extensive new knowledge in the search for extraterrestrial life. A highly miniaturized payload is required to penetrate a narrow passage through the thick ice crust covering Europa's surface. Underwater wireless communications may be the most viable means of communication for such exploratory missions, accounting for size and weight restrictions. This presents a challenge to achieve satisfactory data rates and a range that permits autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to communicate within their region of operation, as well as with a surface lander or orbiter. This work presents thorough prototype experimentation on an underwater communication system established between several nodes using RF signals. During an eight-week internship experience at NASA's Ames Research Center in September-October 2014, our team developed a Europa exploration mission concept, built representative hardware, and carried out tests to assess the feasibility of key aspects of the concept. Experiments demonstrating the viability of RF communication underwater comprised inspecting the effect of depth and horizontal distance on signal strength as well as the optimum positioning of antennas. To test the system's performance, two submersibles were designed and built. A commercially available remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was also modified and used as a main communication node. The two submersibles were wirelessly connected and accommodated sensors capable of characterizing water properties and equipped with 2.4 GHz, 1 mW transceivers to communicate the measured data. The communication procedure is that the main communication node requests the collected data from the two submersibles when in range and receives it instantly through RF. This work models what may take place during an actual mission to Europa. The developed mission concept involved a hybrid communication system consisting of

  19. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  20. Optical response of a line node semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the AC optical response of a line node semimetal with emphasis on characteristic behaviours which can be used to distinguish them from point node materials such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals. The interband optical background at zero temperature displays a flat region at small photon energies ( Ω ) analogue to the universal background seen in graphene. However, in contrast to graphene, the height of the constant region is not universal but depends inversely on the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers and directly on the radius (b) in momentum space of the nodal circle. The parameter b is a defining energy scale and determines the range of photon energy over which the flat response persists. At high energies Ω >2b , the interband response becomes linear in Ω in agreement with the case for 3D-Dirac fermions with point node. The optical spectral weight contained in the interband or Drude conductivity shows the same two distinct regimes. At low temperature (T) (chemical potential (μ)), it rises linearly with T≤ft(μ \\right) and is proportional to b. At high temperature, T≤ft(μ \\right) , a {{T}2}≤ft({μ2}\\right) law is obtained, which is independent of b. At T  =  0, the Lorentz number takes on the conventional value {{L}o}={π2}/3{{e}2} for all values of μ. It increases with increasing temperature to reach a first plateau of 2.4L o provided T>μ but μ \\ll b . At high temperature, T  >  b, a second plateau of height 4.2L o emerges. The first plateau is characteristic of 2D-Dirac while the second corresponds to 3D-Dirac. The thermopower as a function of temperature also shows an evolution from a 2D to 3D behaviour.

  1. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  2. High-fidelity flash lidar model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-06-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Aodv&DSR with Varying Pause Time & Node Density Over TCP&CBR Connections in Vanet

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc network is formed by cars which are called nodes; allow them to communicate with one another without using any fixed road side unit. It has some unique characteristics which make it different from other ad hoc network as well as difficult to define any exact mobility model and routing protocols because of their high mobility and changing mobility pattern. Hence performance of routing protocols can vary with the various parameters such as speed, pause time, node density and traffic scenarios. In this research paper, the performance of two on-demand routing protocols AODV & DSR has been analyzed by means of packet delivery ratio, loss packet ratio & average end-to-end delay with varying pause time and node density under TCP & CBR connection.

  4. Optimal Node Grouping for Water Distribution System Demand Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwi Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time state estimation is defined as the process of calculating the state variable of interest in real time not being directly measured. In a water distribution system (WDS, nodal demands are often considered as the state variable (i.e., unknown variable and can be estimated using nodal pressures and pipe flow rates measured at sensors installed throughout the system. Nodes are often grouped for aggregation to decrease the number of unknowns (demands in the WDS demand estimation problem. This study proposes an optimal node grouping model to maximize the real-time WDS demand estimation accuracy. This Kalman filter-based demand estimation method is linked with a genetic algorithm for node group optimization. The modified Austin network demand is estimated to demonstrate the proposed model. True demands and field measurements are synthetically generated using a hydraulic model of the study network. Accordingly, the optimal node groups identified by the proposed model reduce the total root-mean-square error of the estimated node group demand by 24% compared to that determined by engineering knowledge. Based on the results, more pipe flow sensors should be installed to measure small flows and to further enhance the demand estimation accuracy.

  5. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic...... mg). CK19 assays included qRT-PCR, RNA in situ hybridisation (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as OSNA. RESULTS: CK19 mRNA expression was detected with variable sensitivity, depending on method, in 60-80% of primary OSCC tumours, while protein expression was observed in only 50......% of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...

  6. Influence of racemic higenamine on the sinus node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengxia; Kong, Lingting; Wang, Shujuan

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of racemic higenamine in the treatment of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). A total of 40 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal sinus node and damaged sinus node (SND) groups, and each group was randomly divided into treatment and control groups (n=10). The SND model was established by formaldehyde wet dressing of the sinus node area. The treatment groups were administered an intravenous infusion of 0.04 mg/kg racemic higenamine via the marginal ear vein within 5 min. The electrophysiological indicators of sinoatrial function, including the sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), total sinoatrial conduction time (TSACT) and sinus cycle length (SCL), were determined before and 20 min after medication and the changes in these indicators were evaluated. The two control groups were administered 10 ml physiological saline. Following the administration of racemic higenamine, the SNRT, CSNRT, TSACT and SCL in the normal sinus node and SND groups were significantly shortened compared with those in the control groups (Pnode group (Pnode was statistically significant (Pnode self-discipline and improvement of sinoatrial and atrioventricular conduction function.

