WorldWideScience

Sample records for models lexing xie

  1. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  2. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  3. Geologist Xie Youyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    In November, 1985, Xie Youyu planted a flag entrusted to her by Women of China magazine with the words "Bring Credit to Our Country" on Antarctica. Xie rarely goes out any more to make investigations, but she continues her scientific research and writing at home.

  4. Lex colimits

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Many kinds of categorical structure require the existence of finite limits, of colimits of some specified type, and of "exactnesses" between the finite limits and the specified colimits. Some examples are the notions of regular, or Barr-exact, or lextensive, or coherent, or adhesive category. We introduce a general notion of exactness, of which each of the structures listed above, and others besides, are particular instances. The notion can be understood as a form of cocompleteness "in the lex world" -- more precisely, in the 2-category of finitely complete categories and finite-limit preserving functors.

  5. RadLex

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RadLex is a controlled terminology for radiology and serves as a single unified source of radiology terms for radiology practice, education, and research. RadLex is...

  6. La nueva lex mercatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Castellano, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo, ilustra el surgimiento de una nueva lex mercatoria a nivel global,semejante al derecho de los comerciantes en la Edad Media, diseñada para regular las relaciones empresariales transnacionales,superando la discontinuidad jurídica provocada por las codificaciones de los estados nacionales. This work illustrates the emergence of a new lex mercatoria at global level, similar to the merchant law of the Middle Ages, designed to regulate the transnational entrepreneu...

  7. Having Xie Youyu With Us Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    XIE Youyu went to Antarctica in November, 1985. It was the second time that China sent a scientific expedition to the South Pole. On the eve of her Antarctic trip, my colleagues and I visited her. On behalf of all the staffers of Women of China, we presented her with a flag bearing the words "Bring Credit to Our Country" and asked her to plant the flag at the South Pole which expressed our concern for China’s research in Antarctica, as well as our respect for Xie and her brave venture. Xie spent four months at the

  8. De la Lex Mercatoria a la Lex Construccionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Franco Leguízamo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Lex mercatoria, o bien, el conjunto de reglas aplicables a los contratos internacionales es el tema sobre el que se ocupa el presente artículo, en el cual se pretende una visión general sobre la misma, y un acercamiento a su especialización en los diferentes sectores de la economía internacional. Éste estudio general abarca las principales vicisitudes acerca de la lex mercatoria, su recepción en el ordenamiento Colombiano, así como también, el alcance de su contenido en los sectores informático, petrolero, y de la construcción.

  9. De la Lex Mercatoria a la Lex Construccionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Franco Leguízamo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lex mercatoria, o bien, el conjunto de reglas aplicables a los contratos internacionales es el tema sobre el que se ocupa el presente artículo, en el cual se pretende una visión general sobre la misma, y un acercamiento a su especialización en los diferentes sectores de la economía internacional. Éste estudio general abarca las principales vicisitudes acerca de la lex mercatoria, su recepción en el ordenamiento Colombiano, así como también, el alcance de su contenido en los sectores informático, petrolero, y de la construcción.

  10. The Verrucomicrobia LexA-binding Motif: Insights into the Evolutionary Dynamics of the SOS Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Erill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The SOS response is the primary bacterial mechanism to address DNA damage, coordinating multiple cellular processes that include DNA repair, cell division and translesion synthesis. In contrast to other regulatory systems, the composition of the SOS genetic network and the binding motif of its transcriptional repressor, LexA, have been shown to vary greatly across bacterial clades, making it an ideal system to study the co-evolution of transcription factors and their regulons. Leveraging comparative genomics approaches and prior knowledge on the core SOS regulon, here we define the binding motif of the Verrucomicrobia, a recently described phylum of emerging interest due to its association with eukaryotic hosts. Site directed mutagenesis of the Verrucomicrobium spinosum recA promoter confirms that LexA binds a 14 bp palindromic motif with consensus sequence TGTTC-N4-GAACA. Computational analyses suggest that recognition of this novel motif is determined primarily by changes in base-contacting residues of the third alpha helix of the LexA helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. In conjunction with comparative genomics analysis of the LexA regulon in the Verrucomicrobia phylum, electrophoretic shift assays reveal that LexA binds to operators in the promoter region of DNA repair genes and a mutagenesis cassette in this organism, and identify previously unreported components of the SOS response. The identification of tandem LexA-binding sites generating instances of other LexA-binding motifs in the lexA gene promoter of Verrucomicrobia species leads us to postulate a novel mechanism for LexA-binding motif evolution. This model, based on gene duplication, successfully addresses outstanding questions in the intricate co-evolution of the LexA protein, its binding motif and the regulatory network it controls.

  11. Specificity determinants for autoproteolysis of LexA, a key regulator of bacterial SOS mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Birdwell, L Dillon; Kohli, Rahul M

    2014-05-20

    Bacteria utilize the tightly regulated stress response (SOS) pathway to respond to a variety of genotoxic agents, including antimicrobials. Activation of the SOS response is regulated by a key repressor-protease, LexA, which undergoes autoproteolysis in the setting of stress, resulting in derepression of SOS genes. Remarkably, genetic inactivation of LexA's self-cleavage activity significantly decreases acquired antibiotic resistance in infection models and renders bacteria hypersensitive to traditional antibiotics, suggesting that a mechanistic study of LexA could help inform its viability as a novel target for combating acquired drug resistance. Despite structural insights into LexA, a detailed knowledge of the enzyme's protease specificity is lacking. Here, we employ saturation and positional scanning mutagenesis on LexA's internal cleavage region to analyze >140 mutants and generate a comprehensive specificity profile of LexA from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (LexAPa). We find that the LexAPa active site possesses a unique mode of substrate recognition. Positions P1-P3 prefer small hydrophobic residues that suggest specific contacts with the active site, while positions P5 and P1' show a preference for flexible glycine residues that may facilitate the conformational change that permits autoproteolysis. We further show that stabilizing the β-turn within the cleavage region enhances LexA autoproteolytic activity. Finally, we identify permissive positions flanking the scissile bond (P4 and P2') that are tolerant to extensive mutagenesis. Our studies shed light on the active site architecture of the LexA autoprotease and provide insights that may inform the design of probes of the SOS pathway.

  12. The Verrucomicrobia LexA-Binding Motif: Insights into the Evolutionary Dynamics of the SOS Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erill, Ivan; Campoy, Susana; Kılıç, Sefa; Barbé, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The SOS response is the primary bacterial mechanism to address DNA damage, coordinating multiple cellular processes that include DNA repair, cell division, and translesion synthesis. In contrast to other regulatory systems, the composition of the SOS genetic network and the binding motif of its transcriptional repressor, LexA, have been shown to vary greatly across bacterial clades, making it an ideal system to study the co-evolution of transcription factors and their regulons. Leveraging comparative genomics approaches and prior knowledge on the core SOS regulon, here we define the binding motif of the Verrucomicrobia, a recently described phylum of emerging interest due to its association with eukaryotic hosts. Site directed mutagenesis of the Verrucomicrobium spinosum recA promoter confirms that LexA binds a 14 bp palindromic motif with consensus sequence TGTTC-N4-GAACA. Computational analyses suggest that recognition of this novel motif is determined primarily by changes in base-contacting residues of the third alpha helix of the LexA helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. In conjunction with comparative genomics analysis of the LexA regulon in the Verrucomicrobia phylum, electrophoretic shift assays reveal that LexA binds to operators in the promoter region of DNA repair genes and a mutagenesis cassette in this organism, and identify previously unreported components of the SOS response. The identification of tandem LexA-binding sites generating instances of other LexA-binding motifs in the lexA gene promoter of Verrucomicrobia species leads us to postulate a novel mechanism for LexA-binding motif evolution. This model, based on gene duplication, successfully addresses outstanding questions in the intricate co-evolution of the LexA protein, its binding motif and the regulatory network it controls.

  13. Main aspects of Maritime Law and its relation with Lex Mercatoria and Lex Maritima

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Junior, Osvaldo Agripino

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to give a general overview of the main aspects of Brazilian Maritime Law and its relationship with  Lex Mercatoria and Lex Maritima, in order to introduce the last one into brazilian law in a critical approach based on the public order, thus, with restrictions. O artigo objetiva apresentar, de forma introdutória, os principais aspectos do Direito Marítimo e sua relação com a Lex Mercatoria e Lex Maritima, a fim de que essa fonte de direito seja recepcionada de forma críti...

  14. High affinity antibodies against Lex and sialyl Lex from a phage display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Q; Weng, N P; Kiso, M; Ishida, H; Hasegawa, A; Marcus, D M

    1996-07-15

    Our previous studies of seven murine mAbs against the carbohydrate Lex Ag demonstrated that they were all encoded by VH441 and V kappa 24B. To obtain higher affinity Abs, and to ascertain whether their L chains could be encoded by other genes, we constructed a phage display library in a modified pComb 8 vector. The library contained random L chains, and Fd segments enriched in VH domains encoded by the VHX24 gene family. We selected phage with an Lex-BSA Ag, and obtained two Fab mAbs, clones 23 and 24, whose affinities were more than 100-fold higher than hybridoma mAb PM81. Both new mAbs were encoded by VH441, and their L chains were encoded by genes of the V kappa Ox1 and V kappa 9 families. In contrast to hybridoma mAb PM81, which binds only Lex, clones 23 and 24 bound sialyl Lex (SLex) as well as Lex, and clone 23 also binds the backbone carbohydrate structure nLacCer. Analysis of the binding of these three mAbs to synthetic glycolipids that contained structural modifications indicated that they recognize different aspects of the Lex structure, and suggested that they bind to limited regions of the oligosaccharide.

  15. IUS-LEX-CORPUS: CORPUS MYSTICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sfruttando gli ingenti materiali a disposizione degli studiosi dal 1964 negli archivi, nelle banche dati, nei dizionari e nei lessici d'autore dell'ILIESI-CNR, il contributo considera una serie di momenti nella storia del pensiero, dalla politeía antica al cosmopolitismo moderno, che mettono in risalto le implicazioni filosofiche presenti nella polisemia del trinomio lex-ius-corpus.

  16. Computational analysis of LexA regulons in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhengchang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor LexA plays an important role in the SOS response in Escherichia coli and many other bacterial species studied. Although the lexA gene is encoded in almost every bacterial group with a wide range of evolutionary distances, its precise functions in each group/species are largely unknown. More recently, it has been shown that lexA genes in two cyanobacterial genomes Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 might have distinct functions other than the regulation of the SOS response. To gain a general understanding of the functions of LexA and its evolution in cyanobacteria, we conducted the current study. Results Our analysis indicates that six of 33 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes do not harbor a lexA gene although they all encode the key SOS response genes, suggesting that LexA is not an indispensable transcription factor in these cyanobacteria, and that their SOS responses might be regulated by different mechanisms. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that lexA was lost during the course of evolution in these six cyanobacterial genomes. For the 26 cyanobacterial genomes that encode a lexA gene, we have predicted their LexA-binding sites and regulons using an efficient binding site/regulon prediction algorithm that we developed previously. Our results show that LexA in most of these 26 genomes might still function as the transcriptional regulator of the SOS response genes as seen in E. coli and other organisms. Interestingly, putative LexA-binding sites were also found in some genomes for some key genes involved in a variety of other biological processes including photosynthesis, drug resistance, etc., suggesting that there is crosstalk between the SOS response and these biological processes. In particular, LexA in both Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421 has largely diverged from those in other cyanobacteria in the sequence level. It is likely that LexA is no longer a

  17. Dr. Xie Haizhou's Experience in Treating Senile Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dr. Xie Haizhou, a renowned TCM physician, comes from an aristocratic TCM family, and is now a distinguished research fellow in China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Having been engaged in TCM clinical practice, scientific research and teaching for more than 60 years, Dr. Xie has obtained rich experience in the treatment of obstinate and miscellaneous diseases, especially diseases of the brain and spinal cord. The authors have been fortunate enough to study under him and benefited a lot from his experience. The following is a brief introduction to his experience in the treatment of senile dementia.

  18. Lex-SVM: exploring the potential of exon expression profiling for disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiongying; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Changning; Bu, Dongbo

    2011-04-01

    Exon expression profiling technologies, including exon arrays and RNA-Seq, measure the abundance of every exon in a gene. Compared with gene expression profiling technologies like 3' array, exon expression profiling technologies could detect alterations in both transcription and alternative splicing, therefore they are expected to be more sensitive in diagnosis. However, exon expression profiling also brings higher dimension, more redundancy, and significant correlation among features. Ignoring the correlation structure among exons of a gene, a popular classification method like L1-SVM selects exons individually from each gene and thus is vulnerable to noise. To overcome this limitation, we present in this paper a new variant of SVM named Lex-SVM to incorporate correlation structure among exons and known splicing patterns to promote classification performance. Specifically, we construct a new norm, ex-norm, including our prior knowledge on exon correlation structure to regularize the coefficients of a linear SVM. Lex-SVM can be solved efficiently using standard linear programming techniques. The advantage of Lex-SVM is that it can select features group-wisely, force features in a subgroup to take equal weihts and exclude the features that contradict the majority in the subgroup. Experimental results suggest that on exon expression profile, Lex-SVM is more accurate than existing methods. Lex-SVM also generates a more compact model and selects genes more consistently in cross-validation. Unlike L1-SVM selecting only one exon in a gene, Lex-SVM assigns equal weights to as many exons in a gene as possible, lending itself easier for further interpretation.

  19. LEX Project. Handbook - terms and definitions v. 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  20. One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöcklein Walter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method.

  1. Las acciones populares en la Lex rivi Hiberiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Torrent Ruiz, Armando José

    2012-01-01

    La Lex rivi Hiberiensis no parece que sea una lex dicta, que aparentemente es lo que parece desprenderse de nuestra ley por regular fundamentalmente el uso del agua, sino una lex data por el gobernador Fundano Augustano Alpino que regula algunos aspectos concretos referidos al riego siguiendo el derecho provincial sobre la materia, a la que añadió la regulación procesal de los conflictos siguiendo los esquemas de la cognitio extra ordinem ampliamente aplicado en provincias. Las acciones que p...

  2. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  3. Project BioLex. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.; Broechner Andersen, M.; FORCE Technology

    2007-01-15

    The usage of biomass as a renewable source of energy is an important issue for a sustainable energy supply in Denmark. Due to pioneering work, Denmark has great experience in producing energy from biomass both in large scale CHP utilities as well as in small scale application such as domestic heating. This experience has been mainly focused in the usage of traditional domestic solid biomass fuels such as wood. However, the limited amounts available of these fuels and thereby following increasing prices have triggered the interest in using other sources of biomass. Rest and waste products from the agricultural industry is one examples of biomass which has a large potential to be used as a cheap biomass fuels. Projects of using these new types of biomass fuels are often hindered by insecurity whether this new biomass source can be applied as fuel or not. Thus in order to support usage of new sources of biomass a first step is to have knowledge on properties of the biomass fuel and be able to compare these to the known traditional fuels used. The BioLex was designed to provide this information about important properties of both traditional Danish as well as new more exotic solid biomass fuels in a database available to the public via the internet. (au)

  4. Law of contracts in Lex Baiuvariorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nótári Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze the contractual provisions of Lex Baiuvariorum, the written Bavarian Volksrecht3 created between 737 and 743. As part of that, first, it will examine the required formalities of entering into a contract, documentary evidence and testimony (I., then the issues of invalidity (II., implied warranty and buying stolen things (III., regulation of contractual safeguards (IV., finally, other contracts touched upon in the code (V.. Concerning sedes materiae it should be stated in advance that provisions regarding exchange of goods can be found primarily in two titles of the code: title eleven (De venditionibus and title nine (De furto-the latter sets out the rules on selling stolen things, i.e., implied warranty claims, which pay regard to the relation between the person who has been robbed and the person who buys the thing in good faith, on the one hand, and between seller and buyer, on the other. 4 Certain provisions, for example, regarding prohibition to sell things in action can be found in title fifteen (De commendatis et commodatis.

  5. ASL-LEX: A lexical database of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Sehyr, Zed Sevcikova; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-05-18

    ASL-LEX is a lexical database that catalogues information about nearly 1,000 signs in American Sign Language (ASL). It includes the following information: subjective frequency ratings from 25-31 deaf signers, iconicity ratings from 21-37 hearing non-signers, videoclip duration, sign length (onset and offset), grammatical class, and whether the sign is initialized, a fingerspelled loan sign, or a compound. Information about English translations is available for a subset of signs (e.g., alternate translations, translation consistency). In addition, phonological properties (sign type, selected fingers, flexion, major and minor location, and movement) were coded and used to generate sub-lexical frequency and neighborhood density estimates. ASL-LEX is intended for use by researchers, educators, and students who are interested in the properties of the ASL lexicon. An interactive website where the database can be browsed and downloaded is available at http://asl-lex.org .

  6. Somatic 'soluble' adenylyl cyclase isoforms are unaffected in Sacy tm1Lex/Sacy tm1Lex 'knockout' mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Jeanne; Ramos, Lavoisier; Tresguerres, Martin; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2008-09-22

    Mammalian Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, Adcy10, or Sacy) represents a source of the second messenger cAMP distinct from the widely studied, G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases. Genetic deletion of the second through fourth coding exons in Sacy(tm1Lex)/Sacy(tm1Lex) knockout mice results in a male sterile phenotype. The absence of any major somatic phenotype is inconsistent with the variety of somatic functions identified for sAC using pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference. We now use immunological and molecular biological methods to demonstrate that somatic tissues express a previously unknown isoform of sAC, which utilizes a unique start site, and which 'escapes' the design of the Sacy(tm1Lex) knockout allele. These studies reveal increased complexity at the sAC locus, and they suggest that the known isoforms of sAC play a unique function in male germ cells.

  7. BioLex. Database for interpretation of characteristics of biofuels and bioashes. Phase 1; BioLex. Database til fortolkning af karakteristika for biobraendsler og -asker. Fase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    BioLex is a danish data base containing information about solid biofuels and bioashes, e.g. chemical analysis. It has been of vital importance to provide background information about the tests behind the figures presented to the BioLex user. The data base is available on the internet in a temporary version. (BA)

  8. Somatic 'soluble' adenylyl cyclase isoforms are unaffected in Sacy tm1Lex/Sacy tm1Lex 'knockout' mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Farrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammalian Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, Adcy10, or Sacy represents a source of the second messenger cAMP distinct from the widely studied, G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases. Genetic deletion of the second through fourth coding exons in Sacy(tm1Lex/Sacy(tm1Lex knockout mice results in a male sterile phenotype. The absence of any major somatic phenotype is inconsistent with the variety of somatic functions identified for sAC using pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now use immunological and molecular biological methods to demonstrate that somatic tissues express a previously unknown isoform of sAC, which utilizes a unique start site, and which 'escapes' the design of the Sacy(tm1Lex knockout allele. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies reveal increased complexity at the sAC locus, and they suggest that the known isoforms of sAC play a unique function in male germ cells.

  9. LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Erkan, G; 10.1613/jair.1523

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically defined in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentence cosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences. Our system, based on LexRank ranked in first place in more than one task in the recent DUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach and apply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluatio...

  10. NeuroLex.org: An online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review.In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  11. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  12. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex. PMID:24009581

  13. The MetaLex Document Server : Legal Documents as Versioned Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Aroyo, L.; Welty, C.; Alani, H.; Taylor, J.; Bernstein, A.; Kagal, L.; Noy, N.; Blomqvist, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the MetaLex Document Server (MDS), an ongoing project to improve access to legal sources (regulations, court rulings) by means of a generic legal XML syntax (CEN MetaLex) and Linked Data. The MDS defines a generic conversion mechanism from legacy legal XML syntaxes to CEN

  14. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M.; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E. S.; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M.; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E.; Chisholm, Townley W.; Kim, Seung K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila. However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. PMID:27527793

  15. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E S; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E; Chisholm, Townley W; Kim, Seung K

    2016-10-13

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. Copyright © 2016 Kockel et al.

  16. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  17. A Comparison of Lex Bounds for Multiset Variables in Constraint Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Yat-Chiu; Woo, May Hiu-Chun; Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Set and multiset variables in constraint programming have typically been represented using subset bounds. However, this is a weak representation that neglects potentially useful information about a set such as its cardinality. For set variables, the length-lex (LL) representation successfully provides information about the length (cardinality) and position in the lexicographic ordering. For multiset variables, where elements can be repeated, we consider richer representations that take into account additional information. We study eight different representations in which we maintain bounds according to one of the eight different orderings: length-(co)lex (LL/LC), variety-(co)lex (VL/VC), length-variety-(co)lex (LVL/LVC), and variety-length-(co)lex (VLL/VLC) orderings. These representations integrate together information about the cardinality, variety (number of distinct elements in the multiset), and position in some total ordering. Theoretical and empirical comparisons of expressiveness and compactness of th...

  18. [Treatment of otorhinolaryngologic diseases of deficient heat type with Professor XIE Qiang's Tihu Guanding needling method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Xie, Qiange; Huang, Bing-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Professor XIE Qiang's Tihu Guanding needling method, a kind of acupuncture method which takes acupoints of the Conception Vessel as the primary and acupoints of the Governor Vessel as the secondary. Acupoints Lianquan (CV 23), Tiantu (CV 22), Qihai (CV 6), Zhongwan (CV 12), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) are adopted as the basic ones. Other points can be added according to various symptoms, for instance, Yingxiang (LI 20) and Yintang (GV 29) for rhinopathy, Tinggong (SI 19) and Yifeng (TE 17) for otopathy, Yan'an (Professor XIE's experience) and Shanglianquan (EX-HN 21) for pharyngopathy and Kaiyin 1 (Professor XIE's experience) and Kaiyin 2 (Professor XIE's experience) for laryngopathy. During the needle retention, rotation manipulation should be done every 5 min at Lianquan (CV 23). And the patient should be told to put the tip of one's tongue at the the palate as well as to do deep breathing to communicate the Conception Vessel and the Governor Vessel. Moxibustion is adopted at Yongquan (KI 1) to induce the up floating fire to mingmen (where the primary yang is stored). The therapeutic effect on treatment of persistent otorhinolaryngologic diseases with the above mentioned method is approve to be good.

  19. CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan Mourns over the Death of President Hugo Chavez

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On the morning of March 7, CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan went to the Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in China to mourn over the passing away of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez on behalf of the CPAFFC. He presented the letter of condolence from President Li Xiaolin to Ambassador Rocio Maneiro

  20. The alleviating pain effect of aqueous extract from tong-xie-yao-fang, on experimental visceral hypersensitivity and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu-Guang; Xu, Di; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Xiang-Bo; Meng, Jiang; Shen, Han; Guo, Jiao

    2009-06-01

    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) is a prescription in traditional chinese medicine (TCM), used for relieving abdominal pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of TXYF on experimental visceral hypersensitivity (VH) models. TXYF affected the abdominal withdrawal reflex produced by colonic distention in maternal separation-induced visceral hypersensitivity rats, in a dosage-dependent manner. TXYF significantly decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in serum and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) concentrations in the brain. Moreover, it was found that VH alleviation by TXYF was dependent on the substance P (SP) expression in the colon mucosa. These results suggest that TXYF attenuates behavioral hyperalgesia by regulating substance associated with the brain-gut axis, including decreasing the expression of 5-HT and SP in the periphery and that of CRF in the center.

  1. Antidiarrheal properties of different extracts of Chinese herbal medicine formula Bao-Xie-Ning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Xin-lin Wu; Yuling Chen; Zhi Tang; Yue-hong Xu; Jian-min Jiang; Yue-yu Gu

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Bao-Xie-Ning (BXN),a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formula composed of Fructus Evodiae,Flos Caryophylli and Cortex Cinnamomi,and used for the treatment of infant diarrheal illness,was subject to systematic assessment for its putative multiple pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacological antidiarrheal mechanisms.METHODS:High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionizationmass spectrometric/mass spectrometry was developed and validated for identification and quantification of the main constituents in different extracts of BXN.Male Kunming mice weighing 20 to 25 g were used for detecting the antidiarrheal activity of the extracts.Ethanolic extract (EE),volatile oil extract (VOE),and aqueous extract (AE) of BXN were respectively subjected to pharmacodynamic and pharmacological comparison in assessing antidiarrheal effects with senna-induced diarrhea,castor oil-induced diarrhea,acetic acid-induced writhing assay,and isolated duodenum test.RESULTS:The highest yields of three detected components of BXN,rutaecarpine,eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were observed in EE.EE showed the most remarkable antidiarrheal activity in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners in both senna-and castor oil-induced diarrhea models,and presented dose-dependent analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced algesthesia model.In addition,EE extract of BXN also exhibited strong antimobility action on the intestine and strongest depression on spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum.CONCLUSION:Ethanol extraction is an efficient method to extract the active constituents of BXN.BXN extract demonstrated multiple pharmacological activities affecting the main mechanisms of diarrhea,which validated BXN's usage in the comprehensive clinical treatment of diarrhea.

