WorldWideScience

Sample records for models mimicking human

  1. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  2. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka

    2016-01-01

    , and compared it to human NCIPH. METHODS: Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one...... week after last embolization), hemodynamics were investigated, hepatic fibrosis and accumulation of myofibroblasts were analysed. General characteristics, laboratory analyses and liver histology were collected in patients with NCIPH. RESULTS: Weekly embolization induced a hyperdynamic circulation......, with increased PP. The mesenteric flow and hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly higher in weekly embolized compared to single embolized rats (mesenteric flow +54.1%, hydroxyproline +41.7%). Mesenteric blood flow and shunt volumes increased, whereas splanchnic vascular resistance was decreased...

  3. KRAS (G12D Cooperates with AML1/ETO to Initiate a Mouse Model Mimicking Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It has been demonstrated that KRAS mutations represent about 90% of cancer-associated mutations, and that KRAS mutations play an essential role in neoplastic transformation. Cancer-associated RAS mutations occur frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, suggesting a functional role for Ras in leukemogenesis. Methods: We successfully established a mouse model of human leukemia by transplanting bone marrow cells co-transfected with the K-ras (G12D mutation and AML1/ETO fusion protein. Results: Mice transplanted with AML/ETO+KRAS co-transduced cells had the highest mortality rate than mice transplanted with AML/ETO- or KRAS-transduced cells (115d vs. 150d. Upon reaching a terminal disease stage, EGFP-positive cells dominated their spleen, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and central nervous system tissue. Immunophenotyping, cytologic analyses revealed that AML/ETO+KRAS leukemias predominantly contained immature myeloid precursors (EGFP+/c-Kit+/Mac-1-/Gr-1-. Histologic analyses revealed that massive leukemic infiltrations were closely packed in dense sheets that effaced the normal architecture of spleen and thymus in mice transplanted with AML1/ETO + KRAS co-transduced cells. K-ras mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in bone marrow cells of the K-ras group and AML1/ETO + Kras group. The phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was significantly enhanced in the AML1/ETO + Kras group. The similar results of the AML1/ETO + Nras group were consistent with those reported previously. Conclusion: Co-transduction of KrasG12D and AML1/ETO induces acute monoblastic leukemia. Since expression of mutant K-ras alone was insufficient to induce leukemia, this model may be useful for investigating the multi-step leukemogenesis model of human leukemia.

  4. Establishment of a Human Blood-Brain Barrier Co-culture Model Mimicking the Neurovascular Unit Using Induced Pluri- and Multipotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelt-Menzel, Antje; Cubukova, Alevtina; Günther, Katharina; Edenhofer, Frank; Piontek, Jörg; Krause, Gerd; Stüber, Tanja; Walles, Heike; Neuhaus, Winfried; Metzger, Marco

    2017-04-11

    In vitro models of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) are highly desirable for drug development. This study aims to analyze a set of ten different BBB culture models based on primary cells, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and multipotent fetal neural stem cells (fNSCs). We systematically investigated the impact of astrocytes, pericytes, and NSCs on hiPSC-derived BBB endothelial cell function and gene expression. The quadruple culture models, based on these four cell types, achieved BBB characteristics including transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) up to 2,500 Ω cm 2 and distinct upregulation of typical BBB genes. A complex in vivo-like tight junction (TJ) network was detected by freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with claudin-specific TJ modulators caused TEER decrease, confirming the relevant role of claudin subtypes for paracellular tightness. Drug permeability tests with reference substances were performed and confirmed the suitability of the models for drug transport studies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. M-HinTS: Mimicking Humans in Texture Sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Kok, Thijs; Daly, Scott J.; Schouten, Theo E.

    2006-01-01

    Various texture analysis algorithms have been developed the last decades. However, no computational model has arisen that mimics human texture perception adequately. In 2000, Payne, Hepplewhite, and Stoneham and in 2005, Van Rikxoort, Van den Broek, and Schouten achieved mappings between humans and

  6. Interaction of a peptide derived from C-terminus of human TRPA1 channel with model membranes mimicking the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschas, Katja; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Korkut, Dursun Nizam; Vladan, Maria Magdalena; Salgado, Gilmar; Lecomte, Sophie; Vlachova, Viktorie; Alves, Isabel D

    2015-05-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel (TRPA1) belongs to the TRP cation channel superfamily that responds to a panoply of stimuli such as changes in temperature, calcium levels, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid mediators among others. The TRP superfamily has been implicated in diverse pathological states including neurodegenerative disorders, kidney diseases, inflammation, pain and cancer. The intracellular C-terminus is an important regulator of TRP channel activity. Studies with this and other TRP superfamily members have shown that the C-terminus association with lipid bilayer alters channel sensitivity and activation, especially interactions occurring through basic residues. Nevertheless, it is not yet clear how this process takes place and which regions in the C-terminus would be responsible for such membrane recognition. With that in mind, herein the first putative membrane interacting region of the C-terminus of human TRPA1, (corresponding to a 29 residue peptide, IAEVQKHASLKRIAMQVELHTSLEKKLPL) named H1 due to its potential helical character was chosen for studies of membrane interaction. The affinity of H1 to lipid membranes, H1 structural changes occurring upon this interaction as well as effects of this interaction in lipid organization and integrity were investigated using a biophysical approach. Lipid models systems composed of zwitterionic and anionic lipids, namely those present in the lipid membrane inner leaflet, where H1 is prone to interact, where used. The study reveals a strong interaction and affinity of H1 as well as peptide structuration especially with membranes containing anionic lipids. Moreover, the interactions and peptide structure adoption are headgroup specific. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I Homozygous for the Common L276I Mutation Mimicking the Mild Phenotype in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) is caused by mutations in the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene, leading to inadequate glycosylation of α-dystroglycan, an important protein linking the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. We created a mouse model of the common FKRP L276I...... mutation and a hemizygous FKRP L276I knockout model. We studied histopathology and protein expression in the models at different ages and found that homozygous FKRP L276I mice developed a mild progressive myopathy with increased muscle regeneration and fibrosis starting from 1 year of age. This was likely...... in maintaining proper glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. The mild progression in the homozygous FKRP L276I model resembles that in patients with LGMD2I who are homozygous for the L276I mutation. This animal model could, therefore, be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of and developing a treatment...

  8. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  9. Humans mimicking animals: A cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or “expertise” in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations – human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations – we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283

  10. Humans mimicking animals: a cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, William J; Rapuano, Kristina M; Hitt, Laura A; Frum, Chris A; Lewis, James W

    2012-06-06

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STSs) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, superior temporal sulcus (STS) regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or "expertise" in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations-human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations-we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. Our results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages before the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins.

  11. Congruent strain specific intestinal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an intestine-mimicking in vitro system and in human volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species. However, data on the in situ persistence characteristics of individual or mixtures of strains of the same species in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy human volunteers have not been reported to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The GI-tract survival of individual L. plantarum strains was determined using an intestine mimicking model system, revealing substantial inter-strain differences. The obtained data were correlated to genomic diversity of the strains using comparative genome hybridization (CGH datasets, but this approach failed to discover specific genetic loci that explain the observed differences between the strains. Moreover, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based method that targets a variable intergenic region, and employed this method to assess the in vivo GI-tract persistence of different L. plantarum strains when administered in mixtures to healthy human volunteers. Remarkable consistency of the strain-specific persistence curves were observed between individual volunteers, which also correlated significantly with the GI-tract survival predicted on basis of the in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: The survival of individual L. plantarum strains in the GI-tract could not be correlated to the absence or presence of specific genes compared to the reference strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Nevertheless, in vivo persistence analysis in the human GI-tract confirmed the strain-specific persistence, which appeared to be remarkably similar in different healthy volunteers. Moreover, the relative strain-specific persistence in vivo appeared to be accurately and significantly predicted by their relative survival in the intestine-mimicking in vitro

  12. Non-dermatophyte Dermatoses Mimicking Dermatophytoses in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libon, F; Nikkels-Tassoudji, N; Dezfoulian, B; Arrese, J E; Nikkels, A F

    2017-02-01

    Human dermatophytic cutaneous infections usually present as single or multiple slowly progressing annular erythemato-squamous lesions with a tendency to central healing on the hairless skin. In the intertriginous regions (feet, inguinal, axillar, submammary), dermatophytic colonisations and infections manifest as whitish, slightly hyperkeratotic, pruritic and sometimes fissurated lesions. On the scalp, dermatophytic infections commonly lead to single or multiple more or less inflammatory and alopecic lesions. On the plantar and palmar aspects of the feet and hand, dermatophytosis presents as an eczema-like chronic dermatosis. Abscess-like lesions may occur due to zoophilic dermatomycosis. Dermatophytic infections of the nails reveal ill-defined whitish-yellowish colorations of the distal end or the lateral aspects of the nails, sometimes combined with partial nail embrittlement or even complete destruction. Despite the ubiquity of dermatophytic skin infections and their usually highly typical clinical features, a differential diagnosis has to be considered, in particular when treatment is not efficient or when treatment resistance occurs. This review presents the differential diagnosis in terms of frequency as well as the diagnostic methods permitting the distinction of annular, intertriginous, alopecic, palmoplantar, abscess-like and onychodystrophic lesions.

  13. Automatic ECG quality scoring methodology: mimicking human annotators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Lars; Galeotti, Loriano

    2012-09-01

    An algorithm to determine the quality of electrocardiograms (ECGs) can enable inexperienced nurses and paramedics to record ECGs of sufficient diagnostic quality. Previously, we proposed an algorithm for determining if ECG recordings are of acceptable quality, which was entered in the PhysioNet Challenge 2011. In the present work, we propose an improved two-step algorithm, which first rejects ECGs with macroscopic errors (signal absent, large voltage shifts or saturation) and subsequently quantifies the noise (baseline, powerline or muscular noise) on a continuous scale. The performance of the improved algorithm was evaluated using the PhysioNet Challenge database (1500 ECGs rated by humans for signal quality). We achieved a classification accuracy of 92.3% on the training set and 90.0% on the test set. The improved algorithm is capable of detecting ECGs with macroscopic errors and giving the user a score of the overall quality. This allows the user to assess the degree of noise and decide if it is acceptable depending on the purpose of the recording.

  14. Synthetic peptides mimicking the binding site of human acetylcholinesterase for its inhibitor fasciculin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafurke, Uwe; Erijman, Ariel; Aizner, Yonatan; Shifman, Julia M; Eichler, Jutta

    2015-09-01

    Molecules capable of mimicking protein binding and/or functional sites present useful tools for a range of biomedical applications, including the inhibition of protein-ligand interactions. Such mimics of protein binding sites can currently be generated through structure-based design and chemical synthesis. Computational protein design could be further used to optimize protein binding site mimetics through rationally designed mutations that improve intermolecular interactions or peptide stability. Here, as a model for the study, we chose an interaction between human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and its inhibitor fasciculin-2 (Fas) because the structure and function of this complex is well understood. Structure-based design of mimics of the hAChE binding site for Fas yielded a peptide that binds to Fas at micromolar concentrations. Replacement of hAChE residues known to be essential for its interaction with Fas with alanine, in this peptide, resulted in almost complete loss of binding to Fas. Computational optimization of the hAChE mimetic peptide yielded a variant with slightly improved affinity to Fas, indicating that more rounds of computational optimization will be required to obtain peptide variants with greatly improved affinity for Fas. CD spectra in the absence and presence of Fas point to conformational changes in the peptide upon binding to Fas. Furthermore, binding of the optimized hAChE mimetic peptide to Fas could be inhibited by hAChE, providing evidence for a hAChE-specific peptide-Fas interaction. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A free plate model can predict guided modes propagating in tubular bone-mimicking phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Foiret, Josquin; Moilanen, Petro; Pirhonen, Jalmari; Zhao, Zuomin; Talmant, Maryline; Timonen, Jussi; Laugier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to show that a non-absorbing free plate model can predict with a reasonable accuracy guided modes measured in bone-mimicking phantoms that have circular cross-section. Experiments were carried out on uncoated and coated phantoms using a clinical axial transmission setup. Adjustment of the plate model to the experimental data yielded estimates for the waveguide characteristics (thickness, bulk wave velocities). Fair agreement was achieved over a frequency range of 0.4 to 1.6 MHz. A lower accuracy observed for the thinnest bone-mimicking phantoms was caused by limitations in the wave number measurements rather than by the model itself.

  16. Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Musio, Stefano; Casciaro, Ernesto; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tissue mimicking phantoms have been widely reported to be an important tool for development, optimisation and performance testing of ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques. In particular, modern applications of tissue mimicking phantoms often include characterisation of the nonlinear behaviour of experimental ultrasound contrast agents. In such cases, the tissue-mimicking materials should be chosen not only based on the values of their density, speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, but also considering their effect on the appearance of "native harmonics" due to nonlinear distortion of ultrasound signal during propagation. In a previous paper it was demonstrated that a cellulose-based hydrogel is suitable to simulate nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue for thicknesses up to 8 cm. In this paper we present the experimental characterisation of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a different polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel, in order to assess whether and how it can improve the performances and overcome some limitations of the cellulose-based hydrogel as liver tissue-mimicking material. Samples of pig liver tissue, cellulose-based hydrogel and PEGDA-based hydrogel were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values. Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from the spectra of received signals and their difference was then used to compare sample behaviours. Obtained results show how a new more accurate and combined experimental model of linear and nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue is feasible. In fact, a further confirmation of the cellulose-based hydrogel effectiveness to precisely simulate the liver tissue for penetration depths up to 8 cm was provided, and it was also shown that the employment of the PEGDA-based hydrogel can extend the range of useful tissue-mimicking material thicknesses up to 11 cm, moreover allowing a

  17. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; Macfall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2012-04-07

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  18. Modified arctan-gravity model mimicking a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2014-03-01

    A novel theory of F(R) gravity with the Lagrangian density L =[R-(b/β)arctan(βR)]/(2κ2) is analyzed. Constant curvature solutions of the model are found, and the potential of the scalar field and the mass of a scalar degree of freedom in Einstein's frame are derived. The cosmological parameters of the model are calculated, which are in agreement with the PLANCK data. Critical points for the de Sitter phase and the matter dominated epoch of autonomous equations are obtained and studied.

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin induces human macrophages to form intracytoplasmic vacuoles mimicking Hofbauer cells in human chorionic villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Munekage; Ohba, Takashi; Tashiro, Hironori; Yamada, Gen; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The most characteristic morphological feature of macrophages in the stroma of placental villi, known as Hofbauer cells, is their highly vacuolated appearance. They also show positive immunostaining for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and express messenger ribonucleic acid of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor with a deletion of exon 9 (LH/CG-R Δ9). Maternal hCG enters fetal plasma through the mesenchyme of the placental villi and promotes male sexual differentiation in early pregnancy; therefore, excess hCG may induce aberrant genital differentiation and hCG must be adjusted at the fetomaternal interface. We hypothesized that hCG is regulated by Hofbauer cells and that their peculiar vacuoles are involved in a cell-specific function. To assess the morphological modification and expression of LH/CG-R Δ9 in human macrophages after hCG exposure, the present study examined phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells, a human monocyte-macrophage cell line. hCG induced transient vacuole formation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, morphologically mimicking Hofbauer cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that PMA-treated THP-1 cells incorporated hCG but not luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. Western blotting analyses demonstrated that PMA-treated THP-1 cells expressed an immunoreactive 60-kDa protein, designated as endogenous LH/CG-R Δ9. hCG induced a transient reduction in the LH/CG-R Δ9, which was synchronous with the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles. In conclusion, human macrophages regulating hCG via cytoplasmic LH/CG-R Δ9 mimic the morphological characteristics of Hofbauer cells. Their vacuoles may be associated with their cell-specific function to protect the fetus from exposure to excess maternal hCG during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Swam, I. van; Wels, M.W.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  1. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Swam, van I.; Wels, M.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  2. PREPARATION OF A HUMAN SKIN-MIMICKING GELS FOR IN VITRO MEASUREMENTS OF THE DUAL-BAND MEDICAL IMPLANT ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç DOĞANCI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to design of a small size implantable antenna and to present a complementary recipe for a human skin mimicking material for in-vitro testing of implantable antennas operating at MICS (Medical Implant Communications Service, 402–405 MHz and ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical, 2.4 GHz–2.48 GHz bands. Approximate electrical properties of human tissues at MICS and ISM bands were obtained by mixing de-ionized water, sugar, NaCl, and Poly(acrylic acid (PAA or Carbomer with different content percentages. In the literature Agarose, a polysaccharide polymer material, was widely used to ensure the formation of gel of the mixture and in our study we used Carbomer instead of Agarose for this aim. To test the antenna in-vitro, skin mimicking gels were made that to show electrical properties real skin tissue (relative permittivity (εr and conductivity (σ for the operation frequencies of ISM and MICS bands. For the antenna performance evaluations the measurements of the antenna (return loss (S11 have been performed by placing in to the skin mimicking gels. The measurements were taken in the 1 GHz - 5 GHz frequency band. The measurement and simulation results are quite good agreement except some discrepancy in S11 levels and frequency bands.

  3. Immune events associated with protection in C57BL/6 mice immunized with anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking protective antigens shared between gamma-irradiated cercariae vaccine and human resistance model of Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Sherif H

    2010-01-01

    Immunoregulation is central for successful manipulation of schistosomiasis. Unlike schistosome vaccine development strategies that relied on direct selection of antigens from crude responses leading to selection of mildly protective antigens, the present study tested the utility of selection of potentially protective antigens encompassed rounds of immunoregulation via idiotypic network. Anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) were purified from sera of New Zealand white rabbits multiply immunized with gamma-irradiated cercariae of S. haematobium, using adult worm specific idiotypes (Ab1) purified from sera of subjects resistant to reinfection. Ab2 was used for immunization of C57BL/6 mice and consequences of immunization were monitored before and after challenge infection with S. haematobium. Results showed an increase of splenic T cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) upon immunization (average % stimulated cells 54.9 vs. 20.4, P anti-anti-ids (Ab3) reactivity against antigens of approximate molecular weight 40, 80 and 160 kDa of adult worms, which were also recognized by Ab1. However, in contrast to Ab1, Ab3 showed no surface binding to 3 hr schistosomula. Strikingly, mice immunized with Ab2 showed strong resistance to challenge infection (approximately 82% reduction in worm burden, P vaccine development strategy appears to filter out non-protective antigens. Indeed Ab3 recognizes much fewer numbers of antigens, which passed through two rounds of immune regulation. These antigens appear to represent a significant proportion of the protective response in the gamma-irradiated cercariae vaccine and human resistance model as well, providing the basis for an alternative vaccine for schistosomiasis.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive secondary syphilis mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Ozaki, Keiji; Urano, Yoshio; Iwasa, Masami; Nakamura, Shingen; Fujii, Shiro; Abe, Masahiro; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-10-08

    Malignant syphilis or lues maligna is a severe form of secondary syphilis that was commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, and has now reemerged with the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, the characteristic histopathological findings of malignant syphilis remain controversial. The aim of this case report was to clarify the clinical and histopathological findings of HIV-positive malignant secondary syphilis. A Japanese man in his forties complained of fever, skin lesions, headache, and myalgia without lymphadenopathy during the previous 4 weeks. The skin lesions manifested as erythematous, nonhealing, ulcerated papules scattered on his trunk, extremities, palm, and face. Although the skin lesions were suspected to be cutaneous T-cell lymphomas on histological analyses, they lacked T-cell receptor Jγ rearrangement; moreover, immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the presence of spirochetes. The patient was administered antibiotics and anti-retroviral therapy, which dramatically improved the symptoms. On the basis of these observations of the skin lesions, we finally diagnosed the patient with HIV-associated secondary syphilis that mimicked cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The patient's systemic CD4+ lymphocyte count was very low, and the infiltrate was almost exclusively composed of CD8+ atypical lymphocytes; therefore, the condition was easily misdiagnosed as cutaneous lymphoma. Although the abundance of plasma cells is a good indicator of malignant syphilis on skin histological analyses, in some cases, the plasma cell count may be very low. Therefore, a diagnosis of malignant secondary syphilis should be considered before making a diagnosis of primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma or lymphoma associated with HIV infection.

  5. Immunogenic multistage recombinant protein vaccine confers partial protection against experimental toxoplasmosis mimicking natural infection in murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaprak Gedik

    2016-01-01

    To generate a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis, multistage vaccines and usage of challenging models mimicking natural route of infection are critical cornerstones. In this study, we generated a BAG1 and GRA1 multistage vaccine that induced strong immune response in which the protection was not at anticipated level. In addition, the murine model was orally challenged with tissue cysts to mimic natural route of infection.

  6. Artificial Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm model mimicking in vivo system: altered morphological characteristics and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Saloni; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a biofilm model of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055, mimicking in vivo biofilm system so as to determine susceptibility of different phases of biofilm to antibiotics by three-dimensional analysis. Artificial mature biofilm of K. pneumoniae was made on black, polycarbonate membranes. Biofilm structure was visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Viable count method, CLSM and SEM analysis confirmed that mature, uniform and viable biofilms can be formed on the polycarbonate membranes by this method. The three-dimensional heterogeneity of biofilm was confirmed on the basis of results of CLSM, which is an important characteristics of in vivo biofilm system. Staining with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit and acridine orange suggested that the center of biofilm had more inactive cells compared with actively dividing cells on the periphery. Amikacin at a concentration of 40 μg ml⁻¹ was effective against younger biofilm whereas ineffective against older biofilm that showed sparsely populated dead cells using the BacLight viability staining kit. Role of altered morphological characteristics toward increased antibiotic susceptibility was also studied for different phases of K. pneumoniae biofilm by CLSM and light microscopy. Thickness of biofilm increased from 0.093 to 0.231 mm with time. So, both heterogeneity and thickness of the biofilm are likely to influence the ineffectiveness of amikacin in older biofilm. The present model holds considerable clinical relevance and may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial agent on bacterial biofilms in vitro.

  7. A Dosimetric Study on Slab-pinewood-slab Phantom for Developing the Heterogeneous Chest Phantom Mimicking Actual Human Chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Om Prakash; Paliwal, Radha Kishan; Mishra, Surendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to study the density, isodose depths, and doses at different points in slab-pinewood-slab (SPS) phantom, solid phantom SP34 (made up of polystyrene), and chest level of actual patient for developing heterogeneous chest phantom mimicking thoracic region of human body. A 6 MV photon beam of field size of 10 cm × 10 cm was directed perpendicular to the surface of computed tomography (CT) images of chest level of patient, SPS phantom, and SP34 phantom. Dose was calculated using anisotropic analytical algorithm. Hounsfield units were used to calculate the density of each medium. Isodose depths in all the three sets of CT images were measured. Variations between planned doses on treatment planning system (TPS) and measured on linear accelerator (LA) were calculated for three points, namely, near slab-pinewood interfaces (6 and 18 cm depths) and 10 cm depth in SPS phantom and at the same depths in SP34 phantom. Density of pinewood, SP34 slabs, chest wall, lung, and soft tissue behind lung was measured as 0.329 ± 0.08, 0.999 ± 0.02, 0.898 ± 0.02, 0.291 ± 0.12, and 1.002 ± 0.03 g/cc, respectively. Depths of 100% and 90% isodose curves in all the three sets of CT images were found to be similar. Depths of 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, and 40% isodose lines in SPS phantom images were found to be equivalent to that in chest images, while it was least in SP34 phantom images. Variations in doses calculated at 6, 10, and 18 cm depths on TPS and measured on LA were found to be 0.36%, 1.65%, and 2.23%, respectively, in case of SPS phantom, while 0.24%, 0.90%, and 0.93%, respectively, in case of SP34 slab phantom. SPS phantom seemed equivalent to the chest level of human body. Dosimetric results of this study indicate that patient-specific quality assurance can be done using chest phantom mimicking thoracic region of human body, which has been fabricated using polystyrene and pinewood.

  8. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M.; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed

  9. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  10. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas.

  11. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...

  12. Case report: human papilloma virus type 120-related papillomatosis mimicking laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvisi, Valeria; Martellucci, Salvatore; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Martellucci, Stanislao; Baiocchini, Andrea; Manicone, Anna Maria; Bagni, Oreste; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Gallo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and upper respiratory tract pathology was better understood in recent years and represents now an issue of particular interest in carcinogenesis and in immunocompromised host. We describe a case in which a rare genotype HPV-related papillomatosis mimics laryngeal carcinoma in an immunocompromised host. A 54-year-old woman with a history of HIV-HCV coinfection and anal and laryngeal cancer successfully treated some years before was hospitalized for severe dyspnea, cough and dysphagia. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation raised the suspicion of tumor relapse showing the presence of a large glottic-supraglottic ulcerated mass. Several laryngeal biopsies demonstrated koilocytosis and p16 expression, according to a possible HPV infection, and focal figures of mild dysplasia of epithelium. 18 F-FDG PET/CT did not show high glycolytic activity at laryngeal level. An invasive upper respiratory tract papillomatosis in an immunocompromised host was suspected because of the patient's clinical improvement after antiretroviral therapy. Pharyngeal swab and oral rinse harboured the same HPV120 genotype sequence, a betapapillomavirus of recent description and not yet related to any similar clinical presentations.

  13. Insulin-mimicking bioactivities of acylated inositol glycans in several mouse models of diabetes with or without obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Suzuki

    Full Text Available Insulin-mimetic species of low molecular weight are speculated to mediate some intracellular insulin actions. These inositol glycans, which are generated upon insulin stimulation from glycosylphosphatidylinositols, might control the activity of a multitude of insulin effector enzymes. Acylated inositol glycans (AIGs are generated by cleavage of protein-free GPI precursors through the action of GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC and D (GPI-PLD. We synthesized AIGs (IG-1, IG-2, IG-13, IG-14, and IG-15 and then evaluated their insulin-mimicking bioactivities. IG-1 significantly stimulated glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat isolated adipocytes dose-dependently. IG-2 significantly stimulated lipogenesis in rat isolated adipocytes dose-dependently. IG-15 also enhanced glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The administration of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose, increased glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscles and improved glucose tolerance in C57B6N mice with normal diets. The administration of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic C57B6N mice. The treatment of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose, increased glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscles and improved glucose tolerance in C57B6N mice with high fat-diets and db/db mice. The long-term treatment of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose and reduced food intake and body weight in C57B6N mice with high fat-diets and ob/ob mice. Thus, IG-1 has insulin-mimicking bioactivities and improves glucose tolerance in mice models of diabetes with or without obesity.

  14. Geometric and electronic structures of the synthetic Mn₄CaO₄ model compound mimicking the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Mitsuo; Isobe, Hiroshi; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2016-04-28

    Water oxidation by photosystem II (PSII) converts light energy into chemical energy with the concomitant production of molecular oxygen, both of which are indispensable for sustaining life on Earth. This reaction is catalyzed by an oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) embedded in the huge PSII complex, and its mechanism remains elusive in spite of the extensive studies of the geometric and electronic structures. In order to elucidate the water-splitting mechanism, synthetic approaches have been extensively employed to mimic the native OEC. Very recently, a synthetic complex [Mn4CaO4(Bu(t)COO)8(py)(Bu(t)COOH)2] (1) closely mimicking the structure of the native OEC was obtained. In this study, we extensively examined the geometric, electronic and spin structures of 1 using the density functional theory method. Our results showed that the geometric structure of 1 can be accurately reproduced by theoretical calculations, and revealed many similarities in the ground valence and spin states between 1 and the native OEC. We also revealed two different valence states in the one-electron oxidized state of 1 (corresponding to the S2 state), which lie in the lower and higher ground spin states (S = 1/2 and S = 5/2), respectively. One remarkable difference between 1 and the native OEC is the presence of a non-negligible antiferromagnetic interaction between the Mn1 and Mn4 sites, which slightly influenced their ground spin structures (spin alignments). The major reason causing the difference can be attributed to the short Mn1-O5 and Mn1-Mn4 distances in 1. The introduction of the missing O4 atom and the reorientation of the Ca coordinating ligands improved the Mn1-O5 and Mn1-Mn4 distances comparable to the native OEC. These modifications will therefore be important for the synthesis of further advanced model complexes more closely mimicking the native OEC beyond 1.

  15. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta heterozygote knockout mice as a model of findings in postmortem schizophrenia brain or as a model of behaviors mimicking lithium action: negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Shaldubina, Alona; Kozlovsky, Nitzan; Woodgett, James R; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H

    2008-05-01

    In mice glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta heterozygote knockout status was reported to cause reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, behaviors that mimic the effects of lithium. GSK-3beta protein and mRNA level and activity have been reported to be reduced in the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients and this could suggest the involvement of GSK-3beta in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, apomorphine-induced stereotyping was reported to be unchanged in GSK-3beta heterozygote (HZ) knockout (KO) mice. As such behaviors are not always robust, study in another laboratory seemed indicated. Motor activity and coordination were assessed in the rotarod test. Behavior was studied in the following tests: pilocarpine-induced seizures model for lithium action, Porsolt forced swim test, tail suspension test, elevated plus-maze, large open field, startle response and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response, amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing. We could not confirm the report that GSK-3beta HZ KO mice exhibit reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim or reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in a manner mimicking the behavioral effects of lithium. We did not find increased apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing or disruption of prepulse inhibition, suggesting that human postmortem findings regarding GSK-3beta in schizophrenia are not mediated by changes in dopamine receptors and are not the cause of prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia. These data do not support the role of GSK-3beta in schizophrenia or in the mechanism of therapeutic action of lithium. Although differences in the genetic background of the GSK-3beta HZ KOs used in the present study compared with that of the previous study could be responsible, such results could suggest that the previously reported effects of GSK-3beta knockout on behavior are not robust.

  16. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  17. Sensory nerve degeneration in a mouse model mimicking early manifestations of familial amyloid polyneuropathy due to transthyretin Ala97Ser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, H-W; Chiang, H; Lin, W-M; Yu, I-S; Lin, S-W; Hsieh, S-T

    2018-02-08

    Sensory nerve degeneration and consequent abnormal sensations are the earliest and most prevalent manifestations of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) due to amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR). FAP is a relentlessly progressive degenerative disease of the peripheral nervous system. However, there is a lack of mouse models to replicate the early neuropathic manifestations of FAP. We established human TTR knock-in mice by replacing one allele of the mouse Ttr locus with human wild-type TTR (hTTR wt ) or human TTR with the A97S mutation (hTTR A97S ). Given the late onset of neuropathic manifestations in A97S-FAP, we investigated nerve pathology, physiology, and behavioural tests in these mice at two age points: the adult group (8 - 56 weeks) and the ageing group (> 104 weeks). In the adult group, nerve profiles, neurophysiology and behaviour were similar between hTTR wt and hTTR A97S mice. By contrast, ageing hTTR A97S mice showed small fibre neuropathy with decreased intraepidermal nerve fibre density and behavioural signs of mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, significant reductions in sural nerve myelinated nerve fibre density and sensory nerve action potential amplitudes in these mice indicated degeneration of large sensory fibres. The unaffected motor nerve physiology replicated the early symptoms of FAP patients, that is, sensory nerves were more vulnerable to mutant TTR than motor nerves. These results demonstrate that the hTTR A97S mouse model develops sensory nerve pathology and corresponding physiology mimicking A97S-FAP and provides a platform to develop new therapies for the early stage of A97S-FAP. © 2018 British Neuropathological Society.

  18. Micro-scale finite element modeling of ultrasound propagation in aluminum trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms: A comparison between numerical simulation and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, B; Le, L H; Tran, T N H T; El-Rich, M; El-Bialy, T; Adeeb, S

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the accuracy of micro-scale finite element modeling for simulating broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. To this end, five commercially manufactured aluminum foam samples as trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms were utilized for ultrasonic immersion through-transmission experiments. Based on micro-computed tomography images of the same physical samples, three-dimensional high-resolution computational samples were generated to be implemented in the micro-scale finite element models. The finite element models employed the standard Galerkin finite element method (FEM) in time domain to simulate the ultrasonic experiments. The numerical simulations did not include energy dissipative mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation; however, they expectedly simulated reflection, refraction, scattering, and wave mode conversion. The accuracy of the finite element simulations were evaluated by comparing the simulated ultrasonic attenuation and velocity with the experimental data. The maximum and the average relative errors between the experimental and simulated attenuation coefficients in the frequency range of 0.6-1.4 MHz were 17% and 6% respectively. Moreover, the simulations closely predicted the time-of-flight based velocities and the phase velocities of ultrasound with maximum relative errors of 20 m/s and 11 m/s respectively. The results of this study strongly suggest that micro-scale finite element modeling can effectively simulate broadband ultrasound propagation in water-saturated trabecular bone-mimicking structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue-bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Foiret, Josquin; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-05-21

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue-bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue-bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone.

  20. Comparative analysis of colonic gene expression of three experimental colitis models mimicking inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, Anje A.; de Kort, Floor; Sterrenburg, Ellen; Pronk, Inge; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Hommes, Daniel W.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are used to unravel the pathophysiology of IBD and to study new treatment modalities, but their relationship to Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) is speculative. METHODS: Using Agilent mouse TOX oligonucleotide microarrays,

  1. A new model mimicking persistent HBV e antigen-negative infection using covalently closed circular DNA in immunocompetent mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major health problem. HBV e antigen (HBeAg-negative strains have become prevalent. Previously, no animal model mimicked the clinical course of HBeAg-negative HBV infection. To establish an HBeAg-negative HBV infection model, the 3.2-kb full-length genome of HBeAg-negative HBV was cloned from a clinical sample and then circularized to form covalently closed circular (cccDNA. The resulting cccDNA was introduced into the liver of C57BL/6J mice through hydrodynamic injection. Persistence of the HBeAg-negative infection was monitored at predetermined time points using HBV-specific markers including HBV surface antigen (HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV core antigen (HBcAg as well as DNA copies. Throughout the study, pAAV-HBV1.2 was used as a control. In mice injected with HBeAg-negative cccDNA, the HBV infection rate was 100% at the initial stage. HBsAg levels increased up to 1 week, at which point levels peaked and dropped quickly thereafter. In 60% of injected mice, HBsAg and HBcAg persisted for more than 10 weeks. High numbers of HBV DNA copies were detected in the serum and liver. Moreover, cccDNA persisted in the liver tissue of HBeAg-negative mice. In contrast to the pAAV-HBV 1.2 injected mice, no HBeAg was found in mice injected with HBeAg-negative HBV throughout the study period. These results demonstrate the first successful establishment of a model of HBeAg-negative HBV-persistent infection in immunocompetent mice. Compared to pAAV-HBV1.2-injected mice, the infection persistence and levels of serum virological and biochemical markers were approximately equal in the model mice. This model will be useful for mechanistic studies on HBeAg-negative HBV infection and will facilitate the evaluation of new antiviral drugs.