  7. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling of high-speed electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kudrya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The theme of this publication is the modeling of electronic tools that operate in the frequency range from zero to terahertz and higher. Application of new concepts and technologies, including biotechnology and nanotechnology in the development of monolithic integrated circuits led to a backlog of technologies of projecting from technologies and experimental research and manufacturing. The aim of this work is to develop algorithms for analysis, reflecting not only topological as well as morphological properties of the object, that is designing within the framework of accounting EMI communicational  transmission of energy and information in the volume of the monolithic integrated circuit. Basic steps for constructing the algorithm. The object of design is presented in the form of basic elements, which can be combined with a communication structure. The object of design is presented in the form of basic elements, which can be combined with a communication structure. There are three types of matrix equations: component; component - communication structure; communication structure. Systems of equations are reduced to standardized descriptors of mathematical model by which to understand current of poles and voltage arcs whole set of basic elements. In this way obtained mathematical model that can be implemented in CAD nano and micro technology electronics. Conclusions. Mathematical models of analysis of high-speed digital and analog electronic means. The algorithm allows morphological optimization is to minimize the adverse effects outside the system of electromagnetic interaction between the components and communicator.

  9. A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: shin.kyunghwan@gmail.com [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

  10. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  11. Interpectoral Nodes Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; YANG Jia-xiang; LIU Xiao-yu; ZHU Ning-sheng; JIANG Ge-li

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study interpectoral nodes metastasis rate in breast cancer and its clinical significance.Methods:171 female patients undergone surgery for breast cancer were reviewed,of whom the interpectoral nodes were SUbjected to pathological examination.Results:Interpectoral nodes were identified in 25.7% of the 171 female patients,and the interpectoral nodes metastasis rate was 9.9%.The patients with interpectoral nodes metastasis had larger tumor size,later TNM classification,higher axillary apical nodes metastasis rate and lower ER positive rate.Conclusion:Dissection of interpectoral nodes should be regard as routine clinical practice in modified radical mastectomy,and interpectoral nodes should be snbjected to pathological examination.

  12. Modelling highly variable environmental factors to assess potential microbial respiration in complex floodplain landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritthart, Michael; Welti, Nina; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Pinay, Gilles; Hein, Thomas; Habersack, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The hydrological exchange conditions strongly determine the biogeochemical dynamics in river systems. More specifically, the connectivity of surface waters between main channels and floodplains is directly controlling the delivery of organic matter and nutrients into the floodplains, where biogeochemical processes recycle them with high rates of activity. Hence, an in-depth understanding of the connectivity patterns between main channel and floodplains is important for the modelling of potential gas emissions in floodplain landscapes. A modelling framework that combines steady-state hydrodynamic simulations with long-term discharge hydrographs was developed to calculate water depths as well as statistical probabilities and event durations for every node of a computation mesh being connected to the main river. The modelling framework was applied to two study sites in the floodplains of the Austrian Danube River, East of Vienna. Validation of modelled flood events showed good agreement with gauge readings. Together with measured sediment properties, results of the validated connectivity model were used as basis for a predictive model yielding patterns of potential microbial respiration based on the best fit between characteristics of a number of sampling sites and the corresponding modelled parameters. Hot spots of potential microbial respiration were found in areas of lower connectivity if connected during higher discharges and areas of high water depths. PMID:27667961

  13. Gibberellins and DELLAs: central nodes in growth regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Hannes; De Bodt, Stefanie; Inzé, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are growth-promoting phytohormones that were crucial in breeding improved semi-dwarf varieties during the green revolution. However, the molecular basis for GA-induced growth stimulation is poorly understood. In this review, we use light-regulated hypocotyl elongation as a case study, combined with a meta-analysis of available transcriptome data, to discuss the role of GAs as central nodes in networks connecting environmental inputs to growth. These networks are highly tissue-specific, with dynamic and rapid regulation that mostly occurs at the protein level, directly affecting the activity and transcription of effectors. New systems biology approaches addressing the role of GAs in growth should take these properties into account, combining tissue-specific interactomics, transcriptomics and modeling, to provide essential knowledge to fuel a second green revolution.

  14. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lloret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field.

  15. Symbolic modeling of high energy beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Autin, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    A classical problem of computational physics consists of finding the minimum of a chi /sup 2/ like function of many variables. Powerful optimization algorithms have been developed but do not guarantee convergence towards an absolute minimum. Analytical methods can improve the insight into a physical problem but calculations quickly exceed the power of a human brain. There comes the interest of optical design of high energy particle accelerators. The physics background is sketched and emphasis is put on the methodology. In practice, algebraic models may not be precise enough but they usually provide excellent initial conditions for a final numerical optimization. (4 refs).