  2. Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni Harbors Two lexA Genes Involved in SOS Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciane S.; da Silva, Josefa B.; Milanez, Juliana S.; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B.; Momo, Leonardo; de Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Marques, Marilis V.; Ho, Paulo L.; da Costa, Renata M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria activate a regulatory network in response to the challenges imposed by DNA damage to genetic material, known as the SOS response. This system is regulated by the RecA recombinase and by the transcriptional repressor lexA. Leptospira interrogans is a pathogen capable of surviving in the environment for weeks, being exposed to a great variety of stress agents and yet retaining its ability to infect the host. This study aims to investigate the behavior of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni after the stress induced by DNA damage. We show that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni genome contains two genes encoding putative LexA proteins (lexA1 and lexA2) one of them being potentially acquired by lateral gene transfer. Both genes are induced after DNA damage, but the steady state levels of both LexA proteins drop, probably due to auto-proteolytic activity triggered in this condition. In addition, seven other genes were up-regulated following UV-C irradiation, recA, recN, dinP, and four genes encoding hypothetical proteins. This set of genes is potentially regulated by LexA1, as it showed binding to their promoter regions. All these regions contain degenerated sequences in relation to the previously described SOS box, TTTGN 5CAAA. On the other hand, LexA2 was able to bind to the palindrome TTGTAN 10TACAA, found in its own promoter region, but not in the others. Therefore, the L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni SOS regulon may be even more complex, as a result of LexA1 and LexA2 binding to divergent motifs. New possibilities for DNA damage response in Leptospira are expected, with potential influence in other biological responses such as virulence. PMID:24098496

  3. Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni harbors two lexA genes involved in SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciane S; da Silva, Josefa B; Milanez, Juliana S; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B; Momo, Leonardo; de Morais, Zenaide M; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Marques, Marilis V; Ho, Paulo L; da Costa, Renata M A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria activate a regulatory network in response to the challenges imposed by DNA damage to genetic material, known as the SOS response. This system is regulated by the RecA recombinase and by the transcriptional repressor lexA. Leptospira interrogans is a pathogen capable of surviving in the environment for weeks, being exposed to a great variety of stress agents and yet retaining its ability to infect the host. This study aims to investigate the behavior of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni after the stress induced by DNA damage. We show that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni genome contains two genes encoding putative LexA proteins (lexA1 and lexA2) one of them being potentially acquired by lateral gene transfer. Both genes are induced after DNA damage, but the steady state levels of both LexA proteins drop, probably due to auto-proteolytic activity triggered in this condition. In addition, seven other genes were up-regulated following UV-C irradiation, recA, recN, dinP, and four genes encoding hypothetical proteins. This set of genes is potentially regulated by LexA1, as it showed binding to their promoter regions. All these regions contain degenerated sequences in relation to the previously described SOS box, TTTGN 5CAAA. On the other hand, LexA2 was able to bind to the palindrome TTGTAN10TACAA, found in its own promoter region, but not in the others. Therefore, the L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni SOS regulon may be even more complex, as a result of LexA1 and LexA2 binding to divergent motifs. New possibilities for DNA damage response in Leptospira are expected, with potential influence in other biological responses such as virulence.

  4. Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni harbors two lexA genes involved in SOS response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane S Fonseca

    Full Text Available Bacteria activate a regulatory network in response to the challenges imposed by DNA damage to genetic material, known as the SOS response. This system is regulated by the RecA recombinase and by the transcriptional repressor lexA. Leptospira interrogans is a pathogen capable of surviving in the environment for weeks, being exposed to a great variety of stress agents and yet retaining its ability to infect the host. This study aims to investigate the behavior of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni after the stress induced by DNA damage. We show that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni genome contains two genes encoding putative LexA proteins (lexA1 and lexA2 one of them being potentially acquired by lateral gene transfer. Both genes are induced after DNA damage, but the steady state levels of both LexA proteins drop, probably due to auto-proteolytic activity triggered in this condition. In addition, seven other genes were up-regulated following UV-C irradiation, recA, recN, dinP, and four genes encoding hypothetical proteins. This set of genes is potentially regulated by LexA1, as it showed binding to their promoter regions. All these regions contain degenerated sequences in relation to the previously described SOS box, TTTGN 5CAAA. On the other hand, LexA2 was able to bind to the palindrome TTGTAN10TACAA, found in its own promoter region, but not in the others. Therefore, the L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni SOS regulon may be even more complex, as a result of LexA1 and LexA2 binding to divergent motifs. New possibilities for DNA damage response in Leptospira are expected, with potential influence in other biological responses such as virulence.

  5. Treatment of urticaria from Feng Xie%从风邪论治荨麻疹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟卫红; 莫惠芳; 储开宇

    2011-01-01

    Feng Xie closely related with the incidence of urticaria,from exogenous and endogenous aspects of urticaria and two of "Feng Xie," produced by different ways and their clinical features, propose appropriate treatment method for an accurate clinical identify causes and provide a reference syndrome.%荨麻疹的发病同风邪有密切关系,从外感、内生两个方面探讨荨麻疹之“风邪”产生的不同途径及各自的临床特点,提出相应的治法,为临床能够准确识别病因和辨证提供参考.

  6. Tong Xie Yao Fang relieves irritable bowel syndrome in rats via mechanisms involving regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xue-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-04-21

    To investigate whether the Chinese medicine Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) improves dysfunction in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model. Thirty baby rats for IBS modeling were separated from mother rats (1 h per day) from days 8 to 21, and the rectum was expanded by angioplasty from days 8 to 12. Ten normal rats were used as normal controls. We examined the effects of TXYF on defection frequency, colonic transit function and smooth muscle contraction, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) in colonic and hypothalamus tissues by Western blot and RT-PCT techniques in both normal rats and IBS model rats with characterized visceral hypersensitivity. Defecation frequency was 1.8 ± 1.03 in normal rats and 4.5 ± 1.58 in IBS model rats (P colon transit function was significantly increased (256.88 ± 20.32 vs 93.36 ± 17.28, P colonic smooth muscle tension and contract frequency in IBS model rats were significantly decreased by administration of TXYF. Exogenous agonist stimulants increased spontaneous activity and elicited contractions of colon smooth muscle in IBS model rats, and all of these actions were significantly reduced by TXYF involving 5-HT and SP down-regulation. TXYF can modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system and alter 5-HT and SP activities, which may contribute to the symptoms of IBS.

  7. Uncorrected and Corrected Distance Visual Acuity, Predictability, Efficacy, and Safety after Femtosecond Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and Refractive Lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for Moderate and High Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders; Justesen, Birgitte Larsen; Melsen, Charlotte

    predictability, efficacy and safety after femtosecond LASIK (FS-LASIK) with ReLEx. Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Methods: Retrospective study of results after FS-LASIK and ReLEx (including ReLEx flex, ReLEx pseudo-smile, and ReLEx smile). In total, 228 eyes were...

  8. RNA-seq profiling reveals novel target genes of LexA in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi eKizawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available LexA is a well-established transcriptional repressor of SOS genes induced by DNA damage in E. coli and other bacterial species. However, LexA in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been suggested not to be involved in SOS response. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis of the wild-type strain and the lexA-disrupted mutant to obtain the comprehensive view of LexA-regulated genes in Synechocystis. Disruption of lexA positively or negatively affected expression of genes related to various cellular functions such as phototactic motility, accumulation of the major compatible solute glucosylglycerol and subunits of bidirectional hydrogenase, photosystem I and phycobilisome complexes. We also observed increase in the expression level of genes related to iron and manganese uptake in the mutant at the later stage of cultivation. However, none of the genes related to DNA metabolism were affected by disruption of lexA. DNA gel mobility shift assay using the recombinant LexA protein suggested that LexA binds to the upstream region of pilA7, pilA9, ggpS and slr1670 to directly regulate their expression, but changes in the expression level of photosystem I genes by disruption of lexA is likely a secondary effect.

  9. RNA-seq Profiling Reveals Novel Target Genes of LexA in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizawa, Ayumi; Kawahara, Akihito; Takimura, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Hihara, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    LexA is a well-established transcriptional repressor of SOS genes induced by DNA damage in Escherichia coli and other bacterial species. However, LexA in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been suggested not to be involved in SOS response. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis of the wild-type strain and the lexA-disrupted mutant to obtain the comprehensive view of LexA-regulated genes in Synechocystis. Disruption of lexA positively or negatively affected expression of genes related to various cellular functions such as phototactic motility, accumulation of the major compatible solute glucosylglycerol and subunits of bidirectional hydrogenase, photosystem I, and phycobilisome complexes. We also observed increase in the expression level of genes related to iron and manganese uptake in the mutant at the later stage of cultivation. However, none of the genes related to DNA metabolism were affected by disruption of lexA. DNA gel mobility shift assay using the recombinant LexA protein suggested that LexA binds to the upstream region of pilA7, pilA9, ggpS, and slr1670 to directly regulate their expression, but changes in the expression level of photosystem I genes by disruption of lexA is likely a secondary effect. PMID:26925056

  10. Xie He composição musical, modulação e ritornelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ferraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste breve ensaio procuro apresentar uma poética composicional, tendo por base um cruzamento entre pensamento específico da pintura chinesa e noções da filosofia ocidental que dialogam com tal pensamento. Proponho assim um cruzamento das noções de quatro autores Gilbert Simondon, Gilles Deleuze e Félix Guattari e Xie He: as noções de modulação e ritornelo em contraponto aos seis cânones da pintura clássica chinesa, propostos pelo pintor e calígrafo chinês Xie He, no séc. V. De certo modo retomo a relação entre Xie He e a filosofia da diferença através do que está traçado nos escritos e aulas de Gilles Deleuze. O ponto de articulação entre as diferentes proposições está justamente no conceito de Ritornelo, proposto por Guattari e Deleuze em seu livro Mille Plateaux. e na modulação como motor principal deste conceito (compreendida a partir das proposições de Gilbert Simondon. Ao longo do ensaio apresento os dois primeiros cânones da pintura chinesa, os aproximando passo a passo da noção de modulação para, por fim, apresentar uma leitura do conceito de ritornelo e o modo como tais conceitos, noções e cânones podem se fazer presentes no processo composicional da música atual.

  11. Translation Strategy of Chinese Culture-loaded Lexes and the Dissemina-tion of Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-li

    2016-01-01

    Lexes are the most important and basic element of a language. Chinese culture-loaded lexes are those words or expres-sions that are greatly rich in Chinese culture. They can reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture and Chinese nation. There-fore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the translation of Chinese culture-loaded lexes as they play a decisive role in disseminating Chinese culture. It can help promote Chinese culture worldwide, improve China’s cultural exchanges and commu-nication with other nations and strengthen China’s status in the world. This paper focuses on the Chinese culture-loaded words and proposes some possible means of translation with the purpose of spreading Chinese culture.

  12. Novel Insights into the Regulation of LexA in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo; Lindblad, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor LexA in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has been shown to regulate genes that are not directly involved in DNA repair but instead in several different metabolic pathways. However, the signal transduction pathways remain largely uncharacterized. The present work gives novel insights into the regulation of LexA in this unicellular cyanobacterium. A combination of Northern and Western blotting, using specific antibodies against the cyanobacterial LexA, was employed to show that this transcription regulator is under posttranscriptional control, in addition to the classical and already-described transcriptional regulation. Moreover, detailed two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis analyses of the protein revealed that LexA undergoes posttranslational modifications. Finally, a fully segregated LexA::GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion-modified strain was produced to image LexA's spatial distribution in live cells. The fusion protein retains DNA binding capabilities, and the GFP fluorescence indicates that LexA is localized in the innermost region of the cytoplasm, decorating the DNA in an evenly distributed pattern. The implications of these findings for the overall role of LexA in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 are further discussed. PMID:21642463

  13. JaLexGram v-0.14 Lexique Grammaire du Japonais

    OpenAIRE

    Blin, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Short description of the Lexic-Grammar JaLexGram for Japanese; Ce document propose une description simplifiée de la ressource lexicale JaLexGram, lexique-grammaire pour le japonais contemporain écrit. Sont fournies une description du format des données, ainsi que des exemples. La ressource contient plus de 300 000 entrées lexicale et 600 règles de dérivation ainsi qu'une ontologie et des données pour la traduction du japonais vers le français.

  14. The globalization and the reemerging of the lex mercatoria A globalização e o ressurgimento da lex mercatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Krupp da Luz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is considered in two linked parts between the globalization and the global process of lex mercatoria. Firstly the main discussions of the globalization concept will be established, from its politics formation and its technological condition into its consequences in legal and political levels. Emphasis in the changes that the State suffers in relation the sovereignty, market and jurisdiction will be given. Lex mercatoria, appears in this context as the processes of formations of Law “without State”, or better, in such way where the State counts on other actors in the construction of this Law, as well as, the increasing paper of the courts of arbitration in this process.O presente artigo está proposto em duas partes interligadas entre a globalização e o processo global da lex mercatoria. Primeiro serão estabelecidos as principais abordagens do conceito de globalização, desde sua formação política e sua condição tecnológica até seus reflexos em níveis jurídicos e políticos. Será dada ênfase nas mudanças que o Estado sofre em relação à soberania, mercado e jurisdição. A lex mercatoria, surge nesse contexto como os processos de formações de direito “sem Estado”, ou melhor, em moldes onde o Estado conta com outros atores na construção desse direito, assim como, o crescente papel das cortes de arbitragem nesse processo.

  15. Somatic ‘Soluble’ Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms Are Unaffected in Sacytm1Lex/Sacytm1Lex ‘Knockout’ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, Adcy10, or Sacy) represents a source of the second messenger cAMP distinct from the widely studied, G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases. Genetic deletion of the second through fourth coding exons in Sacytm1Lex/Sacytm1Lex knockout mice results in a male sterile phenotype. The absence of any major somatic phenotype is inconsistent with the variety of somatic functions identified for sAC using pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference. Principal Findings We now use immunological and molecular biological methods to demonstrate that somatic tissues express a previously unknown isoform of sAC, which utilizes a unique start site, and which ‘escapes’ the design of the Sacytm1Lex knockout allele. Conclusions/Significance These studies reveal increased complexity at the sAC locus, and they suggest that the known isoforms of sAC play a unique function in male germ cells. PMID:18806876

  16. Reconocimiento de la lex mercatoria como normativa propia y apropiada para el comercio internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo queremos referirnos al concepto de la Lex Mercatoria, su validez, sus características, las tesis que profesan sus detractores y las de aquéllos que profesan su existencia, su valor normativo, así como sus manifestaciones actuales.

  17. Die ‘friesischen’ Wörter in der Lex Frisionum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Those legal terms in the Lex Frisionum of the late 8th century that are introduced by the phrase ‘quod uocant’ or ‘quod dicunt’ are generally considered to be Frisian. In this study, the phonological and morphological character of these words is analysed and compared to evidence from the

  18. LA LEX MERCATORIA EN LOS LAUDOS DE LA CÁMARA DE COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Grande

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el derecho internacional es muy conocida la controversia sobre la existencia de un ordenamiento jurídico regulador del comercio internacional, también denominada doctrina de la lex mercatoria. Los diferentes argumentos de la doctrina en debate se presentan como irreconciliables, sin embargo, todos ellos se basan en postulados comunes. Este artículo está dedicado a explicar el consenso que aparece en la disputa y confrontarlo con la práctica arbitral internacional para averiguar si dicho acuerdo alcanza para justificar la lex. Con ese propósito analizamos los laudos de la Cámara de Comercio Internacional relativos a la elección del derecho aplicable al fondo del litigio y en los cuales los árbitros no contaban con facultades para pronunciarse ex aequo et bono. El resultado principal del estudio es que la existencia de la lex mercatoria no puede ser demostrada por la práctica arbitral bajo las condiciones comunesde la doctrina. La única certeza en los laudos es la remisión a los usos del comercio internacional, y el reconocimiento de principios generales establecidos en instrumentos universalmente aceptados. En conclusión, la lex mercatoria necesita fundamento dogmático y fáctico. Es la filosofía del derecho quien debe indagar la legitimidad y estructura del derecho comercial internacional.

  19. Lexion: That Which Upholds or Bears an Archetype. "Introducing Lex and Lexion to Modern English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin is a classical language that has influenced modern languages such as English, French, Italian and Spanish. With its Latin and Greek roots, this paper argues that the word lexion is an appropriate and necessary addition to the English language. Lex in Latin means, law, syllabus, statute and…

  20. Introducing LexTALE: A quick and valid Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemhöfer, K.M.L.; Broersma, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of experimental studies on second language (L2) processing, frequently with English as the L2, calls for a practical and valid measure of English vocabulary knowledge and proficiency. In a large-scale study with Dutch and Korean speakers of L2 English, we tested whether LexTALE

  1. On Xie Tiao' s Xuan Cheng Complex%论谢宣城的宣城情结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖

    2011-01-01

    Born in a noble family,Xie Tiao was well educated and had super talent.At the age of nineteen,Xie Tiao began to hold office.Since trusted by vassals,he was put in an important position.Xie Tiao' s poems in the new style have a far-reaching impact on Chinese poetry,especially on the style of poetry of the Tang Dynasty.The time that Xie Tiao made greatest achievements in his life was that he acted as the prefect of Xuan cheng for fifteen months when he was 32 and 33 years old.Through literature reviews and field investigation,beginning with Xie Tiao's office in Xuan cheng,the paper explored the background of Xie Tiao's holding office,the accurate time he began to take and leave office,his love for the mountains and rivers in Xuan cheng,and the measures he took to benefit the local people.Xie Tiao had a deep feelings for the people in Xuan cheng,and his high reputation handed down to generations.%谢朓,是出身世族大姓、受过良好文化教养、拥有多面才华的人物。十九岁即步入仕途,走进皇室藩王诸王幕府,颇受重用和信赖。他的新体诗,在中国诗史尤其对唐诗风格形成上,具有深远影响。然而,他一生最辉煌最富有治理创新业绩的,则是三十二岁至三十三岁一年零三个月的宣城太守任上。因此,研究谢朓,必须从他宣城太守任上的史实入手。广搜涉及谢宣城诸文献和宣城实地调查,对谢朓出守宣城的政治背景、莅职与离任的具体时间,以及他对宣城山水的独钟情愫、爱民惠民的大德举措,一一进行探素、追踪与梳理。结论是:谢朓是位纯正的为民之官,他与宣城百姓结下的深厚情谊,千古流芳。

  2. Evaluation and cross-comparison of lexical entities of biological interest (LexEBI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Biomedical entities, their identifiers and names, are essential in the representation of biomedical facts and knowledge. In the same way, the complete set of biomedical and chemical terms, i.e. the biomedical "term space" (the "Lexeome", forms a key resource to achieve the full integration of the scientific literature with biomedical data resources: any identified named entity can immediately be normalized to the correct database entry. This goal does not only require that we are aware of all existing terms, but would also profit from knowing all their senses and their semantic interpretation (ambiguities, nestedness. RESULT: This study compiles a resource for lexical terms of biomedical interest in a standard format (called "LexEBI", determines the overall number of terms, their reuse in different resources and the nestedness of terms. LexEBI comprises references for protein and gene entries and their term variants and chemical entities amongst other terms. In addition, disease terms have been identified from Medline and PubmedCentral and added to LexEBI. Our analysis demonstrates that the baseforms of terms from the different semantic types show only little polysemous use. Nonetheless, the term variants of protein and gene names (PGNs frequently contain species mentions, which should have been avoided according to protein annotation guidelines. Furthermore, the protein and gene entities as well as the chemical entities, both do comprise enzymes leading to hierarchical polysemy, and a large portion of PGNs make reference to a chemical entity. Altogether, according to our analysis based on the Medline distribution, 401,869 unique PGNs in the documents contain a reference to 25,022 chemical entities, 3,125 disease terms or 1,576 species mentions. CONCLUSION: LexEBI delivers the complete biomedical and chemical Lexeome in a standardized representation (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/LexEBI/. The resource provides the disease terms as

  3. The SOS Response Master Regulator LexA Is Associated with Sporulation, Motility and Biofilm Formation in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Beata M; Cartman, Stephen T; Minton, Nigel P; Butala, Matej; Rupnik, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The LexA regulated SOS network is a bacterial response to DNA damage of metabolic or environmental origin. In Clostridium difficile, a nosocomial pathogen causing a range of intestinal diseases, the in-silico deduced LexA network included the core SOS genes involved in the DNA repair and genes involved in various other biological functions that vary among different ribotypes. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a lexA ClosTron mutant in C. difficile R20291 strain. The mutation of lexA caused inhibition of cell division resulting in a filamentous phenotype. The lexA mutant also showed decreased sporulation, a reduction in swimming motility, greater sensitivity to metronidazole, and increased biofilm formation. Changes in the regulation of toxin A, but not toxin B, were observed in the lexA mutant in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of levofloxacin. C. difficile LexA is, therefore, not only a regulator of DNA damage but also controls many biological functions associated with virulence.

  4. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  5. The LexA transcription factor regulates fatty acid biosynthetic genes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizawa, Ayumi; Kawahara, Akihito; Takashima, Kosuke; Takimura, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Hihara, Yukako

    2017-07-26

    Specific transcription factors have been identified in various heterotrophic bacterial species that regulate the sets of genes required for fatty acid metabolism. Here, we report that expression of the fab genes, encoding fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes, is regulated by the global regulator LexA in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Sll1626, an ortholog of the well-known LexA repressor involved in the SOS response in heterotrophic bacteria, was isolated from crude extracts of Synechocystis by DNA affinity chromatography, reflecting its binding to the upstream region of the acpP-fabF and fabI genes. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that the recombinant LexA protein can bind to the upstream region of each fab gene tested (fabD, fabH, fabF, fabG, fabZ and fabI). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the wild type and a lexA-disrupted mutant strain suggested that LexA acts as a repressor of the fab genes involved in initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis (fabD, fabH and fabF) and the first reductive step in the subsequent elongation cycle (fabG) under normal growth conditions. Under nitrogen-depleted conditions, downregulation of fab gene expression is partly achieved through an increase in LexA-repressing activity. In contrast, under phosphate-depleted conditions, fab gene expression is upregulated, probably due to the loss of repression by LexA. We further demonstrate that elimination of LexA largely increases the production of fatty acids in strains modified to secrete free fatty acids. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Saudi law as lex arbitri: Evaluation of Saudi arbitration law and judicial practice

    OpenAIRE

    Baamir, A; Bantekas, I

    2009-01-01

    Copyright © 2009 Kluwer Law International Disputes settled in Saudi Arabia, or which otherwise contain Saudi elements, are governed by the Kingdom’s lex arbitri, which requires that not only the arbitration clause and compromis be submitted to a designated competent authority for approval, but that the proceedings be supervised by said competent authority throughout their duration, save where conflict of laws rules permit the parties to refer to a foreign jurisdiction. There is no clear li...

  7. Mapping Institution-Specific Study Descriptions to RadLex Playbook Entries

    OpenAIRE

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Lee, Michael C.; Cohen-Solal, Eric V.; Chang, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The naming of imaging procedures is currently not standardized across institutions. As a result, it is a challenge to establish national registries, for instance, a national registry of dose to facilitate comparisons among different types of CT procedures. RSNA’s RadLex Playbook is an effort towards addressing this gap (by introducing a unique Playbook identifier called an RPID for each procedure), and the current research focuses on semi-automatically mapping institution-specific procedure d...

  8. 格的字典扩张%Lex-extensions of Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆芝南

    2004-01-01

    主要结果如下:(a)若I是格L的非零理想,则下列条件等价:(1)L=LexI;(2)INJ(∪)I;(3)I与L的每一个理想可比较;(4)K=∪{a┸∈L\I}=(0).(b)L是格,则N∪{0}=∪{M|M是L的极小素理想}.