  2. Reprodaetion of an animal model of multiple intestinal injuries mimicking "lethal triad" caused by severe penetrating abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-fei WANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of multi-intestinal injuries with "lethal triad" characterized by low body temperature,acidosis and coagulopathy.Methods Six female domestic outbred pigs were anesthetized,and the carotid artery and jugular vein were cannulated for monitoring the blood pressure and heart rate and for infusion of fluid.The animals were shot with a gun to create a severe penetrating abdominal trauma.Immediately after the shooting,50% of total blood volume(35ml/kg hemorrhage was drawn from the carotid artery in 20min.After a 40min shock period,4h of pre-hospital phase was mimicked by normal saline(NS resuscitation to maintain systolic blood pressure(SBP > 80mmHg or mean arterial pressure(MAP > 60mmHg.When SBP > 80mmHg or MAP > 60mmHg,no fluid infusion or additional bleeding was given.Hemodynamic parameters were recorded,and pathology of myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver was observed.Results There were multiple intestinal perforations(8-10 site injuries/pig leading to intra-abdominal contamination,mesenteric injury(1-2 site injuries/pig resulted in partial intestinal ischemia and intra-abdominal hemorrhage,and no large colon and mesenteric vascular injury.One pig died before the completion of the model establishment(at the end of pre-hospital resuscitation.The typical symptoms of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock were observed in survival animals.Low temperature(33.3±0.5℃,acidosis(pH=7.242±0.064,and coagulopathy(protrombin time and activated partial thromboplasting time prolonged were observed after pre-hospital resuscitation.Pathology showed that myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver were severely injured.Conclusions A new model,simulating three stages of "traumatic hemorrhagic shock,pre-hospital recovery and hospital treatment" and inducing the "lethal triad" accompanied with abdominal pollution,has been successfully established.This model has good stability and high reproducibility.The survival animals can be

  3. Design and Investigation of PolyFermS In Vitro Continuous Fermentation Models Inoculated with Immobilized Fecal Microbiota Mimicking the Elderly Colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fehlbaum

    Full Text Available In vitro gut modeling is a useful approach to investigate some factors and mechanisms of the gut microbiota independent of the effects of the host. This study tested the use of immobilized fecal microbiota to develop different designs of continuous colonic fermentation models mimicking elderly gut fermentation. Model 1 was a three-stage fermentation mimicking the proximal, transverse and distal colon. Models 2 and 3 were based on the new PolyFermS platform composed of an inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota and used to continuously inoculate with the same microbiota different second-stage reactors mounted in parallel. The main gut bacterial groups, microbial diversity and metabolite production were monitored in effluents of all reactors using quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing, and HPLC, respectively. In all models, a diverse microbiota resembling the one tested in donor's fecal sample was established. Metabolic stability in inoculum reactors seeded with immobilized fecal microbiota was shown for operation times of up to 80 days. A high microbial and metabolic reproducibility was demonstrated for downstream control and experimental reactors of a PolyFermS model. The PolyFermS models tested here are particularly suited to investigate the effects of environmental factors, such as diet and drugs, in a controlled setting with the same microbiota source.

  4. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  5. Development of human skin equivalents mimicking skin aging : contrast between papillary and reticular fibroblasts as a lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, D.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of human skin equivalents that show characteristics of skin aging. The type of skin equivalent used was a fibroblast derived matrix equivalent, in which the dermal compartment is generated by fibroblasts and thus is fully of human origin. Two strategies are

  6. The role of ultraviolet colour in the assessment of mimetic accuracy between Batesian mimics and their models: a case study using ant-mimicking spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Herberstein, Marie E.; Pekár, Stano

    2016-12-01

    The use of ultraviolet (UV) cues for intra- and inter-specific communication is common in many animal species. Still, the role of UV signals under some predator-prey contexts, such as Batesian mimicry, is not clear. Batesian mimicry is a defensive strategy by which a palatable species (the mimic) resembles an unpalatable or noxious species (the model) to avoid predation. This strategy has evolved independently in many different taxa that are predated by species capable of UV perception. Moreover, there is considerable variation in how accurately Batesian mimics resemble their models across species. Our aim was to investigate how UV colour contributed to mimetic accuracy using several ant-mimicking spider species as a case study. We measured the reflectance spectrum (300-700 nm) for several species of mimics and models, and we tested whether they differ in visible and UV colour. We modelled whether two different predators could discriminate between mimics and models using colour information. We found that generally, ant-mimicking spiders differed significantly from their ant models in UV colour and that information from the visible range of light cannot be extrapolated into the UV. Our modelling suggested that wasps should be able to discriminate between mimics and models combining information from visible and the UV light, whereas birds may not discriminate between them. Thus, we show that UV colour can influence mimic accuracy and we discuss its potential role in Batesian mimicry. We conclude that colour, especially in the UV range, should be taken into account when measuring mimetic accuracy.

  7. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  8. Exploration of a physiologically-inspired hearing-aid algorithm using a computer model mimicking impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Tim; Clark, Nicholas R; Lecluyse, Wendy; Meddis, Ray

    2016-01-01

    To use a computer model of impaired hearing to explore the effects of a physiologically-inspired hearing-aid algorithm on a range of psychoacoustic measures. A computer model of a hypothetical impaired listener's hearing was constructed by adjusting parameters of a computer model of normal hearing. Absolute thresholds, estimates of compression, and frequency selectivity (summarized to a hearing profile) were assessed using this model with and without pre-processing the stimuli by a hearing-aid algorithm. The influence of different settings of the algorithm on the impaired profile was investigated. To validate the model predictions, the effect of the algorithm on hearing profiles of human impaired listeners was measured. A computer model simulating impaired hearing (total absence of basilar membrane compression) was used, and three hearing-impaired listeners participated. The hearing profiles of the model and the listeners showed substantial changes when the test stimuli were pre-processed by the hearing-aid algorithm. These changes consisted of lower absolute thresholds, steeper temporal masking curves, and sharper psychophysical tuning curves. The hearing-aid algorithm affected the impaired hearing profile of the model to approximate a normal hearing profile. Qualitatively similar results were found with the impaired listeners' hearing profiles.

  9. Conditional E2F1 activation in transgenic mice causes testicular atrophy and dysplasia mimicking human CIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Karl; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Holmberg, Christian

    2005-01-01

    E2F1 is a crucial downstream effector of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway. To address the consequences of short-term increase in E2F1 activity in adult tissues, we generated transgenic mice expressing the human E2F1 protein fused to the oestrogen receptor (ER) ligand-binding domain...

  10. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W; Cideciyan, Artur V; Aleman, Tomas S; Pianta, Michael J; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Miller, Brian J; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2002-04-30

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies.

  11. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...... for the induced headache and migraine. Perspectives are discussed....

  12. Cerebral gumma mimicking a brain tumor in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Woo Jin [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Syphilis has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, and the cerebral gumma is a kind of neurosyphilis which is rare and can be cured by appropriate antibiotic treatments. However, in clinical practices, diagnosis of cerebral syphilitic gumma is often difficult because imaging and laboratory findings revealed elusive results. Herein, we present a rare case of neurosyphilis presenting as cerebral gumma confirmed by histopathological examination, and positive serologic and cerebrospinal fluid analyses. This case report suggests that cerebral gumma should be considered as possible diagnosis for human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with space-occupying lesion of the brain. And this case also provides importance of clinical suspicions in diagnosing neurosyphilis because syphilis serology is not routinely tested on patients with neurologic symptoms.

  13. Mimicking the Synaptic Weights and Human Forgetting Curve Using Hydrothermally Grown Nanostructured CuO Memristor Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongale, T D; Pawar, P S; Tikke, R S; Mullani, N B; Patil, V B; Teli, A M; Khot, K V; Mohite, S V; Bagade, A A; Kumbhar, V S; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, P N; Kamat, R K; Patil, P S

    2018-02-01

    In the present investigation, we have fabricated copper oxide (CuO) thin film memristor by employing a hydrothermal method for neuromorphic application. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the films are polycrystalline in nature with the monoclinic crystal structure. The developed devices show analog memory and synaptic property similar to biological neuron. The size dependent synaptic behavior is investigated for as-prepared and annealed CuO memristor. The results suggested that the magnitude of synaptic weights and resistive switching voltages are dependent on the thickness of the active layer. Synaptic weights are improved in the case of the as-prepared device whereas they are inferior for annealed CuO memristor. The rectifying property similar to a biological neuron is observed only for the as-prepared device, which suggested that as-prepared devices have better computational and learning capabilities than annealed CuO memristor. Moreover, the retention loss of the CuO memristor is in good agreement with the forgetting curve of human memory. The results suggested that hydrothermally grown CuO thin film memristor is a potential candidate for the neuromorphic device development.

  14. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkwitz, Susann; Faßbender, Mirja; Kronbach, Zienab; Wildemann, Britt

    2015-01-01

    Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group) to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group) led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group) decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  15. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Minkwitz

    Full Text Available Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  16. The effect of sediment mimicking drill cuttings on deep water rhodoliths in a flow-through system: Experimental work and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Eide, Ingvar; Reynier, Marcia; Villas-Bôas, Alexandre B; Tâmega, Frederico T S; Ferreira, Carlos Gustavo; Nilssen, Ingunn; Coutinho, Ricardo; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-06-15

    The impact of sediment coverage on two rhodolith-forming calcareous algae species collected at 100m water depth off the coast of Brazil was studied in an experimental flow-through system. Natural sediment mimicking drill cuttings with respect to size distribution was used. Sediment coverage and photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, ϕPSIImax) were measured as functions of light intensity, flow rate and added amount of sediment once a week for nine weeks. Statistical experimental design and multivariate data analysis provided statistically significant regression models which subsequently were used to establish exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage. For example, at 70% sediment coverage the photosynthetic efficiency was reduced 50% after 1-2weeks of exposure, most likely due to reduced gas exchange. The exposure-response relationship can be used to establish threshold levels and impact categories for environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Confronting dark energy models mimicking ΛCDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to ΛCDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from ΛCDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as ΛCDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  18. Confronting dark energy models mimicking {Lambda}CDM epoch with observational constraints: Future cosmological perturbations decay or future Rip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V., E-mail: artyom.art@gmail.com [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Eurasian International Center for Theor. Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-29

    We confront dark energy models which are currently similar to {Lambda}CDM theory with observational data which include the SNe data, matter density perturbations and baryon acoustic oscillations data. DE cosmology under consideration may evolve to Big Rip, type II or type III future singularity, or to Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. It is shown that matter perturbations data define more precisely the possible deviation from {Lambda}CDM model than consideration of SNe data only. The combined data analysis proves that DE models under consideration are as consistent as {Lambda}CDM model. We demonstrate that growth of matter density perturbations may occur at sufficiently small background density but still before the possible disintegration of bound objects (like clusters of galaxies, galaxies, etc.) in Big Rip, type III singularity, Little Rip or Pseudo-Rip universe. This new effect may bring the future universe to chaotic state well before disintegration or Rip.

  19. Mathematical models of human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    To describe the human retina, due the absence of complete topographical data, mathematical models are required. The mathematical formula permits a relatively simple representation to explore the physical and optical characteristics of the retina, with particular parameters. Advanced mathematical models are applied for human vision studies, solid modelling and biomechanical behavior of the retina. The accurate modelling of the retina is important in the development of visual prostheses. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of researches for human retina modelling using mathematical models.

  20. Characterisation of enterocolitis in the piroxicam-accelerated interleukin-10 knock out mouse--a model mimicking inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersen, Kristine; Kvist, Peter Helding; Markholst, Helle; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Holm, Thomas Lindebo

    2014-02-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease a defective mucosal barrier, a dysregulated immune response and an excessive reactivity against the gut microbiota are assumed to cause a breakdown of the intestinal homeostasis and lead to chronic inflammation. Piroxicam treatment is a method for induction of colitis in IL-10 k.o. mice, which integrates a dysfunction of both the intestinal barrier and the immune system. However, the translational value of this model has not been thoroughly clarified. To characterise the piroxicam-accelerated colitis (PAC) IL-10 k.o. model with respect to clinical features, pathogenic mechanisms and its ability to respond to existing therapies. The PAC IL-10k.o. model was established on a C57BL/6J background and the clinical manifestations, immunological mechanisms and efficacy of ampicillin and anti-IL-12/23p40 treatment were assessed. The PAC IL-10 k.o. mice developed weight loss and diarrhoea, and colonoscopy revealed a thickened granulomatous mucosa. Histological evaluation of ileum and colon showed Crohn's disease-like changes with pronounced hyperplasia and focal transmural inflammation. Ileitis was also observed in piroxicam treated wild type mice. The total number of neutrophils, monocytes and natural killer cells was elevated in the blood compared to IL-10 k.o. and wild type mice, indicating a role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis. These findings were supported by analyses of the intestinal cytokine profile. Ampicillin and anti-IL-12/23p40 treatment significantly suppressed disease in the model. The PAC IL-10 k.o. model resembles several features of Crohn's disease and could be a useful in vivo model in preclinical research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new model of experimental fibrosis in hindlimb skeletal muscle of adult mdx mouse mimicking muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desguerre, Isabelle; Arnold, Ludovic; Vignaud, Alban; Cuvellier, Sylvain; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Gherardi, Romain K; Chelly, Jamel; Chretien, Fabrice; Mounier, Rémi; Ferry, Arnaud; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2012-06-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the lack of dystrophin that leads to severe myofiber degeneration. We have shown that endomysial fibrosis is correlated with age at ambulation loss in DMD patients. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse does not have fibrotic lesions in adult limb muscles. Here, we describe a model of chronic mechanical muscle injury that triggers chronic lesions in mdx hindlimb muscle. Micromechanical injuries were performed daily in tibialis anterior muscles for 2 weeks. Endomysial fibrosis appeared beginning 1 week post-injury, remained stable for 3 months and was associated with loss of specific maximal force. Fibrosis was associated with an increased expression of factors involved in fibrogenesis including α-smooth muscle actin, connective tissue growth factor, and lysyl oxidase, which colocalized with collagen deposits. This induced fibrotic dystrophic model may be useful to study mechanisms of fibrosis in dystrophinopathies and to evaluate antifibrotic treatments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  3. Stochastic Models of Human Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.

  4. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  5. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  6. Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Febriyani F R; Rothuizen, Tonia C; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Rotmans, Joris I; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-09-19

    Despite various studies to minimize host reaction following a biomaterial implantation, an appealing strategy in regenerative medicine is to actively use such an immune response to trigger and control tissue regeneration. We have developed an in vitro model to modulate the host response by tuning biomaterials' surface properties through surface modifications techniques as a new strategy for tissue regeneration applications. Results showed tunable surface topography, roughness, wettability, and chemistry by varying treatment type and exposure, allowing for the first time to correlate the effect of these surface properties on cell attachment, morphology, strength and proliferation, as well as proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6) and antiinflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1, IL-10) secreted in medium, and protein expression of collagen and elastin. Surface microstructuring, derived from chloroform partial etching, increased surface roughness and oxygen content. This resulted in enhanced cell adhesion, strength and proliferation as well as a balance of soluble factors for optimum collagen and elastin synthesis for tissue regeneration. By linking surface parameters to cell activity, we could determine the fate of the regenerated tissue to create successful soft tissue-engineered replacement.

  7. Randomized clinical trial comparing manual suture and different models of mechanical suture in the mimicking of bariatric surgery in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes MA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcos AP Fernandes,1 Bruno MT Pereira,2 Sandra M Guimarães,1 Aline Paganelli,3 Carlos Manoel CT Pereira,1 Claudio Sergio Batista4 1Institute of Obesity and Advanced Video Laparoscopic Surgery of Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Division of Trauma, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Laboratório de Patologia Micron Cell Diagnóstico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine of Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Context and objective: Variations in the ability of surgeons served as motivation for the development of devices that, overcoming individual differences, allow the techniques to be properly performed, and of which the end result was the best possible. Every technique must be reproduced reliably by the majority of surgeons for their results to be adopted and recognized as effective. The aim of this study was to compare the results, from the point of view of anatomic pathology, of manual sutures versus mechanical sutures using different models of linear mechanical staplers, in the procedure of gastroenteroanastomosis and enteroanastomosis in swine. Methods: Thirty-six healthy, adult, male Sus scrofa domesticus pigs, weighing between 20.7 and 25.5 kg, were used. The swine were randomly divided into four groups of nine pigs, according to the type of suture employed: group A, manual suture with Polysorb® 3-0 wire; group B, 80-shear linear stapler (Covidien® Gia 8038-S; group C, 75-shear linear stapler (Ethicon® Tlc 75; and group D, 75-shear linear stapler (Resource® Yq 75-3. A temporal study was established on the seventh postoperative day for histopathological analysis, and the degree of inflammation, fibrosis, and newly formed vessels, as well as the presence or absence of granulation tissue, foreign body granuloma, and necrosis were all evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: Observations during the histopathological

  8. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Nelson, Everette Jacob Remington

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial.

  9. Non-human Primate Models for Brain Disorders - Towards Genetic Manipulations via Innovative Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zilong; Li, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Modeling brain disorders has always been one of the key tasks in neurobiological studies. A wide range of organisms including worms, fruit flies, zebrafish, and rodents have been used for modeling brain disorders. However, whether complicated neurological and psychiatric symptoms can be faithfully mimicked in animals is still debatable. In this review, we discuss key findings using non-human primates to address the neural mechanisms underlying stress and anxiety behaviors, as well as technical advances for establishing genetically-engineered non-human primate models of autism spectrum disorders and other disorders. Considering the close evolutionary connections and similarity of brain structures between non-human primates and humans, together with the rapid progress in genome-editing technology, non-human primates will be indispensable for pathophysiological studies and exploring potential therapeutic methods for treating brain disorders.

  10. Human mobility: Models and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Hugo; Barthelemy, Marc; Ghoshal, Gourab; James, Charlotte R.; Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Menezes, Ronaldo; Ramasco, José J.; Simini, Filippo; Tomasini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of extensive geolocated datasets related to human movement, enabling scientists to quantitatively study individual and collective mobility patterns, and to generate models that can capture and reproduce the spatiotemporal structures and regularities in human trajectories. The study of human mobility is especially important for applications such as estimating migratory flows, traffic forecasting, urban planning, and epidemic modeling. In this survey, we review the approaches developed to reproduce various mobility patterns, with the main focus on recent developments. This review can be used both as an introduction to the fundamental modeling principles of human mobility, and as a collection of technical methods applicable to specific mobility-related problems. The review organizes the subject by differentiating between individual and population mobility and also between short-range and long-range mobility. Throughout the text the description of the theory is intertwined with real-world applications.

  11. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on

  13. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  14. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-05-08

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer.

  15. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  16. Brucellar spondylodiscitis mimicking tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshani Dewan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is primarily a disease of domestic and wild animals that can be transmitted to humans (zoonosis. Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose human health risk globally. Brucellosis in endemic and nonendemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading nonspecific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. It may affect any organ of the body with clinical manifestations that include fever, joint pains, loss of weight, sweating, cough, sciatica, splenic enlargement, liver enlargement, orchitis, etc. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella endemic countries. Whereas, this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and semi-automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity and mortality.

  17. Experimental investigation and theoretical modelling of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a liver tissue and comparison with a tissue mimicking hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Demitri, Christian; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Distante, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    Native harmonics generated by nonlinear distortion of ultrasound during propagation in a medium may cause misinterpretations in spectral analysis when studying contrast agents. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate nonlinear propagation effects of diagnostic ultrasound pulses in biological tissues and to assess whether a cellulose-based hydrogel can be a suitable material for tissue mimicking purposes. Hydrogel and pig liver tissue samples of various thicknesses were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values (range 0.06-0.60). Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from spectra of received signals and their ratio was then used to compare hydrogel and liver behaviours. Resulting trends are very similar for sample thicknesses up to 8 cm and highlight a significant increase in nonlinearity for MI > 0.3, for both liver and hydrogel. A numerical procedure was also employed to calculate pressure distribution along the beam axis: these theoretical results showed a very good agreement with experimental data in the low pressure range, though failed in predicting the MI threshold. In conclusion, the hydrogel resulted to be a suitable material for manufacturing tissue mimicking phantoms, in particular to study contrast agent behaviour with a "low power approach".

  18. Flexible Bayesian Human Fecundity Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungduk; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Pyper, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    Human fecundity is an issue of considerable interest for both epidemiological and clinical audiences, and is dependent upon a couple's biologic capacity for reproduction coupled with behaviors that place a couple at risk for pregnancy. Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to better model the conception probabilities by accounting for the acts of intercourse around the day of ovulation, i.e., during the fertile window. These models can be viewed in the framework of a generalized nonlinear model with an exponential link. However, a fixed choice of link function may not always provide the best fit, leading to potentially biased estimates for probability of conception. Motivated by this, we propose a general class of models for fecundity by relaxing the choice of the link function under the generalized nonlinear model framework. We use a sample from the Oxford Conception Study (OCS) to illustrate the utility and fit of this general class of models for estimating human conception. Our findings reinforce the need for attention to be paid to the choice of link function in modeling conception, as it may bias the estimation of conception probabilities. Various properties of the proposed models are examined and a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm was developed for implementing the Bayesian computations. The deviance information criterion measure and logarithm of pseudo marginal likelihood are used for guiding the choice of links. The supplemental material section contains technical details of the proof of the theorem stated in the paper, and contains further simulation results and analysis.

  19. Modelling biased human trust dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; Jaffry, S.W.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Within human trust related behaviour, according to the literature from the domains of Psychology and Social Sciences often non-rational behaviour can be observed. Current trust models that have been developed typically do not incorporate non-rational elements in the trust formation

  20. Human Resource Models: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    simulation models in which human performance plays an important part see, A.I. Siegel and J.J. Wolf , "Digital Behavioral Simulation--State-of-the-Art...atford and Petersen, Charles C., ’Mfaritine 421-439 Factors Adfecting Iberian Security," (Factores hbritimos Que "Northwestern University, Evanston

  1. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  2. Multicystic Hepatocarcinoma Mimicking Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC became easier in relation to the improved radiological examinations; however, the neoplasm may occur under atypical presentations mimicking other benign or malignant processes. Multicystic HCC mimicking a liver abscess associated with septic-type fever and leukocytosis is rare, has a poor prognosis, and poses diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient, who presented with fever, leukocytosis, and large cystic masses involving right and left lobes of the liver initially considered abscesses and finally diagnosed as HCC after open drainage and liver biopsy. Although the patient died on the tenth postoperative day due to pulmonary oedema, the authors emphasize the high index of suspicion needed in the diagnosis of this unusual presentation of HCC.

  3. Zebrafish models for human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, H R

    2013-05-01

    For decades, the advancement of cancer research has relied on in vivo models for examining key processes in cancer pathogenesis, including neoplastic transformation, progression, and response to therapy. These studies, which have traditionally relied on rodent models, have engendered a vast body of scientific literature. Recently, experimental cancer researchers have embraced many new and alternative model systems, including the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The general benefits of the zebrafish model for laboratory investigation, such as cost, size, fecundity, and generation time, were quickly superseded by the discovery that zebrafish are amenable to a wide range of investigative techniques, many of which are difficult or impossible to perform in mammalian models. These advantages, coupled with the finding that many aspects of carcinogenesis are conserved in zebrafish as compared with humans, have firmly established a unique niche for the zebrafish model in comparative cancer research. This article introduces methods for generating cancer models in zebrafish and reviews a range of models that have been developed for specific cancer types.

  4. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  5. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-02-21

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient's condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  6. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-01-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy. (paper)

  7. Counseling and Human Sexuality: A Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Bill

    1980-01-01

    Presents a counseling and human sexuality course model that provides counselors with an information base in human sexuality and assists them in exploring the emotional aspects of sexuality. Human sexuality is a vital aspect of personal development. (Author)

  8. Modest human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor function of CXCR3 is strongly enhanced by mimicking the CXCR4 ligand binding pocket in the CXCR3 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Huskens, Dana; Princen, Katrien

    2007-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR3 can exhibit weak coreceptor function for several human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 strains and clinical isolates. These viruses produced microscopically visible cytopathicity in U87.CD4.CXCR3 cell cultures, whereas untransfected (CXCR3-negative) U87...... at positions 300 and 304 of the CXCR3 receptor. This mutant receptor (CXCR3[K300A, S304E]) showed markedly enhanced HIV coreceptor function compared to the wild-type receptor (CXCR3[WT]). Moreover, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 exhibited antagonistic and anti-HIV activities in U87.CD4.CXCR3[K300A, S304E] cells...

  9. Propionic acidemia mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweikat, Imad M; Naser, Enas N; Abu Libdeh, Abdulsalam I; Naser, Osama J; Abu Gharbieh, Najwan N; Maraqa, Nizar F; Abu Libdeh, Bassam Y

    2011-05-01

    Propionic acidemia manifesting with hyperglycemia is rare. Few cases have been reported mainly of the neonatal-onset form associated with high mortality. We report a 9-month-old Palestinian boy who manifested with coma, severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis. Family history of unexplained infant deaths was helpful in reaching the correct diagnosis. In response to therapy, the patient regained consciousness without neurologic deficits and had normal examination. This is, to our knowledge, the first case report of late-onset propionic acidemia that had this presentation and survived. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  11. Aire-Deficient C57BL/6 Mice Mimicking the Common Human 13-Base Pair Deletion Mutation Present with Only a Mild Autoimmune Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubert, Francois-Xavier; Kinkel, Sarah A.; Crewther, Pauline E.; Cannon, Ping Z. F.; Webster, Kylie E.; Link, Maire; Uibo, Raivo; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Meager, Anthony; Forehan, Simon P.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Mittaz, Laureane; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Peterson, Paert; Heath, William R.; Scott, Hamish S.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is an important transcription regulator that mediates a role in central tolerance via promoting the "promiscuous" expression of tissue-specific Ags in the thymus. Although several mouse models of Aire deficiency have been described, none has analyzed the phenotype induced

  12. Vicarious Learning from Human Models in Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was app...

  13. Histoplasmosis mimicking metastatic spinal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Qu, Liyan; Zhu, Jian; Yang, Zhengming; Yan, Shigui

    2017-08-01

    Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus called Histoplasma. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis is based on the culture of biological samples and detection of fungus in tissues. Histoplasmosis can mimic malignant lesions. We report a 65-year-old, immunocompetent, male patient with back pain. We describe the main clinical and radiological characteristics in our patient who had vertebral histoplasmosis that mimicked cancer. A computed tomography scan showed lytic lesions of the right side of T4, T5, and T6 vertebral bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed abnormal marrow signals in T4, T5, and T6 vertebral bodies (low signal on T1, high on T2 and short time inversion recovery (STIR)). Which was mimicking malignancy, such as haematological malignancy and metastatic bone cancer. Therefore, thoracic spinal surgery using the anterior approach was performed. An intraoperative frozen section examination and routine postoperative pathology showed thoracic histoplasmosis infection. Treatment of histoplasmosis was performed with oral itraconazole. The lesions did not progress and the patient symptomatically improved at a follow-up of 26 months.

  14. Tissue-Mimicking Geometrical Constraints Stimulate Tissue-Like Constitution and Activity of Mouse Neonatal and Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Pilarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the question of to what extent a geometrical support acts as a physiological determining template in the setup of artificial cardiac tissue. Surface patterns with alternating concave to convex transitions of cell size dimensions were used to organize and orientate human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC-derived cardiac myocytes and mouse neonatal cardiac myocytes. The shape of the cells, as well as the organization of the contractile apparatus recapitulates the anisotropic line pattern geometry being derived from tissue geometry motives. The intracellular organization of the contractile apparatus and the cell coupling via gap junctions of cell assemblies growing in a random or organized pattern were examined. Cell spatial and temporal coordinated excitation and contraction has been compared on plain and patterned substrates. While the α-actinin cytoskeletal organization is comparable to terminally-developed native ventricular tissue, connexin-43 expression does not recapitulate gap junction distribution of heart muscle tissue. However, coordinated contractions could be observed. The results of tissue-like cell ensemble organization open new insights into geometry-dependent cell organization, the cultivation of artificial heart tissue from stem cells and the anisotropy-dependent activity of therapeutic compounds.

  15. Deformable human body model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  16. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  17. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Falcone

    Full Text Available We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  18. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  19. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. © 2013 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mouse Models of Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Reproduce the Heterogeneity of the Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Michelotti, Gregory Alexander; Xie, Guanhua; de Almeida, Thiago Pereira; Boursier, Jerome; Bohnic, Brittany; Guy, Cynthia D.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the potentially progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is the pandemic liver disease of our time. Although there are several animal models of NASH, consensus regarding the optimal model is lacking. We aimed to compare features of NASH in the two most widely-used mouse models: methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet and Western diet. Methods Mice were fed standard chow, MCD diet for 8 weeks, or Western diet (45% energy from fat, predominantly saturated fat, with 0.2% cholesterol, plus drinking water supplemented with fructose and glucose) for 16 weeks. Liver pathology and metabolic profile were compared. Results The metabolic profile associated with human NASH was better mimicked by Western diet. Although hepatic steatosis (i.e., triglyceride accumulation) was also more severe, liver non-esterified fatty acid content was lower than in the MCD diet group. NASH was also less severe and less reproducible in the Western diet model, as evidenced by less liver cell death/apoptosis, inflammation, ductular reaction, and fibrosis. Various mechanisms implicated in human NASH pathogenesis/progression were also less robust in the Western diet model, including oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy deregulation, and hedgehog pathway activation. Conclusion Feeding mice a Western diet models metabolic perturbations that are common in humans with mild NASH, whereas administration of a MCD diet better models the pathobiological mechanisms that cause human NAFLD to progress to advanced NASH. PMID:26017539

  1. Mouse models of diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis reproduce the heterogeneity of the human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Verdelho Machado

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the potentially progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, is the pandemic liver disease of our time. Although there are several animal models of NASH, consensus regarding the optimal model is lacking. We aimed to compare features of NASH in the two most widely-used mouse models: methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet and Western diet.Mice were fed standard chow, MCD diet for 8 weeks, or Western diet (45% energy from fat, predominantly saturated fat, with 0.2% cholesterol, plus drinking water supplemented with fructose and glucose for 16 weeks. Liver pathology and metabolic profile were compared.The metabolic profile associated with human NASH was better mimicked by Western diet. Although hepatic steatosis (i.e., triglyceride accumulation was also more severe, liver non-esterified fatty acid content was lower than in the MCD diet group. NASH was also less severe and less reproducible in the Western diet model, as evidenced by less liver cell death/apoptosis, inflammation, ductular reaction, and fibrosis. Various mechanisms implicated in human NASH pathogenesis/progression were also less robust in the Western diet model, including oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy deregulation, and hedgehog pathway activation.Feeding mice a Western diet models metabolic perturbations that are common in humans with mild NASH, whereas administration of a MCD diet better models the pathobiological mechanisms that cause human NAFLD to progress to advanced NASH.

  2. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  3. Berberine Improves Intestinal Motility and Visceral Pain in the Mouse Models Mimicking Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D Symptoms in an Opioid-Receptor Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Berberine and its derivatives display potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Here we aimed at characterizing the mechanism of action of berberine in the gastrointestinal (GI tract and cortical neurons using animal models and in vitro tests.The effect of berberine was characterized in murine models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D symptoms. Then the opioid antagonists were used to identify the receptors involved. Furthermore, the effect of berberineon opioid receptors expression was established in the mouse intestine and rat fetal cortical neurons.In mouse models, berberine prolonged GI transit and time to diarrhea in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced visceral pain. In physiological conditions the effects of berberine were mediated by mu- (MOR and delta- (DOR opioid receptors; hypermotility, excessive secretion and nociception were reversed by berberine through MOR and DOR-dependent action. We also found that berberine increased the expression of MOR and DOR in the mouse bowel and rat fetal cortical neurons.Berberine significantly improved IBS-D symptoms in animal models, possibly through mu- and delta- opioid receptors. Berberine may become a new drug candidate for the successful treatment of IBS-D in clinical conditions.

  4. Crowd Human Behavior for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-06

    Crowd Human Behavior for Modeling and Simulation Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. & Gordon Cooke, MEME Target Behavioral Response Laboratory, ARDEC...TYPE Conference Presentation 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Crowd Human Behavior for Modeling and Simulation...34understanding human behavior " and "model validation and verification" and will focus on modeling and simulation of crowds from a social scientist???s

  5. Biomechanical Modeling of the Human Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast- Induced Neurotrauma,” Frontiers in Neurology 3, 30 (2012). 13. R. A. Bauman, G. Ling...modeling, of both humans and animals , has gained momentum for the investigation of traumatic brain injury. These models require both accurate geometric...between model predictions and experimental data. This report details model calibration for all materials identified in models of a human head and

  6. Enzyme-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface for combating biomaterial-associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rujian; Xin, Zhirong; Xu, Shiai; Shi, Hengchong; Yang, Huawei; Song, Lingjie; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua; Khan, Ather Farooq; Li, Yonggang

    2017-11-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections critically compromise the functionality and performance of the medical devices, and pose a serious threat to human healthcare. Recently, natural DNase enzyme has been recognized as a potent material to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, the vulnerability of DNase dramatically limits its long-term performance in antibacterial applications. In this work, DNase-mimicking polymer brushes were constructed to mimic the DNA-cleavage activity as well as the macromolecular scaffold of the natural DNase. The bacteria repellent efficacy of DNase-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface was comparable to that of the DNase-functionalized surface. More importantly, due to their inherent stability, DNase-mimicking polymer brushes presented the much better performance in inhibiting bacterial biofilm development for prolonged periods of time, as compared to the natural DNase. The as-developed DNase-mimicking polymer brush-functionalized surface presents a promising approach to combat biomaterial-associated infections.