  16. Insights on the Subduction Process from High-Resolution 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, Margarete

    2015-04-01

    This is an exciting time in geodynamics as the use of unprecedented high-resolution 3D modeling allows us to ask new questions that were previously unattainable. It is now relatively straightforward to run 3D numerical simulations, with local mesh refinement to ~1 km, input data mapped onto over 100 million finite element nodes, and using tens of thousands of compute hours per model, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2012]. With the additional computational resources, comes a new approach to modeling the tectonic problem. For example, mapping tectonic plates onto a high-resolution 3D geodynamic model grid forces the modeler to ask questions much as a field geologist would ask when constructing a geologic map. In this process of moving from textbook models of subduction to using models based on observation, the modeler is forced to explain the more complicated geometries and features in the Earth, allowing for the new computational approaches to be powerful tools for scientific discovery. Subduction modeling of this kind has expanded the classical view of two-dimensional corner flow, e.g. McKenzie [1969], to a slab driven flow that can be quite complex with predictions for upper mantle flow rates that can be over ten times surface plate motions, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2010] and others. In this talk, I will investigate the role of the third-dimension and non-linearity in plate boundary deformation. I will present high-resolution 3D numerical models that examine the effect of observationally based slab geometry, multiple subducting plates, non-linear rheology, and variations in overriding plate thickness on the subduction related deformation of plate margins. Specific examples include the Alaska and Central America subduction systems. In addition, I will highlight future directions in subduction modeling, and how these can be advanced by the increased incorporation of observational data, high-performance computing, focused numerical algorithms, and 3D interactive data visualization.

  17. Lymph node detection in IASLC-defined zones on PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihua; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Lymph node detection is challenging due to the low contrast between lymph nodes as well as surrounding soft tissues and the variation in nodal size and shape. In this paper, we propose several novel ideas which are combined into a system to operate on positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) images to detect abnormal thoracic nodes. First, our previous Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) approach is modified where lymph node zones predominantly following International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) specifications are modeled as objects arranged in a hierarchy along with key anatomic anchor objects. This fuzzy anatomy model built from diagnostic CT images is then deployed on PET/CT images for automatically recognizing the zones. A novel globular filter (g-filter) to detect blob-like objects over a specified range of sizes is designed to detect the most likely locations and sizes of diseased nodes. Abnormal nodes within each automatically localized zone are subsequently detected via combined use of different items of information at various scales: lymph node zone model poses found at recognition indicating the geographic layout at the global level of node clusters, g-filter response which hones in on and carefully selects node-like globular objects at the node level, and CT and PET gray value but within only the most plausible nodal regions for node presence at the voxel level. The models are built from 25 diagnostic CT scans and refined for an object hierarchy based on a separate set of 20 diagnostic CT scans. Node detection is tested on an additional set of 20 PET/CT scans. Our preliminary results indicate node detection sensitivity and specificity at around 90% and 85%, respectively.

  18. Learning modular structures from network data and node variables

    CERN Document Server

    Azizi, Elham; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2014-01-01

    A standard technique for understanding underlying dependency structures among a set of variables posits a shared conditional probability distribution for the variables measured on individuals within a group. This approach is often referred to as module networks, where individuals are represented by nodes in a network, groups are termed modules, and the focus is on estimating the network structure among modules. However, estimation solely from node-specific variables can lead to spurious dependencies, and unverifiable structural assumptions are often used for regularization. Here, we propose an extended model that leverages direct observations about the network in addition to node-specific variables. By integrating complementary data types, we avoid the need for structural assumptions. We illustrate theoretical and practical significance of the model and develop a reversible-jump MCMC learning procedure for learning modules and model parameters. We demonstrate the method accuracy in predicting modular structur...

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy indications and controversies in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrek, Rebecca; Kruper, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer. Its use in breast cancer has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials and validated in multiple prospective studies. Additionally, it has been verified that SLNB has decreased morbidity when compared to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The technique used to perform sentinel lymph node mapping was also evaluated in multiple studies and the accuracy rate increases when radiocolloid and blue dye are used in combination. As SLNB became more accepted, contraindications were delineated and are still debated. Patients who have clinically positive lymph nodes or core biopsy-proven positive lymph nodes should not have SLNB, but should have an ALND as their staging procedure. The safety of SLNB in pregnant patients is not fully established. However, patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer and patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy are considered candidates for SLNB. However, the details of which specific neoadjuvant patients should have SLNB are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) benefit from SLNB when mastectomy is planned and when there is a high clinical suspicion of invasion. With the advent of SLNB, pathologic review of breast cancer lymph nodes has evolved. The significance of occult metastasis in SLNB patients is currently being debated. Additionally, the most controversial subject with regards to SLNB is determining which patients with positive SLNs benefit from further axillary dissection.

  20. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  1. In vivo photoacoustic (PA) mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), is routinely used in clinic for staging breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a photoacoustic contrast agent to map non-invasively the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in a rat model in vivo. We were able to identify the SLN non-invasively with high contrast to noise ratio (~90) and high resolution (~500 μm). Due to the broad photoacoustic spectrum of these nanotubes in the near infrared wavelength window we could easily choose a suitable light wavelength to maximize the imaging depth. Our results suggest that this technology could be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs non-invasively in vivo. In the future, these contrast agents could be functionalized to do molecular photoacoustic imaging.