  9. Mapping institution-specific study descriptions to RadLex Playbook entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Lee, Michael C; Cohen-Solal, Eric V; Chang, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The naming of imaging procedures is currently not standardized across institutions. As a result, it is a challenge to establish national registries, for instance, a national registry of dose to facilitate comparisons among different types of CT procedures. RSNA's RadLex Playbook is an effort towards addressing this gap (by introducing a unique Playbook identifier called an RPID for each procedure), and the current research focuses on semi-automatically mapping institution-specific procedure descriptions to Playbook entries to assist with this standardization effort. We discuss an algorithm we have developed to facilitate the mapping process which first extracts RadLex codes from the procedure description and then uses the definition of an RPID to determine the most suitable RPID(s) for the extracted set of RadLex codes. We also developed a tool that has three modes of operations-a single procedure mapping mode that allows a user to map a single institution-specific procedure description to a Playbook entry, a bulk mode to process large number of descriptions, and an exploratory mode that assists a user to better understand how the selection of values for various Playbook attributes affects the resulting RPID. We validate our algorithms using 166 production CT procedure descriptions and discuss how the tool can be used by administrators to map institution-specific procedure descriptions to RPIDs.

  10. Zukunft der E-Books: Innovationen und Geschäftsmodelle von Verlagen für Medizinbibliotheken an Hochschulen : Je drei Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Klaus Bahmann (Springer), Peter Gemmel (Thieme) und Angelika Lex (Elsevier)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmann, Klaus; Gemmel, Peter; Lex, Angelika; Bauer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    In the past years electronic books were booming at scientific libraries. E-books have established especially at medical libraries as an important part of the document supply in particular for students. The current interview with Klaus Bahmann (Springer), Peter Gemmel (Thieme) and Angelika Lex (Elsevier) informs about development, situation and outlook of e-books of three big scientific publishers. They spoke about the focal points in the supply and the diverse business models and the diff...

  11. Zukunft der E-Books: Innovationen und Geschäftsmodelle von Verlagen für Medizinbibliotheken an Hochschulen: Je drei Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Klaus Bahmann (Springer), Peter Gemmel (Thieme) und Angelika Lex (Elsevier) / The future of e-books: innovations and business plan of publishers for medical libraries at universities: 3 questions to Klaus Bahmann (Springer), Peter Gemmel (Thieme) and Angelika Lex (Elsevier) by Bruno Bauer

    OpenAIRE

    Lex, Angelika; Gemmel, Peter; Bahmann, Klaus; Bauer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    In the past years electronic books were booming at scientific libraries. E-books have established especially at medical libraries as an important part of the document supply in particular for students.The current interview with Klaus Bahmann (Springer), Peter Gemmel (Thieme) and Angelika Lex (Elsevier) informs about development, situation and outlook of e-books of three big scientific publishers. They spoke about the focal points in the supply and the diverse business models and the different...

  12. Research on Liu Xie's Criticism to SIMA Xiangru%刘勰的司马相如批评研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元文广

    2014-01-01

    司马相如作为汉代辞赋大家,是刘勰《文心雕龙》讨论较多的作家之一。刘勰《文心雕龙》对于司马相如的批评与前人对司马相如的批评截然不同,前人以“依经立论”为原则,而刘勰《文心雕龙》却是以“衔华佩实”为准则,对司马相如的作品从“有韵之文”和“无韵之笔”两个方面进行批评。其一,对“有韵之文”辞赋作品因其过于华丽,而提出批评和指责;其二,对“无韵之笔”诏策文、檄移文和封禅文等作品给予了肯定。刘勰《文心雕龙》对司马相如的批评,显示了刘勰对汉魏以来文学过于追求形式华丽的一种批评。%SIMA Xiangru, a great master of Han Fu (a literary form), is one of the writers discussed in Wenxin Diaolong or The Liter-ary Mind and The Carving of Dragons by LIU Xie .LIU Xie's criticism for Sima Xiangru was entirely different , in which the former re-searchers studied it according to the previous argument , while LIU Xie took "bear both flowers and fruits -a good essay which has solid substance and beautiful sentences"as the criteria .LIU Xie studied the works of SIMA Xiangru from two aspects of rhyme and non rhyme.First, the"rhyme"works were criticized because they were too luxuriant;second, for the“non rhyme” works, such as the pa-per of admonishing policies , announcement , and the paper about the sacrifices of heaven and earth , were given affirmation .LIU Xie's criticism to SIMA Xiangru was really a kind of criticism to Han literature for its pursuit of excessive magnificence in form .

  13. Regulating effect of TongXie-YaoFang on colonic epithelial secretion via Cl- and HCO3- channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; An, Fang-Mei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zhan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacological effect of TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) formula, a Chinese herbal formula, on Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) rats. METHODS In a neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress (NMS + RS) model of D-IBS, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group) with no handlings were used as controls (NH group). Starting from postnatal day 60, rats in TXYF-formula group were administered TXYF-formula (4.92 g/100 g bodyweight) orally twice a day for 14 consecutive days while NH group and NMS + RS group were given distilled water. Using short-circuit current technology, we observed 5-HT-induced changes of current across ion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel, epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), Ca2+-dependent Cl- channel (CACC), Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC), and Na+-HCO3- co-transporter (NBC), in the colonic epithelium of three groups after exposure to drugs and specific blockers with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International). RESULTS Under basal conditions, the changes of short-circuit current (∆Isc, µA/cm2) induced by 5-HT were similar in NH group and TXYF-formula group, and both higher than NMS + RS group (70.86 µA/cm2 ± 12.32 µA/cm2, 67.67 µA/cm2 ± 11.68 µA/cm2 vs 38.8 µA/cm2 ± 7.25 µA/cm2, P CFTR Cl- channel was blocked by 1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride (DPC), 5-HT-induced ∆Isc did not significantly differ in three groups (42.28 µA/cm2 ± 10.61 µA/cm2 vs 51.48 µA/cm2 ± 6.56 µA/cm2 vs 47.75 µA/cm2 ± 7.99 µA/cm2, P > 0.05, respectively). The similar results could also be obtained in three groups when NBC and NKCC were respectively blocked by their blockers. CONCLUSION TXYF-formula can regulate the Cl- and HCO3- secretion of colonic mucosa via CFTR Cl- channel, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NBC and NKCC co-transporters. PMID:28082810

  14. LexA protein of cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 exhibits in vitro pH-dependent and RecA-independent autoproteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Kirti, Anurag; Rajaram, Hema

    2015-02-01

    The LexA protein of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 exhibits a RecA-independent and alkaline pH-dependent autoproteolytic cleavage. The autoproteolytic cleavage of Anabaena LexA occurs at pH 8.5 and above, stimulated by the addition of Ca(2+) and in the temperature range of 30-57°C. Mutational analysis of Anabaena LexA protein indicated that the cleavage occurred at the peptide bond between Ala-84 and Gly-85, and optimal cleavage required the presence of Ser-118 and Lys-159, as also observed for LexA protein of Escherichia coli. Cleavage of Anabaena LexA was affected upon deletion of three amino acids, (86)GLI. These three amino acids are unique to all cyanobacterial LexA proteins predicted to be cleavable. The absence of RecA-dependent cleavage at physiological pH, which has not been reported for other bacterial LexA proteins, is possibly due to the absence of RecA interacting sites on Anabaena LexA protein, corresponding to the residues identified in E. coli LexA, and low cellular levels of RecA in Anabaena. Exposure to SOS-response inducing stresses, such as UV-B and mitomycin C neither affected the expression of LexA in Anabaena nor induced cleavage of LexA in either Anabaena 7120 or E. coli overexpressing Anabaena LexA protein. Though the LexA may be acting as a repressor by binding to the LexA box in the vicinity of the promoter region of specific gene, their derepression may not be via proteolytic cleavage during SOS-inducing stresses, unless the stress induces increase in cytoplasmic pH. This could account for the regulation of several carbon metabolism genes rather than DNA-repair genes under the regulation of LexA in cyanobacteria especially during high light induced oxidative stress.

  15. Dictionary Writing System (DWS + Corpus Query Package (CQP: The Case of TshwaneLex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this article the integrated corpus query functionality of the dictionary compilation software TshwaneLex is analysed. Attention is given to the handling of both raw corpus data and annotated corpus data. With regard to the latter it is shown how, with a minimum of human effort, machine learning techniques can be employed to obtain part-of-speech tagged corpora that can be used for lexicographic purposes. All points are illustrated with data drawn from English and Northern Sotho. The tools and techniques themselves, however, are language-independent, and as such the encouraging outcomes of this study are far-reaching.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, SOFTWARE, DICTIONARY WRITING SYS-TEM (DWS, CORPUS QUERY PACKAGE (CQP, TSHWANELEX, CORPUS, CORPUS ANNO-TATION, PART-OF-SPEECH TAGGER (POS-TAGGER, MACHINE LEARNING, NORTHERN SOTHO (SESOTHO SA LEBOA

    Samenvatting: Woordenboekaanmaaksysteem + corpusanalysepakket: een studie van TshwaneLex. In dit artikel wordt het geïntegreerde corpusanalysepakket van het woordenboekaanmaaksysteem TshwaneLex geanalyseerd. Aandacht gaat zowel naar het verwer-ken van onbewerkte corpusdata als naar geannoteerde corpusdata. Wat het laatste betreft wordt aangetoond hoe, met een minimum aan intellectuele arbeid, automatische leertechnieken met suc-ces kunnen worden ingezet om corpora voor lexicografische doeleinden aan te maken waarin de woordklassen expliciet worden vermeld. Alle stappen van de redenering worden geïllustreerd met gegevens uit het Engels en Noord-Sotho. De instrumenten en technieken zelf zijn echter allemaal taalonafhankelijk, waardoor de veelbelovende resultaten van deze studie verreikend zijn.

    Sleutelwoorden: LEXICOGRAFIE, WOORDENBOEK, SOFTWARE, WOORDENBOEK-AANMAAKSYSTEEM, CORPUSANALYSEPAKKET, TSHWANELEX, CORPUS, CORPUSANNO-TATIE, WOORDKLASSETAGGER, AUTOMATISCHE LEERTECHNIEKEN, NOORD-SOTHO

  16. El contrato administrativo: ¿lex inter partes o ius vivandi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Jorge Coviello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia si en los contratos públicos el principio de observancia de los pactado (pacta sunt servanda, o lex inter pares tiene preponderancia sobre el principio del ius vivandi típico de los contratos administrativos. Se busca, a través del estudio del derecho comparado y de la doctrina que originó ambos principios, llegara a una síntesis de ambos. Mediante la aplicación del principio de la legalidad, se trata de arribar a un equilibrio de ambos, sin perjuicio de reconocer el autor la preeminencia del principio contrato-ley.

  17. Treatment of Psoriasis Vulgaris by Oral Administration of Yin Xie Ping Granules——A Clinical Report of 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Shan; Liu Yuan; Bo Xiuzhen; Qi Aiju

    2006-01-01

    @@ Psoriasis is a chronic and an easily recurrent dermatosis, with the characteristic red papules and patches covered with silvery scales especially on the outer aspects of the limbs, scalp, and back.1 The cause of the disease is not clear yet, and no satisfactory therapies are available for the treatment so far. We treated 60 cases of psoriasis vulgaris by oral administration of Yin Xie Ping Granules (银屑平颗粒 Granulae for Treating Psoriasis) from August 2004 to March 2005 with quite good results, with another 60 cases treated by taking Xiao Yin Pian (消银片 Tablets for Relieving Psoriasis) as the controls.A report follows.

  18. Effect of TongXie-YaoFang on Cl− and HCO3- Transport in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF can effectively alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS patients. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. The study was designed to investigate the effect of TXYF on the colonic ion transport induced by serotonin (5-HT in D-IBS rats. A method of multiple stress (neonatal maternal separation (NMS combined with restraint stress (RS was used to induce the D-IBS model. The model rats were randomly divided into two groups: NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group, and the normal control (no handling rats were classified as NH group. In the NMS + RS group, the change of short-circuit current (ΔIsc induced by 5-HT was lower than that in the NH and TXYF-formula groups. After removing of the extracellular Cl− or HCO3- or basolateral Na+ or blocking the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC, Na+-HCO3- cotransporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, K+ channel, or Na+/K+-ATPase, respectively, there was no difference in 5-HT-induced ΔIsc among the three groups. These data suggest that TXYF can regulate 5-HT-induced Cl− and HCO3- secretion, possibly mediated by the combined action of CFTR, NKCC, Na+-HCO3- cotransporter, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, K+ channel, and Na+/K+-ATPase.

  19. The Pronunciation and Transformation of Xie She and Zhi She in Shanyin Dialect%山阴方言蟹止两摄的读音及演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔霞

    2012-01-01

    In Shanyin dialect, Xie She(蟹)and Zhi She(止摄)evolution is relatively complex. By comparing Xie She and Zhi She in Med-century phonology and the pronunciation of Shanyin dialect, This article found that Xie She and Zhi She still keep some ancient phonetic features in Shanyin dialect in the process of the phonetic transformation.%蟹摄和止摄在山阴方言中演变比较复杂。通过中古音韵蟹止两摄与山阴方言的读音比较看出,在语音演变过程中,蟹止两摄在山阴方言中保留了一些较古老的语音特征。

  20. Climate Justice: A Constitutional Approach to Unify the Lex Specialis Principles of International Climate Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Thorp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal principles legitimise ubiquitous social values. They make certain social norms lawful and legitimate. Legal principles may act as governing vectors. They may give effect to a unified and legitimate constitutional framework insofar as a constitution unifies the fundamental principles on which a state or competent authority is governed.Concerning international climate law, however, there is a certain shortcoming. The failure to comprehend a unified constitutional framework of lex specialis principles could debilitate intra and inter-regime governance and lead to uncertainties. At one time, uncertainties incite the law-making process. At another time, they constrain it. Such a shortcoming may lead to inconsistencies in interpreting consequential climate norms. It may thwart dispute resolution and it may impede climate negotiations. To traverse this abyss, the inquiry uses instruments of legal philosophy (the philosophy of language, legal systematics (the study of legal systems, and legal hermeneutics (the legal practice of interpretation to delineate, distinguish and unify lex specialis principles that could form the foundations of a universal constitutional framework of international climate law. In doing so, it shows that climate justice is a function of the quality of the legal system.

  1. 基于连续LexRank的多文本自动摘要优化算法研究%RESEARCH ON OPTIMISATION ALGORITHM OF MULTIPLE TEXT AUTO-SUMMARISATION BASED ON CONTINUOUS LEXRANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾哲军

    2013-01-01

    以挖掘性的自动(TS )为研究对象,依赖于核心语句这一概念,在考虑现存相关研究成果的基础上,设计一种基于特征向量中心概念及连续LexRank、以图形表示的多文本自动优化模型及算法。在此模型中,创建了一个基于内语句余弦相似度连接矩阵以实现语句的图形表示形式对应的邻接矩阵。为了验证算法的可行性与效率,设计了相关实验方案,并通过与现存算法执行效果进行实时比对。实验结果表明,提出的带阈值及基于连续LexRank的算法具有较高的效率。%We take the text automatic summarisation (TAS)with mining property as the study object,rely on the concept of salient sentence,based on taking into account the existing correlated research outcomes,we design a multiple text automatic summarisation optimisation model and algorithm.The model is based on the concept of eigenvector centrality and continuous LexRank,and is represented in graphics.In this model,a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentence cosine similarity is constructed to realise the adjacency matrix corresponding to the graph representation of sentences.In order to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the algorithm,we design the correlated experimental scheme, and make real-time comparison with the execution effect of current algorithm. Experimental result demonstrates that the algorithm proposed in the paper with threshold and based on continuous LexRank has higher efficiency.

  2. Zukunft der E-Books: Innovationen und Geschäftsmodelle von Verlagen für Medizinbibliotheken an Hochschulen: Je drei Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Klaus Bahmann (Springer, Peter Gemmel (Thieme und Angelika Lex (Elsevier / The future of e-books: innovations and business plan of publishers for medical libraries at universities: 3 questions to Klaus Bahmann (Springer, Peter Gemmel (Thieme and Angelika Lex (Elsevier by Bruno Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex, Angelika

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past years electronic books were booming at scientific libraries. E-books have established especially at medical libraries as an important part of the document supply in particular for students.The current interview with Klaus Bahmann (Springer, Peter Gemmel (Thieme and Angelika Lex (Elsevier informs about development, situation and outlook of e-books of three big scientific publishers. They spoke about the focal points in the supply and the diverse business models and the different estimation for the future development of electronic books.

  3. The SOS Response Master Regulator LexA Regulates the Gene Transfer Agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Represses Transcription of the Signal Transduction Protein CckA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinski, Kevin S.; Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Westbye, Alexander B.; Ding, Hao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a genetic exchange element that combines central aspects of bacteriophage-mediated transduction and natural transformation. RcGTA particles resemble a small double-stranded DNA bacteriophage, package random ∼4-kb fragments of the producing cell genome, and are released from a subpopulation (5-fold in the lexA mutant, and a lexA cckA double mutant was found to have the same phenotype as a ΔcckA single mutant in terms of RcGTA production. The data indicate that LexA is required for RcGTA production and maximal recipient capability and that the RcGTA-deficient phenotype of the lexA mutant is largely due to the overexpression of cckA. IMPORTANCE This work describes an unusual phenotype of a lexA mutant of the alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus in respect to the phage transduction-like genetic exchange carried out by the R. capsulatus gene transfer agent (RcGTA). Instead of the expected SOS response characteristic of prophage induction, this lexA mutation not only abolishes the production of RcGTA particles but also impairs the ability of cells to receive RcGTA-borne genes. The data show that, despite an apparent evolutionary relationship to lambdoid phages, the regulation of RcGTA gene expression differs radically. PMID:26833411

  4. Les golems du numérique droit d'auteur et Lex Electronica

    CERN Document Server

    Dulong de Rosnay, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    Le droit d’auteur, élaboré sur les fondements analogiques de la rareté du support, est remis en question par le numérique, qui s’appuie sur la copie, la réappropriation et le partage. Il a été adapté au rythme des innovations techniques de reproduction et de diffusion et peut conduire aussi bien au contrôle de l’accès qu’à la constitution de biens communs. Les processus d’élaboration des normes et standards techniques et d’extension des droits ont été pensés de manière indépendante, entraînant des tensions entre les industries culturelles et les droits du public. L’ouvrage propose un modèle techno-juridique de la régulation du partage de la culture. Fondé sur la lex informatica, il intègre code juridique et code informatique pour exprimer les informations sur les droits et élargir les catégories actuelles du droit d’auteur pour faciliter l’utilisation, la création et le partage non marchand. Ce livre est basé sur plus de dix ans de participation à la régulat...

  5. Using Standardized Lexicons for Report Template Validation with LexMap, a Web-based Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Jason; Wang, Kenneth; Siegel, Eliot; Durack, Jeremy; Morrison, James J

    2015-06-01

    An enormous amount of data exists in unstructured diagnostic and interventional radiology reports. Free text or non-standardized terminologies limit the ability to parse, extract, and analyze these report data elements. Medical lexicons and ontologies contain standardized terms for relevant concepts including disease entities, radiographic technique, and findings. The use of standardized terms offers the potential to improve reporting consistency and facilitate computer analysis. The purpose of this project was to implement an interface to aid in the creation of standards-compliant reporting templates for use in interventional radiology. Non-standardized procedure report text was analyzed and referenced to RadLex, SNOMED-CT, and LOINC. Using JavaScript, a web application was developed which determined whether exact terms or synonyms in reports existed within these three reference resources. The NCBO BioPortal Annotator web service was used to map terms, and output from this application was used to create an interactive annotated version of the original report. The application was successfully used to analyze and modify five distinct reports for the Society of Interventional Radiology's standardized reporting project.

  6. El esperpento en el cine de Álex de la Iglesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta RIVERO FRANCO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Varios son los estudios que aluden a la presencia del esperpento en el cine de Álex de la Iglesia —tema ligado taxativamente a su producción y sin el que esta no puede entenderse—, pero escasos los que profundizan en la manera en la que este recurso se ve plasmado en sus creaciones. Por ello, con el presente trabajo, nos disponemos a analizar la forma en la que el esperpento se manifiesta en su filmografía, para lo que seleccionaremos tres de sus ficciones esenciales —El día de la bestia (1995, La comunidad (2000 y Balada triste de trompeta (2010—, a través de las que comprobaremos cómo la intertextualidad, la crítica social y esa mezcla de cultura posmoderna con resonancias de la España más atávica, son las características que constituyen la esencia de tan idiosincrático recurso dentro de su producción.

  7. A Further Study of Xie Zhuang ’s Mixed Verses%谢庄“杂言诗”新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国勇

    2014-01-01

    Xie Zhuang was an important poet in Southern and Northern Dynasties who had absorbed the literature nutrition from both Chuci and Yuefu Poetry which emerged in The Pre-Qin Period and Han Dynasty. Furthermore, being influenced by the social and cultural atmosphere at that time, Xie Zhuang had created his mixed verses in various forms full of ethereality in their rhymes and tones. This paper makes a preliminary research on the form of Xie Zhuang’s mixed verses, especially about their characters, styles, indications etc, then finds out contribution of these poems to the history of the landscape poetry in China.%谢庄兼收《楚辞》、乐府营养,并受时风影响,从而熔铸出形式多样、音韵流转的杂言诗作。本文拟从诗体本身来探讨谢庄的杂言诗歌,认识其在中国山水诗上的贡献。

  8. Rapid HPLC Quantification Approach for Detection of Active Constituents in Modern Combinatorial Formula, San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ying Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT, one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, is comprised by three herbal medicines, the rhizome of Rheum officinale [or R. tanguticum (Polygonaceae (Dahuang in Chinese], the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Labiatae (Huangqin in Chinese, and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae (Huanglian in Chinese in the ratios of 2:1:1 or 1:1:1. This study is aimed to quantitate and qualify of SHXXT, by a rapid, convenient, and effective HPLC-PDA approach associated with LC-MS technique. Of which method, nine chosen major bioactive components in SHXXT, including aloe-emodin (Ale, baicalin (Ba, berberine (Be, coptisine (Co, palmatine (Pa, resveratroloside (Res, rhein (Rh, sennoside A (Se-A, and wogonin (Wo, were evaluated within 30 minutes. The nine chemical markers were monitored in a high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.01‒0.55 μg/mL and the correlation coefficient of the regression curve revealed a good linearity with R2 > 0.99. Moreover, the extraction solution system and the HPLC elution conditions were also optimized in the present study. This present developed protocol was then successfully applied to quantify nine chemical markers of ten SHXXT products from eight Taiwanese TCM pharmaceutical companies. In quantitative results, Res was found as the major compound in SHXXT-1~5 & 8 with significantly higher amounts than those in other products, indicating the products SHXXT-1~5 & 8 may use R. tanguticum as the raw material, which possessed a higher concentration of the bioactive composition Res, instead of R. officinale. Simultaneously, Ale, Rh, and Wo were less than 2% in these ten products. Different chemical profiles of commercial products indicated that, probably, each product with the same named formula might be regarded as a sole medicine and need to be investigated individually. Importantly, it is never too much to emphasize the importance of quality control in TCM

  9. Role of the LEXE Motif of Protein-primed DNA Polymerases in the Interaction with the Incoming Nucleotide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugenia; Lázaro, José M.; Pérez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Salas, Margarita; de Vega, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The LEXE motif, conserved in eukaryotic type DNA polymerases, is placed close to the polymerization active site. Previous studies suggested that the second Glu was involved in binding a third noncatalytic ion in bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase. In the protein-primed DNA polymerase subgroup, the LEXE motif lacks the first Glu in most cases, but it has a conserved Phe/Trp and a Gly preceding that position. To ascertain the role of those residues, we have analyzed the behavior of mutants at the corresponding φ29 DNA polymerase residues Gly-481, Trp-483, Ala-484, and Glu-486. We show that mutations at Gly-481 and Trp-483 hamper insertion of the incoming dNTP in the presence of Mg2+ ions, a reaction highly improved when Mn2+ was used as metal activator. These results, together with previous crystallographic resolution of φ29 DNA polymerase ternary complex, allow us to infer that Gly-481 and Trp-483 could form a pocket that orients Val-250 to interact with the dNTP. Mutants at Glu-486 are also defective in polymerization and, as mutants at Gly-481 and Trp-483, in the pyrophosphorolytic activity with Mg2+. Recovery of both reactions with Mn2+ supports a role for Glu-486 in the interaction with the pyrophosphate moiety of the dNTP. PMID:24324256

  10. On the Aesthetic Standards of Applied Writing by Liu Xie%刘勰论应用文写作的审美标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章勇

    2015-01-01

    刘勰关于应用文写作的审美标准的论述,对后世教益非浅。他主要从应用文的文种结构、观点内容、语言文辞等三个方面来强调应用写作的审美标准。%The arguments of aesthetic standards on applied writing put forward by Liu Xie have deep influence on the later generations .He mainly emphasized the aesthetic standards of the applied w riting from three aspects ,i e. .structure of literary forms ,opinion's contents and linguistic rhetoric .