  7. Low-level red LED light inhibits hyperkeratinization and inflammation induced by unsaturated fatty acid in an in vitro model mimicking acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Fassih, Ali; Binner, Curt; Parsa, Ramine; Southall, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units (PSU), associated with increased sebum production, abnormal follicular keratinization (hyperkeratinization), follicular overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and increased inflammatory mediator release. Light therapy has attracted medical interests as a safe alternative treatment for acne. Both blue and red light therapies at high doses >10 J/cm 2 have demonstrated marked effects on inflammatory acne lesions. However, few studies have investigated the effects of lower doses of light. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological effects of lower doses of red light at 0.2-1.2 J/cm 2 for acne using an in vitro model previously developed to mimic the inflammation and hyperkeratinization observed clinically in acne. Human epidermal equivalents were topically exposed to an unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid (OA), followed by red light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments (light-plus-OA treatments). Endpoints evaluated included the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α, epidermal barrier integrity, as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and stratum corneum (SC) thickness to monitor hyperkeratinization. OA-induced IL-1α release was significantly (P LED light at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.2 J/cm 2 , from 266 ± 11 pg/ml of no-light-plus-OA-treated (OA treatment without light) controls to 216 ± 9, 231 ± 8, and 212 ± 7 pg/ml, respectively. Histological examination showed that SC thickening following OA treatment was reduced from 43% of total epidermis for no-light-plus-OA treatment to 37% and 38% of total epidermis following 0.5 and 1.1 J/cm 2 red light plus OA treatment, respectively (P light-plus-OA treatment improved OA-induced TEER changes from 29% of baseline for no-light-plus-OA treatment, to 36% of baseline. Low level red LED light therapy could provide beneficial effects of anti-inflammation, normalizing pilosebaceous

  8. Hyaluronidase allergy mimicking orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichura, Nirav D; Alam, Md Shahid; Jaichandran, V V; Mistry, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2017-10-20

    Hyaluronidase enzyme is a common additive with local anesthetic agent to facilitate faster permeation of the anesthetic in periocular tissues during ophthalmic surgery. We report a series of five subjects presenting with clinical features mimicking orbital cellulitis following peribulbar anesthesia and consequently diagnosed with hyaluronidase hypersensitivity. The study was conducted at a tertiary eye care center in Southern India. It was a retrospective interventional case series. We retrospectively reviewed the case records of patients diagnosed as and treated for hyaluronidase allergy from 2011 to 2015. The presenting features included periocular edema, proptosis, and restriction of ocular movements. The symptoms appeared immediately after the injection to as late as 6 days after the surgery. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, relevant investigations, and dermal allergy tests. All five patients tested positive for hyaluronidase. Patients were treated with antihistaminics, systemic steroids, and emergency orbital decompression, when required. In majority of the patients, symptoms resolved in 3-5 days. Clinically, hyaluronidase allergy may mimic orbital cellulitis, which in the context of a recent intraocular surgery may be alarming for both the patient and the surgeon. However, with prompt intervention, the prognosis is extremely favorable in cases of hyaluronidase allergy. It is important for ophthalmic surgeons and anesthetists to recognize and differentiate this entity from the more serious vision threatening conditions.

  9. Mimicking exercise in three-dimensional bioengineered skeletal muscle to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Andreas M; Turner, Daniel C; Martin, Neil R W; Sharples, Adam P

    2018-03-01

    Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge for the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in vitro. Importantly, we provide a current opinion on the use of acute and chronic exercise mimicking stimuli (electrical stimulation and mechanical overload) and the subsequent mechanisms underlying physiological adaptation in 3D bioengineered muscle. We also identify that future studies using the latest bioreactor technology, providing simultaneous electrical and mechanical loading and flow perfusion in vitro, may provide the basis for advancing knowledge in the future. We also envisage, that more studies using genetic, pharmacological, and hormonal modifications applied in human 3D bioengineered skeletal muscle may allow for an enhanced discovery of the in-depth mechanisms underlying the response to exercise in relevant human testing systems. Finally, 3D bioengineered skeletal muscle may provide an opportunity to be used as a pre-clinical in vitro test-bed to investigate the mechanisms underlying catabolic disease, while modelling disease itself via the use of cells derived from human patients without exposing animals or humans (in phase I trials) to the side effects of potential therapies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. On scaling of human body models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human body is not an unique being, everyone is another from the point of view of anthropometry and mechanical characteristics which means that division of the human body population to categories like 5%-tile, 50%-tile and 95%-tile from the application point of view is not enough. On the other hand, the development of a particular human body model for all of us is not possible. That is why scaling and morphing algorithms has started to be developed. The current work describes the development of a tool for scaling of the human models. The idea is to have one (or couple of standard model(s as a base and to create other models based on these basic models. One has to choose adequate anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters that describe given group of humans to be scaled and morphed among.

  11. Computer modeling of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.

  12. Stress, overeating, and obesity: Insights from human studies and preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Pearson, Carolyn; Crow, Scott; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Eating disorders and obesity have become predominant in human society. Their association to modern lifestyle, encompassing calorie-rich diets, psychological stress, and comorbidity with major diseases are well documented. Unfortunately the biological basis remains elusive and the pharmacological treatment inadequate, in part due to the limited availability of valid animal models. Human research on binge eating disorder (BED) proves a strong link between stress exposure and bingeing: state-levels of stress and negative affect are linked to binge eating in individuals with BED both in laboratory settings and the natural environment. Similarly, classical animal models of BED reveal an association between acute exposure to stressors and binging but they are often associated with unchanged or decreased body weight, thus reflecting a negative energy balance, which is uncommon in humans where most commonly BED is associated with excessive or unstable body weight gain. Recent mouse models of subordination stress induce spontaneous binging and hyperphagia, altogether more closely mimicking the behavioral and metabolic features of human BED. Therefore the translational relevance of subordination stress models could facilitate the identification of the neurobiological basis of BED and obesity-associated disease and inform on the development of innovative therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  14. Human Performance Models of Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Byrne, Michael D.; Deutsch, Stephen; Lebiere, Christian; Leiden, Ken; Wickens, Christopher D.; Corker, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Five modeling teams from industry and academia were chosen by the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program to develop human performance models (HPM) of pilots performing taxi operations and runway instrument approaches with and without advanced displays. One representative from each team will serve as a panelist to discuss their team s model architecture, augmentations and advancements to HPMs, and aviation-safety related lessons learned. Panelists will discuss how modeling results are influenced by a model s architecture and structure, the role of the external environment, specific modeling advances and future directions and challenges for human performance modeling in aviation.

  15. Animal models for human genetic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharif Sons

    to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their ... disturbances (including anxiety and depression) ..... Leibovici M, Safieddine S, Petit C (2008). Mouse models for human hereditary deafness. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 84:385-429. Levi YF, Meiner Z, Canello T, Frid K, Kovacs GG, Budka H, Avrahami.

  16. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...

  17. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  18. A drosophila model for EGFR-Ras and PI3K-dependent human glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee D Read

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas, the most common malignant tumors of the nervous system, frequently harbor mutations that activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathways. To investigate the genetic basis of this disease, we developed a glioma model in Drosophila. We found that constitutive coactivation of EGFR-Ras and PI3K pathways in Drosophila glia and glial precursors gives rise to neoplastic, invasive glial cells that create transplantable tumor-like growths, mimicking human glioma. Our model represents a robust organotypic and cell-type-specific Drosophila cancer model in which malignant cells are created by mutations in signature genes and pathways thought to be driving forces in a homologous human cancer. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EGFR and PI3K initiate malignant neoplastic transformation via a combinatorial genetic network composed primarily of other pathways commonly mutated or activated in human glioma, including the Tor, Myc, G1 Cyclins-Cdks, and Rb-E2F pathways. This network acts synergistically to coordinately stimulate cell cycle entry and progression, protein translation, and inappropriate cellular growth and migration. In particular, we found that the fly orthologs of CyclinE, Cdc25, and Myc are key rate-limiting genes required for glial neoplasia. Moreover, orthologs of Sin1, Rictor, and Cdk4 are genes required only for abnormal neoplastic glial proliferation but not for glial development. These and other genes within this network may represent important therapeutic targets in human glioma.

  19. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  20. Screening of different stress factors and development of growth/no growth models for Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in modified Sabouraud medium, mimicking intermediate moisture foods (IMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A; Daelman, J; Van Steenkiste, J; Devlieghere, F

    2012-12-01

    The microbial stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF) is linked with the possible growth of osmophilic yeast and xerophilic moulds. As most of these products have a long shelf life the assessment of the microbial stability is often an important hurdle in product innovation. In this study a screening of several Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strains towards individual stress factors was performed and growth/no growth models were developed, incorporating a(w), pH, acetic acid and ethanol concentrations. These stress factors are important for sweet IMF such as chocolate fillings, ganache, marzipan, etc. A comparison was made between a logistic regression model with and without the incorporation of time as an explanatory variable. Next to the model development, a screening of the effect of chemical preservatives (sorbate and benzoate) was performed, in combination with relevant stress factors within the experimental design of the model. The results of the study showed that the influence of the investigated environmental stress factors on the growth/no growth boundary of Z. rouxii is the most significant in the first 30-40 days of incubation. Incorporating time as an explanatory variable in the model had the advantage that the growth/no growth boundary could be predicted at each time between 0 and 60 days of incubation at 22 °C. However, the growth/no growth boundary enlarged significantly leading to a less accurate prediction on the growth probability of Z. rouxii. The developed models can be a useful tool for product developers of sweet IMF. Screening with chemical preservatives revealed that benzoic acid was much less active towards Z. rouxii than sorbic acid or a mixture of both acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Adaptive Mechatronics and Human-System Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics in projects for mechatronics studies, which are 'Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM' and 'Human-System Modelling (HSM', are presented in this paper. The main research theme of the HAM project is a design strategy for a new intelligent mechatronics system, which enhances operators' skills during machine operation. Skill analyses and control system design have been addressed. In the HSM project, human modelling based on hierarchical classification of skills was studied, including the following five types of skills: social, planning, cognitive, motion and sensory-motor skills. This paper includes digests of these research topics and the outcomes concerning each type of skill. Relationships with other research activities, knowledge and information that will be helpful for readers who are trying to study assistive human-mechatronics systems are also mentioned.

  2. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  3. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial...

  4. The Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    needs to support such development through concepts and methods. This leads to a methodological approach that focuses on new artifacts to supplement and substitute existing artifacts. Through a design case, we develop the methodological approach and illustrate how the human–artifact model can be applied...... to analyze present artifacts and to design future ones. The model is used to structure such analysis and to reason about findings while providing leverage from activity theoretical insights on mediation, dialectics, and levels of activity....

  5. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  7. Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoshita, M; Cagan, R L

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development. Flies offer rapid, efficient platforms by which novel classes of drugs can be identified as candidate anticancer leads. Further, we discuss the use of Drosophila as a platform to develop therapies for individual patients by modeling the tumor's genetic complexity. Drosophila provides both a classical and a novel tool to identify new therapeutics, complementing other more traditional cancer tools. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  9. Effect of Temperature-Sensitive Poloxamer Solution/Gel Material on Pericardial Adhesion Prevention: Supine Rabbit Model Study Mimicking Cardiac Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kang

    Full Text Available We investigated the mobility of a temperature-sensitive poloxamer/Alginate/CaCl2 mixture (PACM in relation to gravity and cardiac motion and the efficacy of PACM on the prevention of pericardial adhesion in a supine rabbit model.A total of 50 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups according to materials applied after epicardial abrasion: PACM and dye mixture (group PD; n = 25 and saline as the control group (group CO; n = 25. In group PD, rabbits were maintained in a supine position with appropriate sedation, and location of mixture of PACM and dye was assessed by CT scan at the immediate postoperative period and 12 hours after surgery. The grade of adhesions was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically two weeks after surgery.In group PD, enhancement was localized in the anterior pericardial space, where PACM and dye mixture was applied, on immediate post-surgical CT scans. However, the volume of the enhancement was significantly decreased at the anterior pericardial space 12 hours later (P < .001. Two weeks after surgery, group PD had significantly lower macroscopic adhesion score (P = .002 and fibrosis score (P = .018 than did group CO. Inflammation score and expression of anti-macrophage antibody in group PD were lower than those in group CO, although the differences were not significant.In a supine rabbit model study, the anti-adhesion effect was maintained at the area of PACM application, although PACM shifted with gravity and heart motion. For more potent pericardial adhesion prevention, further research and development on the maintenance of anti-adhesion material position are required.

  10. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  11. A humanized mouse model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica E Calderon

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb is the second leading infectious cause of death worldwide and the primary cause of death in people living with HIV/AIDS. There are several excellent animal models employed to study tuberculosis (TB, but many have limitations for reproducing human pathology and none are amenable to the direct study of HIV/M.tb co-infection. The humanized mouse has been increasingly employed to explore HIV infection and other pathogens where animal models are limiting. Our goal was to develop a small animal model of M.tb infection using the bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT humanized mouse. NOD-SCID/γc(null mice were engrafted with human fetal liver and thymus tissue, and supplemented with CD34(+ fetal liver cells. Excellent reconstitution, as measured by expression of the human CD45 pan leukocyte marker by peripheral blood populations, was observed at 12 weeks after engraftment. Human T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, as well as natural killer cells and monocyte/macrophages were all observed within the human leukocyte (CD45(+ population. Importantly, human T cells were functionally competent as determined by proliferative capacity and effector molecule (e.g. IFN-γ, granulysin, perforin expression in response to positive stimuli. Animals infected intranasally with M.tb had progressive bacterial infection in the lung and dissemination to spleen and liver from 2-8 weeks post infection. Sites of infection in the lung were characterized by the formation of organized granulomatous lesions, caseous necrosis, bronchial obstruction, and crystallization of cholesterol deposits. Human T cells were distributed throughout the lung, liver, and spleen at sites of inflammation and bacterial growth and were organized to the periphery of granulomas. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential to use the humanized mouse as a model of experimental TB.

  12. A statistical model of future human actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, G.

    1992-02-01

    A critical review has been carried out of models of future human actions during the long term post-closure period of a radioactive waste repository. Various Markov models have been considered as alternatives to the standard Poisson model, and the problems of parameterisation have been addressed. Where the simplistic Poisson model unduly exaggerates the intrusion risk, some form of Markov model may have to be introduced. This situation may well arise for shallow repositories, but it is less likely for deep repositories. Recommendations are made for a practical implementation of a computer based model and its associated database. (Author)

  13. Material Models for the Human Torso Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    ARL-TR-8338 ● Apr 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Material Models for the Human Torso Finite Element Model by Carolyn E...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8338 ● Apr 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Material Models for the...Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT

  14. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  15. A Model of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

  16. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  17. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human models of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Proudfoot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a syndrome that is characterised by acute inflammation and tissue injury that affects normal gas exchange in the lungs. Hallmarks of ALI include dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary membrane resulting in increased vascular permeability, an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung and a local pro-coagulant state. Patients with ALI present with severe hypoxaemia and radiological evidence of bilateral pulmonary oedema. The syndrome has a mortality rate of approximately 35% and usually requires invasive mechanical ventilation. ALI can follow direct pulmonary insults, such as pneumonia, or occur indirectly as a result of blood-borne insults, commonly severe bacterial sepsis. Although animal models of ALI have been developed, none of them fully recapitulate the human disease. The differences between the human syndrome and the phenotype observed in animal models might, in part, explain why interventions that are successful in models have failed to translate into novel therapies. Improved animal models and the development of human in vivo and ex vivo models are therefore required. In this article, we consider the clinical features of ALI, discuss the limitations of current animal models and highlight how emerging human models of ALI might help to answer outstanding questions about this syndrome.

  19. Isolated ovarian tuberculosis mimicking ovarian carcinoma: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although genitourinary tuberculosis is common, reports of isolated ovarian tuberculosis are rare. However, its presentation can mimick that of an ovarian tumour, leading to diagnostic difficulties. A woman of 17 years presented with chronic pelvic pain, weight loss, a right ovarian mass on ultrasound, and a significantly ...

  20. Uncomplicated bifid Meckle's diverticulum mimicking recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was excised with V shaped ileal wall. Histopathology showed features of Meckel's diverticulum without any Gastric or pancreatic tissue in mucosa. Clinicians should be wary of a bifid meckel's diverticulum as a very rare anomaly that can be symptomatic mimicking appendicitis. Keywords: Bifid, Meckel's, Diverticulitis ...

  1. Right paratesticular abscess mimicking neonatal testicular torsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U.O. Ezomike

    Right paratesticular abscess mimicking neonatal testicular torsion and caused by Proteus mirabilis. U.O. Ezomikea,∗. , M.A. Ituena, S.C. Ekpemoa, S.O. Ekenzeb a Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria b Sub-Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, ...

  2. Acute dystonia mimicking angioedema of the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Pallesen, Kristine A U; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acute dystonia of the face, jaw and tongue caused by metoclopramide and mimicking angioedema. The patient had attacks for several years before the correct diagnosis was made and we present the first ever published video footage of an attack. This adverse drug reaction is known...

  3. Peripancreatic fat necrosis mimicking pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M.; Schima, W.; Turetschek, K.; Thurnher, S.A. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fuegger, R. [Dept. of Surgery, University of Vienna (Austria); Oberhuber, G. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-06-01

    A case of peripancreatic fat necrosis, after an episode of acute pancreatitis, which mimicked pancreatic cancer with lymph node metastases, is presented. We describe the imaging findings with helical CT scanning and with unenhanced and mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging, with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  4. Iliacus Abscess with Radiculopathy Mimicking Herniated Nucleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Aadditional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:392-3. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows ...

  5. Modeled microgravity suppressed invasion and migration of human glioblastoma U87 cells through downregulating store-operated calcium entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zi-xuan [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Rao, Wei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Huan [Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Nan-ding [Department of Cardiology, Xi' an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Si, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Jun-chang [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Zong-ren, E-mail: zongren@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China)

    2015-02-13

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor and is characterized with robust invasion and migration potential resulting in poor prognosis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that modeled microgravity (MMG) could decline the cell proliferation and attenuate the metastasis potential in several cell lines. In this study, we studied the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials of glioblastoma in human glioblastoma U87 cells. We found that MMG stimulation significantly attenuated the invasion and migration potentials, decreased thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and downregulated the expression of Orai1 in U87 cells. Inhibition of SOCE by 2-APB or stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) downregulation both mimicked the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of Orai1 significantly weakened the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Therefore, these findings indicated that MMG stimulation inhibited the invasion and migration potentials of U87 cells by downregulating the expression of Orai1 and sequentially decreasing the SOCE, suggesting that MMG might be a new potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma treatment in the future. - Highlights: • Modeled microgravity (MMG) suppressed migration and invasion in U87 cells. • MMG downregulated the SOCE and the expression of Orai1. • SOCE inhibition mimicked the effects of MMG on migration and invasion potentials. • Restoration of SOCE diminished the effects of MMG on migration and invasion.

  6. Modeled microgravity suppressed invasion and migration of human glioblastoma U87 cells through downregulating store-operated calcium entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zi-xuan; Rao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Wang, Nan-ding; Si, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Jun-chang; Wang, Zong-ren

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor and is characterized with robust invasion and migration potential resulting in poor prognosis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that modeled microgravity (MMG) could decline the cell proliferation and attenuate the metastasis potential in several cell lines. In this study, we studied the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials of glioblastoma in human glioblastoma U87 cells. We found that MMG stimulation significantly attenuated the invasion and migration potentials, decreased thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and downregulated the expression of Orai1 in U87 cells. Inhibition of SOCE by 2-APB or stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) downregulation both mimicked the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of Orai1 significantly weakened the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Therefore, these findings indicated that MMG stimulation inhibited the invasion and migration potentials of U87 cells by downregulating the expression of Orai1 and sequentially decreasing the SOCE, suggesting that MMG might be a new potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma treatment in the future. - Highlights: • Modeled microgravity (MMG) suppressed migration and invasion in U87 cells. • MMG downregulated the SOCE and the expression of Orai1. • SOCE inhibition mimicked the effects of MMG on migration and invasion potentials. • Restoration of SOCE diminished the effects of MMG on migration and invasion

  7. Mechanical model of human eye compliance for volumetric occlusion break surge measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, David W; Miller, Kevin M

    2018-02-01

    To develop a mechanical model of human eye compliance for volumetric studies. Alcon Research, Ltd., Lake Forest, California, USA. Experimental study. Enucleated human eyes underwent pressurization and depressurization cycles with peak intraocular pressures (IOPs) of 60 to 100 mm Hg; anterior chamber pressure and volume changes were measured. Average net volume change curves were calculated as a function of IOP for each eye. Overall mean volumes were computed from each eye's average results at pressure points extrapolated over the range of 5 to 90 mm Hg. A 2-term exponential function was fit to these results. A fluid chamber with a displaceable piston was created as a mechanical model of this equation. A laser confocal displacement meter was used to measure piston displacement. A test bed incorporated the mechanical model with a mounted phacoemulsification probe and allowed for simulated occlusion breaks. Surge volume was calculated from piston displacement. An exponential function, V = C 1 × exp(C 2 × IOP) + C 3  × exp(C 4  × IOP) - V 0 , where V, the volume, was fit to the final depressurization curve obtained from 15 enucleated human eyes. The C 1 through C 4 values were -0.07141, -0.23055, -0.14972, and -0.02006, respectively. The equation was modeled using a piston system with 3 parallel springs that engaged serially. The mechanical model mimicked depressurization curves observed in human cadaver eyes. The resulting mechanical compliance model measured ocular volumetric changes and thus would be helpful in characterizing the postocclusion break surge response. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of walking human model using agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar; Racic, Vitomir

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of walking people with large vibrating structures, such as footbridges and floors, in the vertical direction is an important yet challenging phenomenon to describe mathematically. Several different models have been proposed in the literature to simulate interaction of stationary people with vibrating structures. However, the research on moving (walking) human models, explicitly identified for vibration serviceability assessment of civil structures, is still sparse. In this study, the results of a comprehensive set of FRF-based modal tests were used, in which, over a hundred test subjects walked in different group sizes and walking patterns on a test structure. An agent-based model was used to simulate discrete traffic-structure interactions. The occupied structure modal parameters found in tests were used to identify the parameters of the walking individual's single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mass-spring-damper model using 'reverse engineering' methodology. The analysis of the results suggested that the normal distribution with the average of μ = 2.85Hz and standard deviation of σ = 0.34Hz can describe human SDOF model natural frequency. Similarly, the normal distribution with μ = 0.295 and σ = 0.047 can describe the human model damping ratio. Compared to the previous studies, the agent-based modelling methodology proposed in this paper offers significant flexibility in simulating multi-pedestrian walking traffics, external forces and simulating different mechanisms of human-structure and human-environment interaction at the same time.

  9. Analisis Model Pengukuran Human Capital dalam Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of human capital is not an easy to do because it is dynamic and always changing in accordance with the changing circumstances. Determination of dimensions and indicators of measurement needs to consider various factors such as situations and also the research scopes. This article has objectives to review the concepts, dimensions and measurement models of human capital. The research method used was literature study with a major reference source from current journal articles that discuss the measurement of human capital. Results of the study showed that basically the definition set forth in any dimension containing either explicitly or implicitly. In addition, the result indicated that there are three main categories of equality among researchers regarding the definition of human capital which emphasizes on: economic value/productivity, education, and abilities/competencies. The results also showed that the use of definitions, dimensions, and indicators for measurement of human capital depends on the situation, the scope of research, and the size of the organization. The conclusion of the study indicated that the measurement model and determination of dimensions and indicators of human capital measurement will determine the effectiveness of the measurement, and will have an impact on organizational performance.

  10. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutenedjian Mady, Carlos Eduardo; Silva Ferreira, Maurício; Itizo Yanagihara, Jurandir; Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  11. Models of the Human in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke; Flood, Gavin

    2019-01-01

    This research project explores the origins, developments and transformations of yogic models of the human (e.g. kuṇḍalinī yoga, the cakra system and ritual sex) in the tantric goddess traditions or what might be called Śāktism of medieval India. These Śākta models of esoteric anatomy originating...... in medieval ascetic traditions became highly influential in South Asia and were popularized in the West....

  12. Are animal models predictive for humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics.

  13. [Primate models of human viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I; Zamiatina, N A

    2006-01-01

    The paper summarizes the updates available in the literature and the authors' own data on the etiology of hepatitis, its models, and experimental studies on susceptible simian types. A comparative analysis of the etiological agents--the causative agents of simian and human hepatitis will give a better insight into the evolution of its viruses.

  14. Human driven transitions in complex model ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfoot, Mike; Newbold, Tim; Tittinsor, Derek; Purves, Drew

    2015-04-01

    Human activities have been observed to be impacting ecosystems across the globe, leading to reduced ecosystem functioning, altered trophic and biomass structure and ultimately ecosystem collapse. Previous attempts to understand global human impacts on ecosystems have usually relied on statistical models, which do not explicitly model the processes underlying the functioning of ecosystems, represent only a small proportion of organisms and do not adequately capture complex non-linear and dynamic responses of ecosystems to perturbations. We use a mechanistic ecosystem model (1), which simulates the underlying processes structuring ecosystems and can thus capture complex and dynamic interactions, to investigate boundaries of complex ecosystems to human perturbation. We explore several drivers including human appropriation of net primary production and harvesting of animal biomass. We also present an analysis of the key interactions between biotic, societal and abiotic earth system components, considering why and how we might think about these couplings. References: M. B. J. Harfoot et al., Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001841 (2014).

  15. Quality assessment of human behavior models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and efficient models of human behavior offer great potential in military and crisis management applications. However, little attention has been given to the man ner in which it can be determined if this potential is actually realized. In this study a quality assessment approach that

  16. Future of human models for crash analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    In the crash safety field mathematical models can be applied in practically all area's of research and development including: reconstruction of actual accidents, design (CAD) of the crash response of vehicles, safety devices and roadside facilities and in support of human impact biomechanical

  17. Optical models of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-03-01

    Optical models of the human eye have been used in visual science for purposes such as providing a framework for explaining optical phenomena in vision, for predicting how refraction and aberrations are affected by change in ocular biometry and as computational tools for exploring the limitations imposed on vision by the optical system of the eye. We address the issue of what is understood by optical model eyes, discussing the 'encyclopaedia' and 'toy train' approaches to modelling. An extensive list of purposes of models is provided. We discuss many of the theoretical types of optical models (also schematic eyes) of varying anatomical accuracy, including single, three and four refracting surface variants. We cover the models with lens structure in the form of nested shells and gradient index. Many optical eye models give accurate predictions only for small angles and small fields of view. If aberrations and image quality are important to consider, such 'paraxial' model eyes must be replaced by 'finite model' eyes incorporating features such as aspheric surfaces, tilts and decentrations, wavelength-dependent media and curved retinas. Many optical model eyes are population averages and must become adaptable to account for age, gender, ethnicity, refractive error and accommodation. They can also be customised for the individual when extensive ocular biometry and optical performance data are available. We consider which optical model should be used for a particular purpose, adhering to the principle that the best model is the simplest fit for the task. We provide a glimpse into the future of optical models of the human eye. This review is interwoven with historical developments, highlighting the important people who have contributed so richly to our understanding of visual optics. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model for proteomic biomarker studies : From rat to human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MScl) is defined by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. Some of the disease mechanisms are known but the cause of this complex disorder stays an enigma. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model mimicking many

  19. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS. Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser’s syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms.

  20. Giant chondroid syringoma radiologically mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkiz Uyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroid syringoma, or mixed tumor of skin, is a relatively rare, usually benign sweat gland tumor, most often seen in the head-and-neck region. Rare malignant examples have been reported, commonly involving the extremities. We report here a case radiologically mimicking a malignant neoplasm, but histologically-proven benign subcutaneous chondroid syringoma, arising in the anterior aspect of the upper thigh of a 59-year-old male.

  1. Hydroxychloroquine-Associated Hyperpigmentation Mimicking Elder Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroxychloroquine may result in cutaneous dyschromia. Older individuals who are the victims of elder abuse can present with bruising and resolving ecchymoses. Purpose The features of hydroxychloroquine-associated hyperpigmentation are described, the mucosal and skin manifestations of elder abuse are reviewed, and the mucocutaneous mimickers of elder abuse are summarized. Case Report An elderly woman being treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus developed d...

  2. Photochromic crystalline systems mimicking bio-functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kingo; Nishimura, Ryo; Hatano, Eri; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Yokojima, Satoshi

    2018-01-31

    Photoresponsive crystalline systems mimicking bio-functions are prepared using photochromic diarylethenes. Upon UV irradiation to a diarylethene crystal, the self-aggregated and needle-shaped crystals of photogenerated colored closed-ring isomer were generated on the surface. The rough surface showed the superhydrophobic lotus effect. By controlling the heating procedures, UV irradiation processes, and molecular structural modification, rose-petal effects of wetting, anti-reflective moth eye effect, and double-roughness structure mimicking the surface of lotus leaf were observed. By changing the molecular structure, superhydrophilic surface mimicking snail shell was photogenerated. We also found a derivative to form hollow crystals by sublimation. The crystals showed photosalient effect and the photo-response similar to impatiens was observed after small beads were packed in the hollow. These photoresponsive functions are unique, and they demonstrate a macroscopic response by assembling microscopic molecular movement of light. In the future, such a molecular assembly system will be a promising candidate for fabricating photoresponsive architectures and soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  4. Computer Modeling of Human Delta Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dzimbova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of selective agonists of δ-opioid receptor as well as the model of interaction of ligands with this receptor is the subjects of increased interest. In the absence of crystal structures of opioid receptors, 3D homology models with different templates have been reported in the literature. The problem is that these models are not available for widespread use. The aims of our study are: (1 to choose within recently published crystallographic structures templates for homology modeling of the human δ-opioid receptor (DOR; (2 to evaluate the models with different computational tools; and (3 to precise the most reliable model basing on correlation between docking data and in vitro bioassay results. The enkephalin analogues, as ligands used in this study, were previously synthesized by our group and their biological activity was evaluated. Several models of DOR were generated using different templates. All these models were evaluated by PROCHECK and MolProbity and relationship between docking data and in vitro results was determined. The best correlations received for the tested models of DOR were found between efficacy (erel of the compounds, calculated from in vitro experiments and Fitness scoring function from docking studies. New model of DOR was generated and evaluated by different approaches. This model has good GA341 value (0.99 from MODELLER, good values from PROCHECK (92.6% of most favored regions and MolProbity (99.5% of favored regions. Scoring function correlates (Pearson r = -0.7368, p-value = 0.0097 with erel of a series of enkephalin analogues, calculated from in vitro experiments. So, this investigation allows suggesting a reliable model of DOR. Newly generated model of DOR receptor could be used further for in silico experiments and it will give possibility for faster and more correct design of selective and effective ligands for δ-opioid receptor.

  5. Human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Thomas W

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propofol is widely used for both short-term anesthesia and long-term sedation. It has unusual pharmacokinetics because of its high lipid solubility. The standard approach to describing the pharmacokinetics is by a multi-compartmental model. This paper presents the first detailed human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for propofol. Methods PKQuest, a freely distributed software routine http://www.pkquest.com, was used for all the calculations. The "standard human" PBPK parameters developed in previous applications is used. It is assumed that the blood and tissue binding is determined by simple partition into the tissue lipid, which is characterized by two previously determined set of parameters: 1 the value of the propofol oil/water partition coefficient; 2 the lipid fraction in the blood and tissues. The model was fit to the individual experimental data of Schnider et. al., Anesthesiology, 1998; 88:1170 in which an initial bolus dose was followed 60 minutes later by a one hour constant infusion. Results The PBPK model provides a good description of the experimental data over a large range of input dosage, subject age and fat fraction. Only one adjustable parameter (the liver clearance is required to describe the constant infusion phase for each individual subject. In order to fit the bolus injection phase, for 10 or the 24 subjects it was necessary to assume that a fraction of the bolus dose was sequestered and then slowly released from the lungs (characterized by two additional parameters. The average weighted residual error (WRE of the PBPK model fit to the both the bolus and infusion phases was 15%; similar to the WRE for just the constant infusion phase obtained by Schnider et. al. using a 6-parameter NONMEM compartmental model. Conclusion A PBPK model using standard human parameters and a simple description of tissue binding provides a good description of human propofol kinetics. The major advantage of a

  6. Towards the establishment of a porcine model to study human amebiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Girard-Misguich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is an important parasite of the human intestine. Its life cycle is monoxenous with two stages: (i the trophozoite, growing in the intestine and (ii the cyst corresponding to the dissemination stage. The trophozoite in the intestine can live as a commensal leading to asymptomatic infection or as a tissue invasive form producing mucosal ulcers and liver abscesses. There is no animal model mimicking the whole disease cycle. Most of the biological information on E. histolytica has been obtained from trophozoite adapted to axenic culture. The reproduction of intestinal amebiasis in an animal model is difficult while for liver amebiasis there are well-described rodent models. During this study, we worked on the assessment of pigs as a new potential model to study amebiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first co-cultured trophozoites of E. histolytica with porcine colonic fragments and observed a disruption of the mucosal architecture. Then, we showed that outbred pigs can be used to reproduce some lesions associated with human amebiasis. A detailed analysis was performed using a washed closed-jejunal loops model. In loops inoculated with virulent amebas a severe acute ulcerative jejunitis was observed with large hemorrhagic lesions 14 days post-inoculation associated with the presence of the trophozoites in the depth of the mucosa in two out four animals. Furthermore, typical large sized hepatic abscesses were observed in the liver of one animal 7 days post-injection in the portal vein and the liver parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS: The pig model could help with simultaneously studying intestinal and extraintestinal lesion development.