  2. DBCG-IMN: A Population-Based Cohort Study on the Effect of Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Early Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Lise Bech Jellesmark; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Danø, Hella;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: It is unknown whether irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes improves survival in patients with early-stage breast cancer. A possible survival benefit might be offset by radiation-induced heart disease. We assessed the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) in patients...... pronounced in patients at high risk of internal mammary node metastasis. Equal numbers in each group died of ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: In this naturally allocated, population-based cohort study, IMNI increased overall survival in patients with early-stage node-positive breast cancer....... with early-stage node-positive breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this nationwide, prospective population-based cohort study, we included patients who underwent operation for unilateral early-stage node-positive breast cancer. Patients with right-sided disease were allocated to IMNI, whereas patients...

  3. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  4. High BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio predicts favorable prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in patients with negative lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakis, Aris I; Kontos, Christos K; Manolopoulos, Leonidas D; Sismanis, Aristides; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Scorilas, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), a common type of head and neck cancer, is associated with high rates of metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, accurate prognostic stratification of LSCC patients based on molecular prognostic tumor biomarkers would definitely lead to a better clinical management of this malignancy. The aim of this study was the investigation of the potential combinatorial prognostic value of BCL2 and BAX mRNA expression in LSCC. Total RNA was isolated from 105 cancerous laryngeal tissue specimens obtained from patients having undergone surgical treatment for primary LSCC. After cDNA preparation, a low-cost, in-house developed, sensitive and accurate real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology was applied for the quantification of BCL2 and BAX mRNA levels. Then, we carried out a biostatistical analysis to assess the prognostic value of the BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression ratio. High BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression constitutes a favorable prognosticator in LSCC, predicting significantly longer disease-free survival (P=0.011) and overall survival (P=0.014) of patients. More importantly, the significant prognostic value of the BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression appeared to be independent of the histological grade and size of the malignant laryngeal tumor as well as TNM stage, as revealed by the multivariate bootstrap Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated also that the BAX/BCL2 ratio can stratify node-negative (N0) LSCC patients into two subgroups with significantly different DFS and OS (P=0.021 and P=0.009, respectively). The BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio is a putative molecular tissue biomarker in CLL and hence deserves further validation in larger cohorts of LSCC patients. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High accuracy in silico sulfotransferase models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Falany, Charles N; Leyh, Thomas S

    2013-11-29

    Predicting enzymatic behavior in silico is an integral part of our efforts to understand biology. Hundreds of millions of compounds lie in targeted in silico libraries waiting for their metabolic potential to be discovered. In silico "enzymes" capable of accurately determining whether compounds can inhibit or react is often the missing piece in this endeavor. This problem has now been solved for the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). SULTs regulate the bioactivities of thousands of compounds--endogenous metabolites, drugs and other xenobiotics--by transferring the sulfuryl moiety (SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to the hydroxyls and primary amines of these acceptors. SULT1A1 and 2A1 catalyze the majority of sulfation that occurs during human Phase II metabolism. Here, recent insights into the structure and dynamics of SULT binding and reactivity are incorporated into in silico models of 1A1 and 2A1 that are used to identify substrates and inhibitors in a structurally diverse set of 1,455 high value compounds: the FDA-approved small molecule drugs. The SULT1A1 models predict 76 substrates. Of these, 53 were known substrates. Of the remaining 23, 21 were tested, and all were sulfated. The SULT2A1 models predict 22 substrates, 14 of which are known substrates. Of the remaining 8, 4 were tested, and all are substrates. The models proved to be 100% accurate in identifying substrates and made no false predictions at Kd thresholds of 100 μM. In total, 23 "new" drug substrates were identified, and new linkages to drug inhibitors are predicted. It now appears to be possible to accurately predict Phase II sulfonation in silico.

  6. Characteristics of cast and welded aluminium nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, J.; Polanco, M.; Syvertsen, F.; Sund, H. [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway). Materials Technology

    2000-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that sand cast aluminium nodes can be produced with properties that gives competitive energy absorption capacity compared with welded aluminium nodes. Sand cast nodes could be mass-produced to a low cost and with properties that should be competitive to the properties of fusion welded nodes. This may open for simpler and more cost-effective joint alternatives when production of aluminium space-frames and subassemblies are in focus. Cast nodes joined to extruded members by adhesive bonding could be one example. (orig.)

  7. A tattoo pigmented node and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, A; Kanbour-Shakir, A; Bas, O; Bonaventura, M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the axillary SLNB has replaced routine ALND for clinical staging in early breast cancer. Studies describe a potential pitfall in the identification of a true sentinel node during surgery due to lymph node pigmentation secondary to migration of tattoo dye. These pigmented “pseudo-sentinel” nodes, if located superficially in the axilla, may mimic the blue sentinel node on visual inspection, therefore missing the true sentinel node and potentially understaging the patient. Here, we present a case report of a breast cancer patient with a tattoo and discuss the importance of tattoo pigment in the LN (Fig. 1, Ref. 8).