  11. A Combined Use of Acupuncture,Moxibustion and Long Dan Xie Gan Tang for Treatment of 36 Cases of Chronic Pelvic Inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金亚蓓

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on chronic pelvic inflammation. Method: Thirty-six cases of chronic pelvic inflammation were treated with acupuncture,the Pathogenic Fire of the Liver) and medicinal cake moxibustion. Result: The treatment resulted in cure in 9 cases, obvious effect in 16 cases, effect in 7 cases and no effect in 4 cases. Conclusion:Acupuncture, moxibustion and the ancient recipe Long Dan Xie Gan Tang used together can enhance the therapeutic effects on chronic pelvic inflammation.

  12. Comparison and Analysis of the Images of Tao Yuanming and Xie Lingyun%陶谢形象比较论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚素华

    2015-01-01

    Tao Yuanming and Xie Lingyun were very important poets in Jin and Song dynasties.Many researchers studied the image of Tao Yuanming,but few concerned about Xie Lingyun's.In fact,the images coming from their poetic prose reduced external appearance from their own action and appear-ance outlined at different times and different scenarios.At the same time,the differences between their own action and appearance deeply influenced by their psychology and affirming self-worth.Tao and Xie's image choices were the transformation of the self images.The images constructed by them were mul-tifaceted.Possessing natural grace,Tao took reflection on the passage of the life as well as the firm and unshakable ideal pursuit through the construction of image extruded human responsibility.Xie was not only broad-minded,but also looking for the road of self in hesitation.They represented the two di-rections and two kinds of image layer in this period of the scholar-bureaucrat.%陶渊明、谢灵运均是晋宋时期的重要诗人,学界对陶渊明形象的研究较为多见,而有关谢灵运的形象分析却几乎无人涉及。事实上,由陶谢诗文引发出的诗人形象可以从其对异时异境中自我行貌的勾勒中还原其外在轮廓。同时,陶谢行貌的差异又受到其心理以及肯定自我价值的深刻影响。陶谢所选择的意象群也是对自我形象的一种转换。他们所建构的形象是多层面的,陶渊明的飘逸中带有对生命流逝的反思以及坚定不移的理想追寻,并通过意象的构建突出人之为人的责任与担当;谢灵运并非只是旷达而无行动,他是在徘徊中寻找自我的道路。他们代表了这一时期士人心路历程的两种方向以及两种形象层。

  13. Valoració de les pràxies bucofacials i la percepció auditiva en infants d'educació infantil i primària

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Busto Barcos; Vanessa Faig Doblado; Prudens Martínez Guijarro; Lurdes Rafanell Orra; Laura Noelia Madrid López

    2013-01-01

    El material interactivo Valoració de les Pràxies Bucofacials i la Percepció Auditiva en Infants d’Educació Infantil i Primària, coordinado por la profesora Mª Carmen Busto, continúa y completa el material que ya presentamos en el volumen 1 de la Biblioteca Phonica, Avaluació del desenvolupament fonològic en nens catalanoparlants de 3, 4 i 5 anys d’edat. Ambos trabajos fueron realizados con la ayuda de sendos proyectos de innovación docente (Millora a la Innovació Docent) de la Universitat de ...

  14. The quest for a non-conflictual coexistence of international human rights law and humanitarian law: which role for the lex specialis principle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Tranchez, E.; Kolb, R.; Gaggioli, G.

    2013-01-01

    International Humanitarian Law (hereafter IHL) and International Human Rights Law (hereafter HRL) undoubtedly share some kinship. Yet, most international lawyers and judges, confronted with the simultaneous application of these two sets of norms have made a resort to the principle lex specialis dero

  15. La Convención de Viena sobre la compraventa internacional de mercancías como lex mercatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, desarrollado en el marco de una conferencia sobre la materia, tiene como finalidad mostrar el papel que juega la Convención de Viena de 1980 sobre la compraventa internacional de mercancías en el desarrollo del comercio internacional y su aplicación en los diferentes ordenamientos nacionales, bien sea directamente como una ley positiva o como una costumbre mercantil o lex mercatoria. Todo ello para mostrar que si bien existen muchos Estados que aún no han ratificado esta Convención, eso no es óbice para que la misma no pueda ser aplicada de una forma subsidiaria en el evento de que estemos en presencia de un litigio que tenga las características exigidas para los casos de compraventa internacional de mercancías.

  16. Examination of laboratory-generated coated soot particles: An overview of the LACIS Experiment in November (LExNo) campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, F.; Bilde, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Hennig, T.; Henning, S.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kiselev, A.; Kristensson, A.; Lieberwirth, I.; Mentel, T. F.; PöSchl, U.; Rose, D.; Schneider, J.; Snider, J. R.; Tillmann, R.; Walter, S.; Wex, H.

    2010-06-01

    In the suite of laboratory measurements described here and in companion articles we deal with the hygroscopic growth and activation behavior of coated soot particles synthesized to mimic those of an atmospheric aerosol originating from biomass combustion. The investigations were performed during the measurement campaign LACIS Experiment in November (LExNo) which took place at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). The specific goals of this campaign were (1) to perform a critical supersaturation measurement intercomparison using data sets from three different cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) instruments (two static thermal gradient type, one stream-wise thermal gradient type) and LACIS, (2) to examine particle hygroscopic growth (hydrated particle size as function of relative humidity) for particle characteristics such as aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measured soluble mass and particle morphology, and (3) to relate critical supersaturations derived from both measurements of soluble mass and high-humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HH-TDMA) determined growth factors to critical supersaturations measured by means of the CCN instruments. This paper provides information on the particle synthesis techniques used during LExNo, an overview concerning the particle characterization measurements performed, and, by proving relations between measured composition, hygroscopic growth, and activation data, lay the foundations for the detailed investigations described in the companion studies. In the context of the present paper, excellent agreement of the critical supersaturations measured with three different CCN instruments and LACIS was observed. Furthermore, clear relations between coating masses determined with AMS and both hygroscopic growth factors at 98% RH and measured critical supersaturations could be seen. Also, a strong correlation between measured hygroscopic growth (growth factors at 98%) and measured critical supersaturation for all

  17. Nueva lex mercatoria: mutación, derecho flexible y crisis de la seguridad jurídica en el espacio de la negociación transnacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orielo Alarcón Altamar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo busca reflexionar sobre el debate en torno al resurgimiento o existencia de una Lex mercatoria, presentando argumentos que demuestran la existencia de dicha ley como la expresión de un derecho espontáneo, elástico, mutante, que emerge en el escenario de la negociación mercantil conservando algunos rasgos de la tradición jurídica pre moderna. Esta Lex mercatoria se presenta en el marco de un Derecho en crisis guiado por los requerimientos de nuevos protagonistas además de instrumentos jurídicos ágiles, flexibles, que al mismo tiempo poseen una asimetría y una dinámica particular. Por estas razones se considera que lo que suele denominarse desarrollo económico debe ir acompañado de un proceso creciente, de una democratización de las esferas y nuevos sistemas de producción de normas jurídicas.Palabras clavesLex mercatoria, derecho flexible, seguridad jurídica, negociación transnacional.AbstractThe present article seeks to think about the debate concerning the reappearance or existence of one kind of law called the Lex mercatoria, presenting arguments that demonstrate the existence of the above mentioned law as the expression of a spontaneous, elastic right, mutant, who emerges in the scene of the mercantile negotiation preserving some features of the juridical tradition premodern. This lex mercatoria appears in the frame of a right in crisis guided by the requirements of new protagonists besides juridical agile, flexible instruments that the same time possess an asymmetry and a particular dynamics. For these reasons it thinks that what is in the habit of being named an economic development must go accompanied of an increasing process of a democratization of the spheres and new systems of production of juridical procedure.Key wordsLex mercatoria, right flex, juridical safety, transnational negotiation.

  18. 论谢灵运山水诗的自然生态景观%On the Natural Ecological Landscape in Xie Lingyun' s Landscape Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顿德华

    2011-01-01

    谢灵运是我国第一个大量创作山水诗的著名诗人,其山水诗中蕴含着大量自然美因素。文章将从山水之色、山水之声、山水之形三个方面对其山水诗的自然生态景观进行探索研究,并力图作一初步论述。%Xie Lingyun was the first famous poet who wrote lots of landscape poems in our country. His landscape poetry contains a lot of natural beauty elements. This article intends to explore the natural ecological landscape from three aspects:the color, the sound and the shape of landscape and tries to make a preliminary discussion.

  19. Uncorrected and Corrected Distance Visual Acuity, Predictability, Efficacy, and Safety after Femtosecond Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and Refractive Lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for Moderate and High Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders; Justesen, Birgitte Larsen; Melsen, Charlotte

    of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Purpose: ReLEx is a relative new corneal refractive procedure, where a stromal lenticule is cut by a femtosecond laser and manually extracted. The purpose of this study was to compare uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA), refractive......Title: Uncorrected and Corrected Distance Visual Acuity, Predictability, Efficacy, and Safety after Femtosecond Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and Refractive Lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for Moderate and High Myopia. Vestergaard A., Justesen B., Melsen C., Lyhne N., Department...... and ReLEx treatments were made with a VisuMax® femto-second laser (Carl Zeiss-Meditec, Jena, Germany). In FS-LASIK, the photoablation was performed with a MEL-80 flying spot excimer laser (Carl Zeiss-Meditec, Jena, Germany). In ReLEx, lenticule diameter was 6.50 mm, whereas the FS-LASIK ablation zone...

  20. The pedagogical benefits of a lexical database (SciE-Lex to assist the production of publishable biomedical texts by EAL writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Judith Laso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that it is challenging for English as an Additional Language (EAL writers to acquire phraseological competence in academic English and develop a good working knowledge of discipline-specific formulaic language. This paper aims to explore if SciE-Lex, a powerful lexical database of biomedical research articles, can be exploited by EAL writers to enhance their command of formulaic language in biomedical English published writing. Our paper reports on the challenges associated with formulaic language (namely collocations for EAL writers, it reflects on the benefits of using a lexical database and it evaluates a pedagogical approach to helping EAL writers produce publishable texts. It specifically highlights results from two writing workshops conducted for EAL writers (medical researchers in the present study. The workshops involved medical researchers working on drafts of their writing using SciE-Lex. Our paper reports on the specific benefits of using SciE-Lex as demonstrated by revisions in the writing produced by the EAL medical researchers. This contribution aims to contribute to current discussion on English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP for the EAL community who now form the main contributors to research knowledge dissemination.

  1. Ontology-based image navigation: exploring 3.0-T MR neurography of the brachial plexus using AIM and RadLex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth C; Salunkhe, Aditya R; Morrison, James J; Lee, Pearlene P; Mejino, José L V; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James F; Siegel, Eliot L; Rubin, Daniel L; Carrino, John A

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nervous system have traditionally been evaluated using clinical history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic testing. In selected cases, imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance (MR) neurography may help further localize or characterize abnormalities associated with peripheral neuropathies, and the clinical importance of such techniques is increasing. However, MR image interpretation with respect to peripheral nerve anatomy and disease often presents a diagnostic challenge because the relevant knowledge base remains relatively specialized. Using the radiology knowledge resource RadLex®, a series of RadLex queries, the Annotation and Image Markup standard for image annotation, and a Web services-based software architecture, the authors developed an application that allows ontology-assisted image navigation. The application provides an image browsing interface, allowing users to visually inspect the imaging appearance of anatomic structures. By interacting directly with the images, users can access additional structure-related information that is derived from RadLex (eg, muscle innervation, muscle attachment sites). These data also serve as conceptual links to navigate from one portion of the imaging atlas to another. With 3.0-T MR neurography of the brachial plexus as the initial area of interest, the resulting application provides support to radiologists in the image interpretation process by allowing efficient exploration of the MR imaging appearance of relevant nerve segments, muscles, bone structures, vascular landmarks, anatomic spaces, and entrapment sites, and the investigation of neuromuscular relationships.

  2. 和谐管理理论视角下战略领导力分析%Strategic Leadership Based on HeXie Management Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 席酉民; 韩巍

    2013-01-01

    On the review of the strategic leadership, the paper clarifies three noticeable drawbacks of the extant researches: the confused definitions of the strategic leadership; lacking of being systematic and dynamic and irrelevance of academic researches and management practices. Based on the interpretations of leadership by the HeXie Management Theory, we propose the definition of strategic leadership, which emphasizes the coupling of the "providing guidance" and " allocating resources", locates on the organizational level, emphasizes the long-term sustainable development of the organization and deploys current resources based on the future orientation. Finally, it argues that the introduction of the HeXie Management Theory can offset the drawbacks of the extant researches to some extent and accelerates the development of the strategic leadership research.%对战略领导力研究进行评述,指出现有研究在一定程度上存在战略领导力核心内涵未达成共识、研究缺乏系统性和动态性、学术研究和管理实践存在脱节3个缺陷.以和谐管理理论对领导的诠释为基础分析战略领导力内涵,指出战略领导力具有强调“提供引导”和“调配资源”2个维度的耦合、研究定位于组织层面、强调组织长期可持续发展、基于未来方向配置当前资源4个特点.和谐管理理论可以在一定程度上弥补现有战略领导力研究的缺陷,促进战略领导力研究的发展.

  3. How Shen Yue' View of Music Bureau Poems Affected Liu Xie%论沈约“嫉俗趋雅”乐府观对刘勰的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏林

    2011-01-01

    Liu Xie's opinion about Music Bureau Poems is deeply affected by Shen Yue.Liu Xie shows a classical view of Music Bureau Poems in Wen Xin Diao Long when the traditional music has gone.instead,vulgar music becomes very popular.In this point,Liu Xie follows Shen Yue's words in YueZhi of Song Shu.Liu Xie and Shen Yue only appreciate the classics,not referring to the developing factors of the music.But when they talk about other literature genres,they advocate the connection of tradition and pop.In fact,Their views of Music Bureau Poems come from the Music Bureau Poems ' important part in politics.%刘勰的乐府观受沈约影响极深。《文心雕龙·乐府》与《宋书·乐志》均感叹周乐雅正传统一去不返,俚俗之乐甚嚣尘上,体现出“嫉俗趋雅”的乐府观。在论及其它文体时两人均能做到复古与通变的统一,独于乐府只言复古,不及通变,此与历代独重乐府在政教中的作用这一传统有关。

  4. 才情与从良的双重桎梏——谢天香人物形象解读%Dual Shackles of Talent and Prostitution --A Study on the Image of Xie Tianxiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭君宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper using the close reading method attempts to focus on the characteristics and the mental world of Xie Tianxiang, the heroine of Guan Hanqing's Zaju QianDayin ZhiChong Xie Tiexiang, as to examine the cultural meanings hidden beneath. Through a study on the image of Xie Tiexiang, this paper tries to observe the complexity of the character based on the individual's unique emotion and universal humanity, furthermore to discuss lifestyle of prostitutes and common problems of the time.%本文采用文本细读的方法,试图对关汉卿杂剧作品《钱大尹智宠谢天香》中主人公谢天香的性格特征及精神世界进行审视观照.深入开掘该人物蕴藏的文化涵义。通过对谢天香人物形象塑造的解读,观察基于其个体的独特情感和人性真实,发现人物本身的复杂性和多面性,并进一步思考该人物所映射的其时代的生活常态和普遍问题。

  5. 学林人瑞粲若花--苏雪林与冰心、谢冰莹关系研究%The Beautiful Flowers of Literary Circles---Research on Su Xuelin's relationship with Bing Xin and Xie Bingying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灵

    2013-01-01

    苏雪林、冰心、谢冰莹是名满文坛的三作家。苏雪林与冰心交往虽未频繁,但始终意气相投;自苏雪林入台后,与谢冰莹成为最亲密的朋友,为文坛留下一段佳话。人生艺术理想的相近,行文风格的趋同与接受心理的逆反,教义精魂的共同体认,使苏雪林与冰心、谢冰莹心灵相通,为真诚的友谊打开一扇门,也为新文学留下一段令人回味的佳话。%The three writers, Su Xuelin, Bing Xin, and Xie Bingying are famous for their literary achievements .The commun-ion of Su Xuelin with Bing Xin isn't frequent, but they always are congenial with each other; Since Su Xuelin went to Taiwan, Xie Bingying became her most intimate friend , leaving a much-told story for the literary world.The same artistic ideal, convergence of style, rebellious psychology, and the doctrine of spirit, all opened a door for the sincere friendship of Su Xuelin and Bing Xin , Xie Bingying, and also left a memorable story for the new literature .

  6. Valoració de les pràxies bucofacials i la percepció auditiva en infants d'educació infantil i primària

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Busto Barcos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El material interactivo Valoració de les Pràxies Bucofacials i la Percepció Auditiva en Infants d’Educació Infantil i Primària, coordinado por la profesora Mª Carmen Busto, continúa y completa el material que ya presentamos en el volumen 1 de la Biblioteca Phonica, Avaluació del desenvolupament fonològic en nens catalanoparlants de 3, 4 i 5 anys d’edat. Ambos trabajos fueron realizados con la ayuda de sendos proyectos de innovación docente (Millora a la Innovació Docent de la Universitat de Barcelona. Junto con el artículo Valoración del habla en niños de educación infantil y primaria, que presentamos también en este número 4 de la revista Phonica, estos materiales están dirigidos al conjunto de educadores y terapeutas del habla de nuestra comunidad educativa y están llamados a ser una referencia clave en la valoración del desarrollo fonológico en las primeras edades.

  7. Evolució del motiu d'unió de la proteïna LexA al Domini Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón i Busquets, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El sistema SOS és una xarxa multigénico induïble davant del dany al DNA. Les seves funcions estan relacionades amb la replicació, reparació del DNA, mutagènesi I control del cicle cel·lular. Aquesta xarxa ha estat caracteritzada per diferents bacteris grampositius i gramnegatius, trobant-se per a tots ells un motiu d'unió del seu repressor, la proteïna LexA. El present treball de Tesi es centra en la caracterització del ...

  8. Desentrañando la esencia de la lex aquilia : ¿Reparación resarcitoria o aplicación de una penalidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Aramburu, Romina del

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se tratará de determinar si existió una reparación del daño causado tal como lo entendemos en la actualidad en virtud de haberse cometido los delitos determinados por la Lex Aquilia, o si se trata de una consecuencia de la evolución del derecho penal privado, en el que pareciera aún no se encontraban perfectamente separados la reparación del daño causado de las acciones penales y reipersecutorias en la cabeza del delincuente, el aspecto central que se trata de dirimir e...

  9. Publio Clodio y la lex de collegiis : una aproximación al fenómeno asociativo a finales de la República romana

    OpenAIRE

    López Román, Luis Manuel

    2010-01-01

    En el año 58 a.C. Publio Clodio, por entones tribuno de la plebe, logró la aprobación de un significativo número de proyectos legislativos de profundo alcance social y político para el Estado romano. Entre las leyes promovidas por el tribuno se encontraba una lex de collegiis que devolvía a la legalidad a los collegia de la ciudad de Roma, abolidos pocos años antes por el Senado. Los nuevos collegia revividos o creados al amparo de esta ley constituirán un fac...

  10. Publio Clodio y la lex de collegiis : una aproximación al fenómeno asociativo a finales de la República romana

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Manuel López Román

    2010-01-01

    En el año 58 a.C. Publio Clodio, por entones tribuno de la plebe, logró la aprobación de un significativo número de proyectos legislativos de profundo alcance social y político para el Estado romano. Entre las leyes promovidas por el tribuno se encontraba una lex de collegiis que devolvía a la legalidad a los collegia de la ciudad de Roma, abolidos pocos años antes por el Senado. Los nuevos collegia revividos o creados al amparo de esta ley constituirán un factor de gran importancia en el jue...

  11. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang Constituents Exert Drug-Drug Interaction of Mutual Reinforcement at Both Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetic Level: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasi; Hu, Yingfan; Xiang, Li; Li, Sheng; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Wenge; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders underlie varieties of human diseases. San-Huang-Xie-xin-Tang (SHXXT), composed with Rhizoma Rhei (Rheum palmatum L.), Rhizoma Coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch), and Radix Scutellaria (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), is a famous formula which has been widely used in the fight against inflammatory abnormalities. Mutual reinforcement is one of the basic theories of traditional Chinese medicine. Here this article reviewed and analyzed the recent research on (1) How the main constituents of SHXXT impact on inflammation-associated signaling pathway molecules. (2) The interaction between the main constituents and efflux pumps or intestinal transporters. The goal of this work was to, (1) Provide evidence to support the theory of mutual reinforcement. (2) Clarify the key targets of SHXXT and suggest which targets need further investigation. (3) Give advice for the clinical use of SHXXT to elevated the absorption of main constituents and eventually promote oral bioavailability. We search literatures in scientific databases with key words of "each main SHXXT constituent," in combination with "each main inflammatory pathway target molecule" or each main intestinal transporter, respectively. We report the effect of five main constituents on target molecules which lies in three main inflammatory signaling pathways, we as well investigate the interaction between constituents and intestinal transporter. We conclude, (1) The synergistic effect of constituents at both levels confirm the mutual reinforcement theory of TCM as it is proven in this work. (2) The effect of main constituents on downstream targets in nuclear need more further investigation. (3) Drug elevating the absorption of rhein, berberine and baicalein can be employed to promote oral bioavailability of SHXXT.

  12. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang constituents exert drug-drug interaction of mutual reinforcement at both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic level: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasi Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inflammatory disorders underlie varieties of human diseases. San-huang-xie-xin-tang (SHXXT, composed with Rhizoma Rhei (Rheum palmatum L., Rhizoma Coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch, and Radix Scutellaria (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a famous formula which has been widely used in the fight against inflammatory abnormalities. Mutual reinforcement is one of the basic theories of traditional Chinese medicine. Here this article reviewed and analyzed the recent research on (1 How the main constituents of SHXXT impact on inflammation-associated signaling pathway molecules. (2 The interaction between the main constituents and efflux pumps or intestinal transporters. The goal of this work was to,(1 Provide evidence to support the theory of mutual reinforcement. (2 Clarify the key targets of SHXXT and suggest which targets need further investigation.(3 Give advice for the clinical use of SHXXT to elevated the absorption of main constituents and eventually promote oral bioavailability. We search literatures in scientific databases with key words of ‘each main SHXXT constituent’, in combination with ‘each main inflammatory pathway target molecule’ or each main intestinal transporter, respectively. We report the effect of five main constituents on target molecules which lies in three main inflammatory signaling pathways, we as well investigate the interaction between constituents and intestinal transporter.We conclude,(1The synergistic effect of constituents at both levels confirm the mutual reinforcement theory of TCM as it is proven in this work. (2 The effect of main constituents on downstream targets in nuclear need more further investigation. (3 Drug elevating the absorption of rhein, berberine and baicalein can be employed to promote oral bioavailability of SHXXT.

  13. Losses of expression of the antigens A, Lea and Lex and over-expression of Ley in carcinomas and HG-SIL of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Fernández Emilio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylation of a great number of molecules, glyco-protein or glycolipids, has been of interest for decades. Objective To compare the expressive patterns of the isoantigenic determinants of histo-blood groups ABH and Lewis in squamous and simple epithelium and in precursors and cancers of the cervix. Methods A total of 36 lesions and neoplasms (10 LG-SIL, 16 HG-SIL and 10 invasive carcinomas have been studied with immunohistochemical techniques, using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BG1 to BG8 for precursor chains, blood-group ABH and Lewis group Lea, Leb, Lex, and Ley, and four types of lectins. In addition, we have studied the expression of p53 protein and PCNA, establishing the rate of proliferation of each lesion. Using PCR techniques, we have also detected part of the intron of the E6 gene of HPV-16. Results In the invasive cervical carcinomas, we observed a loss of expression of the Lex antigen (p y antigens. With PCNA, we established a proliferative rate which tended to be greater in relation to the progression of the cervix neoplasms. Conclusion These results indicate that there is a relation between the losses of histo-blood groups and the progression of the squamous intraepithelial lesions.