  7. Model Dinamik Penularan Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutimin, Sutimin; Imamudin, Imamudin

    2009-01-01

    -Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) adalah virus yang dapat merusak sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia Virus HIV dapat menyerang orang yang rentan ketika orang yang rentan itu melakukan kontak dengan penderita virus HIV hingga terinfeksi virus HIV pada akhirnya dapat menderita AIDS atau seropositif non-AIDS. Dengan asumsi-asumsi tentang penularan virus HIV dapat diformulasikan suatu model matematika tentang perpindahan antar orang-orang rentan ke infeksi HIV, penderita AIDS dan seropositif non-A...

  8. Modeling human influenza infection in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radigan KA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn A Radigan,1 Alexander V Misharin,2 Monica Chi,1 GR Scott Budinger11Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 2Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Influenza is the leading cause of death from an infectious cause. Because of its clinical importance, many investigators use animal models to understand the biologic mechanisms of influenza A virus replication, the immune response to the virus, and the efficacy of novel therapies. This review will focus on the biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns that must be considered in pursuing influenza research, in addition to focusing on the two animal models – mice and ferrets – most frequently used by researchers as models of human influenza infection.Keywords: mice, ferret, influenza, animal model, biosafety

  9. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  10. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job.

  11. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  12. Mimicking the Kidney: A Key Role in Organ-on-Chip Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical drug screening and research into diseases call for significant improvement in the effectiveness of current in vitro models. Better models would reduce the likelihood of costly failures at later drug development stages, while limiting or possibly even avoiding the use of animal models. In this regard, promising advances have recently been made by the so-called “organ-on-chip” (OOC technology. By combining cell culture with microfluidics, biomedical researchers have started to develop microengineered models of the functional units of human organs. With the capacity to mimic physiological microenvironments and vascular perfusion, OOC devices allow the reproduction of tissue- and organ-level functions. When considering drug testing, nephrotoxicity is a major cause of attrition during pre-clinical, clinical, and post-approval stages. Renal toxicity accounts for 19% of total dropouts during phase III drug evaluation—more than half the drugs abandoned because of safety concerns. Mimicking the functional unit of the kidney, namely the nephron, is therefore a crucial objective. Here we provide an extensive review of the studies focused on the development of a nephron-on-chip device.

  13. A microfluidically perfused three dimensional human liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Knut; Steinborn, Sandra; Gröger, Marko; Ungerböck, Birgit; Jank, Anne-Marie; Ehgartner, Josef; Nietzsche, Sandor; Dinger, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Funke, Harald; Peters, Frank T; Lupp, Amelie; Gärtner, Claudia; Mayr, Torsten; Bauer, Michael; Huber, Otmar; Mosig, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    Within the liver, non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) are critically involved in the regulation of hepatocyte polarization and maintenance of metabolic function. We here report the establishment of a liver organoid that integrates NPCs in a vascular layer composed of endothelial cells and tissue macrophages and a hepatic layer comprising stellate cells co-cultured with hepatocytes. The three-dimensional liver organoid is embedded in a microfluidically perfused biochip that enables sufficient nutrition supply and resembles morphological aspects of the human liver sinusoid. It utilizes a suspended membrane as a cell substrate mimicking the space of Disse. Luminescence-based sensor spots were integrated into the chip to allow online measurement of cellular oxygen consumption. Application of microfluidic flow induces defined expression of ZO-1, transferrin, ASGPR-1 along with an increased expression of MRP-2 transporter protein within the liver organoids. Moreover, perfusion was accompanied by an increased hepatobiliary secretion of 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and an enhanced formation of hepatocyte microvilli. From this we conclude that the perfused liver organoid shares relevant morphological and functional characteristics with the human liver and represents a new in vitro research tool to study human hepatocellular physiology at the cellular level under conditions close to the physiological situation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A dynamic model of human physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa; Kaplan, Carolyn; Oran, Elaine; Boris, Jay

    2010-11-01

    To study the systems-level transport in the human body, we develop the Computational Man (CMAN): a set of one-dimensional unsteady elastic flow simulations created to model a variety of coupled physiological systems including the circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and lymphatic systems. The model systems are collapsed from three spatial dimensions and time to one spatial dimension and time by assuming axisymmetric vessel geometry and a parabolic velocity profile across the cylindrical vessels. To model the actions of a beating heart or expanding lungs, the flow is driven by user-defined changes to the equilibrium areas of the elastic vessels. The equations are then iteratively solved for pressure, area, and average velocity. The model is augmented with valves and contractions to resemble the biological structure of the different systems. CMAN will be used to track material transport throughout the human body for diagnostic and predictive purposes. Parameters will be adjustable to match those of individual patients. Validation of CMAN has used both higher-dimensional simulations of similar geometries and benchmark measurement from medical literature.

  15. The Five Key Questions of Human Performance Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu

    2018-01-01

    Via building computational (typically mathematical and computer simulation) models, human performance modeling (HPM) quantifies, predicts, and maximizes human performance, human-machine system productivity and safety. This paper describes and summarizes the five key questions of human performance modeling: 1) Why we build models of human performance; 2) What the expectations of a good human performance model are; 3) What the procedures and requirements in building and verifying a human performance model are; 4) How we integrate a human performance model with system design; and 5) What the possible future directions of human performance modeling research are. Recent and classic HPM findings are addressed in the five questions to provide new thinking in HPM's motivations, expectations, procedures, system integration and future directions.

  16. Human reliability data collection and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The main purpose of this document is to review and outline the current state-of-the-art of the Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) used for quantitative assessment of nuclear power plants safe and economical operation. Another objective is to consider Human Performance Indicators (HPI) which can alert plant manager and regulator to departures from states of normal and acceptable operation. These two objectives are met in the three sections of this report. The first objective has been divided into two areas, based on the location of the human actions being considered. That is, the modelling and data collection associated with control room actions are addressed first in chapter 1 while actions outside the control room (including maintenance) are addressed in chapter 2. Both chapters 1 and 2 present a brief outline of the current status of HRA for these areas, and major outstanding issues. Chapter 3 discusses HPI. Such performance indicators can signal, at various levels, changes in factors which influence human performance. The final section of this report consists of papers presented by the participants of the Technical Committee Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  18. Human Walk Modeled by PCPG to Control a Lower Limb Neuroprosthesis by High-Level Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Duvinage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current active leg prostheses do not integrate the most recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI and bipedal robotics. Moreover, their actuators are seldom driven by the subject’s intention. This paper aims at showing a summary of our current results in the field of human gait rehabilitation. In a first prototype, the main focus was on people suffering from foot drop problems, i.e. people who are unable to lift their feet. However, current work is focusing on a full active ankle orthosis. The approach is threefold: a BCI system, a gait model and an orthosis. Thanks to the BCI system, patients are able to generate high-level commands. Typically, a command could represent a speed modification. Then, a gait model based on a programmable central pattern generator is used to generate the adequate kinematics. Finally, the orthosis is tracking this kinematics when the foot is in the air, whereas, the orthosis is mimicking a spring when the foot is on the ground.

  19. X chromosome inactivation in human pluripotent stem cells as a model for human development: back to the drawing board?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Mieke; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2017-09-01

    to inactivate one of them, instead of the mechanism in mice where imprinted XCI is followed by random XCI. We have put these new findings in perspective using previous data obtained in human (and mouse) embryos. In addition, there is an ongoing discussion whether or not hPSC lines show X chromosome reactivation upon derivation, mimicking the earliest embryonic cells, and the XCI states observed during culture of hPSC are highly variable. Recent studies have shown that hPSC rapidly progress to highly aberrant XCI patterns and that this process is probably driven by suboptimal culture conditions. Importantly, these aberrant XCI states seem to be inherited by the differentiated hPSC-progeny. The aberrant XCI states (and epigenetic instability) observed in hPSC throw a shadow on their applicability as an in vitro model for development and disease modelling. Moreover, as the aberrant XCI states observed in hPSC seem to shift to a more malignant phenotype, this may also have important consequences for the safety aspect of using hPSC in the clinic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Unusual presentation of chondroblastoma mimicking Trevor's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Karkhur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor, represents 1%–2% of all primary bone tumors, typically seen in patients 10–25-year-old and more common in males. It occurs most frequently in the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus. Soft tissue extension is extremely rare. Adjacent joints may develop effusions, but the tumor mass protruding into the joint has never been seen in case of chondroblastoma. We report a rare case of intra-articular chondroblastoma arising from proximal tibia in a 16-year-old boy and growing into the knee joint mimicking an intra-articular osteochondroma.

  1. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Mimicking Fulminant Periorbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a patient who was referred for orbital cellulitis but was finally diagnosed with acute leukemia. Case Report: A 17-year-old boy presented with fever, periorbital erythema and swelling mimicking periorbital cellulitis. He underwent empiric antibiotic therapy. Complete blood counts revealed leukocytosis with a predominance of immature blast cells. Bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia. Chemotherapy was initiated resulting in resolution of signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Acute leukemia may mimic periorbital cellulitis and must be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  3. Pigmented poroid neoplasm mimicking nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Ueno, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    We reported the case of a 92-year-old woman with a pigmented and non-pigmented surface of the pedunculated nodule on her lower leg. Microscopic examination revealed that this nodule consisted of a component of small, dark, homogenous, poroid cells and cuticular cells in the dermis. The histopathological features of the lesion were consistent with poroid neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed that HMB-45 and Melan-A were positive in malanocytes and melanophages of the pigmented areas. Unlike most poroid neoplasms, this case showed pigmented lesion mimicked nodular melanoma.

  4. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis mimicking ovarian torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Yang Tyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL can be misleading. Herein, we present the case of a 42-year-old nulliparous female who had previously undergone a total hysterectomy and presented with an acute abdomen. A presumptive diagnosis of ovarian torsion was made based on the clinical findings and an ultrasonographic examination. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed immediately. DPL was subsequently diagnosed based on an intra-operative frozen section during surgical exploration and the final histopathologic examination. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of DPL mimicking ovarian torsion.

  5. Hypertrophic Nonunion Humerus Mimicking an Enchondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although fractures of humeral shaft show excellent results with conservative management, nonunion does occur. Case Report. We bring forth the case of a young male with a 1.5-year-old hypertrophic nonunion of the humerus mimicking an enchondroma. The initial X-ray images of the patient appeared to be an enchondroma, which only on further evaluation and histopathological analysis was diagnosed conclusively to be a hypertrophic nonunion. Discussion. Enchondromas are often incidentally diagnosed benign tumours. It is however not common to misdiagnose a hypertrophic nonunion to be an enchondroma. We present this case to highlight the unique diagnostic dilemma the treating team had to face.

  6. Dural Metastasis Mimicking Meningioma: An Interesting Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzaini Abdul Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dural metastasis is a rare entity in clinical practice. We report a case of dural metastasis secondary to thyroid carcinoma, which on both preoperative CT and MRI and at surgery had the typical appearance of a meningioma. Histopathological findings confirmed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma as a primary site. Although rare, dural metastases can mimic a meningioma. Our experience in this case has led us to consider metastasis as a differential diagnosis even when a meningioma is suspected. We believe that reporting of the case of dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma may help clinicians in future.

  7. Giant Spermatocele Mimicking Hydrocele: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chih Yeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Spermatoceles are usually asymptomatic and often found incidentally during physical examination. We report a case of giant spermatocele that mimicked a hydrocele. A 55-year-old man suffered from right scrotal enlargement for several years. As the heavy sensation and scrotal soreness worsened in recent months, he came to our outpatient clinic for help. Hydrocele was suspected due to transilluminating appearance of the scrotal content. Surgical exploration was arranged and a giant spermatocele was found. Total excision of the spermatocele was performed and the patient recovered well. The specimen was sent for pathology and spermatocele with spermatozoa was noted.

  8. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the affective (emotional) connotations of settings' appearances. The kinesthetic aspect evaluates the available space in terms of its suitability to accommodate human movement patterns, as well as the postural and anthrometric changes due to microgravity. Finally, social logic concerns how the volume and geometry of available space either affirms or contravenes established social and organizational expectations for spatial arrangements. Here, the criteria include privacy, status, social power, and proxemics (the uses of space as a medium of social communication).

  9. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  10. Modeling human comprehension of data visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haass, Michael Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Divis, Kristin Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This project was inspired by two needs. The first is a need for tools to help scientists and engineers to design effective data visualizations for communicating information, whether to the user of a system, an analyst who must make decisions based on complex data, or in the context of a technical report or publication. Most scientists and engineers are not trained in visualization design, and they could benefit from simple metrics to assess how well their visualization's design conveys the intended message. In other words, will the most important information draw the viewer's attention? The second is the need for cognition-based metrics for evaluating new types of visualizations created by researchers in the information visualization and visual analytics communities. Evaluating visualizations is difficult even for experts. However, all visualization methods and techniques are intended to exploit the properties of the human visual system to convey information efficiently to a viewer. Thus, developing evaluation methods that are rooted in the scientific knowledge of the human visual system could be a useful approach. In this project, we conducted fundamental research on how humans make sense of abstract data visualizations, and how this process is influenced by their goals and prior experience. We then used that research to develop a new model, the Data Visualization Saliency Model, that can make accurate predictions about which features in an abstract visualization will draw a viewer's attention. The model is an evaluation tool that can address both of the needs described above, supporting both visualization research and Sandia mission needs.

  11. Virtual pharmacokinetic model of human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sreevani; Murtomäki, Lasse

    2014-07-01

    A virtual pharmacokinetic 3D model of the human eye is built using Comsol Multiphysics® software, which is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model considers drug release from a polymer patch placed on sclera. The model concentrates on the posterior part of the eye, retina being the target tissue, and comprises the choroidal blood flow, partitioning of the drug between different tissues and active transport at the retina pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid boundary. Although most straightforward, in order to check the mass balance, no protein binding or metabolism is yet included. It appeared that the most important issue in obtaining reliable simulation results is the finite element mesh, while time stepping has hardly any significance. Simulations were extended to 100,000 s. The concentration of a drug is shown as a function of time at various points of retina, as well as its average value, varying several parameters in the model. This work demonstrates how anybody with basic knowledge of calculus is able to build physically meaningful models of quite complex biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation mimicked in single inorganic synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-08-01

    Memory is believed to occur in the human brain as a result of two types of synaptic plasticity: short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP; refs , , , ). In neuromorphic engineering, emulation of known neural behaviour has proven to be difficult to implement in software because of the highly complex interconnected nature of thought processes. Here we report the discovery of a Ag2S inorganic synapse, which emulates the synaptic functions of both STP and LTP characteristics through the use of input pulse repetition time. The structure known as an atomic switch, operating at critical voltages, stores information as STP with a spontaneous decay of conductance level in response to intermittent input stimuli, whereas frequent stimulation results in a transition to LTP. The Ag2S inorganic synapse has interesting characteristics with analogies to an individual biological synapse, and achieves dynamic memorization in a single device without the need of external preprogramming. A psychological model related to the process of memorizing and forgetting is also demonstrated using the inorganic synapses. Our Ag2S element indicates a breakthrough in mimicking synaptic behaviour essential for the further creation of artificial neural systems that emulate characteristics of human memory.

  13. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  14. A classic mimicker of systemic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ariño, Marc; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; Deudero Infante, Aída; Ayats Delgado, Montserrat; Novell Teixidó, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Embolic and constitutional manifestations of intracavitary cardiac tumors are included within the classic mimickers of systemic vasculitis, especially in those in which there are no cardiac manifestations. We present a case report of atrial myxoma in which the patient only presented systemic symptoms and in whom an initial diagnostic approach of systemic vasculitis was made. We also performed a literature search of the cases described. A case report of atrial myxoma with atypical presentation manifested as a systemic disease with no concomitant cardiac symptoms is described. The case report is discussed and 11 cases of atrial myxoma pseudovasculitis described in the literature are reviewed, emphasizing their similarities and differences. Constitutional symptoms and cutaneous manifestations were the most common. Most of the cases showed partial response to glucococorticosteroid treatment, reinforcing the theory of the inflammatory role in its pathogenesis. Mean delayed time to diagnosis was 12.27 months. Atrial myxoma is a systemic vasculitis mimicker, this being difficult to diagnose in the absence of cardiac manifestations. This delay in diagnosis entails serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyoung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis.

  16. Ultrasound artifacts mimicking pleural sliding after pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Franco; Zamparelli, Roberto; Soave, Maurizio P; Gargaruti, Riccardo; Scapigliati, Andrea; De Paulis, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    To determine the presence of pleural sliding on chest ultrasonography (US) in a series of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Prospective, observational study. 16-bed SICU of a University hospital. 8 patients (7 men, 1 woman), aged 64 - 73 years (mean 67.5 yrs). Seven patients underwent pneumonectomy for pulmonary neoplasms; one patient underwent an atypical lung resection after having undergone a pneumonectomy one year before. None. Chest ultrasounds were performed during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous ventilation after endotracheal tube removal. In both examinations, pleural sliding was searched bilaterally in brightness mode (B-mode) and motion mode (M-mode) on the anterior thoracic wall in the least gravitationally dependent areas. During mechanical ventilation, pleural sliding was always absent on the side of the pneumonectomy and present on the other side. During spontaneous ventilation, some artifacts mimicking pleural sliding were noted on the side of the pneumonectomy both in B-mode and M-mode (presence of the seashore sign) in all patients, except for the one patient who had undergone a pneumonectomy one year earlier. Those artifacts became more pronounced during deep breaths. Ultrasound artifacts mimicking pleural sliding may be observed in the absence of the lung and may originate from the activity of intercostal muscles since they become more evident during deep breathing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dengue human infection models supporting drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Van, Vinh Chau Nguyen; Simmons, Cameron P

    2014-06-15

    Dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. There is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. Here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (DHIM) for drug development. A DHIM could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients with dengue in an endemic country. In addition, the DHIM would assist the conduct of intensive pharmacokinetic and basic research investigations and aid in determining optimal drug dosage. Furthermore, a DHIM could help establish proof of concept that chemoprophylaxis against dengue is feasible. The key challenge in developing the DHIM for drug development is to ensure the model reliably replicates the typical clinical and laboratory features of naturally acquired, symptomatic dengue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  19. A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Trujillo, Cleber A; Freitas, Beatriz C; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Herai, Roberto H; Yu, Diana X; Brown, Timothy T; Marchetto, Maria C; Bardy, Cedric; McHenry, Lauren; Stefanacci, Lisa; Järvinen, Anna; Searcy, Yvonne M; DeWitt, Michelle; Wong, Wenny; Lai, Philip; Ard, M Colin; Hanson, Kari L; Romero, Sarah; Jacobs, Bob; Dale, Anders M; Dai, Li; Korenberg, Julie R; Gage, Fred H; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric; Semendeferi, Katerina; Muotri, Alysson R

    2016-08-18

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uncommon hypersociability and a mosaic of retained and compromised linguistic and cognitive abilities. Nearly all clinically diagnosed individuals with Williams syndrome lack precisely the same set of genes, with breakpoints in chromosome band 7q11.23 (refs 1-5). The contribution of specific genes to the neuroanatomical and functional alterations, leading to behavioural pathologies in humans, remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate neural progenitor cells and cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome and typically developing induced pluripotent stem cells. Neural progenitor cells in Williams syndrome have an increased doubling time and apoptosis compared with typically developing neural progenitor cells. Using an individual with atypical Williams syndrome, we narrowed this cellular phenotype to a single gene candidate, frizzled 9 (FZD9). At the neuronal stage, layer V/VI cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome were characterized by longer total dendrites, increased numbers of spines and synapses, aberrant calcium oscillation and altered network connectivity. Morphometric alterations observed in neurons from Williams syndrome were validated after Golgi staining of post-mortem layer V/VI cortical neurons. This model of human induced pluripotent stem cells fills the current knowledge gap in the cellular biology of Williams syndrome and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain.

  20. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  1. A comparison of scaffold-free and scaffold-based reconstructed human skin models as alternatives to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste

    2017-12-01

    Tissue engineered full-thickness human skin substitutes have various applications in the clinic and in the laboratory, such as in the treatment of burns or deep skin defects, and as reconstructed human skin models in the safety testing of drugs and cosmetics and in the fundamental study of skin biology and pathology. So far, different approaches have been proposed for the generation of reconstructed skin, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here, the classic tissue engineering approach, based on cell-seeded polymeric scaffolds, is compared with the less-studied cell self-assembly approach, where the cells are coaxed to synthesise their own extracellular matrix (ECM). The resulting full-thickness human skin substitutes were analysed by means of histological and immunohistochemical analyses. It was found that both the scaffold-free and the scaffold-based skin equivalents successfully mimicked the functionality and morphology of native skin, with complete epidermal differentiation (as determined by the expression of filaggrin), the presence of a continuous basement membrane expressing collagen VII, and new ECM deposition by dermal fibroblasts. On the other hand, the scaffold-free model had a thicker epidermis and a significantly higher number of Ki67-positive proliferative cells, indicating a higher capacity for self-renewal, as compared to the scaffold-based model. 2017 FRAME.

  2. [Disseminated histoplamosis in adolescent mimicking granulomatosis with polyangiitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weelden, Marlon; Viola, Gabriela R; Kozu, Katia T; Aikawa, Nadia E; Ivo, Claudia M; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-03-04

    Systemic histoplasmosis is an invasive fungal infection that may mimic primary vasculitis, particularly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and was rarely described in adult patients. We reported an immunocompetent patient with disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking GPA who fulfilled European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO)/Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PRES) validated classification criteria. A 6-year old boy presented acute migratory polyarthritis with spontaneous improvement, sinus inflammation, fever, headache and abdominal pain. Serologic test for hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, toxoplasmosis, dengue virus and antistreptolysin O were all negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate ascites in pelvis and pansinusitis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) were positive. He had spontaneous remission of the symptoms including fever. At the age of 11 years and 11 months, he had sinusitis, pneumonia and epididymitis. A month later, he was hospitalized and MRI showed left eye proptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal and indirect tests of fungi were negative. Two months later, he had lumbar pain and computer tomography showed a mass in the right kidney and pulmonary nodule in the right lung. He fulfilled EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for GPA, however the renal biopsy showed a focal granulomatous interstitial nephritis with yeast fungal cells compatible with Histoplasma sp. He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole with improvement of signs and symptoms. We reported a progressive disseminated histoplasmosis case mimicking GPA. Histoplasmosis infection should be considered in immunocompetent subjects with uncommon clinical manifestations, such as arthritis, nephritis and epididymitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van

    2007-01-01

    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body

  4. Perceptual learning in a non-human primate model of artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Nathaniel J; Vurro, Milena; Keith, Sarah B; Kyada, Margee J; Pezaris, John S

    2016-11-22

    Visual perceptual grouping, the process of forming global percepts from discrete elements, is experience-dependent. Here we show that the learning time course in an animal model of artificial vision is predicted primarily from the density of visual elements. Three naïve adult non-human primates were tasked with recognizing the letters of the Roman alphabet presented at variable size and visualized through patterns of discrete visual elements, specifically, simulated phosphenes mimicking a thalamic visual prosthesis. The animals viewed a spatially static letter using a gaze-contingent pattern and then chose, by gaze fixation, between a matching letter and a non-matching distractor. Months of learning were required for the animals to recognize letters using simulated phosphene vision. Learning rates increased in proportion to the mean density of the phosphenes in each pattern. Furthermore, skill acquisition transferred from trained to untrained patterns, not depending on the precise retinal layout of the simulated phosphenes. Taken together, the findings suggest that learning of perceptual grouping in a gaze-contingent visual prosthesis can be described simply by the density of visual activation.

  5. Feasibility Study on a Microwave-Based Sensor for Measuring Hydration Level Using Human Skin Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Brendtke

    Full Text Available Tissue dehydration results in three major types of exsiccosis--hyper-, hypo-, or isonatraemia. All three types entail alterations of salt concentrations leading to impaired biochemical processes, and can finally cause severe morbidity. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a microwave-based sensor technology for the non-invasive measurement of the hydration status. Electromagnetic waves at high frequencies interact with molecules, especially water. Hence, if a sample contains free water molecules, this can be detected in a reflected microwave signal. To develop the sensor system, human three-dimensional skin equivalents were instituted as a standardized test platform mimicking reproducible exsiccosis scenarios. Therefore, skin equivalents with a specific hydration and density of matrix components were generated and microwave measurements were performed. Hydration-specific spectra allowed deriving the hydration state of the skin models. A further advantage of the skin equivalents was the characterization of the impact of distinct skin components on the measured signals to investigate mechanisms of signal generation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-invasive microwave-based hydration sensor technology. The sensor bears potential to be integrated in a wearable medical device for personal health monitoring.

  6. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Mimicking the Protective Effect of Early First Birth. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    breast epithelium. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977;58: 1263–5. [18] Meyer JS. Cell proliferation in normal human breast ducts, fibroadenomas , and other ductal...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0390 TITLE: Chemoprevention of breast cancer by...REPORT TYPE Final addendum 3. DATES COVERED 2 May 2012 – 2 February 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chemoprevention of breast cancer by mimicking the

  7. Monitoring and modeling human interactions with ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Cristina

    With rapidly increasing consumption rates and global population, there is a growing interest in understanding how to balance human activities with the other components of the Earth system. Humans alter ecosystem functioning with land cover changes, greenhouse gas emissions and overexploitation of natural resources. On the other side, climate and its inherent interannual variability drive global Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the base of energy for all trophic levels, shaping humans' distribution on the land surface and their sensitivity to natural and accelerated patterns of variation in ecosystem processes. In this thesis, I analyzed anthropogenic influences on ecosystems and ecosystems impacts on humans through a multi-scale approach. Anthropogenic influences were analyzed with a special focus on urban ecosystems, the living environment of nearly half of the global population and almost 90% of the population in the industrialized countries. A poorly quantified aspect of urban ecosystems is the biogeochemistry of urban vegetation, intensively managed through fertilization and irrigation. In chapter 1, adapting the ecosystem model Biome-BGC, I simulated the growth of turf grasses across the United States, and estimated their potential impact on the continental water and carbon budget. Using a remote sensing-based approach, I also developed a methodology to estimate the impact of land cover changes due to urbanization on the regional photosynthetic capacity (chapter 2), finding that low-density urbanization can retain high levels of net primary productivity, although at the expense of inefficient sprawl. One of the feedbacks of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, which I analyzed in conjunction with a remote sensing based estimate of fractional impervious surface area, showing how this is related to increases in land surface temperatures, independently from geographic location and population density (chapter 3). Finally, in chapter 4, I described the

  8. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum...... 100-fold; from 8.5 x 101 CFU/ml to 5.2 x 103 CFU/ml, whereas addition of AHLs did not improve culturability on any of the media.The substitution of agar with gellan gum shows great promise for increasing culturability of marine bacteria, and further studies are ongoing. The AHLs used in this study...... were selected based on a previous study determining the most common AHLs produced by marine strains of the Vibrionaceae family. However, their effect on culturability could not be fully explained, so also here further studies are being carried out....

  9. Case report. Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica; Aste, Natalia; Biggio, P

    2002-04-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a common dermatomycosis, occurring throughout the world, characterized by irregular, slightly scaly patches, varying in color from red/light brown to white. Pityriasis rotunda, on the other hand, is an uncommon disease, reported in specific ethnic groups, and characterized by perfectly round or oval patches of varying color, with a scaly surface. The histologic pattern is that of ichthyosis vulgaris. We report here the case of a male patient, aged 31, from Sardinia (Italy), affected by Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda. Mycological examination allowed us to formulate the correct diagnosis, and ensuing treatment with antifungal drugs was entirely successful. The authors, while pointing out the rarity of this case, stress the possibility that Pityriasis versicolor mimics Pityriasis rotunda and vice-versa, especially in those countries in which the two diseases are endemic. More widespread recourse to microscopic examination can help avoid the risk of mistaken diagnosis and consequent incorrect treatment.

  10. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Strianese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  11. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  12. Development of tissue mimicking ultrasound phantom materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sang Chul [Shinheung College, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Young Kun [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Jung [Korea Food Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk [Yonsei Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We carried out studies on develop of the ultrasound tissue mimicking materials (TMM) by synthesis of polymer urethane (C, CCR, TiO{sub 2}, tungsten, graphite, silver type). The major finding were as follows; (1) C type TMM was shown good homogeneity, penetration, gray scale like as liver tissue and propagated speed 1,540 m/s, attenuation 0.5 {approx} 0.7 dB/cm/MHz. (2) TiO{sub 2} type TMM was shown heterogeneous dot echo pattern. (3) Silver type TMM was appear good homogeneous echo pattern like as echo texture of thyroid gland. Therefor, C type TMM will be useful for ultrasound Q/A phantom materials and previous phantom materials.

  13. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  14. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  15. Acute perimyocarditis mimicking transmural myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hesham R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although acute pericarditis has charachteristic electrocardiographic (ECG findings that differentiate it from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI; in certain cases diagnosis is somewhat difficult especially when the ECG reveals focal instead of diffuse changes and moreover when pericarditis is associated with an underlying myocarditis causing elevation of the cardiac biomarkers therefore increasing the difficulty in differentiating between both enteties. This is especially important because adverse lethal side effect can occur if thrombolytic therapy is administered for a patient with acute pericarditis, or if a diagnosis of transmural MI is missed. In this case report we are describing an 18 year old male patient who presented with an acute onset of severe chest pain associated with focal ECG changes and elevated cardiac enzymes mimicking transmural MI. This report aims to sensitize readers to this debate and create awareness among cardiologists and intensivists with both presentations and how to reach an accurate diagnosis.

  16. Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, S.; Siddiqui, N.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary site in young females mimicking an advanced ovarian malignancy. We present 2 cases with the classical triad of advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma-ascites, abdominopelvic masses and elevated serum CA-125 levels. Laparoscopic examination revealed peritoneal nodules which on biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation and no malignant cells. Patients were started on anti-tuberculous therapy and on follow-up their symptoms as well as CA-125 levels normalized. Medical awareness of peritoneal tuberculosis is lacking and many young women with this disease undergo unnecessary extended surgery. Diagnostic laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy seems to be a sufficient and safe method to provide a definitive diagnosis for this curable infection. If left untreated, the disease may disseminate and result in significant organ dysfunctions particularly infertility. (author)

  17. Modeling and remodeling of human extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, Leonardo; Farina, Roberto; Marzola, Andrea; Bozzi, Leopoldo; Liljenberg, Birgitta; Lindhe, Jan

    2008-07-01

    The available studies on extraction wound repair in humans are affected by significant limitations and have failed to evaluate tissue alterations occurring in all compartments of the hard tissue defect. To monitor during a 6-month period the healing of human extraction sockets and include a semi-quantitative analysis of tissues and cell populations involved in various stages of the processes of modeling/remodeling. Twenty-seven biopsies, representative of the early (2-4 weeks, n=10), intermediate (6-8 weeks, n=6), and late phase (12-24 weeks, n=11) of healing, were collected and analysed. Granulation tissue that was present in comparatively large amounts in the early healing phase of socket healing, was in the interval between the early and intermediate observation phase replaced with provisional matrix and woven bone. The density of vascular structures and macrophages slowly decreased from 2 to 4 weeks over time. The presence of osteoblasts peaked at 6-8 weeks and remained almost stable thereafter; a small number of osteoclasts were present in a few specimens at each observation interval. The present findings demonstrated that great variability exists in man with respect to hard tissue formation within extraction sockets. Thus, whereas a provisional connective tissue consistently forms within the first weeks of healing, the interval during which mineralized bone is laid down is much less predictable.

  18. Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Levavasseur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains.

  19. Interaction of a peptide derived from C-terminus of human TRPA1 channel with model membranes mimicking the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witschas, Katja; Jobin, M.-L.; Korkut, D. N.; Vladan, M. M.; Salgado, G.; Lecomte, S.; Vlachová, Viktorie; Alves, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1848, č. 5 (2015), s. 1147-1159 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : TRP channels * peptide-lipid intractions * secondary structure Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.687, year: 2015

  20. Heterogeneous Community-based mobility model for human opportunistic network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Human opportunistic networks can facilitate wireless content dissemination while humans are on the move. In such a network, content is disseminated via nodes relaying and nodes mobility (human mobility). Thus it is essential to understand and model the real human mobility. We present...... a heterogeneous community-based random way-point (HC-RWP) mobility model that captures the four important properties of real human mobility. These properties are based on both intuitive observations of daily human mobility and analysis of empirical mobility traces. By discrete event simulation, we show HC......-RWP captures essential statistic features of wide range of real human mobility traces reported in previous studies....

  1. Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    Full Text Available Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents.In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI. Light-, confocal microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER measurement and RT-PCR were performed to identify how the PBEC differentiated under ALI culture condition. Both models were exposed to palladium (Pd nanoparticles which sized 6-10 nm, analogous to those released from modern car catalysts, at three different concentrations utilizing the XposeALI module of the PreciseInhale® exposure system.Exposing the 3D models to Pd nanoparticles induced increased secretion of IL-8, yet the chronic bronchitis-like model released significantly more IL-8 than the normal model. The levels of IL-8 in basal medium (BM and apical lavage medium (AM were in the same ranges, but the secretion of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the AM compared to the BM.This combination of relevant human bronchial mucosa models and sophisticated exposure system can mimic in vivo conditions and serve as a useful alternative animal testing tool when studying adverse effects in humans exposed to aerosols, air pollutants or particles in an occupational setting.

  2. Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Hedelin, Anna; Malmlöf, Maria; Kessler, Vadim; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Gerde, Per; Palmberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents. In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI) with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI). Light-, confocal microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and RT-PCR were performed to identify how the PBEC differentiated under ALI culture condition. Both models were exposed to palladium (Pd) nanoparticles which sized 6-10 nm, analogous to those released from modern car catalysts, at three different concentrations utilizing the XposeALI module of the PreciseInhale® exposure system. Exposing the 3D models to Pd nanoparticles induced increased secretion of IL-8, yet the chronic bronchitis-like model released significantly more IL-8 than the normal model. The levels of IL-8 in basal medium (BM) and apical lavage medium (AM) were in the same ranges, but the secretion of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the AM compared to the BM. This combination of relevant human bronchial mucosa models and sophisticated exposure system can mimic in vivo conditions and serve as a useful alternative animal testing tool when studying adverse effects in humans exposed to aerosols, air pollutants or particles in an occupational setting.