  8. Key signalling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in experimental models of breast cancer progression and in mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jacqueline; Bergin, Orla; Bianchi, Alessandro; McNally, Sara; Martin, Finian

    2009-01-01

    Seven classes of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signalling cascades exist, four of which are implicated in breast disease and function in mammary epithelial cells. These are the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, the ERK5 pathway, the p38 pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In some forms of human breast cancer and in many experimental models of breast cancer progression, signalling through the ERK1/2 pathway, in particular, has been implicated as being important. We review the influence of ERK1/2 activity on the organised three-dimensional association of mammary epithelial cells, and in models of breast cancer cell invasion. We assess the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor family signalling through ERK1/2 in models of breast cancer progression and the influence of ERK1/2 on its substrate, the oestrogen receptor, in this context. In parallel, we consider the importance of these MAPK-centred signalling cascades during the cycle of mammary gland development. Although less extensively studied, we highlight the instances of signalling through the p38, JNK and ERK5 pathways involved in breast cancer progression and mammary gland development.

  9. COTAR: An Accurate, Cost-Effective Cooperative Wireless Localization Strategy for Mobile Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Xingkai

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers N mobile nodes that move together in the vicinity of each other, whose initial poses as well as subsequent movements must be accurately tracked in real time with the assist of M(>=3) reference nodes. By engaging the neighboring mobile nodes in a simple but effective cooperation, and by exploiting both the time-of-arrival (TOA) information (between mobile nodes and reference nodes) and the received-signal-strength (RSS) information (between mobile nodes), an effective new localization strategy, termed cooperative TOA and RSS (COTAR), is developed. An optimal maximum likelihood detector is first formulated, followed by the derivation of a low-complexity iterative approach that can practically achieve the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Instead of using simplified channel models as in many previous studies, a sophisticated and realistic channel model is used, which can effectively account for the critical fact that the direct path is not necessarily the strongest path. Extensive simulations are cond...

  10. Analysis of distribution uniformity of nodes in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenjiang

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have several special characteristics which make against the network coverage, such as shortage of energy, difficulty with energy supply and so on. In order to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, it is necessary to balance the whole network load. As the energy consumption is related to the situation of nodes, the distribution uniformity must be considered. In this paper, a new model is proposed to evaluate the nodes distribution uniformity by considering some parameters which include compression discrepancy, sparseness discrepancy, self discrepancy, maximum cavity radius and minimum cavity radius. The simulation results show that the presented model could be helpful for measuring the distribution uniformity of nodes scattered randomly in wireless sensor networks.

  11. Algorithm of simulation time synchronization over large-scale nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO QinPing; ZHOU Zhong; Lü Fang

    2008-01-01

    In distributed simulation, there is no uniform physical clock. And delay cannot be estimated because of jitter. So simulation time synchronization is essential for the event consistency among nodes. This paper investigates time synchronization algorithms over large-scale distributed nodes, analyzes LBTS (lower bound time stamp) computation model described in IEEE HLA standard, and then presents a grouped LBTS model. In fact, there is a default premise for existing algorithms that control packets must be delivered via reliable transportation. Although, a theorem of time synchronization message's reliability is proposed, which proves that only those control messages that constrain time advance need reliability. It breaks out the default premise for reliability. Then multicast is introduced into the transmission of control messages, and algorithm MCTS (multi-node coordination time synchronization) is proposed based on multicast. MCTS not only promotes the time advance efficiency, but also reduces the occupied network bandwidth. Experiment results demonstrate that the algorithm is better than others in both time advance speed and occupied network bandwidth. Its time advance speed is about 50 times per second when there are 1000 nodes, approximately equal to that of similar systems when there are 100 nodes.

  12. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  13. Factors related to lymph node metastasis and surgical strategy used to treat early gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yi Kim; Jae Kyoon Joo; Seong Yeob Ryu; Young Jin Kim; Shin Kon Kim

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The prognosis of early gastric carcinoma (EGC) is generally excellent after surgery. The presence or absence of lymph node metastasis in EGC is an important prognostic factor. The survival and recurrence rates of node-negative EGC are much better than those of node-positive EGC. This study examined the factors related to lymph node metastasis in EGC to determine the appropriate treatment for EGC.METHODS: We investigated 748 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 1985 and December 1999 at the Division of Gastroenterologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chonnam National University Hospital. Several clinicopathologic factors were investigated to analyze their relationship to lymph node metastasis: age, sex, tumor location, tumor size, gross type, histologic type, depth of invasion, extent of lymph node dissection, type of operation,and DNA ploidy.RESULTS: Lymph node metastases were found in 75 patients (10.0%). Univariate analysis showed that male sex, tumor size larger than 2.0 cm, submucosal invasion of tumor, histologic differentiation, and DNA ploidy pattern were risk factors for regional lymph node metastasis in EGC patients. However, a multivariate analysis showed that three risk factors were associated with lymph node metastasis:large tumor size, undifferentiated histologic type and submucosal invasion. No statistical relationship was found for age, sex, tumor location, gross type, or DNA ploidy in multivariate analysis. The 5-year survival rate was 94.2% for those without lymph node metastasis and 87.3% for those with lymph node metastasis, and the difference was significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: In patients with EGC, the survival rate of patients with positive lymph nodes is significantly worse than that of patients with no lymph node metastasis. Therefore,a standard D2 lymphadenectomy should be performed in patients at high risk of lymph node metastasis: large tumor size, undifferentiated histologic type and submucosal invasion.