  14. Evaluation of Melanotaenia duboulayi (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae), Hypseleotris galli (Perciformes: Eleotridae), and larvicide VectoLex WG (Bacillus sphaericus) for integrated control of Culex annulirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Timothy P; Brown, Michael D; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2006-09-01

    Australian freshwater fish species Melanotaenia duboulayi and Hypseleotris galii were selected for a small plot field evaluation of an integrated pest management strategy using native fish and VectoLex WG (Bacillus sphaericus) for the control of Culex annulirostris Skuse, the principal freshwater vector of arbovirus Ross River virus in Australia. When tested alone, the level of control afforded by M. duboulayi and H. galii was highly dependent on the prerelease density of mosquito larvae; and even when stocking rates as high as 10 g per pond (>30 kg/ha) were used, larval abundance was too high to attain adequate control from fish alone. In contrast, treatment with VectoLex WG at 500 g/ha resulted in 100% mortality of Cx. annulirostris immatures, but no residual activity was evident. The delayed reduction of Cx. annulirostris immatures in ponds stocked with fish alone, and the recolonization by Cx. annulirostris in ponds after treatment with B. sphaericus, did not occur when both treatments were combined.

  15. The ethyl acetate fraction of Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw induced cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species in L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Yaping; Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Yuetao; Yan, Han; Liu, Quanhong

    2013-07-30

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of fever, hemostatic, uterine prolapse and especially for leukemia. Previous studies indicated its anti-leukemia effect but the potential mechanisms have not been fully explained. The present study was further to investigate the underlying mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw (EEF)-induced toxicity and apoptosis in L1210 cells. Viability, DNA damage and apoptotic protein expressions of L1210 cells were analyzed by ViaCount, comet assay and western blot, respectively. At different times after EEF treatment, Bax redistribution in L1210 cells was examined using confocal microscopy; loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was monitored by fluorescence microscope using rhodamine 123 staining; Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation were measured by flow cytometry using fluorescent dye, DCFH-DA and PI, respectively. EEF significantly inhibited L1210 cell survival, promoted Bax translocation onto mitochondria, stimulated caspase-9 activation and subsequent DNA damage in L1210 cells. Abundant ROS was detected in L1210 cells after EEF treatment, and the ROS scavenger NAC significantly relieved EEF-induced cell viability decline, MMP loss, and DNA fragmentation. EEF could induce mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis in L1210 cells, and ROS may play an important role in this action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  17. New Members of CPAFFC Executive Council The Executive Council of the CPAFFC gained three new members in 2013——vice prcsidcnts Xie Yuan and Hu Sishe,and secretary gencral Li Xikui.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Xie Yuan,born in Beijing in 1959 and a graduate of Beijing Foreign Studies University,joined the CPAFFC in 1985 and has engaged in people-to-people diplomacy ever since,serving successively as deputy director and director of the U.S.Division,and deputy director general and director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs.He worked as the First Secretary of the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the United States in the late 1990s.

  18. 泻痢康对鸡红细胞免疫功能的影响%Effects of Xie Likang on the Chicken Red Blood Cell Immune Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫晓燕; 郑明学; 尚淑芬

    2001-01-01

    采用E-3bR花环试验,E-IC花环试验对饲喂0.5%泻痢康 20d的实验鸡和对照鸡的红细胞的免疫功能进行检测。结果发现,试验组和对照组鸡红细胞C 3bR致 敏酵母花环率分别为(4.91±1.85)与(4.31±0.64);试验组和对照组鸡红细胞未致敏酵母花 环率分别为(16.50±4.56)与(7.26±2.61)。试验结果表明使用泻痢康饲喂鸡,不仅可有效地减少鸡下痢,而且可使鸡红细胞C3b受体花环率增高,增强红细胞的免疫功能。%E-C3bR rosette test and E-IC rosette test were used to check the red blood cell immune functions of two groups of chicken.One group was bred by 0.5% Xie Likang for 20 days and the other group was normal group.The results showed that the active yeast-rosette rates of red blood cell C3bR of the group tested and the normal group were(4.91±1.85) and (4.31±0.69) respectively,and inactive yeast-rosette rates of red blood cell were (16.50±4.50) and (7 .26±2.6) ,respectively.The results also demonstrated that breeding chickens by X ie Likang not only reduced chickens dysentery effectively,but also increased the yeast-rosette rate of red blood cell C3bR of chickens and the immune functions of chicken’s red blood cell.

  19. De la culpa de la lex Aquilia del derecho romano al principio de la responsabilidad por culpa en el derecho civil colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se discute la vigencia del principio de la culpa en la responsabilidad civil, especialmente por el surgimiento de la responsabilidad por actividades peligrosas. Este escrito realiza un análisis crítico del concepto de culpa, desde su surgimiento con la interpretación de la lex Aquilia del derecho romano, hasta la moderna comprensión del instituto por la jurisprudencia civil colombiana, pues una adecuada solución a los problemas actuales solo es posible mediante la comprensión de la tradición que antecede a nuestras instituciones; no sólo con la finalidad de reconstruir su historia, sino también de encontrar, dentro de dicha tradición, eventuales fracturas que podrían ser la causa de las actuales problemáticas.

  20. [UV-induction of the LT-toxin operon depending on genes lexA, recA, and umuD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiganova, I G; Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Brukhanskiĭ, G V; Skavronskaia, A G

    1994-06-01

    UV induction of the elt operon (the LT-toxin operon in Escherichia coli) was demonstrated in experiments using fusion of elt::lac operons with the help of Mud1(Ap lac) phage. UV induction of the elt operon is lexA-dependent; thus, the possibility of SOS regulation of this process may be assumed. However, UV induction of the elt operon turned out to be recA-independent, which makes it impossible to consider this induction as a typical SOS response. UV induction of the elt operon is also observed in Salmonella typhimurium, which differs from E. coli in the product of umuD, which suggests that the UV induction of the elt operon is umuD independent.

  1. Algunas lexías monoverbales caracterizadoras del habla culta de Santiago de Chile. Aportes para un diccionario de uso del español de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Poblete V.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo da cuenta de la presencia de aquellas lexías monoverbales que contribuirían a determinar el perfil del hablante culto de Santiago de Chile. El estudio se basó en un corpus representativo de 25 horas de grabación de distintos tipos de discurso y estos elementos caracterizadores fueron analizados por grupos etarios y por género. (This article presents the findings of a study made on a representative corpus of 25 hours of taped material containing different types of discourse recorded by cultivated speakers of Santiago de Chile. It focuses on the presence of characteristic lexemes that would contribute to determine the profile of "cultivated speaker" in this dialect. Age and sex variables were considered in the analysis.

  2. AS FONTES DA NOVA LEX MERCATORIA: O início de uma nova alquimia reflexiva -métodos e reflexos; fluxos e impulsos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre, CARDOSO RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have witnessed, in recent years, the multiple manifestations of the New World Order, in the political, social, economic and financial plans. The new lex mercatoria represents the best expression these mutations in Transnational trade, by their transnational nature, dynamic, reveals itself intensely multifaceted, reason why constitutes a legal reality open-ended or in progress.In this study, we intend to develop, scientifically, what it designate be, in the plane of legal sources, the hard nucleus of new law merchant, their various embodiments and developments in the course of history. The fundamental aim of this research is through an systematization process allow jurists and interested in these subjects simplified access for a deep understanding of its nature and extent.

  3. LOS REQUISITOS DE LA LEX AQUILIA, CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA AL DAÑO: LECTURAS DESDE LAS DISTINTAS TEORÍAS SOBRE EL CAPÍTULO TERCERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aedo Barrena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto hacer un breve repaso de los requisitos que la lex Aquilia exigía para su concurrencia, desde las distintas lecturas que la doctrina romanista moderna ha hecho del capítulo tercero. Así, se muestra de que manera las distintas posiciones influyen en la conceptualización de la Murta, en el desarrollo decretal y, por consiguiente en la relación de causalidad, pero especialmente en el daño, que es el requisito al cual la investigación presta más atención. Así se analiza, según estas diferentes visiones, el desarrollo del principio idquod interest. Claramente, como se ha insinuado en este resumen, se enfrentan dos visiones contrapuestas, entre aquellos que ven en la lex Aquilia un estatuto originariamente resarcitorio (negando incluso el principio corpore corpori y adjudicándolo a la interpretación medieval versus un punto de vista que considera que la ley tenía originariamente un carácter estrictamente penal, derivando paulatinamente hacia un carácter resarcitorio. En el primer punto de vista, el principio id quod interest se presentó desde un comienzo en el capítulo tercero, el que exclusivamente se refería al daño (tesis de Daube; desde el segundo punto de vista, la interpretación permitió la evolución desde el premium corporis hasta el principio id quod interest, en el punto de vista afirmado desde Jolowicz y recientemente sustentado por Valditara.This paper aims to make a brief review of the requirements that the lex Aquilia required for its concurrence, from the various readings that the modern Roman law doctrine has made the third chapter. Thus, it shows how the different positions that influence the conceptualization of iniuria, in the development decretal, and therefore in terms of causality, but especially in the damage, which in that part of that research pays more attention. So is analyzed, as these various visions, the development of the principle id quod interest. Clearly, as

  4. A Brief Analysis on the Artistic Features of Xie Zhifeng's Nursery Rhymes%"吹起号子嘀嘀哒" ——谢之峰儿歌艺术特色浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宁

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chain tones, ask-answer songs and other forms, Mr. Xie Zhifeng is better at writing short and catchy four-line nursery rhymes with bright rhythms. His nursery rhymes have formed featured and stable individual artistic styles, which is an important embodiment that the creation of his works matures. This paper is a brief analysis on the three major artistic features of Xie Zhifeng's nursery rhymes:(1) infiltrating"stories"into nursery rhymes in order to make them more interesting; (2) infiltrating "traditions" into nursery rhymes in order to express their artistic conception; (3) infiltrating "attitudes" into nursery rhymes in order to highlight its educational features.%相比篇幅较长的连锁调、问答歌等形式,谢之峰老师更擅长写篇幅短小的绝句型儿歌,节奏明快,朗朗上口.他的儿歌已经形成鲜明而稳定的个人艺术风格,这是其儿歌创作成熟化的重要表现.本文旨在围绕谢之峰儿歌的三大艺术特色作以浅析:(1)寓"故事"于儿歌,充满趣味性;(2)寓"传统"于儿歌,散发意境美;(3)寓"态度"于儿歌,彰显教育性.

  5. Models for Broad Area Event Identification and Yield Estimation: Multiple Coda Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    microearthquakes accompanying hydraulic fracturing in granitic rock, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 81, 553-575, 1991. Fisk, M. and S. R. Taylor, (2007...146882, pp. 13. Yang, X., T. Lay, X.-B. Xie, and M. S. Thorne (2007). Geometric spreading of Pn and Sn in a spherical Earth model, Bull. Seism . Soc

  6. LEX MERCATORIA КАК ИСТОЧНИК МЕЖДУНАРОДНОГО ЧАСТНОГО ПРАВА

    OpenAIRE

    ノッテジ, ルーク

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the application of rules of the lex mercatoria in the sphere of international commercial intercourse for the reason of ineffectiveness of regulation by the international unified conflicts and substantive rules. Special attention is given to the sources of the lex mercatoria, and especially to the practice of international commercial arbitration as the main source of this concept. The author concludes that at present day, as in the Middle Ages, the practice of arbitrati...

  7. Bir Kaidenin Serencamı: Hâcet Umumi Olsun Hususi Olsun Zaruret Menzilesine Tenzil Olunur / The Historical Development of an Lex: Need, General or Particular, is Dealt with as to Meet Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the fatwas given today related to whether individual or social life, the area of jawāz either has been very wide or very narrow. Those, who feature the behavior making prohibited things lawful, have nearly defined even necessity within the pragmatism on the basis of need and they keep the area in question very wide. On the other hand, those who confine the evidence of maṣlaḥa to a methodological principle, have nearly disregarded needs in solving individual and social problems. Whereas, in the fiqh, the needs have been categorized as necessary/ḍarūrī, human want/ḥājī and making beautiful/taḥsīnī, and many principles have been constructed for taking stock of them. One of the principles is the lex of “Need/al-Ḥāje, general or particular, is dealt with as to meet necessity/al-Ḍarūra.” When it is determined how this lex has come out since the first period and its conditions in the context of implementation are determined, it will be come out that necessary cannot be reduced to need. In the same way, it will be come out that the maṣlaḥa is not an evidence disconnected with life. So, in the article, we will discuss the concepts of necessary and need. Then, we will show what the conditions to be considered in implementation of this lex are, what its base is in the sharia, how it has come out since the first period, and how it has been used in actual issues of the fiqh as well as in a specific example. Thus, with this study, we purpose to contribute to the solution of the actual issues of the fiqh. SUMMARY The notions of need and necessity (ḍarūra, ḥāje which are of four notions cited in the lex were individually examined and the differences between them were explained. The notions of general or particular (umūmī, khuṣūṣī, because of their using as adjective of the notion of ḥāje, were explained in the context of it. In the literature, the conception of ḥāje was used in the meaning both for all needs

  8. Publio Clodio y la lex de collegiis : una aproximación al fenómeno asociativo a finales de la República romana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel López Román

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el año 58 a.C. Publio Clodio, por entones tribuno de la plebe, logró la aprobación de un significativo número de proyectos legislativos de profundo alcance social y político para el Estado romano. Entre las leyes promovidas por el tribuno se encontraba una lex de collegiis que devolvía a la legalidad a los collegia de la ciudad de Roma, abolidos pocos años antes por el Senado. Los nuevos collegia revividos o creados al amparo de esta ley constituirán un factor de gran importancia en el juego político de toda la década de los cincuenta, por su alta capacidad de presión e influencia en las asambleas y los comicios. ¿Qué eran en realidad estos collegia? ¿A qué niveles funcionaban? ¿Qué unía a sus miembros? ¿Qué influencia real ejerció Publio Clodio sobre ellos una vez lograda su reinstauración? El objetivo del presente trabajo es el análisis de estos grupos urbanos como entidades de solidaridad mutua, posiblemente más complejos que simples sindicatos de artesanos o cofradías religiosas, para abordar desde una nueva perspectiva antropológica e histórica el estudio de las fuentes que, de forma mayoritaria, nos presentan estos colectivos como asociaciones de delincuentes, libertos e incluso esclavos.During the year 58 B.C. Publius Clodius, by then tribunus plebis, managed to pass a considerable number of legislative proyects with a broad social and political reach for the Roman State. Among the laws promoted by the tribune we find a lex de collegiis that restores the legal status to the collegia of Rome, abolished a few years before by the Senate. The new collegia created under this law will comprise a determining factor in political life of the fifties because of their influence in the assemblies and the comitia. ¿What were actually these collegia? ¿What were the common interest for their members? ¿Which factual influence did Publius Clodius have on collegia once the law was passed? The main point of this paper is the

  9. Anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic activity of ethanolic extract and its various fractions from Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw in L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Yaping; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Li, Hongxia; Yan, Han; Liu, Quanhong

    2012-08-30

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of fever, hemostatic, uterine prolapse and especially for lymphocytic leukemia, but the antitumor effect and its potential mechanism remains unclear. The present study was to investigate the possible anti-proliferative activity of ethanolic extract and the organic fractions from P. commune on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The content of ethanolic extract and its fractions was performed on HPLC analysis with gradient elution. L1210 cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanolic extract and its fractions at different time intervals. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by nuclear condensation and confirmed by exposure of phosphatidylserine to outer leaflet of plasma membrane. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 staining. The obtained results showed that the cell viability of L1210 cells was reduced by ethanolic extract of P. commune in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC(50) value was about 77.22 μg/ml at 24h post treatment. The ethylacetate fraction displayed higher anti-tumor effect than that of chloroform and butanol fractions with 32.29 μg/ml (IC(50) value, 48 h). Microscopy studies revealed that ethanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction treated cells showed morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and DNA aggregation. Further, Annexin V-PE/ 7-AAD double staining showing the out leaflet of phosphatidylserine and the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry confirmed that the extracts do, in fact, induce apoptosis in L1210 cells. This is the first report on anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic effect of P. commune in cultured leukemia cells, which provides scientific basis for its usefulness as traditional medicine. Further studies are needed to confirm the precise mechanism not only the crude extract but as well the

  10. Review of Command and Control Models and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    decisions, constraints or decisions imposed by the C organization; and available resources and dynamic constraints such as the sp±ed and maneuverability of...possible to model very comp-lex systems. Figura 45 shows a simple STAPN that describes an equally simple exemplar system. Spacing 4 Buffer Start

  11. Equipment Procurement Quality Management on the Basis of HeXie Management Theory%基于和谐管理理论的武器装备采购质量管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓军; 席酉民; 毛景立

    2012-01-01

    Quality management is critical to the effectiveness of equipment procurement process. Equipment procurement quality management ( EPQM) refers to activities of controlling equipment buyers in processes, such as demand reasoning, competitive bidding, manufacturing, supervision, motivation, and assessment. Understanding equipment quality of producers and buyers, and their behaviors can help control the equipment quality. EPQM is a complex topic because equipment sourcing is susceptible to changes in political environment, market, technology innovation, laws and regulations, equipment producing alliance, and internal organizing mechanism of equipment buyers. The high degree of complexity makes it very difficult for equipment buyers to control equipment quality through extant quality management methods.Currently EPQM in China has many problems including inappropriate organizing mechanism, nonstandard market system, and half-baked law system and so on. These problems indicate that Chinese EPQM control systems are not consistent.Therefore, systematic reformation of EPQM should be carried out immediately and the main reformation work is to redesign, organize, manage, monitor, and evaluate institutions of EPQM. It is obviously that the reformation emphasizes on the wholeness and flexibility of the EPQM system. EPQM should also involve people. Considering that HeXie Management Theory is characterized with systemic and comprehensive logic, and emphasizing interaction between people and materials, we propose a coupling system between people and materials in EPQM on the basis of HeXie Management Theory.We argue that systematic quality management mechanism should be constructed through the cooperation of both consignor and attorney of equipment trade. Equipment quality management problems can be solved through operating and designing methods. We propose to build proper structure of alliance, establish clear regulations, and reengineer simple but effective processes based on

  12. Microsyntaxe et macrosyntaxe des lexèmes chaitif, dolent, las et maleuré/maleureus en français médiéval. De l’adjectif au locutif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazziotta Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution envisage les lexèmes chaitif, dolent, las et maleuré/maleureus en français médiéval dans un cadre théorique distinguant microsyntaxe et macrosyntaxe. Nous distinguons les emplois adjectivaux de ces lexèmes de leurs emplois en tant que locutifs, ce terme étant défini comme une partie du discours extrêmement contrainte au niveau de sa combinatoire rectionnelle et porteuse d’une force illocutoire spécifique, ce qui entraîne une impossibilité d’être gouverné dans une structure de dépendance syntaxique. Nous présentons le potentiel syntaxique des emplois locutifs des lexèmes étudiés et nous les rapprochons plus spécifiquement des unités illocutoires associées, qui se caractérisent par des contraintes positionnelles particulières.

  13. Asessing the air pollution distribution in busy street of Copenhagen in the further development of a street pollution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Poulsen, Maria B.

    The EU Air Quality Directive requires Member States to perform Air Quality Monitoring in order to assess ambient air quality for compliance checking with air quality limit values (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:en:PDF). This monitoring needs to include...... a detailed dataset for the spatial air pollution distribution in a very busy street, H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen; a street where a monitoring site has already been in place for many years. The dataset will be established for the further development of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM...... will be carefully compared with high quality data obtained from the existing monitoring station (which is also operated by AU). References...

  14. Clinical Outcomes of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction with Accelerated Cross-Linking (ReLEx SMILE Xtra in Patients with Thin Corneas and Borderline Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the safety and clinical outcomes of ReLEx SMILE with accelerated cross-linking in individuals with thinner corneas, borderline topography, and higher refractive errors. Methods. Eligible patients first underwent SMILE procedure for correction of myopic refractive error. Following the removal of lenticule, 0.25% riboflavin in saline was injected into the interface and allowed to diffuse for 60 seconds. Finally, eye was exposed to UV-A radiation of 45 mW/cm2 for 75 seconds through the cap. Total energy delivered was 3.4 J/cm2. Results. 40 eyes of 20 patients with mean age of 26.75 ± 5.99 years were treated. Mean follow-up was 12 months ± 28.12 days. Mean spherical equivalent (SE was −5.02 ± 2.06 D preoperatively and −0.24 ± 0.18 D postoperatively. The mean central corneal thickness (CCT and keratometry changed from 501 ± 25.90 µm to 415 ± 42.26 µm and 45.40 ± 1.40 D to 41.2 ± 2.75 D, respectively. Mean uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/25 or better in all eyes. No eyes lost lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA. There were no complications like haze, keratitis, ectasia, or regression. Conclusion. Based on the initial clinical outcome it appears that SMILE Xtra may be a safe and feasible modality to prevent corneal ectasia in susceptible individuals.

  15. KaiXie Compound in the Treatment for 42 Cases of Acute Cholecysititis of Liver-gallbladder Dampness-heat Pattern%开泄复方治疗肝胆湿热型急性胆囊炎42例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄建新

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察开泄复方治疗肝胆湿热型急性胆囊炎(acute cholecystitis,AC)的临床疗效。方法:将85例肝胆湿热型 AC 患者随机分为对照组43例和观察组42例,对照组予以西医常规治疗,观察组联合开泄复方辨证论治,比较2组临床疗效。结果:总有效率观察组为97.62%,对照组为83.75%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);主症积分、次症积分、总积分观察组均明显低于对照组(P<0.05);发热、恶心呕吐、胁痛、白细胞计数、胆红素、B 超胆囊恢复时间观察组均明显短于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:开泄复方治疗肝胆湿热型 AC 患者,有助于改善患者临床症状,提高疗效。%Objective: To observe clinical effects of KaiXie compound in treating acute cholecystitis (AC) of liv-er-gallbladder dampness-heat pattern. Methods: All 85 patients were randomly divided into 43 cases of the control group and 42 cases of the observation group, the control group received routine treatment of western medicine and the observation group KaiXie compound combined with routine treatment on the foundation of syndrome differentiation and treatment, clinical effects of both groups were compared. Results: Total effective rate of the observation group was 97.62%, higher than 83.75% of the control group, the difference demonstrated statistical meaning (P<0.05); the obser-vation group was lower than the control group in main symptom scores, secondary symptom scores and total scores ob-viously (P<0.05); the observation group was shorter than the control group in fever, nausea and vomiting, costalgia, WBC, bilirubin and B-ultrasound gallbladder recovery time notably (P<0.05). Conclusion: KaiXie compound in treat-ing AC patients of liver-gallbladder dampness-heat pattern is helpful to improve clinical symptoms of the patients and curative effects.