  3. Dengue human infection model performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Timothy P

    2014-06-15

    Dengue is a global health problem and of concern to travelers and deploying military personnel with development and licensure of an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine a public health priority. The dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Illness manifests across a clinical spectrum with severe disease characterized by intravascular volume depletion and hemorrhage. DENV illness results from a complex interaction of viral properties and host immune responses. Dengue vaccine development efforts are challenged by immunologic complexity, lack of an adequate animal model of disease, absence of an immune correlate of protection, and only partially informative immunogenicity assays. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) will be an essential tool in developing potential dengue vaccines or antivirals. The potential performance parameters needed for a DHIM to support vaccine or antiviral candidates are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  5. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  6. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Lin

    Full Text Available Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS inside, and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm" vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  7. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM) and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC) outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) inside), and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm") vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  8. Mimicking cellular transport mechanism in stem cells through endosomal escape of new peptide-coated quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Yen, Swee Kuan; Dou, Qingqing; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Ying, Jackie Y; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    Protein transport is an important phenomenon in biological systems. Proteins are transported via several mechanisms to reach their destined compartment of cell for its complete function. One such mechanism is the microtubule mediated protein transport. Up to now, there are no reports on synthetic systems mimicking the biological protein transport mechanism. Here we report a highly efficient method of mimicking the microtubule mediated protein transport using newly designed biotinylated peptides encompassing a microtubule-associated sequence (MTAS) and a nuclear localization signaling (NLS) sequence, and their final conjugation with streptavidin-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). Our results demonstrate that these novel bio-conjugated QDs enhance the endosomal escape and promote targeted delivery into the nucleus of human mesenchymal stem cells via microtubules. Mimicking the cellular transport mechanism in stem cells is highly desirable for diagnostics, targeting and therapeutic applications, opening up new avenues in the area of drug delivery.

  9. Pellet culture model for human primary osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähn, K; Richards, R G; Archer, C W; Stoddart, M J

    2010-09-06

    In vitro monolayer culture of human primary osteoblasts (hOBs) often shows unsatisfactory results for extracellular matrix deposition, maturation and calcification. Nevertheless, monolayer culture is still the method of choice for in vitro differentiation of primary osteoblasts. We believe that the delay in mature ECM production by the monolayer cultured osteoblasts is determined by their state of cell maturation. A functional relationship between the inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and the induction of genes associated with matrix maturation was suggested within a monolayer culture model for rat calvarial osteoblasts. We hypothesize, that a pellet culture model could be utilized to decrease initial proliferation and increase the transformation of osteoblasts into a more mature phenotype. We performed pellet cultures using hOBs and compared their differentiation potential to 2D monolayer cultures. Using the pellet culture model, we were able to generate a population of cuboidal shaped central osteoblastic cells. Increased proliferation, as seen during low-density monolayer culture, was absent in pellet cultures and monolayers seeded at 40,000 cells/cm2. Moreover, the expression pattern of phenotypic markers Runx2, osterix, osteocalcin, col I and E11 mRNA was significantly different depending on whether the cells were cultured in low density monolayer, high density monolayer or pellet culture. We conclude that the transformation of the osteoblast phenotype in vitro to a more mature stage can be achieved more rapidly in 3D culture. Moreover, that dense monolayer leads to the formation of more mature osteoblasts than low-density seeded monolayer, while hOB cells in pellets seem to have transformed even further along the osteoblast phenotype.

  10. Pellet culture model for human primary osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jähn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro monolayer culture of human primary osteoblasts (hOBs often shows unsatisfactory results for extracellular matrix deposition, maturation and calcification. Nevertheless, monolayer culture is still the method of choice for in vitro differentiation of primary osteoblasts. We believe that the delay in mature ECM production by the monolayer cultured osteoblasts is determined by their state of cell maturation. A functional relationship between the inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and the induction of genes associated with matrix maturation was suggested within a monolayer culture model for rat calvarial osteoblasts. We hypothesize, that a pellet culture model could be utilized to decrease initial proliferation and increase the transformation of osteoblasts into a more mature phenotype. We performed pellet cultures using hOBs and compared their differentiation potential to 2D monolayer cultures. Using the pellet culture model, we were able to generate a population of cuboidal shaped central osteoblastic cells. Increased proliferation, as seen during low-density monolayer culture, was absent in pellet cultures and monolayers seeded at 40,000 cells/cm2. Moreover, the expression pattern of phenotypic markers Runx2, osterix, osteocalcin, col I and E11 mRNA was significantly different depending on whether the cells were cultured in low density monolayer, high density monolayer or pellet culture. We conclude that the transformation of the osteoblast phenotype in vitro to a more mature stage can be achieved more rapidly in 3D culture. Moreover, that dense monolayer leads to the formation of more mature osteoblasts than low-density seeded monolayer, while hOB cells in pellets seem to have transformed even further along the osteoblast phenotype.

  11. Occupational Neurobrucellosis Mimicking a Brain Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Algahtani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial infection which is transmitted to humans from infected animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia. In this article, we report a case of occupational neurobrucellosis that presented with a space-occupying lesion mimicking a brain tumor. We stress on the importance of obtaining detailed social history including occupation to reach the diagnosis in several conditions including brucellosis. We also stress on taking universal precautions when handling any specimens. It may be advisable that manipulation of all unknown specimens arriving at the laboratory should occur in biological safety cabinet until a highly infectious organism is ruled out. Neurobrucellosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with solitary mass lesion mimicking brain tumor especially in endemic areas or high occupational risk group.

  12. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265 kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5 MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40 MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure—PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40 MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

  13. Compressive properties of commercially available polyurethane foams as mechanical models for osteoporotic human cancellous bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Duncan ET

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyurethane (PU foam is widely used as a model for cancellous bone. The higher density foams are used as standard biomechanical test materials, but none of the low density PU foams are universally accepted as models for osteoporotic (OP bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether low density PU foam might be suitable for mimicking human OP cancellous bone. Methods Quasi-static compression tests were performed on PU foam cylinders of different lengths (3.9 and 7.7 mm and of different densities (0.09, 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3, to determine the Young's modulus, yield strength and energy absorbed to yield. Results Young's modulus values were 0.08–0.93 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 15.1–151.4 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. Yield strength values were 0.01–0.07 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 0.9–4.5 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. The energy absorbed to yield was found to be negligible for all foam cylinders. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that 0.16 g.cm-3 PU foam may prove to be suitable as an OP cancellous bone model when fracture stress, but not energy dissipation, is of concern.

  14. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli induce attaching and effacing lesions and hemorrhagic colitis in human and bovine intestinal xenograft models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilach Golan

    2011-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 is an important cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans worldwide. The two major virulence determinants of EHEC are the Shiga toxins (Stx and the type III secretion system (T3SS, including the injected effectors. Lack of a good model system hinders the study of EHEC virulence. Here, we investigated whether bovine and human intestinal xenografts in SCID mice can be useful for studying EHEC and host tissue interactions. Fully developed, germ-free human and bovine small intestine and colon were established by subcutaneous transplantation of human and bovine fetal gut into SCID mice. Xenografts were allowed to develop for 3–4 months and thereafter were infected by direct intraluminal inoculation of Stx-negative derivatives of EHEC O157:H7, strain EDL933. The small intestine and colon xenografts closely mimicked the respective native tissues. Upon infection, EHEC induced formation of typical attaching and effacing lesions and tissue damage that resembled hemorrhagic colitis in colon xenografts. By contrast, xenografts infected with an EHEC mutant deficient in T3SS remained undamaged. Furthermore, EHEC did not attach to or damage the epithelium of small intestinal tissue, and these xenografts remained intact. EHEC damaged the colon in a T3SS-dependent manner, and this model is therefore useful for studying the molecular details of EHEC interactions with live human and bovine intestinal tissue. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Stx and gut microflora are not essential for EHEC virulence in the human gut.

  15. Humanized In Vivo Model for Streptococcal Impetigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzino, Dominick A.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Bessen, Debra E.

    2000-01-01

    An in vivo model for group A streptococcal (GAS) impetigo was developed, whereby human neonatal foreskin engrafted onto SCID mice was superficially damaged and bacteria were topically applied. Severe infection, indicated by a purulent exudate, could be induced with as few as 1,000 CFU of a virulent strain. Early findings (48 h) showed a loss of stratum corneum and adherence of short chains of gram-positive cocci to the external surface of granular keratinocytes. This was followed by an increasing infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) of mouse origin, until a thick layer of pus covered an intact epidermis, with massive clumps of cocci accumulated at the outer rim of the pus layer. By 7 days postinoculation, the epidermis was heavily eroded; in some instances, the dermis contained pockets (ulcers) filled with cocci, similar to that observed for ecthyma. Importantly, virulent GAS underwent reproduction, resulting in a net increase in CFU of 20- to 14,000-fold. The majority of emm pattern D strains had a higher gross pathology score than emm pattern A, B, or C (A–C) strains, consistent with epidemiological findings that pattern D strains have a strong tendency to cause impetigo, whereas pattern A–C strains are more likely to cause pharyngitis. PMID:10768985

  16. Modeling human response errors in synthetic flight simulator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a control theoretic approach to modeling human response errors (HRE) in the flight simulation domain. The human pilot is modeled as a supervisor of a highly automated system. The synthesis uses the theory of optimal control pilot modeling for integrating the pilot's observation error and the error due to the simulation model (experimental error). Methods for solving the HRE problem are suggested. Experimental verification of the models will be tested in a flight quality handling simulation.

  17. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  18. Recapitulation of spinal motor neuron-specific disease phenotypes in a human cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Xue-Jun

    2013-03-01

    Establishing human cell models of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to mimic motor neuron-specific phenotypes holds the key to understanding the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. Here, we developed a closely representative cell model of SMA by knocking down the disease-determining gene, survival motor neuron (SMN), in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our study with this cell model demonstrated that knocking down of SMN does not interfere with neural induction or the initial specification of spinal motor neurons. Notably, the axonal outgrowth of spinal motor neurons was significantly impaired and these disease-mimicking neurons subsequently degenerated. Furthermore, these disease phenotypes were caused by SMN-full length (SMN-FL) but not SMN-Δ7 (lacking exon 7) knockdown, and were specific to spinal motor neurons. Restoring the expression of SMN-FL completely ameliorated all of the disease phenotypes, including specific axonal defects and motor neuron loss. Finally, knockdown of SMN-FL led to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress in human motor neuron progenitors. The involvement of oxidative stress in the degeneration of spinal motor neurons in the SMA cell model was further confirmed by the administration of N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, which prevented disease-related apoptosis and subsequent motor neuron death. Thus, we report here the successful establishment of an hESC-based SMA model, which exhibits disease gene isoform specificity, cell type specificity, and phenotype reversibility. Our model provides a unique paradigm for studying how motor neurons specifically degenerate and highlights the potential importance of antioxidants for the treatment of SMA.

  19. Case-Based Reasoning for Human Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-16

    edition may be used. Case Based Reasoning for Human Behavior Modeling CDRL A002 for Contract N00014-03-C-0178 February 16, 2006 Document...maintaining a useful repository demand that reuse be supported for human behavior modeling even if other model construction aids are also available...et al. (2001). Results of the Common Human Behavior Representation And Interchange System (CHRIS) Workshop. Fall 2001 Simulation Interoperability

  20. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  1. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy

  2. A sample application of nuclear power human resources model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgen, A.; Ergun, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important issues for a new comer country initializing the nuclear power plant projects is to have both quantitative and qualitative models for the human resources development. For the quantitative model of human resources development for Turkey, “Nuclear Power Human Resources (NPHR) Model” developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory was used to determine the number of people that will be required from different professional or occupational fields in the planning of human resources for Akkuyu, Sinop and the third nuclear power plant projects. The number of people required for different professions for the Nuclear Energy Project Implementation Department, the regulatory authority, project companies, construction, nuclear power plants and the academy were calculated. In this study, a sample application of the human resources model is presented. The results of the first tries to calculate the human resources needs of Turkey were obtained. Keywords: Human Resources Development, New Comer Country, NPHR Model

  3. Ant-Mimicking Spiders: Strategies for Living with Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia Sara Ceccarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimicry is a fascinating topic, in particular when viewed in terms of selective forces and evolutionary strategies. Mimicry is a system involving a signaller, a signal receiver, and a model and has evolved independently many times in plants and animals. There are several ways of classifying mimicry based on the interactions and cost-benefit scenarios of the parties involved. In this review, I briefly outline the dynamics of the most common types of mimicry to then apply it to some of the spider-ant associative systems known to date. In addition, this review expands on the strategies that ant-associating (in particular ant-mimicking spiders have developed to minimise the costs of living close to colonies of potentially dangerous models. The main strategy that has been noted to date is either chemical mimicry or actively avoiding contact with ants. If these strategies warrant protection for the spider (living close to potentially dangerous models, then the benefits of ant associations would outweigh the costs, and the association will prevail.

  4. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-06-13

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function.

  5. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function. PMID:24923651

  6. Hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications : Mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Goo, Hyun Woo; Bang, Sun Woo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    To differentiate fine hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications from true microcalcifications on mammography. Mammograms showing hyperdense dots in ten patients (mean age, 59 years) were evaluated. Two radiologists were asked to differentiate with the naked eye the hyperdense dots seen on ten mammograms and proven microcalcifications seen on ten mammograms. Densitometry was also performed for all lesions and the contrast index was calculated. The shape and distribution of the hyperdense dots were evaluated and enquires were made regarding any history of breast disease and corresponding treatment. Biopsies were performed for two patients with hyperdense dots. Two radiologists made correct diagnoses in 19/20 cases(95%). The contrast index was 0.10-0.88 (mean 0.58) for hyperdense dots and 0.02-0.45 (mean 0.17) for true microcalcifications. The hyperdense dots were finer and homogeneously rounder than the microcalcifications. Distribution of the hyperdense dots was more superficial in subcutaneous fat (seven cases) and subareolar area (six cases). All ten patients with hyperdense dots had history of mastitis and abscesses and had been treated by open drainage (six cases) and/or folk remedy (four cases). In eight patients, herb patches had been attached. Biopsies of hyperdense dots did not show any microcalcification or evidence of malignancy. These hyperdense dots were seen mainly in older patients. Their characteristic density, shape, distribution and clinical history makes differential diagnosis from true microcalcifications easy and could reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures such as surgical biopsy.

  7. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  8. Huge desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall mimicking an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huge desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall mimicking an intraabdominal mass in a postpartum woman: a case report. Khaled Trigui, Mahdi Bouassida, Houda Kilani, Mohamed Mongi Mighri, Selim Sassi, Fathi Chebbi, Hassen Touinsi, Sadok Sassi ...

  9. Molecular mechanism of ocular surface damage: application to an in vitro dry eye model on human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Marisa; De Servi, Barbara; Marasco, Daniela; Del Prete, Salvatore

    2011-01-12

    The present study was concerned with the development of a new experimental model of dry eye using human reconstructed in vitro corneal epithelium (HCE). The model is based on the use of adapted culture conditions that induce relevant modifications at the cellular and molecular level thus mimicking dry eye. The HCE model was maintained in a controlled environmental setting (relative humidity eye. The evolution of the dry eye condition was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry staining, scanning electron microscopy, and gene expression by using TaqMan gene assay technology (mucin-4 [MUC4], matrix metallopeptidase-9 [MMP9], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and defensin β-2 [DEFB2). The effects of different commercially available tear substitutes on the induced dry eye condition were tested. This in vitro dry eye HCE model, that was well established within 24 h, has the characteristic features of a dry eye epithelium and could be satisfactorily used for preliminary assessment of the protective activity of some artificial tears. The transcriptional study of selected biomarkers showed an increase in MUC4, MMP9, TNF-α, and hBD-2 (DEFB2) gene expression. By using a dynamic approach, we were able to define a biomarker gene signature of dry eye-induced effects that could be predictive of corneal damage in vivo and to discriminate the efficacy among different commercial artificial tears.

  10. Human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes cooperatively regulate prostate tumor growth in a humanized mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Michael D; Harui, Airi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating ...

  11. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Tradeoff Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    distribution is unlimited. Release # 88ABW-2014- 1475, dated 7 Apr 2014. on grammatical and software errors and the recommendation to add a screen (Figure 17...SIGNATURE// MATTHEW T. TARANTO, Major, USAF Chief, Human Systems Analysis Division Human Systems Integration Directorate...enhancing the understanding of HSI tradeoffs. At the direction of 711 HPW/HP, the Survivability/ Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC

  12. A model of the human retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, the human eye is perceived as being "just" a camera, that renders an accurate, although limited, image for processing in the brain. This interpretation probably stems from the apparent similarity between a video- or photo-camera and a human eye with respect to the lens, the iris...

  13. Modelling Human Exposure to Chemicals in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to foodborne chemicals is often estimated using the average consumption pattern in the human population. To protect the human population instead of the average individual, however, interindividual variability in consumption behaviour must be taken into account. This report shows how food

  14. Human-water interface in hydrological modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; Roo, de Ad; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Hanasaki, Naota; Konar, Megan; Liu, Junguo; Schmied, Hannes Möller; Oki, Taikan; Pokhrel, Yadu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Troy, Tara J.; Dijk, Van Albert I.J.M.; Emmerik, Van Tim; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Lanen, van Henny A.J.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Wanders, Niko; Wheater, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial

  15. Reconstruction of human mammary tissues in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proia, David A; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Establishing a model system that more accurately recapitulates both normal and neoplastic breast epithelial development in rodents is central to studying human breast carcinogenesis. However, the inability of human breast epithelial cells to colonize mouse mammary fat pads is problematic. Considering that the human breast is a more fibrous tissue than is the adipose-rich stroma of the murine mammary gland, our group sought to bypass the effects of the rodent microenvironment through incorporation of human stromal fibroblasts. We have been successful in reproducibly recreating functionally normal breast tissues from reduction mammoplasty tissues, in what we term the human-in-mouse (HIM) model. Here we describe our relatively simple and inexpensive techniques for generating this orthotopic xenograft model. Whether the model is to be applied for understanding normal human breast development or tumorigenesis, investigators with minimal animal surgery skills, basic cell culture techniques and access to human breast tissue will be able to generate humanized mouse glands within 3 months. Clearing the mouse of its endogenous epithelium with subsequent stromal humanization takes 1 month. The subsequent implantation of co-mixed human epithelial cells and stromal cells occurs 2 weeks after humanization, so investigators should expect to observe the desired outgrowths 2 months afterward. As a whole, this model system has the potential to improve the understanding of crosstalk between tissue stroma and the epithelium as well as factors involved in breast stem cell biology tumor initiation and progression.

  16. Pharmacological migraine provocation: a human model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Hansen, Jakob Møller

    2010-01-01

    . If a naturally occurring substance can provoke migraine in human patients, then it is likely, although not certain, that blocking its effect will be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. To this end, a human in vivo model of experimental headache and migraine in humans has been developed...

  17. Toxicology Analysis of Tissue-Mimicking Phantom Made From Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbashid, A. S.; Hamzah, N.; Zaman, W. S. W. K.; Mokhtar, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Skin phantom mimics the biological skin tissues as it have the ability to respond to changes in its environment. The development of tissue-mimicking phantom could contributes towards the reduce usage of animal in cosmetics and pharmacokinetics. In this study, the skin phantoms made from gelatin were tested with four different commonly available cosmetic products to determine the toxicity of each substance. The four substances used were; mercury-based whitening face cream, carcinogenic liquid make-up foundation, paraben-based acne cleanser, and organic lip balm. Toxicity test were performed on all of the phantoms. For toxicity testing, topographical and electrophysiological changes of the phantoms were evaluated. The ability of each respective phantom to react with mild toxic substances and its electrical resistance were analysed in to determine the toxicity of all the phantom models. Four-electrode method along with custom made electrical impedance analyser was used to differentiate electrical resistance between intoxicated phantom and non-intoxicated phantom in this study. Electrical resistance values obtained from the phantom models were significantly higher than the control group. The result obtained suggests the phantom as a promising candidate to be used as alternative for toxicology testing in the future.

  18. Bio-Inspired PVDF-Based, Mouse Whisker Mimicking, Tactile Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Islam Tiwana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF based, mouse (or rodent whisker mimicking, tactile sensor is presented. Unlike previous designs reported in the literature, this sensor mimics the mouse whisker not only mechanically, but it also makes macro movements just like a real mouse whisker in a natural environment. We have developed a mathematical model and performed finite element analysis using COMSOL, in order to optimise the whisker to have the same natural frequency as that of a biological whisker. Similarly, we have developed a control system that enables the whisker mimicking sensor to vibrate at variable frequencies and conducted practical experiments to validate the response of the sensor. The natural frequency of the whisker can be designed anywhere between 35 and 110 Hz, the same as a biological whisker, by choosing different materials and physical dimensions. The control system of this sensor enables the whisker to vibrate between 5 and 236 Hz.

  19. Pharmacological migraine provocation: a human model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Hansen, Jakob Møller

    2010-01-01

    for migraine mechanisms. So far, however, animal models cannot predict the efficacy of new therapies for migraine. Because migraine attacks are fully reversible and can be aborted by therapy, the headache- or migraine-provoking property of naturally occurring signaling molecules can be tested in a human model....... If a naturally occurring substance can provoke migraine in human patients, then it is likely, although not certain, that blocking its effect will be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. To this end, a human in vivo model of experimental headache and migraine in humans has been developed...

  20. Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Psenakova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.

  1. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  2. Animal models for human genetic diseases | Sharif | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...

  3. General Computational Model for Human Musculoskeletal System of Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general computational model of the human lumbar spine and trunk muscles including optimization formulations was provided. For a given condition, the trunk muscle forces could be predicted considering the human physiology including the follower load concept. The feasibility of the solution could be indirectly validated by comparing the compressive force, the shear force, and the joint moment. The presented general computational model and optimization technology can be fundamental tools to understand the control principle of human trunk muscles.

  4. Specific and General Human Capital in an Endogenous Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelia Vourvachaki; Vahagn Jerbashian; : Sergey Slobodyan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we define specific (general) human capital in terms of the occupations whose use is spread in a limited (wide) set of industries. We analyze the growth impact of an economy's composition of specific and general human capital, in a model where education and research and development are costly and complementary activities. The model suggests that a declining share of specific human capital, as observed in the Czech Republic, can be associated with a lower rate of long-term grow...

  5. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy mimicking acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Kryspin; Romanczuk, Mikolaj

    2009-05-01

    Ectopic pregnancy may lead to massive haemorrhage, infertility or death. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to save patients who would otherwise die. Serum amylase and lipase measurements are known biochemical markers of pancreatic inflammation and a recognized finding that may help diagnose acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge (Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library have been researched) the following study presents the first case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy accompanied by markedly elevated amylase and lipase levels mimicking acute pancreatitis ever reported. A previously healthy, nulliparous 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a 2-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Her last menstrual period was 7 weeks before presentation. At the admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable. The abdomen was soft with tenderness in its mesogastric area. Blood tests revealed markedly elevated activities of the pancreatic enzymes. Acute pancreatitis was the early clinical diagnosis and subsequent therapy was initiated. After 12 hours the condition of the patient suddenly worsened. She was clinically shocked with pallor, hypotension and tachycardia. Laboratory tests revealed anaemia and increased activities of pancreatic enzymes. An ultrasound examination demonstrated an accumulation of intraperitoneal fluid in the pelvis. Subsequently, the patient was subjected to immediate laparotomy. The peritoneal cavity contained large amount of blood. A cystic mass was found and extracted from the ruptured and bleeding right fallopian tube. Histological examination confirmed a rupture of an ectopic pregnancy of a 6-week-old foetus with an intact gestational sac. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged from hospital after 8 days. Our case proves that a misdiagnosed ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the event of elevated activities of pancreatic enzymes may lead to delayed diagnosis of haemorrhage to peritoneum, resulting in hemodynamic

  6. Human-water interface in hydrological modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; Roo, de, Ad; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Hanasaki, Naota; Konar, Megan; Liu, Junguo; Schmied, Hannes Möller; Oki, Taikan; Pokhrel, Yadu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Troy, Tara J.; Dijk, Van, Albert I.J.M.; Emmerik, Van, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial dams, and water diversion) and at various scales (from a watershed to the globe). During the early 1990s, awareness of the potential for increased water scarcity led to the first detailed global wate...

  7. Humanized mouse model for assessing the human immune response to xenogeneic and allogeneic decellularized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond M; Johnson, Todd D; He, Jingjin; Rong, Zhili; Wong, Michelle; Nigam, Vishal; Behfar, Atta; Xu, Yang; Christman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    Current assessment of biomaterial biocompatibility is typically implemented in wild type rodent models. Unfortunately, different characteristics of the immune systems in rodents versus humans limit the capability of these models to mimic the human immune response to naturally derived biomaterials. Here we investigated the utility of humanized mice as an improved model for testing naturally derived biomaterials. Two injectable hydrogels derived from decellularized porcine or human cadaveric myocardium were compared. Three days and one week after subcutaneous injection, the hydrogels were analyzed for early and mid-phase immune responses, respectively. Immune cells in the humanized mouse model, particularly T-helper cells, responded distinctly between the xenogeneic and allogeneic biomaterials. The allogeneic extracellular matrix derived hydrogels elicited significantly reduced total, human specific, and CD4 + T-helper cell infiltration in humanized mice compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels, which was not recapitulated in wild type mice. T-helper cells, in response to the allogeneic hydrogel material, were also less polarized towards a pro-remodeling Th2 phenotype compared to xenogeneic extracellular matrix hydrogels in humanized mice. In both models, both biomaterials induced the infiltration of macrophages polarized towards a M2 phenotype and T-helper cells polarized towards a Th2 phenotype. In conclusion, these studies showed the importance of testing naturally derived biomaterials in immune competent animals and the potential of utilizing this humanized mouse model for further studying human immune cell responses to biomaterials in an in vivo environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale

  9. A numerical model for blast injury of human thorax based on digitized visible human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Nie, Si-Bing; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Yi-He

    2017-12-04

    Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements. Simulation results showed that the apex of lungs was subjected to the largest stress in a blast. In order to verify this result, an animal experiment was performed on a dog. The animal experimental results was shown to have a same variation tendency with the calculation results based on our numerical model of human thorax, which made this model reliable for the blast injury research.

  10. Applications and Limitations of Mouse Models for Understanding Human Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Scheidt, Moritz; Zhao, Yuqi; Kurt, Zeyneb; Pan, Calvin; Zeng, Lingyao; Yang, Xia; Schunkert, Heribert; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the biological understanding of mechanisms underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) derives from studies of mouse models. The identification of multiple CAD loci and strong candidate genes in large human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) presented an opportunity to examine the relevance of mouse models for the human disease. We comprehensively reviewed the mouse literature, including 827 literature-derived genes, and compared it to human data. First, we observed striking concordance of risk factors for atherosclerosis in mice and humans. Second, there was highly significant overlap of mouse genes with human genes identified by GWAS. In particular, of the 46 genes with strong association signals in CAD-GWAS that were studied in mouse models all but one exhibited consistent effects on atherosclerosis-related phenotypes. Third, we compared 178 CAD-associated pathways derived from human GWAS with 263 from mouse studies and observed that over 50% were consistent between both species. PMID:27916529

  11. Zebrafish heart as a model for human cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Hassinen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for human cardiac diseases and pharmacology including cardiac arrhythmias and its electrophysiological basis. Notably, the phenotype of zebrafish cardiac action potential is similar to the human cardiac action potential in that both have a long plateau phase. Also the major inward and outward current systems are qualitatively similar in zebrafish and human hearts. However, there are also significant differences in ionic current composition between human and zebrafish hearts, and the molecular basis and pharmacological properties of human and zebrafish cardiac ionic currents differ in several ways. Cardiac ionic currents may be produced by non-orthologous genes in zebrafish and humans, and paralogous gene products of some ion channels are expressed in the zebrafish heart. More research on molecular basis of cardiac ion channels, and regulation and drug sensitivity of the cardiac ionic currents are needed to enable rational use of the zebrafish heart as an electrophysiological model for the human heart.

  12. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  13. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  14. [Attempt at computer modeling of evolution of human society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, V F; Menshutkin, V V

    2009-01-01

    A model of evolution of human society and biosphere, which is based on the concepts of V. I. Vernadskii about noosphere and of L. N. Gumilev about ethnogenesis is developed and studied. The mathematical apparatus of the model is composition of finite stochastic automata. By using this model, a possibility of the global ecological crisis is demonstrated in the case of preservation of the current tendencies of interaction of the biosphere and the human civilization.

  15. Human Cancer Models Initiative | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Cancer Models Initiative (HCMI) is an international consortium that is generating novel human tumor-derived culture models, which are annotated with genomic and clinical data. In an effort to advance cancer research and more fully understand how in vitro findings are related to clinical biology, HCMI-developed models and related data will be available as a community resource for cancer and other research.

  16. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Ruwiedel, Karsten; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Abel, Josef; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, although skin is the first-pass organ for accidentally or purposely (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) applied chemicals. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic-metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities to models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase in ex vivo human skin, the 3D epidermal model EpiDerm 200 (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We show that all three phase II enzymes are present and highly active in skin as compared to phase I. Human skin, therefore, represents a more detoxifying than activating organ. This work systematically compares the activities of three important phase II enzymes in four different in vitro models directly to human skin. We conclude from our studies that 3D epidermal models, like the EPI-200 employed here, are superior over monolayer cultures in mimicking human skin xenobiotic metabolism and thus better suited for dermatotoxicity testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Kang, Jinsheng; Wright, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and case studies of a novel synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human. The synthetic vision module simulates the biological / optical abilities and limitations of the human vision. The module is based on a series of collision detection between the boundary of virtual humans field of vision (FOV) volume and the surface of objects in a recreated 3D environment. The memory module simulates a short-term memory capability by employing a simplified memory structure (first-in-first-out stack). The synthetic vision and memory model has been integrated into a virtual human modelling project, Intelligent Virtual Modelling. The project aimed to improve the realism and autonomy of virtual humans.

  18. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First...

  19. Pig models for the human heart failure syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Human heart failure remains a challenging illness despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure patients. There is a need for further improvement of our understanding of the failing myocardium and its molecular deterioration. Porcine models provide an important research tool...... in this respect as molecular changes can be examined in detail, which is simply not feasible in human patients. However, the human heart failure syndrome is based on symptoms and signs, where pig models mostly mimic the myocardial damage, but without decisive data on clinical presentation and, therefore, a heart...... to elucidate the human heart failure syndrome....

  20. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    mimicking several pathological conditions, Restless Legs Syndrome prevalence on general population according to various large epidemiological studies and pathogenic hypotheses on the issue of Restless Legs Syndrome are discussed. Finally, by presenting another possible "RLS-mimic" our aim is to highlight the common misdiagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome, which can mimic a variety of disorders, some of which are very common, such as an S1 radiculopathy, thus raising concern among doctors of various specialties addressed to by Restless Legs Syndrome sufferers, on the importance of proper diagnosis of the syndrome.

  1. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Samuel J; Thomas, Gareth J

    2017-08-01

    Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of 'non-animal human tissue' models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Emerging Translational Model of Human Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Chi, Thomas; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kim, Man Su; Hirata, Taku; Romero, Michael F.; Dow, Julian A.T.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The limitations imposed by human clinical studies and mammalian models of nephrolithiasis have hampered the development of effective medical treatments and preventative measures for decades. The simple but elegant Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful translational model of human disease, including nephrolithiasis and may provide important information essential to our understanding of stone formation. We present the current state of research using D. melanogaster as a model of human nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the English language literature was performed using PUBMED. When necessary, authoritative texts on relevant subtopics were consulted. Results The genetic composition, anatomic structure and physiologic function of Drosophila Malpighian tubules are remarkably similar to those of the human nephron. The direct effects of dietary manipulation, environmental alteration, and genetic variation on stone formation can be observed and quantified in a matter of days. Several Drosophila models of human nephrolithiasis, including genetically linked and environmentally induced stones, have been developed. A model of calcium oxalate stone formation is among the most recent fly models of human nephrolithiasis. Conclusions The ability to readily manipulate and quantify stone formation in D. melanogaster models of human nephrolithiasis presents the urologic community with a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:23500641

  3. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Jackson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of ‘non-animal human tissue’ models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models.

  4. A surgical ankle sprain pain model in the rat: Effects of morphine and indomethacin

    OpenAIRE

    Young Kim, Hee; Wang, Jigong; Chung, Kyungsoon; Mo Chung, Jin

    2008-01-01

    Ankle sprain is a frequent injury in humans that results in pain, swelling and difficulty in walking on the affected ankle. Currently a suitable animal model resembling human ankle sprain is lacking. Here, we describe an animal ankle sprain model induced by ankle ligament injury (ALI) in rats. Cutting combinations of the lateral ankle ligament complex produced pain, edema and difficulty of weight bearing, thereby mimicking severe (grade III) ankle sprain in humans. Analgesic compounds, morphi...

  5. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear......, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human...... for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human...

  6. Human Digital Modeling & Hand Scanning Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory incorporates specialized scanning equipment, computer workstations and software applications for the acquisition and analysis of digitized models of...

  7. Modelling Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation in Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panerai, R

    2001-01-01

    ...% of CBF regulatory,' mechanisms and their interaction with other haemodynamic variables such as intracranial pressure and blood gases, Mathematical models have been able to reproduce many known...

  8. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  9. Mechanical Impedance Modeling of Human Arm: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzi, A. Ahmad; Sidek, S. N.; Sado, F.