  14. Yersinia pestis YopJ suppresses tumor necrosis factor alpha induction and contributes to apoptosis of immune cells in the lymph node but is not required for virulence in a rat model of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Nadine; Sebbane, Florent; Long, Daniel; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2006-09-01

    The virulence of the pathogenic Yersinia species depends on a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system that transfers six Yop effector proteins into host cells. One of these proteins, YopJ, has been shown to disrupt host cell signaling pathways involved in proinflammatory cytokine production and to induce macrophage apoptosis in vitro. YopJ-dependent apoptosis in mesenteric lymph nodes has also been demonstrated in a mouse model of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. These results suggest that YopJ attenuates the host innate and adaptive immune response during infection, but the role of YopJ during bubonic plague has not been completely established. We evaluated the role of Yersinia pestis YopJ in a rat model of bubonic plague following intradermal infection with a fully virulent Y. pestis strain and an isogenic yopJ mutant. Deletion of yopJ resulted in a twofold decrease in the number of apoptotic immune cells in the bubo and a threefold increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha levels but did not result in decreased virulence, systemic spread, or colonization levels in the spleen and blood. Our results indicate that YopJ is not essential for bubonic plague pathogenesis, even after peripheral inoculation of low doses of Y. pestis. Instead, the effects of YopJ appear to overlap and augment the immunomodulatory effects of other Y. pestis virulence factors.

  15. ZigBee同频攻击检测抑制模型研究%Co-channel Attack Detection and Suppression Model for ZigBee Network Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对ZigBee通信中易遭受同频攻击导致数据阻塞和失真问题,该文提出一种同频攻击检测模型。该模型利用信号频谱的高斯分布规律和同频攻击对变换域幅值的影响进行同频攻击检测。在此基础上,通过嵌入空闲频带信道跳变机制和基于可变退避周期及接入概率的自适应退避算法,给出了同频攻击检测抑制方案。实验结果表明,该文模型和方案可以有效抵御同频攻击。%Co-channel attack may cause data blocking and distortion in ZigBee networks. To resolve the issues, a model to detect co-channel attack is proposed. According to the Gauss distributed characteristics of the signal spectrum and the influence of co-channel attack on transform-domain amplitude, the proposed model can perceive whether the co-channel attack is existent in ZigBee network. On this basis, a scheme to detect and restrain co-channel attack is provided by embedding the free band channel-hop mechanism and self-adaption algorithm based on variable backoff cycle and access probability. Finally, experimental results indicate that the proposed model and scheme can inhibit the co-channel attack efficiently.

  16. Axion Models with High Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the cosmological aspects of axion models. In the high-scale inflation scenario, the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is likely to be restored during/after inflation. If the curvature of the PQ scalar potential at the origin is smaller than its vacuum expectation value; for instance in a class of SUSY axion models, thermal inflation happens before the radial component of the PQ scalar (saxion) relaxes into the global minimum of the potential and the decay of saxion coherent oscillation would produce too much axion dark radiation. In this paper, we study how to avoid the overproduction of axion dark radiation with some concrete examples. We show that, by taking account of the finite-temperature dissipation effect appropriately, the overproduction constraint can be relaxed since the PQ scalar can take part in the thermal plasma again even after the PQ phase transition. We also show that it can be further relaxed owing to the late time decay of another heavy CP-odd scalar, if it is present.

  17. Epidemic centrality and the underestimated epidemic impact on network peripheral nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sikic, Mile; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2011-01-01

    Studies of disease spreading on complex networks have provided a deep insight into the conditions of onset, dynamics and prevention of epidemics in human populations and malicious software propagation in computer networks. Identifying nodes which, when initially infected, infect the largest part of the network and ranking them according to their epidemic impact is a priority for public health policies. In simulations of the disease spreading in SIR model on studied empirical complex networks, it is shown that the ranking depends on the dynamical regime of the disease spreading. A possible mechanism leading to this dynamical dependence is illustrated in an analytically tractable example. A measure called epidemic centrality, averaging the epidemic impact over all possible disease spreading regimes, is introduced as a basis of epidemic ranking. Contrary to standard notion, the epidemic centrality of nodes with high degree, k-cores value or betweenness, which are structurally central, is comparable to epidemic c...

  18. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on steroidogenesis. The steroidogenic pathway is a series of hydroxylation and dehydrogenation steps carried out by CYP450 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, yet the only enzyme in the pathway for which a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay has been developed is aromatase (CYP19A1), responsible for the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Recently, the ToxCast HTS program adapted the OECD validated H295R steroidogenesis assay using human adrenocortical carcinoma cells into a high-throughput model to quantitatively assess the concentration-dependent (0.003-100 µM) effects of chemicals on 10 steroid hormones including progestagens, androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids. These results, in combination with two CYP19A1 inhibition assays, comprise a large dataset amenable to clustering approaches supporting the identification and characterization of putative mechanisms of action (pMOA) for steroidogenesis disruption. In total, 514 chemicals were tested in all CYP19A1 and steroidogenesis assays. 216 chemicals were identified as CYP19A1 inhibitors in at least one CYP19A1 assay. 208 of these chemicals also altered hormone levels in the H295R assay, suggesting 96% sensitivity in the