  16. The Annotation Motivations and Characteristics of HUANG Jie ’s Annotation of XIE Kang - le’ s Poems%黄节《谢康乐诗注》的笺注动机和特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤娇; 吉定

    2014-01-01

    HUANG Jie was devoted to the poetic annotations of the Han ,Wei and Six Dynasties and made a lot of achievements . Annotation of XIE Kang- le’ s Poems is among the classic ones .There are four reasons for HUANG Jie’s focus on poetic writings and poetic annotations :one is to educate and reform people and rectify public morals ;the second is to preserve the quintessence of Chinese culture ,to revive the ancient study ,and to revive“the special spirit of the country”;the third is to pay great attention to the decline of Kangle’s poetry and his worries which were always misunderstood ,so as to correct mistakes and commentate misun-derstandings ;the fourth is the result of the spiritual echo and the emotional alignment with XIE .Annotation of XIE Kang- le’ s Po-ems inherited the traditions of LI Shan’s annotation of Wen Xuan ,played up strengths and avoided weakness ;it commented on the poems with historical facts ,and annotated the poems in a poetic way ;this annotation had a very careful and objective language , pooled the good qualities of the masses .This annotation is also characterized by its annotation of the names of places and the annota-tion of consonants and vowels .Thus the above characteristics of HUANG’s annotation can considerably help people understand XIE’ s poems and the annotation has great academic values .%黄节先生曾致力于汉魏六朝诗注,成就斐然。《谢康乐诗注》便是其中的经典注释之一种。黄节先生之所以以诗为业,写诗注诗,一是为教化人心、匡正世风;二为保存国粹、复兴古学,重振“国家特别之精神”;三是心系康乐诗散亡、不易为人理解之忧而纠谬释误;四是与谢灵运精神相通、情感契合所致。《谢康乐诗注》继承李善《文选》注的传统,扬长避短;以史论诗、以诗注诗;案语严谨折衷、集众家所长。对于地名和声韵的注释,也颇具特点。以上笺注特色均为今人

  17. A Life Transformation History of Huizhou Families Reflected in the Newly Discovered Documents of the XIE Family in Qimen%徽州家庭生活变迁史:新发现的祁门谢氏文书研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秉坤

    2016-01-01

    The newly discovered documents of the XIE Family in Qimen , recording the brief family history of the five genera-tions of the XIE family, reproduced the life transformation history of a family that started from doing business, tried to succeed in imperial examinations and was finally engaged in agriculture, thus providing an example for the study of identity transformation and wealth flow of human beings in traditional society .%新发现的徽州祁门谢氏文书记录了谢氏五代人的家庭简史,再现了一个以商业起家,并试图进军科举,却最终回归农业的家庭变迁过程,为了解传统社会中人的身份变迁与财富流动提供了考察案例。

  18. Aprovisionamiento de sílex en el Prepirineo oriental durante el Paleolítico superior antiguo: el nivel arqueológico 497C de Cova Gran (Santa Linya, Lleida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sunyer, Miquel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sierras Marginales Catalanas (SMC and the Eastern sector of the Ebro Basin have been surveyed with the aim of locating flint resources within this region. These resources have then been studied by petrographic (macro and microscopic characterization and mineralogical (Xray Diffraction methods. Results permit the scription of provenance of flint artifacts recovered in level 497C of Cova Gran de Santa Linya site. The preference for autochthonous materials (98,6% of Garumnian flint and the finding of raw material stocks define an interesting system of lithic resources management for this unit of the Early Upper Paleolithic in the scope of Oriental Prepyrenees.La prospección sistemática de las Sierras Marginales Catalanas (SMC y el sector oriental de la Cuenca del Ebro ha permitido catalogar los recursos de sílex de esta región. Su posterior estudio mediante métodos petrográficos (caracterización macro y microscópica y mineralógicos (Difracción de Rayos X ha determinado la procedencia de los artefactos de sílex hallados en la unidad arqueológica 497C de Cova Gran de Santa Linya. La predilección por los materiales autóctonos (98,6% de sílex Garumniense y el hallazgo de stocks de materia prima definen un interesante sistema de gestión de los recursos líticos para esta unidad del Paleolítico superior antiguo en el ámbito del Prepirineo oriental.

  19. [Relationship between the UV-induction of exact exclusion of transposons and the function of umuDC, lexA, recA genes and plasmid pkM101].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Tiganova, I G; Mirskaia, E E; Skavronskaia, A G

    1997-01-01

    A pair of isogenic strains-E. coli K-12 and E. coli B/r differing by the status of umuDC genes and presence of pKM101 plasmid-were constructed and the relationship between UV induction of transposons Tn5 and Tn 10 and the gene umuDC function shown. This relationship is not absolute, in contrast to that of point mutations. Induction of precise excision of these transposons can be inhibited by pKM101 plasmid. Induction of precise excision of Tn5 and Tn 10 from the sites under study is absolutely lexA- and recA- dependent.

  20. Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw ethyl acetate extract-triggered perturbations in intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis regulates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenjuan; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Pan; Jia, Yali; Liu, Quanhong; Tang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-08-22

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw (PCLH), a moss of Bryopsida, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine and shown to possess anticancer activities. Previous studies have indicated its anti-leukemia effect but the potential mechanisms have not been fully explained. The present study aimed to further investigate the efficacy of PCLH ethyl acetate fraction (PC-EEF) and the associated mechanisms in human leukemia cells. Phytochemical analysis of PC-EEF was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC. MTT analysis and trypan blue exclusion assay were adopted to examine its cytotoxicity on a panel of leukemia cells (K562, U937, HL-60 and K562/DOX cells) and non-cancerous cells (human PBMCs). Anti-proliferative effect was monitored by colony formation assay and EdU incorporation assay. Ultrastructural alterations on K562 cell membrane surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Changes on plasma membrane integrity, cell membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Fluorescence microscope was performed to assess [Ca(2+)]i level, mitochondrial injury and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis-associated protein expression was analyzed by western blot. The role of Ca(2+) in PC-EEF-induced cell death was investigated by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. PC-EEF possessed relatively high flavonoid content (about 88.84 ± 0.89%) and showed significant cytotoxicity to human leukemia cells. PC-EEF could cause obvious cell morphological deformation, membrane integrity loss and membrane depolarization. Meanwhile, PC-EEF treatment could dramatically potentiate perturbations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Subsequently, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, cytochrome c release and Bcl-2/Bax down-regulation were all observed. Consistent with these results, PC-EEF treatment resulted in significant activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation and apoptosis. Moreover, PC

  1. Experimental study on treating rat focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with Decoction of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue-Xie-Zhuo%补肾活血泄浊汤治疗大鼠局灶性节段性 肾小球硬化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 魏民; 王谦; 楚非; 严京; 贾旭; 李伯光

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of Decoction of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue-Xie-Zhuo (BSHXXZ) on focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in rats. METHODS: Unilateral nephrectomy was adopted firstly, one week later adrimycin was intravenously adminstered to 20 rats twice in a 23-day period to establish an advanced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis model in the rat. Changes in urine protein, blood chemistry, and histology of the kidney were investigated for 110 days after unilateral nephrectomy. RESULTS: The BSHXXZ decoction reduced edema, proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, azotemia and ascites, and increased albumin in blood. Light microscopic, electron microscopic, immunohistochemical and polarizing microscopic examination all showed that the pathologic changes in the treatment group were less than that of the model group. CONCLUSION: Decoction of BSHXXZ could markedly improve renal function and delay the progression of glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis.%目的:观察中药补肾活血泄浊汤对大鼠局灶性节段性肾小球硬化的治疗作用及作用机制。方法: 采用单侧肾切除术,两次尾静脉注射阿霉素法复制局灶性节段性肾小球硬化模型,分为补肾活血泄浊汤治疗组、模型组和正常组。实验的前6周每周测大鼠24 h尿蛋白,后6周隔周测大鼠24 h尿蛋白,第60 d\\,100 d时测定血清白蛋白、胆固醇、肌酐、尿素氮含量,并进行光镜、电镜、原位杂交、免疫组化等观察。结果:治疗组各项指标与模型组相比均有显著性差异,形态学观察也显示治疗组损害轻于模型组。 结论: 补肾活血泄浊汤能够明显保护病鼠肾功能,明显减轻病鼠细胞外基质沉积,延缓病变肾小球硬化的发生。

  2. 论谢灵运四言赠答诗的“一枝独秀”现象%On theWriting Motivation of Xie Ling-yun’s Four-word Conversation Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜

    2014-01-01

    During the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties ,the four-word poem had not disappeared from poetry ,even far from being extinct ,but been continually preserved in some subjects in its own territory ,some poems even playing a very important role in the social life .The four-word conversation poems represented by Xie Ling-yun were some of the most representative poems with his unique style during the Jin and Song Dynasties .Firstly ,Xie entered into the Song Dynasty from East Jin Dynasty ,from which his style was influenced .Secondly ,he was influenced by the consciousness of kinsmen and family .Thirdly ,he was influenced by such factors as his own talent ,personality and moral quality .In a certain historical period ,some good poet might devote themselves to the four-word poems which were neglected at the time due to his own life career and special talent and quality .Thus this kind of poems might outnumber the other forms of poems .During the transitional period of the literary genres ,this phenomenon deserves our special attention .%南北朝时期,四言诗并未退出诗坛,也远没有到消亡的地步,而是持续不断地有人进行创作,在一些题材中坚守着自己的领地,有些诗篇甚至在社会生活中扮演着十分重要的角色。谢灵运的四言赠答诗在晋宋之际风韵独标,一枝独秀,是其中很有代表性的一类作品。首先,谢灵运由东晋入宋,其诗作直接传习了东晋诗风。其次,是宗族意识的影响。再次,和谢灵运本人的才情、性格、人品等个人因素有关。这说明在某种特定的历史阶段,个别优秀的大诗人很可能由于本人的身世经历和独特的才情气质,对四言诗这样受到时人冷落的诗歌体式投入关注,从而使某一类别的作品数量在局部占据优势。在文体发展的转折阶段,这种现象尤其值得我们注意。

  3. On Xie Zhangting's "Ci-qi" Theory%词气理论的成熟形态——谢章铤"词气说"的独特内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志成; 唐朝晖

    2009-01-01

    "气"是中国传统诗学重要的理论范畴,在构建诗学体系中有其不容忽视的地位和作用.在词学领域,谢章铤在其"性情说"的基础上,发展前人有关词气的理论成果,形成较为完整的"词气说",将词气理论形态推向成熟.其"词气说"有着独特的内涵,包括和永与豪雅的词人之气、词作内容之气以及和而不促的词作行文之气."词气说"与责气、气厚、词量等相关的词学命题联系起来,丰富并拓展了近代词学理论的范畴.%"Qi" is the traditional Chinese Poetics important theoretical areas,while building Poetics system has its important position and role.In the field of"Ci",Xie Zhangting made useful exploration in the"Ci-qi",on the basis of inheriting,developed their predecessors the"Ci gas" theoretical results,and formed relatively complete"Ci-qi"theory, including calm and long and hoya people of gas and the content of the text, and the calm and not hasty language of text,and"Ci-qi" associated with the proposition as Mack,thick air, linked to the volume of the word,enriched and expanded the"Ci"theory in the modern history.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Yang, Xinghao; Wu, Jianbo; Su, Huai; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yin

    2011-04-08

    Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, has efficient effects on treatment of the diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS), a disease with high incidence worldwide. However, the active principles for this complex formula have not been fully explored so far. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major chemical constituents in TXYF. Two monoterpene glycosides, one chromone and five polymethoxylated flavones were tentatively characterized based on the retention times, UV spectra and MS data. Fifteen compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. Constituents such as lactone and steroidal, which could not be found by single HPLC method due to the low content in the formula, were identified in this paper. Seven compounds (gallic acid, prim-O-β-D-glucosylcimifugin, paeoniflorin, cimifugin, naringin, hesperidin and 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol) were quantified by HPLC-DAD using a C18 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile and water-0.1% formic acid. The method exhibited intra- and inter-day precision of less than 2.35% and 3.14%, respectively. The LODs and the LOQs for the analytes were less than 0.47 and 1.82 μg ml(-1), respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 96.82% to 102.47%, with the R.S.D. ranging from 1.17% to 3.94%. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of TXYF. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. L’hégémonie politique et économique comme cadre de diffusion des techniques de construction au Moyen Age: la Corse entre Toscane et Ligurie du XIe au XIVe s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istria, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Corsica is an area where few major architectural constructions have been developing. Nevertheless thanks to its geographical position as well as to the overwhelming political context, it does possess an undeniable importance if we focus on such issues as trade and the transfers of the know-how. Indeed the construction, from the 11th under the control of the archbishop of Pisa, of a considerable network of building devoted to worship, leads to the introduction and consequently to the spread of technical processes engineered in the most renowned building sites on the mainland and more particularly in Tuscany. Corsica is thus experiencing a complete architectural rebirth.La Corse médiévale est une région où peu de réalisations majeures voient le jour dans le domaine de l’architecture. Elle n’en demeure pas moins, compte tenu de sa position et du contexte politique, d’un intérêt certain pour l’étude des échanges et des transferts de savoir-faire. La construction d’un important réseau d’édifices de culte à partir de la fin du XIe siècle sous le contrôle de l’archevêque de Pise, permet l’introduction, puis la diffusion, de procédés techniques élaborés sur les grands chantiers continentaux, particulièrement toscans. C’est alors une véritable renaissance de l’architecture que connaît la Corse.

  6. Lexías utilizadas por los estudiantes de noveno año del período lectivo 2009 del Instituto de Educación Integral para referirse a personas homosexuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Campos López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican las lexías utilizadas para referirse a las personas homosexuales por los estudiantes de noveno del período lectivo 2009 del Instituto de Educación Integral de Las Nubes, Coronado, Costa Rica; esto con el fin de determinar la frecuencia de uso, situaciones comunicativas y carácter semántico de estas palabras, según la conceptualización constructivista de esta retícula social cerrada (los adolescentes. A partir de estos datos, se analiza el nivel ideológico de aceptación y rechazo de estos jóvenes hacia la comunidad homosexual en general. Al final, se brindan criterios y recomendaciones a los docentes para el aprovechamiento y discusión sobre el uso de estas palabras en el aula.

  7. El juego de las normas imperativas en el Reglamento Roma II sobre ley aplicable a las obligaciones no contractuales: límites a la aplicación de la lex causae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Maseda Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the relevance of the mandatory provisions in the field of the law applicable to non contractual obligations of the Rome II Regulation. On the one hand, the lois de police or overriding mandatory provisions of the forum, of a foreign law and of the proper lex causae, once the selection of the governing applicable law through freedom of choice rules or through those rules applicable in default of agreement. And, on the other hand, the relevance of domestic and EU provisions which cannot be derogated from by agreement under the agreement between the person claimed to be liable and the person who has sustained damage to submit non-contractual obligations to the law of their choice.

  8. Sialosyl-fucosyl Poly-LacNAc without the sialosyl-Lex epitope as the physiological myeloid cell ligand in E-selectin-dependent adhesion: studies under static and dynamic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, K; Stroud, M R; Hakomori, S

    1997-10-14

    The majority of E- and P-selectin ligands in leukocytes and myelocytic or monocytic leukemia cells are carried by transmembrane glycoproteins having a tandem repeat mucin-like domain through which O-linked carbohydrate ligands are carried. However, determination of structure and adhesive function of carbohydrates in glycoproteins is extremely difficult because of the extensive structural heterogeneity and the scarcity of material for functional analysis. We have overcome this difficulty through use of poly-LacNAc gangliosides isolated from a large quantity of ( approximately 1.2 L packed) HL60 cells [Stroud, M. R., Handa, K., Salyan, M. E. K., Ito, K., Levery, S. B., Hakomori, S., Reinhold, B. B., & Reinhold, V. N. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 758-769, 770-778]. We identified two major types of poly-LacNAc gangliosides without the sialosyl-Lex epitope as being capable of binding to E-selectin: (i) those having a single alpha1-->3 fucosylation at internal GlcNAcs but not at the penultimate GlcNAc and (ii) those having double alpha1-->3 fucosylation at internal GlcNAcs, excluding the penultimate GlcNAc. Gangliosides from group i above did not show any adhesion under static conditions, but showed strong adhesion under dynamic flow conditions. Gangliosides from group ii above showed adhesion under both static and dynamic conditions, as did sialosyl-Lex (SLex)-containing structures in previous studies. However, SLex-containing poly-LacNAc gangliosides are virtually absent or present in only trace quantities in leukocytes and HL60 cells. Poly-LacNAc gangliosides from groups i and ii above, lacking SLex structure, are the major membrane components of leukocytes and HL60 cells. These carbohydrates, bound to lipid or to protein, may therefore be the physiological epitope for E-selectin-dependent binding of these cells, particularly under dynamic flow conditions.

  9. On "Wen-Yi" of Jin Dynasty,Song Dynasty and "Metaphysics Tail" of Xie Lingyun Landscape Poems%晋宋“文义”与谢诗“玄学尾巴”成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜剑云; 霍贵高

    2012-01-01

    从曹魏后期到晋宋之际,玄学经历了三个形态的变化。一是曹魏后期的"政治的玄学",二是西晋前期的"哲学的玄学",三是晋宋之际的"艺术的玄学"。以正始为代表的曹魏后期文学创作"有玄无文",以太康为代表的西晋前期文学创作"有文无玄",以陶、谢为代表的晋宋之际文学创作"有文有玄"。谢灵运就生活在"艺术的玄学"的时代,他不仅重"文","情必极貌以写物,辞必穷力而追新",而且重"义",体现在诗歌创作中,就是其山水诗的"玄学尾巴"。%From the period of late Cao-wei to the period of Jin dynasty and Song dynasty,metaphysics have undergone three changes in their patterns.The first is "political metaphysics" in late Cao-wei period,the second is "philosophy metaphysics" in former western Jin dynasty,the third is"art metaphysics" in the period of Jin dynasty and Song dynasty.In the period of late Cao-wei,literature has metaphysic but no grace.In former western Jin dynasty,literature has grace but no metaphysic.In the period of Jin dynasty and Song dynasty,literature has grace and metaphysic.Xie Lingyun just lived in such a "arts metaphysics" era which appreciating "Wen-Yi" became a fashion tide.Therefore,he not only thought a lot of literature,but also paid more attention to metaphysics.In poems,it shows the controversial "metaphysics tail".

  10. The“Bright Way”in Yang Xiong’s Literature:Contents and its Influence on Liu Xie%扬雄文学“明道”论之内涵及其对刘勰的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文学

    2015-01-01

    在中国文学批评史上,扬雄继荀子之后提出“明道”论。在扬雄的文学思想中,明道、宗圣、尊经是三位一体的,其“道”是指“天道”或“天地之道”。扬雄与刘勰在论文上有深度的契合,他们皆依孔圣立言,而且后者常以前者之观点为论文之准绳,二者在文学思想上有明显的渊源关系。刘勰论文重“原道”,其“道”既是天地之道或自然之道,亦是儒家之道,三者异名而同义,并无根本之冲突,其理论渊源正是扬雄的“明道”论。扬雄、刘勰的“明道”论,是儒家思想尚未教条化之前的创建,是关于文学本体意义之建构,与儒家思想教条化后的道学家创建的“载道”论有本质上的不同。%In China’s literary criticism history,following Xun zi,Yang Xiong proposed the“Bright May”. In Yang Xiong’s literary thoughts the Bright May,Respect for the Saints,and Redeem for the Classics are integrated as a whole.“May”means“heavenly way”or“heavenly and earthly way”. It is argued that Yang Xiong and Liu Xie have much in com-mon in their essays. Their“Bright May”was proposed before Confucianism was made doctrines,and was about the ontological significance of literature,different in nature from the“May Carrying”formed after Confucianism was made doctrines.

  11. Professor Xie Xide : Our Respectable Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following sections are included: * A Scholarly Family Background * Education in the U.S. * Fruitful Cooperation * New Commitments * Never Too Old to Learn * Unselfish Dedication * A Simple Personality Widely Admired * Acknowledgement

  12. Influence on Glycolipid Metabolism, Neuron and Microvascular by Chinese Medicine Dai-Xie-An Granules among Aging Rats of Metabolic Syndrome%代谢安颗粒对老龄代谢综合征大鼠糖脂代谢、神经元及微血管的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海滨; 赵敏; 李建生

    2014-01-01

    This article was aimed to study the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicine Dai-Xie-A n (DXA) granules a-mong aging rats of metabolic syndrome (MS) in order to evaluate relative indicators and the pathophysiological role in neurons and microvascular injury among aging MS rats. Aging MS rat model was established by feeding high-fat diet and the established model was evaluated. Under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, metabol-ic indexes, such as general state of health, glycolipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, were explored in order to ob-serve effects on brain neurons and microvascular injury among aging MS rats. The results showed that DXA granules can improve glycolipid metabolism among aging MS rats, decrease TC, TG, TC/HDL, decrease the level of blood sug-ar and serum insulin, improve insulin resistance, decrease abdominal fat accumulation, reduce neuronal apoptosis, and increase microvascular angiogenesis. These effects are similar to rosiglitazone. It was concluded that DXA gran-ules can ameliorate glycolipid disorders, protect brain neurons and microvascular injury of aging MS rats.%目的:使用中药代谢安颗粒对老龄代谢综合征(MS)大鼠进行干预治疗,研究其对老龄大鼠MS相关指标及对老年MS大鼠神经元和微血管损伤的病理生理作用。方法:对老龄大鼠给予高脂饲料建立MS动物模型,并对模型进行评价,在中医理论指导下,探索代谢安对老年 MS大鼠一般情况、糖脂代谢、胰岛素敏感性等一系列指标的影响,观察其对大鼠脑神经元和微血管损伤的作用。结果:代谢安能改善老年MS大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱状态,降低血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、TC/高密度脂蛋白(HDL)比值,降低血糖、血清胰岛素水平,改善胰岛素抵抗状态,减少腹腔脂肪蓄积;代谢安能减少大鼠脑神经元细胞的凋亡,增加微血管新生。其作用均和罗格列酮相

  13. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.M. Dias

    Full Text Available A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively, but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  14. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Q.M.; Rossaneis, A.C.; Fais, R.S.; Prado, W.A. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively) similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively), but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively). The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  15. 小儿腹泻贴联合蒙脱石散治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果分析%The effect observation of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie in combination with montmorillonite on the acute diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉立

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect observation of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie in combination with montmorillonite on the acute diarrhea in children.Methods Sixty-five children with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned into control group and observation group.Both groups were treated with montmorillonite,but only the observation group was given Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie additionally.The efficacy after treatment and diarrhea were analyzed in both groups.Meanwhile,the vomiting and appetite were recorded in both groups as well as the adverse reactions.Results The total efficiency(93.9% vs.71.9%,P0.05).The no vomiting rate(97.0%vs. 81.3%,P<0.05) and good appetite rates(90.9%vs. 68.8%,P<0.05) of the observation group were also higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The combined effect of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie with montmorillonite was better on the acute diarrhea in children,which can be promoted in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨小儿腹泻贴联合蒙脱石散治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果。方法:将65例急性腹泻患儿随机分为对照组与观察组,均给予蒙脱石散剂治疗,仅观察组加用小儿腹泻贴,分析两组治疗后的疗效、腹泻情况(大便次数及性状)并记录呕吐及食欲情况。结果:观察组的总有效率高于对照组(93.9%与71.9%,P<0.05);两组的大便次数无差异,但观察组的大便性状优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组的无呕吐率(97.0%与81.3%,P<0.05)及食欲好的百分比(90.9%与68.8%,P<0.05)均高于对照组。结论:小儿腹泻贴联合蒙脱石治疗儿童急性腹泻的效果较好,可在临床治疗中进行推广。

  16. Indulging in Meditation and Resistance-The Describing of the Suffering in Xie Hua′s Children′s Literature%沉湎中的沉思和抗争--论谢华儿童文学作品中的苦难指向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英芝

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990′s,Xie Hua′s works of children′s literature had obtained a lot of attention.From writing the body and the spiritu-al suffering of modern children,she built her creation,which contains a strong realistic color of confusion and resistance.In her writ-ing,Xie Hua pours her sentiments to children′s weakness and the sentiments motivate the readers′reflection of humanities and resist-ance with the rich connotation.How to write about the suffering is always an important part of children′s literature,and growth,death and resistance are typical and exemplary in her works.%20世纪90年代以来,谢华的儿童文学作品得到了社会的广泛关注。她的创作从儿童身体和精神的双重苦难入手,刻画了当代儿童生存的迷茫、困惑与抗争,蕴含着浓厚的现实主义色彩。在写作中,谢华对儿童的弱势所倾注的情感,以及这些情感所引发的人性思考和反抗,丰富了其作品的意味。如何描写“苦难”是儿童文学关注的内容之一,而在谢华的作品中,书写成长、死亡和抗争无疑具有代表性和示范性。

  17. A multicenter randomized parallel-controlled study on the efficacy and safety of ER XIE TING GRANULES in children with acute diarrhea%儿泻停颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻病的多中心随机平行对照临床试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    儿泻停颗粒临床试验协作组