    2017-03-01

    Human arm mechanical impedance plays a vital role in describing motion ability of the upper limb. One of the impedance parameters is stiffness which is defined as the ratio of an applied force to the measured deformation of the muscle. The arm mechanical impedance modeling is useful in order to develop a better controller for system that interacts with human as such an automated robot-assisted platform for automated rehabilitation training. The aim of the survey is to summarize the existing mechanical impedance models of human upper limb so to justify the need to have an improved version of the arm model in order to facilitate the development of better controller of such systems with ever increase in complexity. In particular, the paper will address the following issue: Human motor control and motor learning, constant and variable impedance models, methods for measuring mechanical impedance and mechanical impedance modeling techniques.

  10. Human Spaceflight Architecture Model (HSFAM) Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2016-01-01

    HSFAM is a data model based on the DoDAF 2.02 data model with some for purpose extensions. These extensions are designed to permit quantitative analyses regarding stakeholder concerns about technical feasibility, configuration and interface issues, and budgetary and/or economic viability.

  11. Pig models for the human heart failure syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    failure diagnosis. In perspective, pig models are in need of some verification in terms of the clinical definition of the experimental condition. After all, humans are not pigs, pigs are not humans, and the difference between the species needs to be better understood before pig models can fully be used......Human heart failure remains a challenging illness despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure patients. There is a need for further improvement of our understanding of the failing myocardium and its molecular deterioration. Porcine models provide an important research tool...

  12. A Computational Model of Human Table Tennis for Robot Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülling, Katharina; Peters, Jan

    Table tennis is a difficult motor skill which requires all basic components of a general motor skill learning system. In order to get a step closer to such a generic approach to the automatic acquisition and refinement of table tennis, we study table tennis from a human motor control point of view. We make use of the basic models of discrete human movement phases, virtual hitting points, and the operational timing hypothesis. Using these components, we create a computational model which is aimed at reproducing human-like behavior. We verify the functionality of this model in a physically realistic simulation of a Barrett WAM.

  13. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  14. A multisensory integration model of human stance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, H; Jacobs, R; Koopman, B; Grootenboer, H

    1999-05-01

    A model is presented to study and quantify the contribution of all available sensory information to human standing based on optimal estimation theory. In the model, delayed sensory information is integrated in such a way that a best estimate of body orientation is obtained. The model approach agrees with the present theory of the goal of human balance control. The model is not based on purely inverted pendulum body dynamics, but rather on a three-link segment model of a standing human on a movable support base. In addition, the model is non-linear and explicitly addresses the problem of multisensory integration and neural time delays. A predictive element is included in the controller to compensate for time delays, necessary to maintain erect body orientation. Model results of sensory perturbations on total body sway closely resemble experimental results. Despite internal and external perturbations, the controller is able to stabilise the model of an inherently unstable standing human with neural time delays of 100 ms. It is concluded, that the model is capable of studying and quantifying multisensory integration in human stance control. We aim to apply the model in (1) the design and development of prostheses and orthoses and (2) the diagnosis of neurological balance disorders.

  15. SU-F-T-346: Dose Mimicking Inverse Planning Based On Helical Delivery Treatment Plans for Head and Neck Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran Nair, C; Hoffman, D; Wright, C; Yamamoto, T; Rao, S; Benedict, S; Rong, Y [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Markham, J [Raysearch Laboratories, Garden City, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to evaluate a new commercial dose mimicking inverse-planning application that was designed to provide cross-platform treatment planning, for its dosimetric quality and efficiency. The clinical benefit of this application allows patients treated on O-shaped linac to receive an equivalent plan on conventional L-shaped linac as needed for workflow or machine downtime. Methods: The dose mimicking optimization process seeks to create a similar DVH of an O-shaped linac-based plans with an alternative treatment technique (IMRT or VMAT), by maintaining target conformity, and penalizing dose falloff outside the target. Ten head and neck (HN) helical delivery plans, including simple and complex cases were selected for re-planning with the dose mimicking application. All plans were generated for a 6 MV beam model, using 7-field/ 9-field IMRT and VMAT techniques. PTV coverage (D1, D99 and homogeneity index [HI]), and OARs avoidance (Dmean / Dmax) were compared. Results: The resulting dose mimicked HN plans achieved acceptable PTV coverage for HI (VMAT 7.0±2.3, 7-fld 7.3±2.4, and 9-fld 7.0±2.4), D99 (98.0%±0.7%, 97.8%±0.7%, and 98.0%±0.7%), as well as D1 (106.4%±2.1%, 106.5%±2.2%, and 106.4%±2.1%), respectively. The OAR dose discrepancy varied: brainstem (2% to 4%), cord (3% to 6%), esophagus (−4% to −8%), larynx (−4% to 2%), and parotid (4% to 14%). Mimicked plans would typically be needed for 1–5 fractions of a treatment course, and we estimate <1% variance would be introduced in target coverage while maintaining comparable low dose to OARs. All mimicked plans were approved by independent physician and passed patient specific QA within our established tolerance. Conclusion: Dose mimicked plans provide a practical alternative for responding to clinical workflow issues, and provide reliability for patient treatment. The quality of dose mimicking for HN patients highly depends on the delivery technique, field numbers and angles, as well as user

  16. Pellet culture model for human primary osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    K Jähn; RG Richards; CW Archer; MJ Stoddart

    2010-01-01

    In vitro monolayer culture of human primary osteoblasts (hOBs) often shows unsatisfactory results for extracellular matrix deposition, maturation and calcification. Nevertheless, monolayer culture is still the method of choice for in vitro differentiation of primary osteoblasts. We believe that the delay in mature ECM production by the monolayer cultured osteoblasts is determined by their state of cell maturation. A functional relationship between the inhibition of osteoblast proliferation an...

  17. Human reconstructed skin xenografts on mice to model skin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Giorgiana; Ng, Yi Zhen; Koh, Li Fang; Goh, Christabelle S M; Common, John E

    Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models. In the case of skin research, the mouse persists as the most popular animal model of choice, despite its well-known anatomical differences with human skin. Differences in skin biology are especially evident when trying to dissect more complex skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema, where interactions between the immune system, epidermis and the environment likely occur. While the use of animal models are still considered the gold standard for systemic toxicity studies under controlled environments, there are now alternative models that have been approved for certain applications. To overcome the biological limitations of the mouse model, research efforts have also focused on "humanizing" the mice model to better recapitulate human skin physiology. In this review, we outline the different approaches undertaken thus far to study skin biology using human tissue xenografts in mice and the technical challenges involved. We also describe more recent developments to generate humanized multi-tissue compartment mice that carry both a functioning human immune system and skin xenografts. Such composite animal models provide promising opportunities to study drugs, disease and differentiation with greater clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Human View Model for Socio-Technical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A.; Tolk, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Human View was developed as an additional architectural viewpoint to focus on the human part of a system. The Human View can be used to collect and organize data in order to understand how human operators interact and impact the other elements of a system. This framework can also be used to develop a model to describe how humans interact with each other in network enabled systems. These socio-technical interactions form the foundation of the emerging area of Human Interoperability. Human Interoperability strives to understand the relationships required between human operators that impact collaboration across networked environments, including the effect of belonging to different organizations. By applying organizational relationship concepts from network theory to the Human View elements, and aligning these relationships with a model developed to identify layers of coalition interoperability, the conditions for different levels for Human Interoperability for network enabled systems can be identified. These requirements can then be captured in the Human View products to improve the overall network enabled system.

  19. Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G.; de Haan, G.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Vliet, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in

  20. A computationally efficient electrophysiological model of human ventricular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernus, O.; Wilders, R.; Zemlin, C. W.; Verschelde, H.; Panfilov, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results have stressed the importance of modeling studies of reentrant arrhythmias in cardiac tissue and at the whole heart level. We introduce a six-variable model obtained by a reformulation of the Priebe-Beuckelmann model of a single human ventricular cell. The

  1. [Case report: Muir-Torre syndrome diagnosed from a sebaceoma mimicking an ulcerated breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demolin, G; Romain, M; Münschke, A; Vandingenen, T; Blaude, M-A; Van Craynest, M-P

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of a case report, we conducted a search through the literature concerning Muir-Torre syndrome. This syndrome is considered to be a phenotypic variant of Lynch syndrome (or Human Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer). Muir-Torre syndrome is a familial cancer syndrome defined as the association of an internal malignancy with cutaneous sebaceous tumors. It is a rare disease. In our knowledge, this case is the first reported skin lesion related to Muir-Torre syndrome, located on the breast and mimicking ulcerated breast cancer. Genetic counselling obviously has an important place in the management of this pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital ADAMTS13 deficiency: a rare mimicker of immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Victor; Garcia-Pose, Araceli; Barrios-Tascon, Ana; Pacheco-Cumani, Monica

    2014-11-01

    Congenital ADAMTS13 deficiency is a rare disease that leads to recurrent episodes of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. We report a case that mimicked a recurring immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a child. Mild cases of ADAMTS13 deficiency may be initially confused with immune thrombocytopenic purpura if hemolytic anemia is not severe and renal or neurological symptoms are not present. Fresh frozen plasma is the treatment of choice in acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in ADAMTS13-deficient patients. The best long-term treatment for slightly symptomatic cases remains to be elucidated. Recombinant human ADAMTS13 factor will be a promising option when commercially available.

  3. Some aspects of statistical modeling of human-error probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prairie, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Human reliability analyses (HRA) are often performed as part of risk assessment and reliability projects. Recent events in nuclear power have shown the potential importance of the human element. There are several on-going efforts in the US and elsewhere with the purpose of modeling human error such that the human contribution can be incorporated into an overall risk assessment associated with one or more aspects of nuclear power. An effort that is described here uses the HRA (event tree) to quantify and model the human contribution to risk. As an example, risk analyses are being prepared on several nuclear power plants as part of the Interim Reliability Assessment Program (IREP). In this process the risk analyst selects the elements of his fault tree that could be contributed to by human error. He then solicits the HF analyst to do a HRA on this element

  4. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  5. Human Communication--A New Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, John

    1978-01-01

    Pavlov's organism-in-the-environment model was adapted to a functional analysis of communication, expecially abstract and symbolic activities. A classification of discrimination response and reinforcement patterns was given. (CP)

  6. Human Endothelial Cell Models in Biomaterial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sandra; Jung, Friedrich; Pietzsch, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) models have evolved as important tools in biomaterial research due to ubiquitously occurring interactions between implanted materials and the endothelium. However, screening the available literature has revealed a gap between material scientists and physiologists in terms of their understanding of these biomaterial-endothelium interactions and their relative importance. Consequently, EC models are often applied in nonphysiological experimental setups, or too extensive conclusions are drawn from their results. The question arises whether this might be one reason why, among the many potential biomaterials, only a few have found their way into the clinic. In this review, we provide an overview of established EC models and possible selection criteria to enable researchers to determine the most reliable and relevant EC model to use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular surface foreign bodies: novel findings mimicking ocular malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudgil, A; Wagner, B E; Rundle, P; Rennie, I G; Mudhar, H S

    2014-11-01

    Malignant melanoma of the eye is an uncommon condition that is important to recognise. We describe three cases in which ocular foreign bodies have masqueraded as ocular malignant melanoma. Interventional case reports. Case 1 describes diathermy-induced carbon particle implantation, during plaque therapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma, mimicking recurrence with extra-scleral invasion. Case 2 shows a foreign body called 'mullite' mimicking conjunctival melanoma. Case 3 demonstrates a conjunctival foreign body called 'illite' that mimicked a limbal melanocytic lesion, clinically thought to be either melanocytoma or melanoma. This report highlights the importance of careful history taking, examination, and appropriate biopsy in cases of suspected malignant melanoma, to prevent unnecessary and potentially radical treatment.

  8. Model-Based approaches to Human-Automation Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamieson, Greg A.; Andersson, Jonas; Bisantz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Human-automation interaction in complex systems is common, yet design for this interaction is often conducted without explicit consideration of the role of the human operator. Fortunately, there are a number of modeling frameworks proposed for supporting this design activity. However...... (and reportedly one or two critics) can engage one another on several agreed questions about such frameworks. The goal is to aid non-aligned practitioners in choosing between alternative frameworks for their human-automation interaction design challenges....

  9. Chronic multifocal non-bacterial osteomyelitis in hypophosphatasia mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warmuth-Metz Monika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypophosphatasia (HP is characterized by a genetic defect in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP gene and predominantly an autosomal recessive trait. HP patients suffer from reduced bone mineralization. Biochemically, elevated concentrations of substrates of TNSALP, including pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate occur in serum, tissues and urine. The latter has been associated with chronic inflammation and hyperprostaglandinism. Case presentation We report on 2 affected children presenting with multifocal inflammatory bone lesions mimicking malignancy: A 6 years old girl with short stature had been treated with human growth hormone since 6 months. Then she started to complain about a painful swelling of her left cheek. MRI suggested a malignant bone lesion. Bone biopsy, however, revealed chronic inflammation. A bone scan showed a second rib lesion. Since biopsy was sterile, the descriptive diagnosis of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO was established. The diagnostic tests related to growth failure were repeated and subsequent analyses demonstrated a molecular defect in the TNSALP gene. The second girl (10 years old complained about back pain after she had fallen from her bike. X rays of her spine revealed compressions of 2 thoracic vertebrae. At first these were considered trauma related, however a bone scan did show an additional lesion in the right 4th rib. A biopsy of this rib revealed a sterile lympho- plasmocytoid osteomyelitis suggesting multifocal CNO. Further analyses did show a decreased TNSALP in leukocytes and elevated pyridoxal phosphate in plasma, suggesting a heterozygous carrier status of HP. Conclusion Chronic bone oedema in adult HP and chronic hyper-prostaglandinism in childhood HP do suggest that in some HP patients bone inflammation is present in conjunction with the metabolic defect. Sterile multifocal osteomyelitis could be demonstrated. Non-steroidal anti

  10. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Pierre J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia.

  11. Computational models of human vision with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    The research program supported by this grant was initiated in l977 by the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University. The purpose of the research was to study human performance with the goal of improving the design of flight instrumentation. By mutual agreement between the scientists at NASA-Ames and Stanford, all research activities in this area were consolidated into a single funding mechanism, NCC 2-307 (Center of Excellence Grant, 7/1/84 - present). This is the final report on this research grant.

  12. Quantitative modeling of human performance in complex, dynamic systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baron, Sheldon; Kruser, Dana S; Huey, Beverly Messick

    1990-01-01

    ... Sheldon Baron, Dana S. Kruser, and Beverly Messick Huey, editors Panel on Human Performance Modeling Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1990 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version forma...

  13. How do humans inspect BPMN models: an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haisjackl, Cornelia; Soffer, Pnina; Lim, Shao Yi

    2016-01-01

    by humans, what strategies are taken, what challenges arise, and what cognitive processes are involved. This paper contributes toward such an understanding and reports an exploratory study investigating how humans identify and classify quality issues in BPMN process models. Providing preliminary answers...

  14. Pharmacological migraine provocation: a human model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Hansen, Jakob Møller

    2010-01-01

    for migraine mechanisms. So far, however, animal models cannot predict the efficacy of new therapies for migraine. Because migraine attacks are fully reversible and can be aborted by therapy, the headache- or migraine-provoking property of naturally occurring signaling molecules can be tested in a human model......In vitro studies have contributed to the characterization of receptors in cranial blood vessels and the identification of possible new antimigraine agents. Animal models enable the study of vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, and peptide release, and thus have provided leads in the search....... If a naturally occurring substance can provoke migraine in human patients, then it is likely, although not certain, that blocking its effect will be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. To this end, a human in vivo model of experimental headache and migraine in humans has been developed...

  15. Can inter-human communications be modeled as "autopoietic"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2014-01-01

    Open peer commentary on the article "Social Autopoiesis?" by Hugo Urrestarazu. Upshot: The dynamics of expectations in inter-human communications can be modelled as "autopoiesis." Consciousness and communications couple not only structurally (Maturana), but also penetrate each other reflexively

  16. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  17. Human casualties in earthquakes: Modelling and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  18. Neonatal appendicitis mimicking intestinal duplication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeki Isamu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute appendicitis is a common disease in older children but rare in neonates. Case presentation We report the case of a 2-day-old Asian baby who suffered from neonatal appendicitis mimicking intestinal duplication. Laparoscopic appendectomy was successfully performed after the trans-umbilical division of adhesions, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion There are few reports describing abdominal masses caused by appendicitis mimicking intestinal duplication. The laparoscopic approach for neonatal appendicitis is considered to be a safe and useful therapeutic modality with good cosmetic results.

  19. Generating Phenotypical Erroneous Human Behavior to Evaluate Human-automation Interaction Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J; Siminiceanu, Radu I

    2012-11-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in unanticipated ways. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. Model-driven design and analysis techniques provide engineers with formal methods tools and techniques capable of evaluating how human behavior can contribute to system failures. This paper presents a novel method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both normative and erroneous human behavior from normative task models. The generated erroneous behavior is capable of replicating Hollnagel's zero-order phenotypes of erroneous action for omissions, jumps, repetitions, and intrusions. Multiple phenotypical acts can occur in sequence, thus allowing for the generation of higher order phenotypes. The task behavior model pattern capable of generating erroneous behavior can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human-automation interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. We present benchmarks related to the size of the statespace and verification time of models to show how the erroneous human behavior generation process scales. We demonstrate the method with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. A potential problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. A design intervention is presented which prevents this problem from occurring. We discuss how our method could be used to evaluate larger applications and recommend future paths of development.

  20. Generating Phenotypical Erroneous Human Behavior to Evaluate Human-automation Interaction Using Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2012-01-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in unanticipated ways. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. Model-driven design and analysis techniques provide engineers with formal methods tools and techniques capable of evaluating how human behavior can contribute to system failures. This paper presents a novel method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both normative and erroneous human behavior from normative task models. The generated erroneous behavior is capable of replicating Hollnagel’s zero-order phenotypes of erroneous action for omissions, jumps, repetitions, and intrusions. Multiple phenotypical acts can occur in sequence, thus allowing for the generation of higher order phenotypes. The task behavior model pattern capable of generating erroneous behavior can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human-automation interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. We present benchmarks related to the size of the statespace and verification time of models to show how the erroneous human behavior generation process scales. We demonstrate the method with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. A potential problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. A design intervention is presented which prevents this problem from occurring. We discuss how our method could be used to evaluate larger applications and recommend future paths of development. PMID:23105914

  1. Comparison of the Gene Expression Profiles of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells between Humans and a Humanized Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Hideyuki; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Yahata, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Ando, Kiyoshi

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of NOD/Shi-scid-IL2Rγ null (NOG) mice transplanted with human CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low hematopoietic cells from cord blood (CB) as an experimental model of the gene expression in human hematopoiesis. We compared the gene expressions of human CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells from human bone marrow (BM) and in xenograft models. The microarray data revealed that 25 KEGG pathways were extracted from the comparison of human CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low HSCs between CB and BM, and that 17 of them--which were mostly related to cellular survival, RNA metabolism and lymphoid development--were shared with the xenograft model. When the probes that were commonly altered in CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells from both human and xenograft BM were analyzed, most of them, including the genes related hypoxia, hematopoietic differentiation, epigenetic modification, translation initiation, and RNA degradation, were downregulated. These alterations of gene expression suggest a reduced differentiation capacity and likely include key alterations of gene expression for settlement of CB CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells in BM. Our findings demonstrate that the xenograft model of human CB CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells using NOG mice was useful, at least in part, for the evaluation of the gene expression profile of human hematopoietic stem cells.

  2. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    Reliable disease models are needed in order to improve quality of healthcare. This includes gaining better understanding of disease mechanisms, developing new therapeutic interventions and personalizing treatment. Up-to-date, the majority of our knowledge about disease states comes from in vivo...

  3. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997)] but includes major changes at the peripheral and more central stages of processing. The model contains outer- and middle-ear transformations, a nonlinear basilar-membrane processing stage, a hair-cell t...

  4. Interfacing polymeric scaffolds with primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to develop 3D cancer models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, C.; Mota, C.M.; Moscato, S.; D' Alessandro, D.; Ugel, S.; Sartoris, S.; Bronte, V.; Boggi, U.; Campani, D.; Funel, N.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Danti, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the interactions between human primary cells from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and polymeric scaffolds to develop 3D cancer models useful for mimicking the biology of this tumor. Three scaffold types based on two biocompatible polymeric formulations, such as poly(vinyl

  5. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Orr, Martin; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the need for a shared definitional model of long duration human spaceflight, that would provide a framework and vision to facilitate communication, research and practice In 1956, on the eve of human space travel, Hubertus Strughold first proposed a "simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight" that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Here we describe our preliminary findings and outline potential approaches for the future development of a definition and broader classification system

  6. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaipaew, Jirayut; Wangkulangkul, Piyanun; Meesane, Jirut; Raungrut, Pritsana; Puttawibul, Puttisak

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/Hyaluronic acid was fabricated into mimicked scaffolds. • Mimicked scaffolds were incorporated with stem cells for chondrogenesis. • Mimicked scaffolds showed the clues for chondrogenic regulation. • Mimicked scaffolds had suitable performance for cartilage tissue engineering • Mimicked scaffolds showed promise for osteoarthritis surgery.

  7. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaipaew, Jirayut [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Wangkulangkul, Piyanun [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Meesane, Jirut, E-mail: jirutmeesane999@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Raungrut, Pritsana [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Puttawibul, Puttisak [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand)

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/Hyaluronic acid was fabricated into mimicked scaffolds. • Mimicked scaffolds were incorporated with stem cells for chondrogenesis. • Mimicked scaffolds showed the clues for chondrogenic regulation. • Mimicked scaffolds had suitable performance for cartilage tissue engineering • Mimicked scaffolds showed promise for osteoarthritis surgery.

  8. Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    guinea - pig polyclonal anti-insulin (1:100 dilution, Abcam Ab7842-500, Cambridge, MA) and a secondary goat anti- guinea - pig Alexa-fluor 568 (1:100 dilu...which is reported to accelerate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a mouse model of multiple sclerosis). Our reasoning was that, as T cells...HL, Sobel RA, Kuchroo VK. IL-10 is critical in the regulation of autoimmune encephalomyelitis as demonstrated by studies of IL-10- and IL-4

  9. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth. (paper)

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth.

  11. A model for assessing human cognitive reliability in PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Spurgin, A.J.; Lukic, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of a research project sponsored by EPRI as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) technology improvement program and conducted by NUS Corporation to develop a model of Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR). The model was synthesized from features identified in a review of existing models. The model development was based on the hypothesis that the key factors affecting crew response times are separable. The inputs to the model consist of key parameters the values of which can be determined by PRA analysts for each accident situation being assessed. The output is a set of curves which represent the probability of control room crew non-response as a function of time for different conditions affecting their performance. The non-response probability is then a contributor to the overall non-success of operating crews to achieve a functional objective identified in the PRA study. Simulator data and some small scale tests were utilized to illustrate the calibration of interim HCR model coefficients for different types of cognitive processing since the data were sparse. The model can potentially help PRA analysts make human reliability assessments more explicit. The model incorporates concepts from psychological models of human cognitive behavior, information from current collections of human reliability data sources and crew response time data from simulator training exercises

  12. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  13. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Sameer; Arora, Pallak; Devi, Parvathi; Wazir, Sartaj Singh; Kapoor, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which wa...

  14. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in total, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  15. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, James

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in toto, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  16. Immunology studies in non-human primate models of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, JoAnne L; Gideon, Hannah P; Mattila, Joshua T; Lin, Philana Ling

    2015-03-01

    Non-human primates, primarily macaques, have been used to study tuberculosis for decades. However, in the last 15 years, this model has been refined substantially to allow careful investigations of the immune response and host-pathogen interactions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Low-dose challenge with fully virulent strains in cynomolgus macaques result in the full clinical spectrum seen in humans, including latent and active infection. Reagents from humans are usually cross-reactive with macaques, further facilitating the use of this model system to study tuberculosis. Finally, macaques develop the spectrum of granuloma types seen in humans, providing a unique opportunity to investigate bacterial and host factors at the local (lung and lymph node) level. Here, we review the past decade of immunology and pathology studies in macaque models of tuberculosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  18. A novel polar-based human face recognition computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a recently proposed biologically inspired face recognition approach, we investigated the relation between human behavior and a computational model based on Fourier-Bessel (FB spatial patterns. We measured human recognition performance of FB filtered face images using an 8-alternative forced-choice method. Test stimuli were generated by converting the images from the spatial to the FB domain, filtering the resulting coefficients with a band-pass filter, and finally taking the inverse FB transformation of the filtered coefficients. The performance of the computational models was tested using a simulation of the psychophysical experiment. In the FB model, face images were first filtered by simulated V1- type neurons and later analyzed globally for their content of FB components. In general, there was a higher human contrast sensitivity to radially than to angularly filtered images, but both functions peaked at the 11.3-16 frequency interval. The FB-based model presented similar behavior with regard to peak position and relative sensitivity, but had a wider frequency band width and a narrower response range. The response pattern of two alternative models, based on local FB analysis and on raw luminance, strongly diverged from the human behavior patterns. These results suggest that human performance can be constrained by the type of information conveyed by polar patterns, and consequently that humans might use FB-like spatial patterns in face processing.

  19. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  20. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  1. Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.

    1975-01-01

    This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.

  2. Optimization of micro-fabricated porous membranes for intestinal epithelial cell culture and in vitro modeling of the human intestinal barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair Gourikutty Sajay, Bhuvanendran; Yin, Chiam Su; Ramadan, Qasem

    2017-12-01

    In vitro modeling of organs could provide a controlled platform for studying physiological events and has great potential in the field of pharmaceutical development. Here, we describe the characterization of in vitro modeling of the human intestinal barrier mimicked using silicon porous membranes as a substrate. To mimic an intestinal in vivo setup as closely as possible, a porous substrate is required in a dynamic environment for the cells to grow rather than a static setup with an impermeable surface such as a petri dish. In this study, we focus on the detailed characterization of Caco-2 cells cultured on a silicon membrane with different pore sizes as well as the effect of dynamic fluid flow on the model. The porous silicon membrane together with continuous perfusion of liquid applying shear stress on the cells enhances the differentiation of polarized cells by providing access to the both their basal and apical surfaces. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.5-3 µm were used and a shear stress of ~0.03 dyne cm-2 was created by applying a low flow rate of 20 nl s-1. By providing these optimized conditions, cells were able to differentiate with columnar morphology, which developed microvilli structures on their apical side and tight junctions between adjacent cells like those in a healthy human intestinal barrier. In this setup, it is possible to study the important cellular functions of the intestine such as transport, absorption and secretion, and thus this model has great potential in drug screening.

  3. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Raz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  4. Observations and modeling of deterministic properties of human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that the properties of both models are different from those obtained for Type-I intermittency in the presence of additive noise. The two models help to explain some of the features seen in the intermittency in human heart rate variability. Keywords. Heart rate variability; intermittency; non-stationary dynamical systems.

  5. Comparative homology modeling of human rhodopsin with several ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecular structure of rhodopsin has been studied by cryo-electron microscopic, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystallographic techniques in bovine. A humble effort has been ... Key words: Homology modeling, human rhodopsin, bovine templates, sequence alignment, model building, energy profiles.

  6. Human surrogate models of histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade understanding of the mechanistic basis of itch has improved significantly, resulting in the development of several human surrogate models of itch and related dysesthetic states. Well-characterized somatosensory models are useful in basic studies in healthy volunteers...

  7. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  8. Growth Modeling of Human Mandibles using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Wrobel, Mark

    2003-01-01

    From a set of 31 three-dimensional CT scans we model the temporal shape and size of the human mandible. Each anatomical structure is represented using 14851 semi-landmarks, and mapped into Procrustes tangent space. Exploratory subspace analyses are performed leading to linear models of mandible s...

  9. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  10. Gene therapy in nonhuman primate models of human autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t'Hart, B. A.; Vervoordeldonk, M.; Heeney, J. L.; Tak, P. P.

    2003-01-01

    Before autoimmune diseases in humans can be treated with gene therapy, the safety and efficacy of the used vectors must be tested in valid experimental models. Monkeys, such as the rhesus macaque or the common marmoset, provide such models. This publication reviews the state of the art in monkey

  11. Impact Analysis of a Biomechanical Model of the Human Thorax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolly, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of the study was to create a viable finite element model of the human thorax. This objective was accomplished through the construction of a three-dimensional finite element model in DYNA3D, a finite element analysis program...

  12. Mathematical Analysis of a Model for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical model formulated to investigate the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The disease free equilibrium of the model was found to be locally and globally asymptotically stable. The endemic equilibrium point exists and it was discovered that the ...

  13. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  14. Establishment and characterization of a reconstructed Chinese human epidermis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Zhong, L; Zhou, M; Chen, D; Huang, X; Chen, J; Chen, M; Ni, H; Cai, Z

    2016-02-01

    In vitro reconstructed human epidermis is a powerful tool for both basic research and industrial applications in dermatology, pharmacology and the cosmetic field. By growing keratinocytes of Chinese origin on a collagen matrix after a submerged culture followed by an air-liquid interface culture, an in vitro reconstructed Chinese human epidermis model was obtained. This Chinese epidermis model was further characterized. The reconstructed human epidermis model (China EpiSkin model) exhibits morphological features similar to native skin and shows similar expression profile of proliferation (Ki67) and differentiation (K14 and K10 cytokeratins, filaggrin) markers. Corneodesmosomes, lamellar lipids, desmosomes, keratohyalin granules, keratin filaments and membrane-coating granules are also observed at the ultrastructure level. Moreover, China EpiSkin model contains most of the major lipid classes normally found in the native skin and potentially could present the properties of skin barrier. More importantly, the model production achieves high reproducibility and low intra- and inter-batch variations. This is the first reconstructed Chinese human epidermis model reported to meet the high quality standard with industrialized production criteria. This China EpiSkin model can be used for both skin research and safety assessment in vitro. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. A Systemic Cause Analysis Model for Human Performance Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrin, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systemic, research-based cause analysis model for use in the field of human performance technology (HPT). The model organizes the most prominent barriers to workplace learning and performance into a conceptual framework that explains and illuminates the architecture of these barriers that exist within the fabric of everyday…

  16. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in

  17. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  18. Quantitative Modeling of Human-Environment Interactions in Preindustrial Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying human-environment interactions and anthropogenic influences on the environment prior to the Industrial revolution is essential for understanding the current state of the earth system. This is particularly true for the terrestrial biosphere, but marine ecosystems and even climate were likely modified by human activities centuries to millennia ago. Direct observations are however very sparse in space and time, especially as one considers prehistory. Numerical models are therefore essential to produce a continuous picture of human-environment interactions in the past. Agent-based approaches, while widely applied to quantifying human influence on the environment in localized studies, are unsuitable for global spatial domains and Holocene timescales because of computational demands and large parameter uncertainty. Here we outline a new paradigm for the quantitative modeling of human-environment interactions in preindustrial time that is adapted to the global Holocene. Rather than attempting to simulate agency directly, the model is informed by a suite of characteristics describing those things about society that cannot be predicted on the basis of environment, e.g., diet, presence of agriculture, or range of animals exploited. These categorical data are combined with the properties of the physical environment in coupled human-environment model. The model is, at its core, a dynamic global vegetation model with a module for simulating crop growth that is adapted for preindustrial agriculture. This allows us to simulate yield and calories for feeding both humans and their domesticated animals. We couple this basic caloric availability with a simple demographic model to calculate potential population, and, constrained by labor requirements and land limitations, we create scenarios of land use and land cover on a moderate-resolution grid. We further implement a feedback loop where anthropogenic activities lead to changes in the properties of the physical

  19. Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Jae Min [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Irwon-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea); Sung, Ki Woong [Department of Paediatrics, Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul 135-710 (Korea)

    2003-11-01

    A 4.3-year-old girl with acute leukaemia, who was being treated with chemotherapy (including vincristine), developed paraplegia. Spinal MRI showed diffusely enhancing nerve roots on contrast-enhanced images. Spinal fluid analysis showed a normal protein level. Vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome is thought to be the cause of the MRI abnormalities. (orig.)

  20. Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Jae Min; Sung, Ki Woong

    2003-01-01

    A 4.3-year-old girl with acute leukaemia, who was being treated with chemotherapy (including vincristine), developed paraplegia. Spinal MRI showed diffusely enhancing nerve roots on contrast-enhanced images. Spinal fluid analysis showed a normal protein level. Vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome is thought to be the cause of the MRI abnormalities. (orig.)

  1. Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy | Smal | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy. J Smal. Abstract.

  2. Endometriosis of the meso-appendix mimicking appendicitis: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although appendicitis is largely a clinical diagnosis, on occasions diagnostic modalities may be needed to aid with the diagnosis. Despite the use of adjuncts and exploratory surgery, the diagnosis may not be clear until a histological diagnosis is achieved. Endometriosis of the appendix mimicking appendicitis is one of ...

  3. Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper(II) complexes: Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity. ABHRANIL DE DHANANJAY DEY HARE RAM YADAV MILAN MAJI VINAYAK RANE R M KADAM ANGSHUMAN ROY CHOUDHURY BHASKAR BISWAS. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 11 ...

  4. Trichophyton Schoenleinii-induced widespread tinea corporis mimicking parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, P; Farshi, S; Khosravi, A R; Naraghi, Z S; Chalangari, R

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of extensive tinea corporis in an 80-year-old woman on her forearms, thighs, legs, buttocks and trunk, mimicking parapsoriasis due to Trichophyton schoenleinii, without scalp involvement. Diagnosis of Trichophyton schoenleinii was confirmed by microscopy and mycological culture specimens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysplastic bone disease mimicking exostoses of the ear canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 43-year-old man who attended the ENT clinic complaining of bilateral hearing loss. He had multiple bony swellings in both ear canals that mimicked exostoses. An audiogram showed bilateral symmetrical mixed hearing loss. Excision was carried out to facilitate the use of a hearing aid.

  6. African oral histoplasmosis mimicking lip carcinoma: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Iocalised African histoplasmosis with an unusual presentation in a 56 year old Nigerian farmer is reported. The lesion presented as an ulcer clinically mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip. An incisional biopsy and culture studies confirmed African histoplasmosis and the utcer healed spontaneously ...