  19. Fractional Dynamics of Network Growth Constrained by Aging Node Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Zare Kamali, Milad; Shirazi, Amirhossein; Khalighi, Moein; Jafari, Gholamreza; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In many social complex systems, in which agents are linked by non-linear interactions, the history of events strongly influences the whole network dynamics. However, a class of “commonly accepted beliefs” seems rarely studied. In this paper, we examine how the growth process of a (social) network is influenced by past circumstances. In order to tackle this cause, we simply modify the well known preferential attachment mechanism by imposing a time dependent kernel function in the network evolution equation. This approach leads to a fractional order Barabási-Albert (BA) differential equation, generalizing the BA model. Our results show that, with passing time, an aging process is observed for the network dynamics. The aging process leads to a decay for the node degree values, thereby creating an opposing process to the preferential attachment mechanism. On one hand, based on the preferential attachment mechanism, nodes with a high degree are more likely to absorb links; but, on the other hand, a node’s age has a reduced chance for new connections. This competitive scenario allows an increased chance for younger members to become a hub. Simulations of such a network growth with aging constraint confirm the results found from solving the fractional BA equation. We also report, as an exemplary application, an investigation of the collaboration network between Hollywood movie actors. It is undubiously shown that a decay in the dynamics of their collaboration rate is found, even including a sex difference. Such findings suggest a widely universal application of the so generalized BA model. PMID:27171424

  20. The value of breast MRI in high-risk patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer to exclude invasive disease in the contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: Is there a role to choose wisely patients for sentinel node biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Vivianne; Crystal, Pavel; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Ghai, Sandeep; Bukhanov, Karina; Escallon, Jaime; Scaranelo, Anabel M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of clinically and mammographically occult disease using breast MRI in a cohort of cancer patients undergoing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) and the utmost indication of axillary assessment (sentinel node biopsy (SLNB)) for this side. A retrospective review of patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from institutional MRI registry data (2004-2010) was conducted. Characteristics of patients undergoing CPM with breast MRI obtained less than 6 month before surgery were evaluated. A total of 2322 consecutive patients diagnosed with DCIS or stage I to III infiltrating breast cancer underwent preoperative breast MRI. Of these, 1376 patients (59.2%) had contralateral clinical breast exam and mammography without abnormalities; and 116 patients (4.9%) underwent CPM (28 excluded patients had breast MRI more than 6 months before CPM). The mean age of the 88 patients was 49 years (range 28-76 years). Two (2.3%) DCIS identified on surgical pathology specimen were not depicted by MRI and the 5 mm T1N0 invasive cancer (1.1%) was identified on MRI. Preoperative MRI showed 95% accuracy to demonstrate absence of occult disease with negative predicted value (NPV) of 98% (95% CI: 91.64-99.64%). Occult disease was present in 3.4% of CPM. MRI accurately identified the case of invasive cancer in this cohort. The high negative predictive value suggests that MRI can be used to select patients without consideration of SLNB for the contralateral side.

  1. Effects of local anti-inflammatory drugs on seroma formation after mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection in the rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Serkan Turel

    2014-09-01

    Results: The seroma amount showed significant increase (p<0.05 in group 1 when compared to group 2 and 3. However no significant differences were observed between group 2 and group 3. The postoperative infection rate was 40 percent in group 2. Conclusions: It was concluded that methylprednisolone sodium succinate and meloxicam were effective on the seroma formed after radical mastectomy and axillary dissection. However, due to the high risk of wound infection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate, this should not been preferred. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(3.000: 228-231

  2. Performance Comparison Study of Connected Dominating Set Algorithms for Mobile Ad hoc Networks under Different Mobility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-level contribution of this paper is an exhaustive simulation-based comparison study of three categories (density, node id and stability-based of algorithms to determine connected dominating sets (CDS for mobile ad hoc networks and evaluate their performance under two categories (random node mobility and grid-based vehicular ad hoc network of mobility models. The CDS algorithms studied are the maximum density-based (MaxD-CDS, node ID-based (ID-CDS and the minimum velocity-based (MinV-CDS algorithms representing the density, node id and stability categories respectively. The node mobility models used are the Random Waypoint model (representing random node mobility and the City Section and Manhattan mobility models (representing the grid-based vehicular ad hoc networks. The three CDS algorithms under the three mobility models are evaluated with respect to two critical performance metrics: the effective CDS lifetime (calculated taking into consideration the CDS connectivity and absolute CDS lifetime and the CDS node size. Simulations are conducted under a diverse set of conditions representing low, moderate and high network density, coupled with low, moderate and high node mobility scenarios. For each CDS, the paper identifies the mobility model that can be employed to simultaneously maximize the lifetime and minimize the node size with minimal tradeoff. For the two VANET mobility models, the impact of the grid block length on the CDS lifetime and node size is also evaluated.

  3. Multiple-node basin stability in complex dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Chiranjit; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamical entities interacting with each other on complex networks often exhibit multistability. The stability of a desired steady regime (e.g., a synchronized state) to large perturbations is critical in the operation of many real-world networked dynamical systems such as ecosystems, power grids, the human brain, etc. This necessitates the development of appropriate quantifiers of stability of multiple stable states of such systems. Motivated by the concept of basin stability (BS) [P. J. Menck et al., Nat. Phys. 9, 89 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2516], we propose here the general framework of multiple-node basin stability for gauging the global stability and robustness of networked dynamical systems in response to nonlocal perturbations simultaneously affecting multiple nodes of a system. The framework of multiple-node BS provides an estimate of the critical number of nodes that, when simultaneously perturbed, significantly reduce the capacity of the system to return to the desired stable state. Further, this methodology can be applied to estimate the minimum number of nodes of the network to be controlled or safeguarded from external perturbations to ensure proper operation of the system. Multiple-node BS can also be utilized for probing the influence of spatially localized perturbations or targeted attacks to specific parts of a network. We demonstrate the potential of multiple-node BS in assessing the stability of the synchronized state in a deterministic scale-free network of Rössler oscillators and a conceptual model of the power grid of the United Kingdom with second-order Kuramoto-type nodal dynamics.