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察并评价儿泻停颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻病的疗效以及安全性.方法 采用多中心、随机、开放、平行对照的临床试验方法,纳入1489例2011年3月至2012年7月期间全国15家三级医院收治的急性腹泻病患儿,随机数字表随机分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组应用儿泻停颗粒,对照组应用蒙脱石散.观察并比较治疗后第3天以及第7天的疗效以及药物相关不良反应,并以疗效相差大于10%为优效的标准对两组治疗腹泻的有效性做优效检验或非劣检验.结果 1458例完成了观察,其中治疗组726例,对照组732例.治疗组治疗后第3天以及第7天的痊愈率、总有效率分别为44.2%、94.1%、88.8%、97.9%,明显高于对照组的痊愈率和总有效率39.3%、88.4%、83.9%、97.4% (Z =3.2,P <0.01;Z=2.46,P<0.05).520例(34.9%)患儿为轮状病毒肠炎,进入治疗组266例、进入对照组254例.轮状病毒肠炎患儿中治疗组治疗后第3天以及第7天的痊愈率和总有效率分别为40.6%、95.1%、89.9%、98.9%,也明显高于对照组的26.4%、84.3%、78.8%、96.8%(Z=4.807、3.519,P均<0.01).急性腹泻病以及轮状病毒肠炎治疗后第3天和第7天的痊愈率、总有效率差值的95%可信区间下限均小于10%.试验期间未见明显药物相关不良反应.结论 儿泻停颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻病以及轮状病毒肠炎疗效与蒙脱石散一致,无明显不良反应.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ER XIE TING GRANULES in children with acute diarrhea.Method A multicenter,randomized,open-label,parallel-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 15 hospitals during March 2011 to July 2012.A total of 1489 children with acute diarrhea were enrolled and divided randomly into two groups and treated with ER XIE TING GRANULES (treatment group)and smectite powder (control group).The therapeutic efficacy and adverse drug reactions were evaluated

  18. Effects of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang Formula on Colonic Movement Index and Contraction Frequency of D-IBS Rats%痛泻要方对D-IBS大鼠结肠运动指数与收缩频率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成; 张声生; 熊鹰; 汪正芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang ( TXYF) formula on movement index ( MI, area under the curve of contraction intensity/min) and contraction frequency ( CF, number of contractions/min) of experimental rats with diarrhe-a-predominant irritable bowel syndrome ( D-IBS ) .Methods: The newborn Specific Pathogen Free ( SPF ) and Sprague-Dawley ( SD) male pups were randomly divided into normal group , NMS+RS group and TXYF formula group .In addition to the normal group, D-IBS model with the method of neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress ( NMS+RS) were established in other two groups.On the 61st day, after the success of molding , normal group and NMS +RS group was given with saline , while TXYF formula group were given with 4.92 g/100 g TXYF formula.Three groups were dosed with the method of gavage with the drug de-livery volume of 2 mL/100 g/d, for 14 consecutive days .The scores of Bristol classification and water content of the fecal pellets of rats were observed in the process of model building and dosing .The distinctions of movement index (MI, area under the curve of contraction intensity/min, mg/min) and contraction frequency ( CF, number of contractions/min, times/min) of isolated colon-ic longitudinal smooth muscle strips (CLSMs) in three groups before and after treatment were observed with a Power Lab System . Results:Before treatment , scores of Bristol classification and water content of the fecal pellets in both TXYF formula group and NMS+RS group were all higher than that in normal group (P0.05).Conclusion:TXYF formula can effectively improve symptoms of D-IBS rats. Its mechanism may be achieved through Lower colon movement index and contraction frequency .%目的:观察痛泻要方对腹泻型肠易激综合征( D-IBS)实验大鼠结肠运动指数(每分钟收缩强度曲线下面积,MI)和收缩频率(每分钟收缩次数,CF)的影响。方法:将SPF级新生SD雄性大鼠随机分为正常组、

  19. Navier-Stokes solutions about the F/A-18 wing-LEX-fuselage configuration with multi-block structured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Farhad; Luckring, James M.; Thomas, James L.; Bates, Brent L.; Biedron, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes computations are presented for the F/A-18 configuration. The modeled configuration includes an accurate surface representation of the fuselage, leading-edge-extension, as well as the wing with and without leading-edge-flap deflection. A multi-block structured volume grid with various topologies is generated using transfinite interpolation technique. The flowfield domain is divided into twenty blocks, each representing a particular geometrical complexity of the configuration. The results are obtained from an algorithm for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations that incorporates an upwind-biased, flux-difference-splitting approach. In addition, a newly developed capability that allows for generalized surface patching among blocks is employed. Turbulent results are presented for flow conditions that correspond to recent NASA F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle flight experiments. Good correlations between the computations and the flight test results are disclosed for both surface flow patterns as well as surface pressure distributions.

  20. EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED CONVECTION TRIGGERING MECHANISM IN THE NCAR COMMUNITY ATMOSPHERE MODEL CAM2 UNDER CAPT FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, S; Boyle, J S; Cederwall, R T; Potter, G L; Zhang, M

    2003-10-15

    The problem that convection over land is overactive during warm-season daytime in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model CAM2 and its previous version (CCM3) has been found both in its single-column model (SCM) simulations (Xie and Zhang 2000; Ghan et al. 2000; Xie et al. 2002) and in its full general circulation model (GCM) short-range weather forecasts (Phillips et al. 2003) and climate simulations (Dai and Trenberth 2003). These studies showed that this problem is closely related to the convection triggering mechanism used in its deep convection scheme (Zhang and McFarlane 1995), which assumes that convection is triggered whenever there is positive convective available potential energy (CAPE). The positive CAPE triggering mechanism initiates model convection too often during the day because of the strong diurnal variations in the surface isolation and the induced CAPE diurnal change over land in the warm season. To reduce the problem, Xie and Zhang (2000) introduced a dynamic constraint, i.e., a dynamic CAPE generation rate (DCAPE) determined by the large-scale advective tendencies of temperature and moisture, to control the onset of deep convection. They showed that positive DCAPE is closely associated with convection in observations and the dynamic constraint could largely reduce the effect of the strong diurnal variations in the surface fluxes on the initiation of convection. Using the SCM version of CCM3, which has the same deep convection scheme as CAM2, Xie and Zhang (2000) showed that considerable improvements can be obtained in the model simulation of precipitation and other thermodynamic fields when the dynamic constraint was applied to the model triggering function. However, the performance of the improved convection triggering mechanism in the full GCM has not been tested. In this study, we will test the improved convection trigger mechanism in CAM2 under the U.S. Department of Energy's Climate Change

  1. La gestión social del sílex melado durante el Neolítico medio en el nordeste de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terradas, Xavier

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Not Available.

    [es] En este artículo presentamos la reconstrucción de las estrategias desarrolladas en la gestión de un recurso mineral concreto, el sílex melado presumiblemente procedente del valle del Ródano, por los grupos humanos que durante el Neolítico medio habitaron el nordeste peninsular. A partir de los restos líticos recuperados en varios yacimientos catalanes constatamos una fragmentación en el tiempo y el espacio de los procedimientos técnicos aplicados en la explotación de esta materia prima de origen lejano, orientada hacia la generación de una mayor rentabilidad de las actividades económicas desarrolladas. Sin embargo, esta rentabilidad entra en contradicción con el fin al que fueron destinados una gran parte de los productos obtenidos, como elementos de ajuaren inhumaciones individuales conocidas como sepulcros de fosa, al tratarse de productos no utilizados o todavía operativos desde un punto de vista funcional. [fr] La gestion sociale du silex blond durant le Néolithique Moyen au Nord-Est de la Péninsule Ibérique. Nous présentons ici la reconstruction des stratégies mises en œuvre dans la gestion d'un ressource minéral concret, le silex blond présumablement procédant de la vallée du Rhône, par les groupes humaines que pendant le Néolithique moyen habitèrent le nord-est de la Péninsule ibérique. A partir des vestiges lithiques récupérés dans plusieurs sites catalanes on constate une fragmentation dans le temps et l'espace des procédés techniques mises en œuvre par l'exploitation de cette matière première d'origine lointaine, dirigée vers l'obtention d'une plus grande rentabilité des activités économiques. Néanmoins, cette rentabilité est en contradiction avec la destination d'une grande partie des produits obtenus, encore opératifs du point de vue fonctionnel ou pas utilisés, vers des inhumations individuelles connues comme sépulcres de fosse.

  2. Analysis of Monosaccharides in High Fructose Syrup by LEX-RID High Performance Liquid Chromatography%配位体交换色谱法分析果葡糖浆中的单糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏禹; 孙蕊; 何冬亮; 黄学英

    2013-01-01

      建立了果葡糖浆中单糖的配位体交换-示差折光检测高效液相色谱分析方法。分离柱采用 Sepax Carbomix Pb-NP10(300×7.8 mm ID,10μm,8%交联度)色谱柱,配保护柱,柱温80℃;流动相采用纯水,流速0.6 mL·min-1;示差折光检测器温度30℃,响应时间6 s。葡萄糖和果糖基线分离无干扰,在5.0~100.0 mg·mL-1浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系,方法检测限分别为0.94 mg·mL-1和0.46 mg·mL-1。方法处理简便,重现性好。%  The determination method of monosaccharides in high fructose syrup was established with LEX-RID HPLC in this paper. Sepax Carbomix Pb-NP10 (300×7.8 mm ID,10 μm,8% crosslinkage)column was used for the seperation at 80 ℃. Mobile phase was water (HPLC grade)and flow rate was 0.6 mL·min-1. Temperature of RI detector was 30 ℃,and response time was 6 s. The calibration curve was linear in the mass concentration range of 5.0~100.0 mg·mL-1,the LOD of glucose and fructose was 0.94 mg·mL-1 and 0.46 mg·mL-1 respectively. The method was simple,accurated and reproducible.

  3. Ressenya a Àlex Broch (coord.) Història de la literatura catalana: Vol. I. Dels orígens al segle XIV; Vol. II. Segles XIV-XV; Vol. III. Segle XV, dirigit per Lola Badia, Barcelona, Enciclopèdia Catalana, Ed. Barcino iAjuntament de Barcelona, 2013-2014-2015, 543, 487, 494 pp. ISBN: 978-84-412-2253-3

    OpenAIRE

    Joan V. Fuertes Zapata

    2015-01-01

    Review to Àlex Broch (coord.) Història de la literatura catalana: Vol. I. Dels orígens al segle XIV; Vol. II. Segles XIV-XV; Vol. III. Segle XV, dirigitperLola Badia, Barcelona, EnciclopèdiaCatalana, Ed. Barcino iAjuntament de Barcelona, 2013-2014-2015, 543, 487, 494 pp. ISBN: 978-84-412-2253-3

  4. Self-contained regime and the meaning of lex specialis rule on the example of Draft Articles on Responsibility of States of UN International Law Commission and the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) within the law of World Trade Organization (WTO)-selecte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Lech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is a presentation of the selected issues concerning the conception and contemporary perception of the legal order dealing with self-contained regime and the significance of the lex specialis norms. This subject is analysed on the example of the Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for International y Wronglful Acts of the International Law Commission of the United Nations in the context of the Dispute Set lement System of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The presented is ue is one of the examples of the legal order, which has an important influence for an analysis concerning the traditional perception connected with the contemporary international legal order. There are dif erent legal instruments in the particular areas of international law which regulate in the autonomous way the issue of state responsibility. Both international lawyers and international relations scholars have been at racted to the ideas of autonomous subsystems, cal ed self-containment. This is designated as self-contained regimes a particular category of subsystems, those that embrace a ful , exhaustive and definitive set of secondary rules. The principal characteristics of self-contained regimes is its intention to total y exclude the application of the general legal consequences of wrongful acts, in particular the application of countermeasures by an injured state. The exhaustive character of these regulations limits the application of general international law and have an influence for contemporary fragmentation of international law and its later evolution. It causes also a situation of diversification and expansion of international law. Therefore, the principal characteristics must be identified, taking into account their sources, substantial content and scope, as wel as the possibility of practical application together with their evolution and changes. The relationship between fragmentation and hierarchy of norms in international law arises. The first

  5. On Nanxi’s Folk Creation and Literary Creation-From Zhang Xie Zhuang Yuan to A Tale of Pipa%论南戏的民间性与文人化--从《张协状元》到《琵琶记》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明月

    2015-01-01

    After the appearance of A Tale of Pipa,the Nanxi (Southern Drama)of Song and Yuan Dynasties was divided into two groups which were the Folk Nanxi and Literati Nanxi.Zhang Xie Zhuang Yuan and A Tale of Pipa respectively represented the folk creation of Nanxi and the literati creation of Nanxi.Due to the different creation backgrounds and identities of the writers,the two dramas differed and shared something with regard to their themes and storylines,and they showed an overlap between the folk feature and the literati feature,reflecting the process of development and changes of Nanxi from vulgarity to refinement.%宋元南戏自《琵琶记》产生之后,便分为民间南戏与文人南戏两路发展。《张协状元》与《琵琶记》分别代表了南戏民间创作与文人创作的特色。由于创作背景、剧作者身份不同等因素,两部戏的主题设置、故事情节的敷演同中有异,民间性与文人化相互交叠,体现了南戏由俗化到雅化的发展变化过程。

  6. 基于和谐管理理论的创新团队管理--界面系统关键要素辨识%Innovation Team Management Based on Theory of HeXie Management-Identification of Essential Factors of Interface System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晖; 段万春; 孙永河

    2014-01-01

    在创新团队管理中资金、技术、人才等核心资源配置问题具有明显的边界属性,对这些属性因素予以清晰界定是创新团队提高管理效率的一个重要研究课题。文章创造性地将界面管理与创新团队有机结合,在剖析管理界面系统结构各类界面的前提下,通过应用BP-DEMATEL (即后馈神经网络(Back-Propagation Neuron network)与决策试行与评价实验室评价(DEMATEL)相融合的方法),提出一种创新团队管理界面系统关键影响因素识别方法。该方法不仅通过BP网络的联结权重替代直接影响矩阵(DIM)的元素,有效克服了传统DEMATEL方法专家构造DIM过于主观武断的内在缺陷,而且在创新团队界面分析过程中从和则、谐则视角充分体现了团队和谐管理的创新思维。实例验证结果表明,所提方法实践可操作性较强。%The allocation of core resources,such as capital,technology and talent,etc.,has obvious boundaries in innova-tion team management, it is an important research topic to make clear definitions on these boundaries for innovation teams to improve management efficiency. The paper, under the premise of analyses on various types of interfaces of management inter-face system structure and creatively combining interface management with innovation team, puts forward a method of innova-tive team management interface system to identify the essential influence factors by using BP-DEMATEL,which is a meta-syn-thesis method of Back-Propagation Neuron network evaluation and Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMA-TEL) . This method not only effectively overcomes the internal defects of traditional DEMATEL method,which are caused by experts who are dogmatic in the construction of direct impact matrix (DIM), through connecting weights of BP network in-stead of the elements of direct impact matrix (DIM), but also fully reflects innovative thinking of HeXie team

  7. Retraction statement: 'Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer' by Yuanfeng Zeng, Huijun Xie, Yudan Qiao, Jianmei Wang, Xiling Zhu, Guoyang He, Yuling Li, Xiaoli Ren, Feifei Wang, Li Liang and Yanqing Ding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The above article in Cancer Science (doi: 10.1111/cas.12768), published online on 26 October 2015 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Yusuke Nakamura, and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Panels +C3 and +Y27632 of SW480 Mock shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels + C3 and +Y27632 of HT29 FMNL2 shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels shFMNL2-1 and shmDial1-1 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, shFMNL2-2 and shmDial1-2 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels of shFMNL2-1 + shmDial1-1 and shFMNL2-1 + shmDial1-2 of +LPA appear to have been taken from the same image, gel bands of FLAG in Figure 4e appear to have been have been manipulated by erasing gel bands. Reference Zeng Y, Xie H, Qiao Y, Wang J, Zhu X, He G, Li Y, Ren X, Wang F, Liang L, Ding Y. Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer. Cancer Sci 2015; 106: 1385-93. doi: 10.1111/cas.12768.

  8. Retraction statement: ‘Formin‐like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer’ by Yuanfeng Zeng, Huijun Xie, Yudan Qiao, Jianmei Wang, Xiling Zhu, Guoyang He, Yuling Li, Xiaoli Ren, Feifei Wang, Li Liang and Yanqing Ding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The above article in Cancer Science (doi: 10.1111/cas.12768), published online on 26 October 2015 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Yusuke Nakamura, and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Panels +C3 and +Y27632 of SW480 Mock shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels + C3 and +Y27632 of HT29 FMNL2 shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels shFMNL2‐1 and shmDial1‐1 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, shFMNL2‐2 and shmDial1‐2 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels of shFMNL2‐1 + shmDial1‐1 and shFMNL2‐1 + shmDial1‐2 of +LPA appear to have been taken from the same image, gel bands of FLAG in Figure 4e appear to have been have been manipulated by erasing gel bands. Reference ZengY , XieH , QiaoY , WangJ , ZhuX , HeG , LiY , RenX , WangF , LiangL , DingY . Formin‐like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer. Cancer Sci 2015; 106: 1385–93. doi: 10.1111/cas.12768 26258642 PMID:27420476

  9. 痛泻要方对D-IBS结肠黏膜5-HT及CGA相关离子通道转运机制的研究%Effects of TongXie-YaoFang formula on serotonin and chromogranin a related transport mechanism of ion channels in colonic mucosa in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张声生; 杨成

    2015-01-01

    腹泻型肠易激综合征( diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome,D-IBS)是临床常见的功能性肠道疾病,给患者的生活和工作带来诸多不便。痛泻要方作为中医古代著名方剂,能够明显减轻D-IBS患者的腹痛、腹泻症状,提高其生活和工作质量,但其治疗的确切机制尚不明确,本文从5-羟色胺及嗜铬素A( chromogranin A,CGA)相关离子通道转运机制的角度出发,探讨痛泻要方对D-IBS结肠黏膜离子通道的影响,以期为后续的临床与基础研究提供可靠的依据。%Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome( D-IBS) is a clinically common functional intestinal disease and it brings inconvenience to patientsˊ live and work. TongXie-YaoFang(TXYF) formula, as a famous ancient prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine, can significantly reduce the abdominal pain and diarrhea of D-IBS patients, thereby to improve the quality of their live and work. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. This article explores the influence of TXYF formula on ion channels of colon mucous membrane in D-IBS from the perspective of 5-HT and chromogranin A( CGA) related ion channel transport mechanism in order to provide reliable basis for subsequent clinical and basic research.

  10. Modeling interacting dynamic networks: III. Extraordinary properties in a population of extreme introverts and extroverts

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wenjia; Bassler, Kevin E; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, Royce K P

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced dynamic networks with preferred degrees, showing that interesting properties are present in a single, homogeneous system as well as one with two interacting networks. While simulations are readily performed, analytic studies are challenging, due mainly to the lack of detailed balance in the dynamics. Here, we consider the two-community case in a special limit: a system of extreme introverts and extroverts - the XIE model. Surprising phenomena appear, even in this minimal model, where the only control parameters are the numbers of each subgroup: $N_{I,E}$. Specifically, an extraordinary transition emerges when $N_I$ crosses $N_E$. For example, the fraction of total number of I-E links jumps from $\\thicksim 0$ to $\\thicksim 1$. In a $N_I=N_E$ system, this fraction performs a pure random walk so that its distribution displays a flat plateau across most of $[0,1]$, with the edges vanishing as $(N_{I,E})^{-0.38}$ for large systems. Thus, we believe the XIE model exhibits an extreme Thouless...

  11. Effects of Zhenwu decoction on rats with pressure-overloaded left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy XIE%真武汤冲剂对压力负荷性心肌肥厚的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志翔; 王舒茵; 梁子敬; 曾量波

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Zhenwu decoction (a herbal preparation made in a form of instant granules readily soluble into decoction to administer) on rats with chronic pressure-overloaded left ven-tricular hypertrophy. Method All the male SD rats were randomly(random number) divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (n= 8), operation group (n= 15) and herbal medicine group (n= 15). The model of myocar-dial hypertrophy was made by gradually constricting the abdominal aorta. After 16 weeks, cardiac ultrasonography was used in rats of all groups to ascertain the post-operational left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy established. And the Zhenwu decoction was added in the herbal medicine group in a dose of 12 g/kg mixed in feedstuff fed for 8 weeks. After 24 weeks, the weight and structure as well as function of the heart of rats in each group were mea-sured by high-frequency ultrasonography, and Massion stain was performed on cardiac muscles. Meanwhile, both the total collagen volume fraction (CVF-T) and non-coronary vessel collagen volume fraction (CVF-NV) were ana-lyzed. Results There was an increase in the weight of the heart with a predominance of the left ventricle in the operation group (P < 0.05) . The heart was enlarged with diastolic interventricular septum thickness (IVSt) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWt) increased predominantly (P < 0.01). There was a significant decrease in cardiac function (P < 0.05). In herbal medicine group, both the weight and volume of heart were lower than those in operation group with predominance of IVSt and systolic left ventricular wall (P < 0.01 both).And the cardiac function of rats in herbal group was better (P < 0.05). Interstitial and collagen hyperplasia increased significantly in the rats of operation group found by pathological analysis. In herbal medicine group, the pathological changes were blunted in varied magnitude with significant decrease in CVF-T and CVF-NV in compari

  12. CONVERGENCE RATE OF SOLUTIONS TO STRONG CONTACT DISCONTINUITY FOR THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengzheng CHEN; Xiao juan CHAI; Wenjuan WANG

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a singular limit for the one-dimensional compress-ible radiation hydrodynamics model. The singular limit we consider corresponds to the phys-ical problem of letting the Bouguer number infinite while keeping the Boltzmann number constant. In the case when the corresponding Euler system admits a contact discontinuity wave, Wang and Xie (2011) [12] recently verified this singular limit and proved that the so-lution of the compressible radiation hydrodynamics model converges to the strong contact discontinuity wave in the L∞-norm away from the discontinuity line at a rate of ε14 , as the reciprocal of the Bouguer number tends to zero. In this paper, Wang and Xie's convergence rate is improved to ε78 by introducing a new a priori assumption and some refined energy estimates. Moreover, it is shown that the radiation flux q tends to zero in the L∞-norm away from the discontinuity line, at a convergence rate as the reciprocal of the Bouguer number tends to zero.