  7. Intracranial Gossypiboma Mimicking a Recurrent Low Grade Astrocytoma : Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Koo, Joon Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Il-San Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Gossypiboma is an inflammatory pseudomass formed by a retained surgical sponge or gauze with reactive tissue after surgery. Gossypiboma has been reported most frequently after abdominal or thoracic surgery. As such, gossypiboma following brain surgery is very rare. We report a case of gossypiboma mimicking tumor recurrence in the brain after a craniotomy and surgical excision of a low grade astrocytoma.

  8. Geometry Modeling Program Implementation of Human Hip Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Mo-nan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Aiming to design a simulate software of human tissue modeling and analysis,Visual Studio 2010 is selected as a development tool to develop a 3 D reconstruction software of human tissue with language C++.It can be used alone. It also can be a module of the virtual surgery systems. The system includes medical image segmentation modules and 3 D reconstruction modules,and can realize the model visualization. This software system has been used to reconstruct hip muscles,femur and hip bone accurately. The results show these geometry models can simulate the structure of hip tissues.

  9. Geometry Modeling Program Implementation of Human Hip Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Monan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to design a simulate software of human tissue modeling and analysis,Visual Studio 2010 is selected as a development tool to develop a 3 D reconstruction software of human tissue with language C++.It can be used alone. It also can be a module of the virtual surgery systems. The system includes medical image segmentation modules and 3 D reconstruction modules,and can realize the model visualization. This software system has been used to reconstruct hip muscles,femur and hip bone accurately. The results show these geometry models can simulate the structure of hip tissues.

  10. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  11. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  12. Integrating modelling and smart sensors for environmental and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Stefan; Seto, Edmund; Northcross, Amanda; Quinn, Nigel W T; Convertino, Matteo; Jones, Rod L; Maier, Holger R; Schlink, Uwe; Steinle, Susanne; Vieno, Massimo; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life, generating data at an unprecedented rate and scale. However, models that assess impacts of human activities on environmental and human health, have typically been developed in contexts where data scarcity is the norm. Models are essential tools to understand processes, identify relationships, associations and causality, formalize stakeholder mental models, and to quantify the effects of prevention and interventions. They can help to explain data, as well as inform the deployment and location of sensors by identifying hotspots and areas of interest where data collection may achieve the best results. We identify a paradigm shift in how the integration of models and sensors can contribute to harnessing 'Big Data' and, more importantly, make the vital step from 'Big Data' to 'Big Information'. In this paper, we illustrate current developments and identify key research needs using human and environmental health challenges as an example.

  13. Use of electromyography measurement in human body modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdmanová L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the use of the human body model for the muscle activity computation. This paper shows the comparison of measured and simulated muscle activities. Muscle active states of biceps brachia muscle are monitored by method called electromyography (EMG in a given position and for given subsequently increasing loads. The same conditions are used for simulation using a human body model (Hynčík, L., Rigid Body Based Human Model for Crash Test Purposes, EngineeringMechanics, 5 (8 (2001 1–6. This model consists of rigid body segments connected by kinematic joints and involves all major muscle bunches. Biceps brachia active states are evaluated by a special muscle balance solver. Obtained simulation results show the acceptable correlation with the experimental results. The analysis shows that the validation procedure of muscle activities determination is usable.

  14. A Systems Model for Teaching Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Greene

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and effective human resource management is a complex, involved, and interactive process. This article presents and discusses a unique systems approach model for teaching human resource (people management processes, and the important inter-relationships within that process. The model contains two unique components related to key sub-processes: incentives management and performance evaluation. We have not observed a model applying a systems thinking paradigm presented in any textbook, journal article, business publication, or other literature addressing the topic. For nearly three decades, the model has been used in teaching a comprehensive, meaningful understanding of the human resource management process that can be effectively implemented in both corporate and academic learning venues.

  15. A comparative study of seven human cochlear filter models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Amin; Beutelmann, Rainer; Dietz, Mathias; Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Verhulst, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Auditory models have been developed for decades to simulate characteristics of the human auditory system, but it is often unknown how well auditory models compare to each other or perform in tasks they were not primarily designed for. This study systematically analyzes predictions of seven publicly-available cochlear filter models in response to a fixed set of stimuli to assess their capabilities of reproducing key aspects of human cochlear mechanics. The following features were assessed at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz: cochlear excitation patterns, nonlinear response growth, frequency selectivity, group delays, signal-in-noise processing, and amplitude modulation representation. For each task, the simulations were compared to available physiological data recorded in guinea pigs and gerbils as well as to human psychoacoustics data. The presented results provide application-oriented users with comprehensive information on the advantages, limitations and computation costs of these seven mainstream cochlear filter models.

  16. Modelling human myoblasts survival upon xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mouse muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praud, Christophe; Vauchez, Karine; Zongo, Pascal; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas

    2018-03-15

    Cell transplantation has been challenged in several clinical indications of genetic or acquired muscular diseases, but therapeutic success were mitigated. To understand and improve the yields of tissue regeneration, we aimed at modelling the fate of CD56-positive human myoblasts after transplantation. Using immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice as recipients, we assessed the survival, integration and satellite cell niche occupancy of human myoblasts by a triple immunohistochemical labelling of laminin, dystrophin and human lamin A/C. The counts were integrated into a classical mathematical decline equation. After injection, human cells were essentially located in the endomysium, then they disappeared progressively from D0 to D28. The final number of integrated human nuclei was grossly determined at D2 after injection, suggesting that no more efficient fusion between donor myoblasts and host fibers occurs after the resolution of the local damages created by needle insertion. Almost 1% of implanted human cells occupied a satellite-like cell niche. Our mathematical model validated by histological counting provided a reliable quantitative estimate of human myoblast survival and/or incorporation into SCID muscle fibers. Informations brought by histological labelling and this mathematical model are complementary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  18. Development of a finite element model of the human abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J B; Yang, K H

    2001-11-01

    Currently, three-dimensional finite element models of the human body have been developed for frequently injured anatomical regions such as the brain, chest, extremities and pelvis. While a few models of the human body include the abdomen, these models have tended to oversimplify the complexity of the abdominal region. As the first step in understanding abdominal injuries via numerical methods, a 3D finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male human abdomen (WSUHAM) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of side impact tests and a series of frontal impact tests. The model includes a detailed representation of the liver, spleen, kidneys, spine, skin and major blood vessels. Hollow organs, such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, bile ducts, ureters, rectum and adrenal glands are grouped into three bodybags in order to provide realistic inertial properties and to maintain the position of the solid organs in their appropriate locations. Using direct connections, the model was joined superiorly to a partial model of the human thorax, and inferiorly to models of the human pelvis and the lower extremities that have been previously developed. Material properties for various tissues of the abdomen were derived from the literature. Data obtained in a series of cadaveric pendulum impact tests conducted at Wayne State University (WSU), a series of lateral drop tests conducted at Association Peugeot-Renault (APR) and a series of cadaveric lower abdomen frontal impact tests conducted at WSU were used to validate the model. Results predicted by the model match these experimental data for various impact speeds, impactor masses and drop heights. Further study is still needed in order to fully validate WSUHAM before it can be used to assess various impact loading conditions associated with vehicular crashes.

  19. Study of Optical Models Regarding the Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abolmasoomi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Until now, many models have been presented for optical study of the human eye. In recent years, surgery on the anterior section of the eye (such as cataract and photo-refractive surgery has increased, so a study on the optics of the eye and evaluation of vision quality has become more important. Material and Methods: In this article, some of these models are considered. They include models with spherical and conic-section surfaces (for cornea and lens, simple models and new models with complex surfaces. Results: Evaluation of the optical models of the eye provides the possibility of enhancing the representation of human vision and also increasing the accuracy of surgery on the anterior section of the eye to enable higher quality vision.

  20. Human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes cooperatively regulate prostate tumor growth in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michael D; Harui, Airi

    2015-01-01

    The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating TIL. The immune system in NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice was reconstituted by the co-administration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or subsets (CD4+ or CD8+) and autologous human dendritic cells (DC), and animals simultaneously challenged by implanting human prostate cancer cells (PC3 line). Tumor growth was evaluated over time and the phenotype of recovered splenocytes and TIL characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Serum levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines were also assessed. A tumor-bearing huPBL-NSG model was established in which human leukocytes reconstituted secondary lymphoid organs and promoted the accumulation of TIL. These TIL exhibited a unique phenotype when compared to splenocytes with a predominance of CD8+ T cells that exhibited increased expression of CD69, CD56, and an effector memory phenotype. TIL from huPBL-NSG animals closely matched the features of TIL recovered from primary human prostate cancers. Human cytokines were readily detectible in the serum and exhibited a different profile in animals implanted with PBL alone, tumor alone, and those reconstituted with both. Immune reconstitution slowed but could not eliminate tumor growth and this effect required the presence of CD4+ T cell help. Simultaneous implantation of human PBL, DC and tumor results in a huPBL-NSG model that recapitulates the development of human TIL and allows an assessment of tumor and immune system interaction that cannot be carried out in humans

  1. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S

    2015-08-01

    As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our ability to construct human glial chimeras with the production of patient-specific hGPCs derived from pluripotential stem cells, we may now establish mice in which a substantial proportion of resident glia are both human and disease-derived. These mice in particular may provide us new opportunities for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A new role-model for the future humanities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Pedersen, Alex Young

    of citizens” who work together to design solutions for living better together, which the authors suggest being an equally productive role-model as the idea of a “scientific research groups and industrial design teams”, which is the standard role-model for KB prac-tice. The authors sees this alternative model...... as an important contribution and supplement for the future Humanities in the university....

  3. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian

    2014-01-01

    it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state......, its context within an organisation and the effects on security as outcomes of a theorem proving analysis....

  4. Construction of Anterior Hemi-Corneal Equivalents Using Nontransfected Human Corneal Cells and Transplantation in Dog Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Song, Zhan; Fan, Tingjun

    2017-11-01

    Tissue-engineered human anterior hemi-cornea (TE-aHC) is a promising equivalent for treating anterior lamellar keratopathy to surmount the severe shortage of donated corneas. This study was intended to construct a functional TE-aHC with nontransfected human corneal stromal (ntHCS) and epithelial (ntHCEP) cells using acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) as a carrier scaffold, and evaluate its biological functions in a dog model. To construct a TE-aHC, ntHCS cells were injected into an aPCS scaffold and cultured for 3 days; then, ntHCEP cells were inoculated onto the Bowman's membrane of the scaffold and cultured for 5 days under air-liquid interface condition. After its morphology and histological structure were characterized, the constructed TE-aHC was transplanted into dog eyes via lamellar keratoplasty. The corneal transparency, thickness, intraocular pressure, epithelial integrity, and corneal regeneration were monitored in vivo, and the histological structure and histochemical property were examined ex vivo 360 days after surgery, respectively. The results showed that the constructed TE-aHC was highly transparent and composed of a corneal epithelium of 7-8 layer ntHCEP cells and a corneal stroma of regularly aligned collagen fibers and well-preserved glycosaminoglycans with sparsely distributed ntHCS cells, mimicking a normal anterior hemi-cornea (aHC). Moreover, both ntHCEP and ntHCS cells maintained positive expression of their marker and functional proteins. After transplantation into dog eyes, the constructed TE-aHC acted naturally in terms of morphology, structure and inherent property, and functioned well in maintaining corneal clarity, thickness, normal histological structure, and composition in dog models by reconstructing a normal aHC, which could be used as a promising aHC equivalent in corneal regenerative medicine and aHC disorder therapy. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microscopic modelling circadian and bursty pattern of human activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Kim

    Full Text Available Recent studies for a wide range of human activities such as email communication, Web browsing, and library visiting, have revealed the bursty nature of human activities. The distribution of inter-event times (IETs between two consecutive human activities exhibits a heavy-tailed decay behavior and the oscillating pattern with a one-day period, reflective of the circadian pattern of human life. Even though a priority-based queueing model was successful as a basic model for understanding the heavy-tailed behavior, it ignored important ingredients, such as the diversity of individual activities and the circadian pattern of human life. Here, we collect a large scale of dataset which contains individuals' time stamps when articles are posted on blog posts, and based on which we construct a theoretical model which can take into account of both ignored ingredients. Once we identify active and inactive time intervals of individuals and remove the inactive time interval, thereby constructing an ad hoc continuous time domain. Therein, the priority-based queueing model is applied by adjusting the arrival and the execution rates of tasks by comparing them with the activity data of individuals. Then, the obtained results are transferred back to the real-time domain, which produces the oscillating and heavy-tailed IET distribution. This microscopic model enables us to develop theoretical understanding towards more empirical results.

  6. Microscopic modelling circadian and bursty pattern of human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, Byungnam

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies for a wide range of human activities such as email communication, Web browsing, and library visiting, have revealed the bursty nature of human activities. The distribution of inter-event times (IETs) between two consecutive human activities exhibits a heavy-tailed decay behavior and the oscillating pattern with a one-day period, reflective of the circadian pattern of human life. Even though a priority-based queueing model was successful as a basic model for understanding the heavy-tailed behavior, it ignored important ingredients, such as the diversity of individual activities and the circadian pattern of human life. Here, we collect a large scale of dataset which contains individuals' time stamps when articles are posted on blog posts, and based on which we construct a theoretical model which can take into account of both ignored ingredients. Once we identify active and inactive time intervals of individuals and remove the inactive time interval, thereby constructing an ad hoc continuous time domain. Therein, the priority-based queueing model is applied by adjusting the arrival and the execution rates of tasks by comparing them with the activity data of individuals. Then, the obtained results are transferred back to the real-time domain, which produces the oscillating and heavy-tailed IET distribution. This microscopic model enables us to develop theoretical understanding towards more empirical results.

  7. DigitalHuman (DH): An Integrative Mathematical Model ofHuman Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA

  8. 2002 Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) Laboratory for Human Behavior Model Interchange Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    among Human Behavior Modeling (HEM) -related models in the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, Academia, and other Government simulations by...establishing a Laboratory for the Study of Human Behavior Representation Interchange Standard. With experience, expertise, and technologies of the

  9. A Budyko-type Model for Human Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X.; Zhao, J.; Wang, D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the expansion of human water footprint, water crisis is no longer only a conflict or competition for water between different economic sectors, but also increasingly between human and the environment. In order to describe the emergent dynamics and patterns of the interaction, a theoretical framework that encapsulates the physical and societal controls impacting human water consumption is needed. In traditional hydrology, Budyko-type models are simple but efficient descriptions of vegetation-mediated hydrologic cycle in catchments, i.e., the partitioning of mean annual precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration. Plant water consumption plays a crucial role in the process. Hypothesized similarities between human-water and vegetation-water interactions, including water demand, constraints and system functioning, give the idea of corresponding Budyko-type framework for human water consumption at the catchment scale. Analogous to variables of Budyko-type models for hydrologic cycle, water demand, water consumption, environmental water use and available water are corresponding to potential evaporation, actual evaporation, runoff and precipitation respectively. Human water consumption data, economic and hydro-meteorological data for 51 human-impacted catchments and 10 major river basins in China are assembled to look for the existence of a Budyko-type relationship for human water consumption, and to seek explanations for the spread in the observed relationship. Guided by this, a Budyko-type analytical model is derived based on application of an optimality principle, that of maximum water benefit. The model derived has the same functional form and mathematical features as those that apply for the original Budyko model. Parameters of the new Budyko-type model for human consumption are linked to economic and social factors. The results of this paper suggest that the functioning of both social and hydrologic subsystems within catchment systems can be explored within

  10. Modelling of Human Transplacental Transport as Performed in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, L.; Morck, T. A.; Zuri, G.

    2014-01-01

    classes of chemicals and nanoparticles for comparisons across chemical structures as well as different test systems. Our test systems are based on human material to bypass the extrapolation from animal data. By combining data from our two test systems, we are able to rank and compare the transport...... the relationships between maternal and foetal exposures to various compounds including pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated flame retardants, nanoparticles as well as recombinant human antibodies. The compounds have been studied in the human placenta perfusion model and to some extent...... in vitro with an established human monolayer trophoblast cell culture model. Results from our studies distinguish placental transport of substances by physicochemical properties, adsorption to placental tissue, binding to transport and receptor proteins and metabolism. We have collected data from different...

  11. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  12. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Porcine Model of Septic Shock Induced by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, we developed a novel porcine model of septic shock induced by ARDS due to severe MRSA pneumonia with characteristic hyperdynamic and hypodynamic phases in 24 h, which mimicked the hemodynamic changing of septic shock in human.

  14. Integration of Lightning- and Human-Caused Wildfire Occurrence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilar, Lara; Nieto Solana, Hector; Martín, M. Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Fire risk indices are useful tools for fire prevention actions by fire managers. A fire ignition is either the result of lightning or human activities. In European Mediterranean countries most forest fires are due to human activities. However, lightning is still an important fire ignition source...... in some regions. Integration of lightning and human fire occurrence probability into fire risk indices would be necessary to have a complete picture of the causal agents and their relative importance in fire occurrence. We present two methods for the integration of lightning and human fire occurrence...... probability models at 1 × 1 km grid cell resolution in two regions of Spain: Madrid, which presents a high fire incidence due to human activities; and Aragón, one of the most affected regions in Spain by lightning-fires. For validation, independent fire ignition points were used to compute the Receiver...

  15. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  16. An Overview of Human Figure Modeling for Army Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    space reach and vision analyses, while others are used to examine biomechanics or strength issues, for example. Still other human figure modeling... levers (ECLs) located on the side console panel. Figure 9 shows a large male with insufficient knee clearance at the lower section of the instrument...Measuring Machine CMWS Common Missile Warning System ECL Engine Control Lever FOV Field of View GMC Ground Movement Control HFE Human

  17. Human granuloma in vitro model, for TB dormancy and resuscitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kapoor

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is responsible for death of nearly two million people in the world annually. Upon infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb causes formation of granuloma where the pathogen goes into dormant state and can live for decades before resuscitation to develop active disease when the immune system of the host is weakened and/or suppressed. In an attempt to better understand host-pathogen interactions, several groups have been developing in vitro models of human tuberculosis granuloma. However, to date, an in vitro granuloma model in which Mtb goes into dormancy and can subsequently resuscitate under conditions that mimic weakening of the immune system has not been reported. We describe the development of a biomimetic in vitro model of human tuberculosis granuloma using human primary leukocytes, in which the Mtb exhibited characteristics of dormant mycobacteria as demonstrated by (1 loss of acid-fastness, (2 accumulation of lipid bodies (3 development of rifampicin-tolerance and (4 gene expression changes. Further, when these micro granulomas were treated with immunosuppressant anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibodies (anti-TNFα mAbs, resuscitation of Mtb was observed as has been found in humans. In this human in vitro granuloma model triacylglycerol synthase 1deletion mutant (Δtgs1 with impaired ability to accumulate triacylglycerides (TG, but not the complemented mutant, could not go into dormancy. Deletion mutant of lipY, with compromised ability to mobilize the stored TG, but not the complemented mutant, was unable to come out of dormancy upon treatment with anti-TNFα mAbs. In conclusion, we have developed an in vitro human tuberculosis granuloma model that largely exhibits functional features of dormancy and resuscitation observed in human tuberculosis.

  18. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  19. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  20. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... specifications. The model is then scaled to the desired anthropometric data by means of one of the existing scaling law in AMS. If the simulation results are to be compared with the experimental measurements, the model should be scaled to match the involved subjects. Depending on the scientific question...

  1. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  2. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-07-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  4. Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charlie C L

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend in user-customized product design requires the shape of products to be automatically adjusted according to the human body’s shape, so that people will feel more comfortable when wearing these products.  Geometric approaches can be used to design the freeform shape of products worn by people, which can greatly improve the efficiency of design processes in various industries involving customized products (e.g., garment design, toy design, jewel design, shoe design, and design of medical devices, etc.). These products are usually composed of very complex geometric shapes (represented by free-form surfaces), and are not driven by a parameter table but a digital human model with free-form shapes or part of human bodies (e.g., wrist, foot, and head models).   Geometric Modeling and Reasoning of Human-Centered Freeform Products introduces the algorithms of human body reconstruction, freeform product modeling, constraining and reconstructing freeform products, and shape optimization for improving...

  5. Modeling human decision making behavior in supervisory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, M. K.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision control model was developed, which is based primarily on a dynamic programming algorithm which looks at all the available task possibilities, charts an optimal trajectory, and commits itself to do the first step (i.e., follow the optimal trajectory during the next time period), and then iterates the calculation. A Bayesian estimator was included which estimates the tasks which might occur in the immediate future and provides this information to the dynamic programming routine. Preliminary trials comparing the human subject's performance to that of the optimal model show a great similarity, but indicate that the human skips certain movements which require quick change in strategy.

  6. Pearls and pitfalls in human pharmacological models of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Hansen, Jakob Møller; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    - or migraine-provoking property of naturally occurring signaling molecules can be tested in a human model. If such an endogenous substance can provoke migraine in human patients, then it is likely, although not certain, that blocking its effect will be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks...... an important role in translational migraine research leading to the identification of three new principally different targets in the treatment of acute migraine attacks and has been used to examine other endogenous signaling molecules as well as genetic susceptibility factors. New additions to the model...

  7. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  8. Making organisms model human behavior: situated models in North-American alcohol research, since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankeny, Rachel A; Leonelli, Sabina; Nelson, Nicole C; Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-09-01

    We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied.

  9. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  10. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus–FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  11. Identifying and modeling the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabási, Albert-László; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. Along the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls - both, mobile and landline - and in either case uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylizes the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models. This increases our ability to understand, model and predict social activities and to plan the development of infrastructures across multiple scales.

  12. Cognitive modelling: a basic complement of human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersini, U.; Cacciabue, P.C.; Mancini, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the issues identified in modelling humans and machines are discussed in the perspective of the consideration of human errors managing complex plants during incidental as well as normal conditions. The dichotomy between the use of a cognitive versus a behaviouristic model approach is discussed and the complementarity aspects rather than the differences of the two methods are identified. A cognitive model based on a hierarchical goal-oriented approach and driven by fuzzy logic methodology is presented as the counterpart to the 'classical' THERP methodology for studying human errors. Such a cognitive model is discussed at length and its fundamental components, i.e. the High Level Decision Making and the Low Level Decision Making models, are reviewed. Finally, the inadequacy of the 'classical' THERP methodology to deal with cognitive errors is discussed on the basis of a simple test case. For the same case the cognitive model is then applied showing the flexibility and adequacy of the model to dynamic configuration with time-dependent failures of components and with consequent need for changing of strategy during the transient itself. (author)

  13. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  14. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  15. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven van Eijl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics, but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4-10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these

  16. A dystrophic Duchenne mouse model for testing human antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Veltrop

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle-wasting disease generally caused by reading frame disrupting mutations in the DMD gene resulting in loss of functional dystrophin protein. The reading frame can be restored by antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping, allowing production of internally deleted, but partially functional dystrophin proteins as found in the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy. Due to genetic variation between species, mouse models with mutations in the murine genes are of limited use to test and further optimize human specific AONs in vivo. To address this we have generated the del52hDMD/mdx mouse. This model carries both murine and human DMD genes. However, mouse dystrophin expression is abolished due to a stop mutation in exon 23, while the expression of human dystrophin is abolished due to a deletion of exon 52. The del52hDMD/mdx model, like mdx, shows signs of muscle dystrophy on a histological level and phenotypically mild functional impairment. Local administration of human specific vivo morpholinos induces exon skipping and dystrophin restoration in these mice. Depending on the number of mismatches, occasional skipping of the murine Dmd gene, albeit at low levels, could be observed. Unlike previous models, the del52hDMD/mdx model enables the in vivo analysis of human specific AONs targeting exon 51 or exon 53 on RNA and protein level and muscle quality and function. Therefore, it will be a valuable tool for optimizing human specific AONs and genome editing approaches for DMD.

  17. A Real-Time Model-Based Human Motion Tracking and Analysis for Human-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lin Huang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time model-based human motion tracking and analysis method for human computer interface (HCI. This method tracks and analyzes the human motion from two orthogonal views without using any markers. The motion parameters are estimated by pattern matching between the extracted human silhouette and the human model. First, the human silhouette is extracted and then the body definition parameters (BDPs can be obtained. Second, the body animation parameters (BAPs are estimated by a hierarchical tritree overlapping searching algorithm. To verify the performance of our method, we demonstrate different human posture sequences and use hidden Markov model (HMM for posture recognition testing.

  18. Investigation and Modeling of Capacitive Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qi; Guo, Yong-Xin; Wu, Wen

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of the capacitive human body communication (HBC). The measurement of HBC channels is performed using a novel battery-powered system to eliminate the effects of baluns, cables and instruments. To verify the measured results, a numerical model incorporating the entire HBC system is established. Besides, it is demonstrated that both the impedance and path gain bandwidths of HBC channels is affected by the electrode configuration. Based on the analysis of the simulated electric field distribution, an equivalent circuit model is proposed and the circuit parameters are extracted using the finite element method. The transmission capability along the human body is also studied. The simulated results using the numerical and circuit models coincide very well with the measurement, which demonstrates that the proposed circuit model can effectively interpret the operation mechanism of the capacitive HBC.

  19. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  20. A kinematic model for Bayesian tracking of cyclic human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Thomas; Lienhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a two-dimensional kinematic model for cyclic motions of humans, which is suitable for the use as temporal prior in any Bayesian tracking framework. This human motion model is solely based on simple kinematic properties: the joint accelerations. Distributions of joint accelerations subject to the cycle progress are learned from training data. We present results obtained by applying the introduced model to the cyclic motion of backstroke swimming in a Kalman filter framework that represents the posterior distribution by a Gaussian. We experimentally evaluate the sensitivity of the motion model with respect to the frequency and noise level of assumed appearance-based pose measurements by simulating various fidelities of the pose measurements using ground truth data.

  1. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  2. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  3. Modeling Human Cardiac Hypertrophy in Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ovchinnikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms behind the development and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy in the human setting are poorly understood, which can be partially attributed to the lack of a human cardiomyocyte-based preclinical test system recapitulating features of diseased myocardium. The objective of our study is to determine whether human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs subjected to mechanical stretch can be used as an adequate in vitro model for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy. We show that hESC-CMs subjected to cyclic stretch, which mimics mechanical overload, exhibit essential features of a hypertrophic state on structural, functional, and gene expression levels. The presented hESC-CM stretch approach provides insight into molecular mechanisms behind mechanotransduction and cardiac hypertrophy and lays groundwork for the development of pharmacological approaches as well as for discovering potential circulating biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction. : In this article, Berezikov, van der Meer, and colleagues used stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to model human cardiac hypertrophy. Their approach provides novel insights into molecular mechanisms behind mechanotransduction and cardiac hypertrophy and lays groundwork for the development of new pharmacological approaches as well as for discovering new potential circulating biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction. Keywords: stem cells, human cardiomyocytes, hypertrophy, in vitro disease modeling, cardiomyocytes stretch response, mechanotransduction

  4. Recent progress in human reliability models for nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersini, U.; Devooght, J.; Smidts, C.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of a human factor in the safety of nuclear power plants hardly needs to be stressed after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Following TMI, such progress was made that Chernobyl did not reveal significant faults in the design or operation of Western nuclear power plants. Post-TMI progress concerns: design of control rooms, development of simulators for training operators, use of computer aided diagnostics, a better understanding of procedural safety, the collection of human error data, etc. We shall concentrate here on the specific point of modelling human errors for incorporation in the standard tools of reliability and safety engineering (e.g. fault trees). The Rasmussen report (WASH 1400) has already included human error in the analysis of fault and event trees and since then new models have been developed and tested. Human reliability methods, which first appeared in the early 1980s, model operator behavior during routine tasks and quantify his error probability. Here three of these methods are briefly described: THERP, SLIM and MAPPS. 17 refs

  5. 3D active workspace of human hand anatomical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Loredana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the model of the human hand is created with accuracy by respecting the type of motion provided by each articulation and the dimensions of articulated bones, it can function as the real organ providing the same motions. Unfortunately, the human hand is hard to model due to its kinematical chains submitted to motion constraints. On the other hand, if an application does not impose a fine manipulation it is not necessary to create a model as complex as the human hand is. But always the hand model has to perform a certain space of motions in imposed workspace architecture no matter what the practical application does. Methods Based on Denavit-Hartenberg convention, we conceived the kinematical model of the human hand, having in mind the structure and the behavior of the natural model. We obtained the kinematical equations describing the motion of every fingertip with respect to the general coordinate system, placed on the wrist. For every joint variable, a range of motion was established. Dividing these joint variables to an appropriate number of intervals and connecting them, the complex surface bordering the active hand model workspace was obtained. Results Using MATLAB 7.0, the complex surface described by fingertips, when hand articulations are all simultaneously moving, was obtained. It can be seen that any point on surface has its own coordinates smaller than the maximum length of the middle finger in static position. Therefore, a sphere having the centre in the origin of the general coordinate system and the radius which equals this length covers the represented complex surface. Conclusion We propose a human hand model that represents a new solution compared to the existing ones. This model is capable to make special movements like power grip and dexterous manipulations. During them, the fingertips do not exceed the active workspace encapsulated by determined surfaces. The proposed kinematical model can help to choose

  6. Propagation of Computer Virus under Human Intervention: A Dynamical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chenquan Gan; Xiaofan Yang; Wanping Liu; Qingyi Zhu; Xulong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation behavior of computer virus under human intervention. A dynamical model describing the spread of computer virus, under which a susceptible computer can become recovered directly and an infected computer can become susceptible directly, is proposed. Through a qualitative analysis of this model, it is found that the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number R0≤1, whereas the viral equilibrium is globally asympt...

  7. Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Determine if AngII promotes MB cell tumorigenicity through a AT1R-MYC positive feedback loop. This aim will build on our working model that AngII...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0176 TITLE: Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response

  8. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  9. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B Vosika

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1 Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2 Cole equation, and 3 Constant Phase Element (CPE. These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  10. Mathematical models of human cerebellar development in the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kędzia, Alicja

    2018-04-01

    The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life. The cerebellum was exposed and measurements of the vermis and hemispheres were performed, together with statistical analyses. The mathematical model parameters of fetal growth were assessed for crown-rump length (CRL) increases, transverse cerebellar diameter and ventrodorsal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis in the transverse plane, and rostrocaudal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres in the frontal plane. A variety of mathematical models were applied, including linear and non-linear functions. Taking into consideration the variance between models and measurements, as well as correlation parameters, the exponential and Gompertz models proved to be the most suitable for modelling cerebellar growth in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the linear model gave a satisfactory approximation of cerebellar growth, especially in older fetuses. The proposed models of fetal cerebellar growth constructed on the basis of anatomical examination and objective mathematical calculations could be useful in the estimation of fetal development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  11. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  12. Mathematical model of liver regeneration in human live donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, V; Gaillard, J R; Needleman, L; Doria, C

    2014-05-01

    Liver regeneration after injury occurs in many mammals. Rat liver regenerates after partial hepatectomy over a period of 2 weeks while human liver regeneration takes several months. Notwithstanding this enormous difference in time-scales, with new data from five human live liver transplant donors, we show that a mathematical model of rat liver regeneration can be transferred to human, with all biochemical interactions and signaling unchanged. Only six phenomenological parameters need change, and three of these parameter changes are rescalings of rate constants by the ratio of human lifespan to rat lifespan. Data from three donor subjects with approximately equal resections were used to fit the three parameters and the data from the other two donor subjects was used to independently verify the fit. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  14. Computational approaches for modeling human intestinal absorption and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Govindan; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2006-07-01

    Human intestinal absorption (HIA) is an important roadblock in the formulation of new drug substances. Computational models are needed for the rapid estimation of this property. The measurements are determined via in vivo experiments or in vitro permeability studies. We present several computational models that are able to predict the absorption of drugs by the human intestine and the permeability through human Caco-2 cells. The training and prediction sets were derived from literature sources and carefully examined to eliminate compounds that are actively transported. We compare our results to models derived by other methods and find that the statistical quality is similar. We believe that models derived from both sources of experimental data would provide greater consistency in predictions. The performance of several QSPR models that we investigated to predict outside the training set for either experimental property clearly indicates that caution should be exercised while applying any of the models for quantitative predictions. However, we are able to show that the qualitative predictions can be obtained with close to a 70% success rate.

  15. Construction of Gait Adaptation Model in Human Splitbelt Treadmill Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Otoda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a huge number of studies that measure kinematics, dynamics, the oxygen uptake and so on in human walking on the treadmill. Especially in walking on the splitbelt treadmill where the speed of the right and left belt is different, remarkable differences in kinematics are seen between normal and cerebellar disease subjects. In order to construct the gait adaptation model of such human splitbelt treadmill walking, we proposed a simple control model and made a newly developed 2D biped robot walk on the splitbelt treadmill. We combined the conventional limit-cycle based control consisting of joint PD-control, cyclic motion trajectory planning and a stepping reflex with a newly proposed adjustment of P-gain at the hip joint of the stance leg. We showed that the data of robot (normal subject model and cerebellum disease subject model experiments had high similarities with the data of normal subjects and cerebellum disease subjects experiments carried out by Reisman et al. (2005 and Morton and Bastian (2006 in ratios and patterns. We also showed that P-gain at the hip joint of the stance leg was the control parameter of adaptation for symmetric gaits in splitbelt walking and P-gain adjustment corresponded to muscle stiffness adjustment by the cerebellum. Consequently, we successfully proposed the gait adaptation model in human splitbelt treadmill walking and confirmed the validity of our hypotheses and the proposed model using the biped robot.

  16. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  17. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  18. 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethn...

  19. Integrated Human Behavior Modeling and Stochastic Control (IHBMSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    angle, dwell time, workload). For a 50% target density scenario where the operator discrimination task is fairly difficult, the integrated human ... behavior model and stochastic controller (IHBMSC) was shown to reduce the FA rate from 35% to 5%. Also, the IHBMSC performance was found to be quite robust for lower target densities (5%) and different operators.