  4. Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo of Lithium Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We study lithium systems over a range of number of atoms, e.g., atomic anion, dimer, metallic cluster, and body-centered cubic crystal by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The calculations include both core and valence electrons in order to avoid any possible impact by pseudo potentials. The focus of the study is the fixed-node errors, and for that purpose we test several orbital sets in order to provide the most accurate nodal hyper surfaces. We compare our results to other high accuracy calculations wherever available and to experimental results so as to quantify the the fixed-node errors. The results for these Li systems show that fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo achieves remarkably high accuracy total energies and recovers 97-99 % of the correlation energy.

  5. Lymph node density predicts recurrence and death after inguinal lymph node dissection for penile cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Zeyad R.; Ko, Joan S.; Meyer, Alexa; Netto, George J.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of lymph node density (LND) on survival after inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) for penile cancer. Materials and Methods Our institutional penile cancer database was queried for patients who underwent ILND. Clinicopathologic characteristics including LND and total number of positive lymph nodes (LNs) were analyzed to determine impact on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). LND, or the percent of positive LN out of total LN, was calculated as a categorical variable at varying thresholds. Results Twenty-eight patients with complete follow-up were identified. Indications for ILND were stage >T2 in 20 patients (71.4%), palpable adenopathy in 7 (25%), high grade T1 in 1 (3.6%). Median node yield was 17.5 (interquartile range, 12−22), and positive LNs were found in 14 patients (50%). RFS and OS were significantly lower for patients with >15% LN density (median RFS: 62 months vs. 6.3 months, p=0.0120; median OS: 73.6 months vs. 6.3 months, p15% was independently associated with worse RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6; p=0.04) and OS (HR, 73.6; p=0.002). The c-index for LND was higher than total positive LNs for RFS (0.64 vs. 0.54) and OS (0.79 vs. 0.61). Conclusions In this small, retrospective penile cancer cohort, the presence of nodal involvement >15% was associated with decreased RFS and OS, and outperformed total number of positive LN as a prognostic indicator.

  6. Adaptive management of energy consumption, reliability and delay of wireless sensor node: Application to IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, Cheick Tidjane; Mathias, Jean-Denis; De Sousa, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Designing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) (network performance and durability) is a challenging problem. We address it by focusing on the performance of the 802.15.4 communication protocol because the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard is actually considered as one of the reference technologies in WSNs. In this paper, we propose to control the sustainable use of resources (i.e., energy consumption, reliability and timely packet transmission) of a wireless sensor node equipped with photovoltaic cells by an adaptive tuning not only of the MAC (Medium Access Control) parameters but also of the sampling frequency of the node. To do this, we use one of the existing control approaches, namely the viability theory, which aims to preserve the functions and the controls of a dynamic system in a set of desirable states. So, an analytical model, describing the evolution over time of nodal resources, is derived and used by a viability algorithm for the adaptive tuning of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol. The simulation analysis shows that our solution allows ensuring indefinitely, in the absence of hardware failure, the operations (lifetime duration, reliability and timely packet transmission) of an 802.15.4 WSN and one can temporarily increase the sampling frequency of the node beyond the regular sampling one. This latter brings advantages for agricultural and environmental applications such as precision agriculture, flood or fire prevention. Main results show that our current approach enable to send more information when critical events occur without the node runs out of energy. Finally, we argue that our approach is generic and can be applied to other types of WSN.

  7. Adaptive management of energy consumption, reliability and delay of wireless sensor node: Application to IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Designing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) (network performance and durability) is a challenging problem. We address it by focusing on the performance of the 802.15.4 communication protocol because the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard is actually considered as one of the reference technologies in WSNs. In this paper, we propose to control the sustainable use of resources (i.e., energy consumption, reliability and timely packet transmission) of a wireless sensor node equipped with photovoltaic cells by an adaptive tuning not only of the MAC (Medium Access Control) parameters but also of the sampling frequency of the node. To do this, we use one of the existing control approaches, namely the viability theory, which aims to preserve the functions and the controls of a dynamic system in a set of desirable states. So, an analytical model, describing the evolution over time of nodal resources, is derived and used by a viability algorithm for the adaptive tuning of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol. The simulation analysis shows that our solution allows ensuring indefinitely, in the absence of hardware failure, the operations (lifetime duration, reliability and timely packet transmission) of an 802.15.4 WSN and one can temporarily increase the sampling frequency of the node beyond the regular sampling one. This latter brings advantages for agricultural and environmental applications such as precision agriculture, flood or fire prevention. Main results show that our current approach enable to send more information when critical events occur without the node runs out of energy. Finally, we argue that our approach is generic and can be applied to other types of WSN. PMID:28235097

  8. Modeling Methods for the Main Switch of High Pulsed-Power Facilities Based on Transmission Line Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Wei, Hao; Yin, Jiahui; Cong, Peitian; Qiu, Aici

    2014-09-01

    Based on th