  20. Modelling the dynamics of Chikungunya in human and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we developed and qualitatively analyzed a model for the transmission dynamics of chikungunya virus in a human a nd mosquito populations. The chikungunya virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes usually Aedes albopictus mosquito and it is of big threat to global public health. Rigorous analysis of the ...

  1. Probabilistic Model for Laser Damage to the Human Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-OR-MS-ENS-12-30 PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR LASER DAMAGE TO THE HUMAN RETINA THESIS Presented to the Faculty of...described by refractive error. Eyeglasses and contact lenses are able to correct for refractive errors by reforming the light entering into the cornea

  2. Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points. Th...

  3. Simplified human thermoregulatory model for designing wearable thermoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunge, Dimuthu; Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Woochul

    2018-02-01

    Research on wearable and implantable devices have become popular with the strong need in market. A precise understanding of the thermal properties of human skin, which are not constant values but vary depending on ambient condition, is required for the development of such devices. In this paper, we present simplified human thermoregulatory model for accurately estimating the thermal properties of the skin without applying rigorous calculations. The proposed model considers a variable blood flow rate through the skin, evaporation functions, and a variable convection heat transfer from the skin surface. In addition, wearable thermoelectric generation (TEG) and refrigeration devices were simulated. We found that deviations of 10-60% can be resulted in estimating TEG performance without considering human thermoregulatory model owing to the fact that thermal resistance of human skin is adapted to ambient condition. Simplicity of the modeling procedure presented in this work could be beneficial for optimizing and predicting the performance of any applications that are directly coupled with skin thermal properties.

  4. Observations and modeling of deterministic properties of human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simple models show that in Type-I intermittency a characteristic U-shaped probability distribution is obtained for the laminar phase length. The laminar phase length distribution characteristic for Type-I intermittency may be obtained in human heart rate variability data for some cases of pathology. The heart and its regulatory ...

  5. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  6. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  7. Human PD-1 binds differently to its human ligands: a comprehensive modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viricel, Clement; Ahmed, Marawan; Barakat, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a potent inhibitory receptor of T cells which binds to two different ligands, namely PD-L1 and PD-L2, and upon binding, it inhibits T cell activation, differentiation, and proliferation, leading to a state of immune tolerance. Blocking these interactions recently emerged as a 'game changer' approach in immunotherapy. Despite the significant therapeutic potential of targeting the PD-1 pathway, the interaction between human PD-1 and its two human ligands is not fully understood. Current crystal structures describe the interactions of mouse PD-1 with human PD-L1 or mouse PD-L2. However, recent mutational and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses suggest that human PD-1 binds its human ligands differently compared to their mouse counterparts. No detailed model is currently available to consistently fit these data. The lack of these accurate structures constitutes a high barrier against rationally developing more effective and safer agents targeting these interactions. Here we describe for the first time two accurate models for human PD-1 bound to its two human ligands. Our methodology involved combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with protein-protein docking and binding energy analysis to predict the most probable binding conformations for PD1 to its ligands. Our results confirm the available experimental NMR and mutational data and reveal the most accurate atomistic details so far of how human PD-1 binds to human PD-Ls and why the two ligands bind with different affinities to the same receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass. Derya Erdog˘ an a. , Yasemin Ta ¸scı Yıldız b. , Esin Cengiz Bodurog˘lu c and Naciye Go¨nu¨l Tanır d. Abdominal tuberculosis is rare in childhood. It may be difficult to diagnose as it mimics various disorders. We present a 12-year-old child with an unusual ...

  9. Degenerated uterine leiomyomas mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yi Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Choi, Seo Youn; Chung, Soo Ho [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms. Undegenerated uterine leiomyomas are easily recognizable by the typical imaging findings on radiologic studies. However, degenerated fibroids can have unusual and variable appearances. The atypical appearances due to degenerative changes may cause confusion in diagnosis of leiomyomas. In this article, we report a case of a patient with extensive cystic and myxoid degeneration of uterine leiomyoma, mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors.

  10. Localized IgG4-related Cholecystitis Mimicking Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a case of localized IgG4-cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer with focal/segmental type1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). In this case, we were unable to exclude a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and thus performed radical cholecystectomy. Type1 AIP is often associated with gallbladder lesions, accompanied by generally diffuse, circumferential thickening of the gallbladder wall. Although localized IgG4-related cholecystitis is extremely rare, differentiating this condition from gallbladder cancer is often very difficult.

  11. A case of gallbladder mass: Malakoplakia (The tumor mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwaljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malakoplakia presenting as gall bladder mass is a diagnostic dilemma faced by pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons. Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder and tumor mimicker usually occurring in the urinary tract, may occasionally be found in gall bladder. Here, we present a rare case, presenting as gall bladder mass in a known case of gallstone disease, clinically suspected as carcinoma and later turned out to be malakoplakia in gall bladder.

  12. Glioblastoma mimicking a cerebral contusion: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XINWEI; WANG, KUN; ZHANG, ANLING; SONG, ZHENGFEI; YANG, SHUXU; QIAN, CONG; WANG, YIRONG

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old male presented with a rare case of glioblastoma mimicking a cerebral contusion subsequent to collapsing. The patient had been medicated for hypertension for seven years and diabetes for eight years prior to hospitalization. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a cerebral contusion and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left temporal region. The patient was initially administered intravenous drugs to reduce the intracranial pressure following the diagnosis of a cerebral con...

  13. Sarcoidosis breaching the fascia and mimicking a sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Hajime; Ikeda, Mitsuaki; Shimofusa, Ryouta [Department of Radiology, Numazu City Hospital, 550 Harunoki-aza, Higashishiiji, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0302 (Japan); Terauchi, Masami [Department of Plastic Surgery, Numazu City Hospital, 550 Harunoki-aza, Higashishiiji, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0302 (Japan); Eguchi, Masanobu [Department of Pathology, Numazu City Hospital, 550 Harunoki-aza, Higashishiiji, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0302 (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    A 55-year-old woman complained of a subcutaneous mass in her left buttock. MR images revealed an ill-defined soft tissue mass that crossed the fascia of the gluteus maximus muscle. Some surrounding edema was noted. The lesion showed some contrast uptake after administration of Gd-DTPA. An excisional biopsy revealed sarcoidosis involving both the muscle and subcutaneous tissue across the fascia, mimicking a sarcoma. (orig.)

  14. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  15. A review on otolith models in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2016-08-01

    The vestibular system, which consists of semicircular canals and otolith, are the main sensors mammals use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Identifying the most suitable and consistent mathematical model of the vestibular system is important for research related to driving perception. An appropriate vestibular model is essential for implementation of the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) for motion simulation purposes, because the quality of the MCA is directly dependent on the vestibular model used. In this review, the history and development process of otolith models are presented and analyzed. The otolith organs can detect linear acceleration and transmit information about sensed applied specific forces on the human body. The main purpose of this review is to determine the appropriate otolith models that agree with theoretical analyses and experimental results as well as provide reliable estimation for the vestibular system functions. Formulating and selecting the most appropriate mathematical model of the vestibular system is important to ensure successful human perception modelling and simulation when implementing the model into the MCA for motion analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Model of Human Orientation and Self Motion Perception during Body Acceleration: The Orientation Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    produce successful simulations of moment-by-moment orientation and self-motion perception data from a variety of acceleration situations. The model also...potential applications for aviation modeling, simulation , and human balance maintenance. Modeling and simulation , equilibrium, balance, vestibular...Research and Material Command (USAMRMC; In-House Laboratory Independent Research), Small Business Innovative Research program (PEO Aviation), and the

  17. Learning from video modeling examples : Effects of seeing the human model's face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Verveer, Ilse; Verveer, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Video modeling examples in which a human(-like) model shows learners how to perform a task are increasingly used in education, as they have become very easy to create and distribute in e-learning environments. However, little is known about design guidelines to optimize learning from video modeling

  18. Dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, M E C; Plummer, J M; Leake, P A; Powell, L; Chand, V; Chung, S; Tulloch, K

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute viral disease, which usually presents as a mild febrile illness. Patients with severe disease present with dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue toxic shock syndrome. Rarely, it presents with abdominal symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. We present a case of a male patient presenting with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis that was later diagnosed with dengue fever following a negative appendicectomy. A 13-year old male patient presented with fever, localized right-sided abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound was not helpful and appendicectomy was performed due to worsening abdominal signs and an elevated temperature. A normal appendix with enlarged mesenteric nodes was found at surgery. Complete blood count showed thrombocytopenia with leucopenia. Dengue fever was now suspected and confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against dengue virus. This unusual presentation of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis should be suspected during viral outbreaks and in patients with atypical symptoms and cytopenias on blood evaluation in order to prevent unnecessary surgery. This case highlights the occurrence of abdominal symptoms and complications that may accompany dengue fever. Early recognition of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis will avoid non-therapeutic operation and the diagnosis may be aided by blood investigations indicating a leucopenia, which is uncommon in patients with suppurative acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. An engineered 3D human airway mucosa model based on an SIS scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Maria; Gross, Roy; Walles, Heike; Gangnus, Rainer; Schütze, Karin; Walles, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    To investigate interrelations of human obligate airway pathogens, such as Bordetella pertussis, and their hosts test systems with high in vitro/in vivo correlation are of urgent need. Using a tissue engineering approach, we generated a 3D test system of the airway mucosa with human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (hTEC) and fibroblasts seeded on a clinically implemented biological scaffold. To investigate if hTEC display tumour-specific characteristics we analysed Raman spectra of hTEC and the adenocarcinoma cell line Calu-3. To establish optimal conditions for infection studies, we treated human native airway mucosa segments with B. pertussis. Samples were processed for morphologic analysis. Whereas our test system consisting of differentiated epithelial cells and migrating fibroblasts shows high in vitro/in vivo correlation, hTEC seeded on the scaffold as monocultures did not resemble the in vivo situation. Differences in Raman spectra of hTEC and Calu-3 were identified in distinct wave number ranges between 720 and 1662 cm(-1) indicating that hTEC do not display tumour-specific characteristics. Infection of native tissue with B. pertussis led to cytoplasmic vacuoles, damaged mitochondria and destroyed epithelial cells. Our test system is suitable for infection studies with human obligate airway pathogens by mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the human airway mucosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  1. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997...... discrimination with pure tones and broadband noise, tone-in-noise detection, spectral masking with narrow-band signals and maskers, forward masking with tone signals and tone or noise maskers, and amplitude-modulation detection with narrow- and wideband noise carriers. The model can account for most of the key...... properties of the data and is more powerful than the original model. The model might be useful as a front end in technical applications....

  2. Computational model of soft tissues in the human upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelteret, J-P V; Reddy, B D

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model of the tongue and surrounding soft tissues with potential application to the study of sleep apnoea and of linguistics and speech therapy. The anatomical data was obtained from the Visible Human Project, and the underlying histological data was also extracted and incorporated into the model. Hyperelastic constitutive models were used to describe the material behaviour, and material incompressibility was accounted for. An active Hill three-element muscle model was used to represent the muscular tissue of the tongue. The neural stimulus for each muscle group was determined through the use of a genetic algorithm-based neural control model. The fundamental behaviour of the tongue under gravitational and breathing-induced loading is investigated. It is demonstrated that, when a time-dependent loading is applied to the tongue, the neural model is able to control the position of the tongue and produce a physiologically realistic response for the genioglossus.

  3. Being human: The role of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine and humanizing Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to revolutionize medicine by allowing the generation of functional cell types such as neurons for cell replacement therapy. However, the more immediate impact of PSCs on treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will be through improved human AD model systems for mechanistic studies and therapeutic screening. This review will first briefly discuss different types of PSCs and genome-editing techniques that can be used to modify PSCs for disease modeling or for personalized medicine. This will be followed by a more in depth analysis of current AD iPSC models and a discussion of the need for more complex multicellular models, including cell types such as microglia. It will finish with a discussion on current clinical trials using PSC-derived cells and the long-term potential of such strategies for treating AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  5. Translating the MAM model of psychosis to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Allen, Paul; Grace, Anthony A; McGuire, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Elevated dopamine function and alterations in medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure and function are two of the most robust findings in schizophrenia, but how interactions between these abnormalities underlie the onset of psychosis is unclear. The methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model proposes that psychosis develops as a result of a perturbation of MTL function, leading to elevated striatal dopamine dysfunction. Here, we review several recent neuroimaging studies that examine components of the putative model in humans with an ultra high risk (UHR) of the psychosis. While data from these studies are broadly consistent with the MAM model, caution is required when comparing data across animal and human studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial volatile communication in human organotypic lung models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkal, Layla J; Procknow, Clare L; Álvarez-García, Yasmín R; Niu, Mengyao; Jiménez-Torres, José A; Brockman-Schneider, Rebecca A; Gern, James E; Denlinger, Loren C; Theberge, Ashleigh B; Keller, Nancy P; Berthier, Erwin; Beebe, David J

    2017-11-24

    We inhale respiratory pathogens continuously, and the subsequent signaling events between host and microbe are complex, ultimately resulting in clearance of the microbe, stable colonization of the host, or active disease. Traditional in vitro methods are ill-equipped to study these critical events in the context of the lung microenvironment. Here we introduce a microscale organotypic model of the human bronchiole for studying pulmonary infection. By leveraging microscale techniques, the model is designed to approximate the structure of the human bronchiole, containing airway, vascular, and extracellular matrix compartments. To complement direct infection of the organotypic bronchiole, we present a clickable extension that facilitates volatile compound communication between microbial populations and the host model. Using Aspergillus fumigatus, a respiratory pathogen, we characterize the inflammatory response of the organotypic bronchiole to infection. Finally, we demonstrate multikingdom, volatile-mediated communication between the organotypic bronchiole and cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  7. Modelling human resource requirements for the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Ferry [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Flore, Massimo; Estorff, Ulrik von [Joint Research Center (JRC) (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    The European Human Resource Observatory for Nuclear (EHRO-N) provides the European Commission with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts in the EU-28 and the enlargement and integration countries based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The objective is to assess how the supply of experts for the nuclear industry responds to the needs for the same experts for present and future nuclear projects in the region. Complementary to the bottom-up approach taken by the EHRO-N team at JRC, a top-down modelling approach has been taken in a collaboration with NRG in the Netherlands. This top-down modelling approach focuses on the human resource requirements for operation, construction, decommissioning, and efforts for long term operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes the top-down methodology, the model input, the main assumptions, and the results of the analyses.

  8. Thymoma related myasthenia gravis in humans and potential animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Alexander; Porubsky, Stefan; Belharazem, Djeda; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Schalke, Berthold; Ströbel, Philipp; Weis, Cleo-Aron

    2015-08-01

    Thymoma-associated Myasthenia gravis (TAMG) is one of the anti-acetylcholine receptor MG (AChR-MG) subtypes. The clinico-pathological features of TAMG and its pathogenesis are described here in comparison with pathogenetic models suggested for the more common non-thymoma AChR-MG subtypes, early onset MG and late onset MG. Emphasis is put on the role of abnormal intratumorous T cell selection and activation, lack of intratumorous myoid cells and regulatory T cells as well as deficient expression of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) by neoplastic thymic epithelial cells. We review spontaneous and genetically engineered thymoma models in a spectrum of animals and the extensive clinical and immunological overlap between canine, feline and human TAMG. Finally, limitations and perspectives of the transplantation of human and murine thymoma tissue into nude mice, as potential models for TAMG, are addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing, Modeling, and Simulation for Human Dynamics in Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the human behavior in the top-one social network system in China (Sina Microblog system. By analyzing real-life data at a large scale, we find that the message releasing interval (intermessage time obeys power law distribution both at individual level and at group level. Statistical analysis also reveals that human behavior in social network is mainly driven by four basic elements: social pressure, social identity, social participation, and social relation between individuals. Empirical results present the four elements' impact on the human behavior and the relation between these elements. To further understand the mechanism of such dynamic phenomena, a hybrid human dynamic model which combines “interest” of individual and “interaction” among people is introduced, incorporating the four elements simultaneously. To provide a solid evaluation, we simulate both two-agent and multiagent interactions with real-life social network topology. We achieve the consistent results between empirical studies and the simulations. The model can provide a good understanding of human dynamics in social network.

  11. Genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells to generate human cellular disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Musunuru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease modeling with human pluripotent stem cells has come into the public spotlight with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012 to Drs John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. This discovery has opened the door for the generation of pluripotent stem cells from individuals with disease and the differentiation of these cells into somatic cell types for the study of disease pathophysiology. The emergence of genome-editing technology over the past few years has made it feasible to generate and investigate human cellular disease models with even greater speed and efficiency. Here, recent technological advances in genome editing, and its utility in human biology and disease studies, are reviewed.

  12. Designers' models of the human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Breedin, Sarah D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding design models of the human-computer interface (HCI) may produce two types of benefits. First, interface development often requires input from two different types of experts: human factors specialists and software developers. Given the differences in their backgrounds and roles, human factors specialists and software developers may have different cognitive models of the HCI. Yet, they have to communicate about the interface as part of the design process. If they have different models, their interactions are likely to involve a certain amount of miscommunication. Second, the design process in general is likely to be guided by designers' cognitive models of the HCI, as well as by their knowledge of the user, tasks, and system. Designers do not start with a blank slate; rather they begin with a general model of the object they are designing. The author's approach to a design model of the HCI was to have three groups make judgments of categorical similarity about the components of an interface: human factors specialists with HCI design experience, software developers with HCI design experience, and a baseline group of computer users with no experience in HCI design. The components of the user interface included both display components such as windows, text, and graphics, and user interaction concepts, such as command language, editing, and help. The judgments of the three groups were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and Pathfinder. These methods indicated, respectively, how the groups categorized the concepts, and network representations of the concepts for each group. The Pathfinder analysis provides greater information about local, pairwise relations among concepts, whereas the cluster analysis shows global, categorical relations to a greater extent.

  13. Cryo-Induced Thermal Wounds: A Human Acute Wound Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Alejandra; Fox, Joshua D; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Maderal, Andrea D; Badiavas, Evangelos; Cargill, D Innes; Slade, Herbert B; Feldman, Steven R; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-07-01

    Clinical models are invaluable in studying wound healing. Challenges in studying human wounds include heterogeneity of patients and wounds, as well as prolonged study time, resulting in high costs. Animal models are an efficient method to study wound healing, but often lack correlation with human acute wound healing. Human wound models can be created using sharp instruments, suction, acids, heat and cold. In this observational study, we propose a practical human acute wound model where partial thickness wounds are induced by cryosurgery to create wounds that could facilitate wound healing research and development. On forearms of 8 healthy adult volunteers, freeze injuries were induced using liquid nitrogen spray delivered onto a target area of a 1 cm circular opening at a distance from the cryo-device to the skin of 0.5-1 cm. Several freeze-thaw time cycles were implemented by administering pulses ranging from 3 to 12 seconds. Clinical evaluation was performed at a 24-hour follow-up period. Blister roofs were histologically analyzed by a blinded dermatophathologist. Clinical assessment of time to heal was determined. Freeze-times greater than 5 seconds caused a majority of subjects to develop blisters, and freeze-times greater than 8 seconds resulted in uniform blister formation. Consistent histology of full thickness necrotic epidermis with intact detached basement membrane with minimal acute neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate was observed in all blister specimens examined. The 8-second freeze-time group had a time to heal of 13-14 days, while the 12-second freeze-time group required 3 weeks to heal. After healing, an area of hypopigmented skin and slightly hypertrophic scarring remained. This novel cryo-induced wound model is a potential simple, efficient and reliable model for studying the dynamic processes involved in acute wound healing and to aid in the development of new wound healing therapies. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01253135.

  14. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M

    2017-11-24

    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  15. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  16. Personalized medicine for cystic fibrosis: establishing human model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Hongmei; Brazauskas, Karissa; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-10-01

    With over 1,500 identifiable mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that result in distinct functional and phenotypical abnormalities, it is virtually impossible to perform randomized clinical trials to identify the best therapeutics for all patients. Therefore, a personalized medicine approach is essential. The only way to realistically accomplish this is through the development of improved in vitro human model systems. The lack of a readily available and infinite supply of human CFTR-expressing airway epithelial cells is a key bottleneck. We propose that a concerted two-pronged approach is necessary for patient-specific cystic fibrosis research to continue to prosper and realize its potential: (1) more effective culture and differentiation conditions for growing primary human airway and nasal epithelial cells and (2) the development of collective protocols for efficiently differentiating disease- and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into pure populations of adult epithelial cells. Ultimately, we need a personalized human model system for cystic fibrosis with the capacity for uncomplicated bankability, widespread availability, and universal applicability for patient-specific disease modeling, novel pharmacotherapy investigation and screening, and readily executable genetic modification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multicamera Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicamera networks are becoming complex involving larger sensing areas in order to capture activities and behavior that evolve over long spatial and temporal windows. This necessitates novel methods to process the information sensed by the network and visualize it for an end user. In this paper, we describe a system for modeling and on-demand visualization of activities of groups of humans. Using the prior knowledge of the 3D structure of the scene as well as camera calibration, the system localizes humans as they navigate the scene. Activities of interest are detected by matching models of these activities learnt a priori against the multiview observations. The trajectories and the activity index for each individual summarize the dynamic content of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed activities of real humans. In particular, the rendering framework is designed to handle large displays with a cluster of GPUs as well as reduce the cognitive dissonance by rendering realistic weather effects and illumination. We envision use of this system for immersive visualization as well as summarization of videos that capture group behavior.

  18. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  19. New paradigms for metabolic modeling of human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    review recent work on reconstruction of GEMs for human cell/tissue types and cancer, and the use of GEMs for identification of metabolic changes occurring in response to disease development. We further discuss how GEMs can be used for the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. Finally......Abnormalities in cellular functions are associated with the progression of human diseases, often resulting in metabolic reprogramming. GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs) have enabled studying global metabolic reprogramming in connection with disease development in a systematic manner. Here we...

  20. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  1. A computational model of the human hand 93-ERI-053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Axelrod, T.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the Computational Hand Modeling project were to prove the feasibility of the Laboratory`s NIKE3D finite element code to orthopaedic problems. Because of the great complexity of anatomical structures and the nonlinearity of their behavior, we have focused on a subset of joints of the hand and lower extremity and have developed algorithms to model their behavior. The algorithms developed here solve fundamental problems in computational biomechanics and can be expanded to describe any other joints of the human body. This kind of computational modeling has never successfully been attempted before, due in part to a lack of biomaterials data and a lack of computational resources. With the computational resources available at the National Laboratories and the collaborative relationships we have established with experimental and other modeling laboratories, we have been in a position to pursue our innovative approach to biomechanical and orthopedic modeling.

  2. A control theory model for human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  3. MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Yang, Sunmo; Marcotte, Edward M; Lee, Insuk

    2014-07-01

    Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at http://www.inetbio.org/morphin. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Non-Human Primate Experimental Glaucoma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current strengths and weaknesses of the non-human primate (NHP) experimental glaucoma (EG) model through sections devoted to its history, methods, important findings, alternative optic neuropathy models and future directions. NHP EG has become well established for studying human glaucoma in part because the NHP optic nerve head (ONH) shares a close anatomic association with the human ONH and because it provides the only means of systematically studying the very earliest visual system responses to chronic IOP elevation, i.e. the conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucomatous damage. However, NHPs are impractical for studies that require large animal numbers, demonstrate spontaneous glaucoma only rarely, do not currently provide a model of the neuropathy at normal levels of IOP, and cannot easily be genetically manipulated, except through tissue-specific, viral vectors. The goal of this summary is to direct NHP EG and non-NHP EG investigators to the previous, current and future accomplishment of clinically relevant knowledge in this model. PMID:26070984

  6. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  7. Hologram QSAR model for the prediction of human oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Tiago L; Montanari, Carlos A; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2007-12-15

    A drug intended for use in humans should have an ideal balance of pharmacokinetics and safety, as well as potency and selectivity. Unfavorable pharmacokinetics can negatively affect the clinical development of many otherwise promising drug candidates. A variety of in silico ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) models are receiving increased attention due to a better appreciation that pharmacokinetic properties should be considered in early phases of the drug discovery process. Human oral bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic property, which is directly related to the amount of drug available in the systemic circulation to exert pharmacological and therapeutic effects. In the present work, hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships (HQSAR) were performed on a training set of 250 structurally diverse molecules with known human oral bioavailability. The most significant HQSAR model (q(2)=0.70, r(2)=0.93) was obtained using atoms, bond, connection, and chirality as fragment distinction. The predictive ability of the model was evaluated by an external test set containing 52 molecules not included in the training set, and the predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The HQSAR model should be useful for the design of new drug candidates having increased bioavailability as well as in the process of chemical library design, virtual screening, and high-throughput screening.

  8. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p measurable fascial compartment pressure measurement model in a fresh human cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  10. Computational modeling of oligonucleotide positional densities for human promoter prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Vipin; Sung, Wing-Kin; Mittal, Ankush

    2005-01-01

    The gene promoter region controls transcriptional initiation of a gene, which is the most important step in gene regulation. In-silico detection of promoter region in genomic sequences has a number of applications in gene discovery and understanding gene expression regulation. However, computational prediction of eukaryotic poly-II promoters has remained a difficult task. This paper introduces a novel statistical technique for detecting promoter regions in long genomic sequences. A number of existing techniques analyze the occurrence frequencies of oligonucleotides in promoter sequences as compared to other genomic regions. In contrast, the present work studies the positional densities of oligonucleotides in promoter sequences. The analysis does not require any non-promoter sequence dataset or any model of the background oligonucleotide content of the genome. The statistical model learnt from a dataset of promoter sequences automatically recognizes a number of transcription factor binding sites simultaneously with their occurrence positions relative to the transcription start site. Based on this model, a continuous naïve Bayes classifier is developed for the detection of human promoters and transcription start sites in genomic sequences. The present study extends the scope of statistical models in general promoter modeling and prediction. Promoter sequence features learnt by the model correlate well with known biological facts. Results of human transcription start site prediction compare favorably with existing 2nd generation promoter prediction tools.

  11. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II.

  12. A Model of Representational Spaces in Human Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Connolly, Andrew C; Ramadge, Peter J; Haxby, James V

    2016-06-01

    Current models of the functional architecture of human cortex emphasize areas that capture coarse-scale features of cortical topography but provide no account for population responses that encode information in fine-scale patterns of activity. Here, we present a linear model of shared representational spaces in human cortex that captures fine-scale distinctions among population responses with response-tuning basis functions that are common across brains and models cortical patterns of neural responses with individual-specific topographic basis functions. We derive a common model space for the whole cortex using a new algorithm, searchlight hyperalignment, and complex, dynamic stimuli that provide a broad sampling of visual, auditory, and social percepts. The model aligns representations across brains in occipital, temporal, parietal, and prefrontal cortices, as shown by between-subject multivariate pattern classification and intersubject correlation of representational geometry, indicating that structural principles for shared neural representations apply across widely divergent domains of information. The model provides a rigorous account for individual variability of well-known coarse-scale topographies, such as retinotopy and category selectivity, and goes further to account for fine-scale patterns that are multiplexed with coarse-scale topographies and carry finer distinctions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Genetic transformation of Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 by conjugative transfer of host-mimicking plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2012-09-01

    We established an efficient transformation method for thermophile Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 using conjugative transfer from Escherichia coli of host-mimicking plasmids that imitate DNA methylation of strain HTA426 to circumvent its DNA restriction barriers. Two conjugative plasmids, pSTE33T and pUCG18T, capable of shuttling between E. coli and Geobacillus spp., were constructed. The plasmids were first introduced into E. coli BR408, which expressed one inherent DNA methylase gene (dam) and two heterologous methylase genes from strain HTA426 (GK1380-GK1381 and GK0343-GK0344). The plasmids were then directly transferred from E. coli cells to strain HTA426 by conjugative transfer using pUB307 or pRK2013 as a helper plasmid. pUCG18T was introduced very efficiently (transfer efficiency, 10(-5)-10(-3) recipient(-1)). pSTE33T showed lower efficiency (10(-7)-10(-6) recipient(-1)) but had a high copy number and high segregational stability. Methylase genes in the donor substantially affected the transfer efficiency, demonstrating that the host-mimicking strategy contributes to efficient transformation. The transformation method, along with the two distinguishing plasmids, increases the potential of G. kaustophilus HTA426 as a thermophilic host to be used in various applications and as a model for biological studies of this genus. Our results also demonstrate that conjugative transfer is a promising approach for introducing exogenous DNA into thermophiles.

  14. Nanosecond laser pulses for mimicking thermal effects on nanostructured tungsten-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besozzi, E.; Maffini, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Facibeni, A.; Pazzaglia, A.; Beghi, M. G.; Passoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we exploit nanosecond laser irradiation as a compact solution for investigating the thermomechanical behavior of tungsten materials under extreme thermal loads at the laboratory scale. Heat flux factor thresholds for various thermal effects, such as melting, cracking and recrystallization, are determined under both single and multishot experiments. The use of nanosecond lasers for mimicking thermal effects induced on W by fusion-relevant thermal loads is thus validated by direct comparison of the thresholds obtained in this work and the ones reported in the literature for electron beams and millisecond laser irradiation. Numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress performed on a 2D thermomechanical code are used to predict the heat flux factor thresholds of the different thermal effects. We also investigate the thermal effect thresholds of various nanostructured W coatings. These coatings are produced by pulsed laser deposition, mimicking W coatings in tokamaks and W redeposited layers. All the coatings show lower damage thresholds with respect to bulk W. In general, thresholds decrease as the porosity degree of the materials increases. We thus propose a model to predict these thresholds for coatings with various morphologies, simply based on their porosity degree, which can be directly estimated by measuring the variation of the coating mass density with respect to that of the bulk.

  15. Modelling human mobility patterns using photographic data shared online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Daniele; Preis, Tobias; Bishop, Steven; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-08-01

    Humans are inherently mobile creatures. The way we move around our environment has consequences for a wide range of problems, including the design of efficient transportation systems and the planning of urban areas. Here, we gather data about the position in space and time of about 16 000 individuals who uploaded geo-tagged images from locations within the UK to the Flickr photo-sharing website. Inspired by the theory of Lévy flights, which has previously been used to describe the statistical properties of human mobility, we design a machine learning algorithm to infer the probability of finding people in geographical locations and the probability of movement between pairs of locations. Our findings are in general agreement with official figures in the UK and on travel flows between pairs of major cities, suggesting that online data sources may be used to quantify and model large-scale human mobility patterns.

  16. Model-Based approaches to Human-Automation Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamieson, Greg A.; Andersson, Jonas; Bisantz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    , the frameworks are often adapted from other purposes, usually applied to a limited range of problems, sometimes not fully described in the open literature, and rarely critically reviewed in a manner acceptable to proponents and critics alike. The present paper introduces a panel session wherein these proponents...... (and reportedly one or two critics) can engage one another on several agreed questions about such frameworks. The goal is to aid non-aligned practitioners in choosing between alternative frameworks for their human-automation interaction design challenges.......Human-automation interaction in complex systems is common, yet design for this interaction is often conducted without explicit consideration of the role of the human operator. Fortunately, there are a number of modeling frameworks proposed for supporting this design activity. However...

  17. Fuzzy Modelling for Human Dynamics Based on Online Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Jara, Jesus; Terroso-Saenz, Fernando; Valdes-Vela, Mercedes; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2017-08-24

    Human mobility mining has attracted a lot of attention in the research community due to its multiple implications in the provisioning of innovative services for large metropolises. In this scope, Online Social Networks (OSN) have arisen as a promising source of location data to come up with new mobility models. However, the human nature of this data makes it rather noisy and inaccurate. In order to deal with such limitations, the present work introduces a framework for human mobility mining based on fuzzy logic. Firstly, a fuzzy clustering algorithm extracts the most active OSN areas at different time periods. Next, such clusters are the building blocks to compose mobility patterns. Furthermore, a location prediction service based on a fuzzy rule classifier has been developed on top of the framework. Finally, both the framework and the predictor has been tested with a Twitter and Flickr dataset in two large cities.

  18. Structural models of the human copper P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Sitsel, Oleg; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    The human copper exporters ATP7A and ATP7B contain domains common to all P-type ATPases as well as class-specific features such as six sequential heavy-metal binding domains (HMBD1-HMBD6) and a type-specific constellation of transmembrane helices. Despite the medical significance of ATP7A and ATP7B......, allowing protein-specific properties to be addressed. Furthermore, the mapping of known disease-causing missense mutations indicates that among the heavy-metal binding domains, HMBD5 and HMBD6 are the most crucial for function, thus mimicking the single or dual HMBDs found in most copper-specific P...

  19. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  20. Development and implication of a human-volcano system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Monreal, Matthias; Sartohadi, Junun

    2014-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the complexity of human-environment systems, models help to define, quantify, describe, or simulate complex interactions. With regards to the human-volcano system, we develop a conceptual model in order to assist analysis of its two basic elements, the physical and the social environment. A field survey of the human environment interaction of two of the most active volcanic areas in Indonesia (Mt. Merapi and Mt. Bromo) and a corresponding literature review from other case studies was carried out. A differentiated understanding of human interaction with hazard potential elements within the human-volcano system is the main focus of the model development. We classified volcanic processes and effects as three pairs of dichotomies: positive or negative impacts, on society or environment in an indirect or direct way. Each volcanically induced process or effect characterized accordingly leads to eight distinct process/effect classes. They are positive direct effects on society (PDS); positive direct effects on natural resources (PDN); positive indirect effects on society (PIS); positive indirect effects on natural resources (PIN); negative direct effects on society (NDS); negative direct effects on natural resources (NDN); negative indirect effects on society (NIS) and lastly negative indirect effects on natural resources (NIN). Such differentiated view of volcanic process/effects bears several advantages. First, whereas volcanic processes have hitherto been viewed as hazards only, it becomes possible now to describe a particular process/effect in a particular context as negative or positive. Secondly, such a categorization makes it possible to account for processes of the human-volcano system that do not have a direct physical expression but are of socio-cultural relevance. Thirdly, the greater degree of differentiation that is made possible when evaluating volcanic processes has significant repercussions on the way volcanic risk must be