  13. 乡村居所的原型与个性--对于河北定州翟城村村民建房活动及谢英俊生态示范农宅现状的思考%Prototype and specificity of rural house--based on the study of the villagers’ housing activity and the eco-friendly houses designed by Xie Yinjun in Zhaicheng Village of Dingzhou,Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦瑞琪; 龚恺

    2014-01-01

    With the keywords"prototype"and"specificity", as wel as the survey of the folk house built by the locals and of the eco-friendly rural house designed by Xie Yingjun in Zhaicheng vil age of Dingzhou, Hebei Province, this thesis analyzes the characteristics of rural housing construction in terms of space, tectonic culture and participants, in order to explore the architects’ participatory approach to rural residential construction activities combined with tradition and evolution.%本文沿“原型”与“个性”两条主线,以河北定州翟城村村民建房活动及谢英俊在当地建设的生态示范农宅现状为载体,重点分析了乡村住宅建设中空间、建构、参与者三方面的特点,并探讨在传承与演化并存的村居营造活动中建筑师的介入方法。

  14. LOS DELITOS DE VIOLACIÓN Y ESTUPRO DEL ARTÍCULO 365 BIS CÓDIGO PENAL: UNA RACIONALIZACIÓN DESDE EL MANDATO DE LEX STRICTA Y EL PRINCIPIO DE LESIVIDAD. ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A LA INTRODUCCIÓN DE DEDOS U OTRAS PARTES DEL CUERPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Fernández Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El art. 365 bis CP constituye una de las últimas manifestaciones del modelo penal de seguridad ciudadana en nuestro Sistema Penal que, en esta ocasión, ha tenido como principales víctimas a los principios de legalidad y correspondencia con la realidad social. El desconocimiento de la realidad social por parte del legislador penal a la hora de describir el precepto in comento ha ocasionado una falta de certeza jurídica que, a la vez, ha derivado en una quiebra del mandato de ¡ex stricta por parte de la mayoría de los tribunales penales chilenos. El presente artículo pretende, en la medida de lo posible, mitigar la manifiesta irracionalidad de este precepto a través de una interpretación alternativa desde el mandado de ¡ex stricta y el principio de lesividadSection 365 bis of the Chilean Criminal Code is one of the latest manifestations of the law and order policy in our Criminal Justice System. In this occasion, it has mainly affected the principle of legality and its correspondence with social reality. A criminal justice lawmaker non-familiarized with social reality can create a lack of legal certainty and, consequently, a breach of the lex stricta mandate. A paradigmaticlesample of this is the typical description made of section 365 bis and its interpretation by most criminal courts. This paper seeks, to thelestent possible, to mitigate such manifest irrationality

  15. L’évolution des charpentes d’églises du Val d’Oise, du XIe au XXe siècle The development of church roofs in Val d'Oise from 11th to 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Epaud

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available De 2003 à 2006, un inventaire des charpentes des églises du Val d’Oise a été réalisé dans le cadre du SDAVO afin de définir les lignes générales de l’évolution des structures et des techniques de charpenterie du XIe au XXe s. Cet inventaire a permis d’observer 150 charpentes, toutes époques confondues, et d’étudier plus précisément celles qui apparaissaient comme les plus représentatives de chaque type identifié et de chaque période. Si plusieurs charpentes romanes inédites ont été relevées, celles-ci demeurent à l’état de réemploi et appartiennent à un répertoire relativement connu. Les charpentes gothiques du premier tiers du XIIIe s. sont nombreuses (12% du corpus et pour la plupart inédites. Plusieurs d’entre elles témoignent de la parfaite maîtrise du concept des fermes et pannes vers 1230 et de sa large diffusion dans l’architecture religieuse en Île-de-France dès cette période, au détriment des chevrons-formant-fermes qui survivent jusqu’au XVIe s. uniquement pour des voûtes. Les charpentes post-médiévales dénoncent une baisse de la qualité des bois d’œuvre qui s’accompagnent, à l’approche du XIXe s., d’une perte des compétences techniques en charpenterie.From 2003 to 2006 a study of church roofs in Val d'Oise was performed within the framework of SDAVO to to outline the development of structures and techniques of carpentry from 11th to 20th century. 150 roofs were observed, from all periods, with particular emphasis on those that most typified each type and period. If several unknown Romanesque roofs were discovered, the rest belong to a relatively known repertoire. There are a large number of Gothic roofs of the first third of 13th century (12% of the corpus and for the most part unpublished. Several of them show a perfect mastery of 'fermes et pannes' (bent and purlins towards 1230 and of its widespread nature in the religious architecture in Ile-de-France in this period

  16. Effect and safety of Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie in acute diarrhea:a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial in children%小儿腹泻贴治疗儿童急性腹泻的多中心随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏林; 许春娣; 何婉儿; 徐樨巍

    2013-01-01

      目的研究小儿腹泻贴在治疗儿童急性腹泻中的疗效及安全性。方法采用多中心、随机、开放、阳性药物对照等效性试验。收集2011年3月至2012年11月上海、北京、广州3所医院儿科急性腹泻患儿。随机分成试验组和对照组,分别采用小儿腹泻贴、蒙脱石散剂治疗,同时均给予口服补液盐治疗。观察治疗前后患者腹泻次数、大便性状以及相关的临床症状及体征,比较治疗第3天以及第5天的疗效,并记录药物相关不良反应。结果共有197例符合入选条件的患儿完成研究,其中试验组100例,对照组97例。两组患儿的年龄、体质量、性别、治疗前腹泻时间、治疗前大便性状和次数、治疗期呕吐次数以及脱水、发热、哭闹、食欲不振、腹胀、腹痛等情况的差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05);试验组第3天和第5天的治疗有效率达97%和100%,与对照组差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05);试验组呕吐的恢复情况要优于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P0.05). After therapy, effective rates of the observation group at 3 days (97%) and 5 days (100%) were similar to those of control group (P>0.05). The effective rate for relieving vomiting in the observation group was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). No obvious adverse drug reactions were found during the study. Conclusions Xiao Er Fu Xie Tie has the same effect as smectite powder for treatment of acute diarrhea in children and is more effective in vomiting. Furthermore, no obvious adverse drug re-actions were found.

  17. Fluid evolution and metallogenic processes of the Xie'ertala Fe-Zn deposit, Chenbaerhu Banner, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古陈巴尔虎旗谢尔塔拉铁锌矿床成矿流体演化与成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 翟德高; 刘家军; 毛晓冬; 王建平; 刘立东; 马怀岭; 王守光; 李玉玺

    2012-01-01

    内蒙古谢尔塔拉铁锌矿床位于大兴安岭中段华力西期、燕山期成矿带上,是一个大中型的火山喷发沉积-热液富集型矿床.在对谢尔塔拉铁锌矿床的物质组成分析的基础上,着重对流体包裹体和稳定同位素进行分析,以此来研究该矿床的成矿流体演化和成矿作用.研究表明,从热液作用早期到中期,具有成矿温度递减、盐度升高的趋势,两者呈负相关变化,指示流体发生了沸腾作用;从热液作用中期到晚期,具有成矿温度递减、盐度降低的趋势,两者呈正相关变化,指示流体发生了混合作用.S、Pb、C、H、O同位素组成表明,金属物质主要来自赋矿岩石和下伏地层,同时还有深部岩浆物质的参与.成矿热液为大气降水补给加热的循环地下水和岩浆水组成的的混合流体,后期又有大量的大气降水补充,使得成矿流体与围岩发生了强烈的同位素变换.矿化和蚀变作用是在水/岩比值比较低的体系中进行的.谢尔塔拉铁锌矿床的成矿流体总体表现为中低温、低盐度、低密度的热液.构造热效应、地热梯度和多次的岩浆喷气热是驱动流体活化迁移的主要因素.构造体制转换使流体稳定体系发生改变,压力释放发生沸腾作用,造就铁、锌在有利位置富集成矿.%Located in the Variscan and Yanshanian metallogenic belt in the middle of the Da Hinggan Mountains, the Xie'ertala Fe-Zn deposit is a large- medium- size Fe-Zn deposit of volcanic eruption sedimentation-hydrothermal enrichment type discovered in recent years. Based on an analysis of material composition, the authors investigated emphatically the fluid inclusions and isotopes so as to study the ore-forming fluid evolution and mineralization. Salinity had negative correlation with fluid temperature from early to middle stage, indicating a boiling event. From middle to late stage, however, salinity was positively correlated with fluid

  18. A Lex-BFS-based recognition algorithm for Robinsonian matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, M.; Seminaroti, M.; Paschos, V.; Widmayer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Robinsonian matrices arise in the classical seriation problem and play an important role in many applications where unsorted similarity (or dissimilarity) information must be re- ordered. We present a new polynomial time algorithm to recognize Robinsonian matrices based on a new characterization of

  19. A Lex-BFS-based recognition algorithm for Robinsonian matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); M. Seminaroti (Matteo); V. Paschos; P. Widmayer

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractRobinsonian matrices arise in the classical seriation problem and play an important role in many applications where unsorted similarity (or dissimilarity) information must be re- ordered. We present a new polynomial time algorithm to recognize Robinsonian matrices based on a new characte

  20. A Lex-BFS-based recognition algorithm for Robinsonian matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); M. Seminaroti (Matteo); V. Paschos; P. Widmayer

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractRobinsonian matrices arise in the classical seriation problem and play an important role in many applications where unsorted similarity (or dissimilarity) information must be re- ordered. We present a new polynomial time algorithm to recognize Robinsonian matrices based on a new

  1. Lex genetica: the law and ethics of programming biological code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dan L

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering now allow the design of programmable biological artifacts. Such programming may include usage constraints that will alter the balance of ownership and control for biotechnology products. Similar changes have been analyzed in the context of digital content management systems, and while this previous work is useful in analyzing issues related to biological programming, the latter technology presents new conceptual problems that require more comprehensive evaluation of the interplay between law and technologically embedded values. In particular, the ability to embed contractual terms in technological artifacts now requires a re-examination of disclosure and consent in transactions involving such artifacts.

  2. Lex-Partitioning: A New Option for BDD Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Edelkamp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For the exploration of large state spaces, symbolic search using binary decision diagrams (BDDs can save huge amounts of memory and computation time. State sets are represented and modified by accessing and manipulating their characteristic functions. BDD partitioning is used to compute the image as the disjunction of smaller subimages. In this paper, we propose a novel BDD partitioning option. The partitioning is lexicographical in the binary representation of the states contained in the set that is represented by a BDD and uniform with respect to the number of states represented. The motivation of controlling the state set sizes in the partitioning is to eventually bridge the gap between explicit and symbolic search. Let n be the size of the binary state vector. We propose an O(n ranking and unranking scheme that supports negated edges and operates on top of precomputed satcount values. For the uniform split of a BDD, we then use unranking to provide paths along which we partition the BDDs. In a shared BDD representation the efforts are O(n. The algorithms are fully integrated in the CUDD library and evaluated in strongly solving general game playing benchmarks.

  3. Introduction to Virtual Property: Lex Virtualis Ipsa Loquitur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wian Erlank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article serves as an introduction to the concept of virtual property and also to very briefly note the relevance of virtual property in modern society. A universally accepted definition of virtual property is hard to come by, but the paper will aim to provide some clarity on the issue. Virtual property is still property, and it still exists even though it is intangible. It includes (amongst other things website addresses and email addresses as well as certain other accepted immaterial property objects such as bank accounts, stocks, options and derivatives. Indeed, one can go so far as to include digital goods, such as digital versions of books (e-books, computer or smartphone programmes or apps, television series and movies as well as digital music (albums and tracks as objects of virtual property. However, the focus in this paper is on the type of virtual property found inside virtual worlds. The discussion of virtual property will be facilitated by reference to some of the ancillary and more complicated areas of the field to serve as a point of reference leading to an understanding of the concept of virtual property in general.

  4. An inducible krasV12 transgenic zebrafish model for liver tumorigenesis and chemical drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tuan Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Because Ras signaling is frequently activated by major hepatocellular carcinoma etiological factors, a transgenic zebrafish constitutively expressing the krasV12 oncogene in the liver was previously generated by our laboratory. Although this model depicted and uncovered the conservation between zebrafish and human liver tumorigenesis, the low tumor incidence and early mortality limit its use for further studies of tumor progression and inhibition. Here, we employed a mifepristone-inducible transgenic system to achieve inducible krasV12 expression in the liver. The system consisted of two transgenic lines: the liver-driver line had a liver-specific fabp10 promoter to produce the LexPR chimeric transactivator, and the Ras-effector line contained a LexA-binding site to control EGFP-krasV12 expression. In double-transgenic zebrafish (driver-effector embryos and adults, we demonstrated mifepristone-inducible EGFP-krasV12 expression in the liver. Robust and homogeneous liver tumors developed in 100% of double-transgenic fish after 1 month of induction and the tumors progressed from hyperplasia by 1 week post-treatment (wpt to carcinoma by 4 wpt. Strikingly, liver tumorigenesis was found to be ‘addicted’ to Ras signaling for tumor maintenance, because mifepristone withdrawal led to tumor regression via cell death in transgenic fish. We further demonstrated the potential use of the transparent EGFP-krasV12 larvae in inhibitor treatments to suppress Ras-driven liver tumorigenesis by targeting its downstream effectors, including the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. Collectively, this mifepristone-inducible and reversible krasV12 transgenic system offers a novel model for understanding hepatocarcinogenesis and a high-throughput screening platform for anti-cancer drugs.

  5. A Multiscale Modeling System: Developments, Applications, and Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, William; Simpson, Joanne; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Atlas, Robert; Khairoutdinov, David Randall Marat; Li, Jui-Lin; Waliser, Duane E.; Jiang, Jonathan; Hou, Arthur; Lin, Xin; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2009-01-01

    The foremost challenge in parameterizing convective clouds and cloud systems in large-scale models are the many coupled dynamical and physical processes that interact over a wide range of scales, from microphysical scales to the synoptic and planetary scales. This makes the comprehension and representation of convective clouds and cloud systems one of the most complex scientific problems in Earth science. During the past decade, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) has pioneered the use of single-column models (SCMs) and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) for the evaluation of the cloud and radiation parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs; e.g., GEWEX Cloud System Science Team 1993). These activities have uncovered many systematic biases in the radiation, cloud and convection parameterizations of GCMs and have led to the development of new schemes (e.g., Zhang 2002; Pincus et al, 2003; Zhang and Wu 2003; Wu et al. 2003; Liang and Wu 2005; Wu and Liang 2005, and others). Comparisons between SCMs and CRMs using the same large-scale forcing derived from field campaigns have demonstrated that CRMs are superior to SCMs in the prediction of temperature and moisture tendencies (e.g., Das et al. 1999; Randall et al 2003b; Xie et al. 2005).

  6. A Multiscale Modeling System: Developments, Applications, and Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, William; Simpson, Joanne; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Atlas, Robert; Khairoutdinov, David Randall Marat; Li, Jui-Lin; Waliser, Duane E.; Jiang, Jonathan; Hou, Arthur; hide

    2009-01-01

    The foremost challenge in parameterizing convective clouds and cloud systems in large-scale models are the many coupled dynamical and physical processes that interact over a wide range of scales, from microphysical scales to the synoptic and planetary scales. This makes the comprehension and representation of convective clouds and cloud systems one of the most complex scientific problems in Earth science. During the past decade, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) has pioneered the use of single-column models (SCMs) and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) for the evaluation of the cloud and radiation parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs; e.g., GEWEX Cloud System Science Team 1993). These activities have uncovered many systematic biases in the radiation, cloud and convection parameterizations of GCMs and have led to the development of new schemes (e.g., Zhang 2002; Pincus et al, 2003; Zhang and Wu 2003; Wu et al. 2003; Liang and Wu 2005; Wu and Liang 2005, and others). Comparisons between SCMs and CRMs using the same large-scale forcing derived from field campaigns have demonstrated that CRMs are superior to SCMs in the prediction of temperature and moisture tendencies (e.g., Das et al. 1999; Randall et al 2003b; Xie et al. 2005).

  7. Preclinical models for interrogating drug action in human cancers using Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew N.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W-M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In this review we compare the advantages and disadvantages of different model biological systems for determining the metabolic functions of cells in complex environments, how they may change in different disease states, and respond to therapeutic interventions. Background All preclinical drug-testing models have advantages and drawbacks. We compare and contrast established cell, organoid and animal models with ex vivo organ or tissue culture and in vivo human experiments in the context of metabolic readout of drug efficacy. As metabolism reports directly on the biochemical state of cells and tissues, it can be very sensitive to drugs and/or other environmental changes. This is especially so when metabolic activities are probed by stable isotope tracing methods, which can also provide detailed mechanistic information on drug action. We have developed and been applying Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) to examine metabolic reprogramming of human lung cancer cells in monoculture, in mouse xenograft/explant models, and in lung cancer patients in situ (Lane et al. 2011; T. W. Fan et al. 2011; T. W-M. Fan et al. 2012; T. W. Fan et al. 2012; Xie et al. 2014b; Ren et al. 2014a; Sellers et al. 2015b). We are able to determine the influence of the tumor microenvironment using these models. We have now extended the range of models to fresh human tissue slices, similar to those originally described by O. Warburg (Warburg 1923), which retain the native tissue architecture and heterogeneity with a paired benign versus cancer design under defined cell culture conditions. This platform offers an unprecedented human tissue model for preclinical studies on metabolic reprogramming of human cancer cells in their tissue context, and response to drug treatment (Xie et al. 2014a). As the microenvironment of the target human tissue is retained and individual patient's response to drugs is obtained, this platform promises to transcend current limitations of drug selection

  8. Motif Yggdrasil: sampling sequence motifs from a tree mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Samuel A; Lagergren, Jens

    2007-06-01

    In phylogenetic foot-printing, putative regulatory elements are found in upstream regions of orthologous genes by searching for common motifs. Motifs in different upstream sequences are subject to mutations along the edges of the corresponding phylogenetic tree, consequently taking advantage of the tree in the motif search is an appealing idea. We describe the Motif Yggdrasil sampler; the first Gibbs sampler based on a general tree that uses unaligned sequences. Previous tree-based Gibbs samplers have assumed a star-shaped tree or partially aligned upstream regions. We give a probabilistic model (MY model) describing upstream sequences with regulatory elements and build a Gibbs sampler with respect to this model. The model allows toggling, i.e., the restriction of a position to a subset of nucleotides, but does not require aligned sequences nor edge lengths, which may be difficult to come by. We apply the collapsing technique to eliminate the need to sample nuisance parameters, and give a derivation of the predictive update formula. We show that the MY model improves the modeling of difficult motif instances and that the use of the tree achieves a substantial increase in nucleotide level correlation coefficient both for synthetic data and 37 bacterial lexA genes. We investigate the sensitivity to errors in the tree and show that using random trees MY sampler still has a performance similar to the original version.

  9. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  10. Simulations of Clouds and Sensitivity Study by Weather Research and Forecast Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Case 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Zhang, M.

    2005-03-18

    One of the large errors in general circulation models (GCMs) cloud simulations is from the mid-latitude, synoptic-scale frontal cloud systems. Now, with the availability of the cloud observations from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) 2000 cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP) and other observational datasets, the community is able to document the model biases in comparison with the observations and make progress in development of better cloud schemes in models. Xie et al. (2004) documented the errors in midlatitude frontal cloud simulations for ARM Case 4 by single-column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs). According to them, the errors in the model simulated cloud field might be caused by following reasons: (1) lacking of sub-grid scale variability; (2) lacking of organized mesoscale cyclonic advection of hydrometeors behind a moving cyclone which may play important role to generate the clouds there. Mesoscale model, however, can be used to better under stand these controls on the subgrid variability of clouds. Few studies have focused on applying mesoscale models to the forecasting of cloud properties. Weaver et al. (2004) used a mesoscale model RAMS to study the frontal clouds for ARM Case 4 and documented the dynamical controls on the sub-GCM-grid-scale cloud variability.

  11. On the Use of Generalized Volume Scattering Models for the Improvement of General Polarimetric Model-Based Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a general polarimetric model-based decomposition framework was proposed by Chen et al., which addresses several well-known limitations in previous decomposition methods and implements a simultaneous full-parameter inversion by using complete polarimetric information. However, it only employs four typical models to characterize the volume scattering component, which limits the parameter inversion performance. To overcome this issue, this paper presents two general polarimetric model-based decomposition methods by incorporating the generalized volume scattering model (GVSM or simplified adaptive volume scattering model, (SAVSM proposed by Antropov et al. and Huang et al., respectively, into the general decomposition framework proposed by Chen et al. By doing so, the final volume coherency matrix structure is selected from a wide range of volume scattering models within a continuous interval according to the data itself without adding unknowns. Moreover, the new approaches rely on one nonlinear optimization stage instead of four as in the previous method proposed by Chen et al. In addition, the parameter inversion procedure adopts the modified algorithm proposed by Xie et al. which leads to higher accuracy and more physically reliable output parameters. A number of Monte Carlo simulations of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data are carried out and show that the proposed method with GVSM yields an overall improvement in the final accuracy of estimated parameters and outperforms both the version using SAVSM and the original approach. In addition, C-band Radarsat-2 and L-band AIRSAR fully polarimetric images over the San Francisco region are also used for testing purposes. A detailed comparison and analysis of decomposition results over different land-cover types are conducted. According to this study, the use of general decomposition models leads to a more accurate quantitative retrieval of target parameters. However, there

  12. Retour sur les sociétés de montagne au Maghreb :fuqahā’ et soufis du Bilād Ghumāra (XIe-XVIIe siècles à l’épreuve des réformes de la pratique religieuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mezzine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La montagne du Rif au Maroc occupe dans les livres d’histoire, voire chez les ʿulamā’ de la Qarawiyīn, à Fès, une place de choix. Des noms comme Ibn Mashīsh, al-Habtī et Ibn ʿArdūn continuent d’animer une tradition historique médiévale encore vivante aujourd’hui. Ces noms nous ramènent à une époque où le pays Ghmara, comme on l’appelait à l’époque, constituait un pôle culturel qui rivalisait avec la ville de Fès. Ibn Mashīsh et son disciple, al-Shādhilī, initiateurs de la fameuse ṭarīqa shādhiliyya, vont, à partir de cette montagne, lancer un mouvement de réforme religieuse qui a connu une extraordinaire audience auprès des populations de la montagne, comme de celles de l’ensemble du Maroc. D’autre part, les fuqahā' des Ghmara, intermédiaires obligés entre les ʿulamā’ et le commun des gens, tentent d’expliquer la norme islamique à des populations connaissant à peine la langue arabe. Les ʿulamā’ du jbel, moins nombreux, plus versés dans le savoir juridico-religieux, partagés entre le réseau du savoir andalou, avant 1492, et celui de Fès, vont travailler à modeler le malékisme et à le construire selon les exigences de leur milieu montagnard difficile. Pour comprendre ce phénomène, l'article se propose de suivre les trajectoires des principaux réformateurs, des awliyā’ soufis et des principaux porteurs de savoir (les ʿulamā’, et tenter de mesurer l’impact de ces tentatives de réforme sur la société des Ghmara.

  13. Public Library Training Program for Older Adults Addresses Their Computer and Health Literacy Needs. A Review of: Xie, B. (2011. Improving older adults’ e-health literacy through computer training using NIH online resources. Library & Information Science Research, 34, 63-71. doi: /10.1016/j.lisr.2011.07.006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2012-12-01

    – Participants showed significant decreases in their levels of computer anxiety, and significant increases in their interest in computers at the end of the program (p>0.01. Computer and web knowledge also increased among those completing the knowledge tests. Most participants (78% indicated that something they had learned in the program impacted their health decision making, and just over half of respondents (55% changed how they took medication as a result of the program. Participants were also very satisfied with the program’s delivery and format, with 97% indicating that they had learned a lot from the course. Most (68% participants said that they wished the class had been longer, and there was full support for similar programming to be offered at public libraries. Participants also reported that they found the NIHSeniorHealth website more useful, but not significantly more usable, than MedlinePlus.Conclusion – The intervention as designed successfully addressed issues of computer and health literacy with older adult participants. By using existing resources, such as public library computer facilities and curricula developed by the National Institutes of Health, the intervention also provides a model that could be easily replicated in other locations without the need for significant financial resources.

  14. Parallel processing for efficient 3D slope stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Metz, Markus; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    We test the performance of the GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model r.slope.stability. The model was developed as a C- and python-based raster module of the GRASS GIS software. It considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surface, adopting a modification of the model proposed by Hovland (1977), and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a terrain elevation map and a set of relevant thematic layers, the model evaluates the stability of slopes for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a value of the factor of safety, FS. For each pixel, the minimum value of FS and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information is used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable slopes in the study area. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, an area known to be susceptible to landslides of different type and size. Availability of a comprehensive and detailed landslide inventory map allowed for a critical evaluation of the model results. The r.slope.stability code automatically splits the study area into a defined number of tiles, with proper overlap in order to provide the same statistical significance for the entire study area. The tiles are then processed in parallel by a given number of processors, exploiting a multi-purpose computing environment at CNR IRPI, Perugia. The map of the FS is obtained collecting the individual results, taking the minimum values on the overlapping cells. This procedure significantly reduces the processing time. We show how the gain in terms of processing time depends on the tile dimensions and on the number of cores.

  15. 老谢"不谢"%THE EDITOR XIE LIVES FOREVER IN MY MIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛闯宇

    2008-01-01

    @@ 谢泉铭先生是我尊敬的文学编辑,从1970年至2000年,期间有三十年的交往.虽说是君子之交淡如水,但在我的文学创作道路上,他指点过我、搀扶过我,是我的引路人.他离开我们已经八年了,每当上海的阳春三月,白玉兰盛开的时候,我总会思念老谢,他的音容笑貌便浮现在我的眼前……

  16. Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter......Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter...

  17. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  18. model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trie neural construction oí inoiviouo! unci communal identities in ... occurs, Including models based on Information processing,1 ... Applying the DSM descriptive approach to dissociation in the ... a personal, narrative path lhal connects personal lo ethnic ..... managed the problem in the context of the community, using a.

  19. КОЛЛИЗИОННАЯ ПРИВЯЗКА «LEX REI SITAE» КАК ОСНОВА РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ ВЕЩНЫХ ПРАВ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОМ ЧАСТНОМ ПРАВЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Плеханов, В.

    2008-01-01

    В статье показано, что коллизионная привязка «lex rei sitae» выступает в качестве основы регулирования вещных прав на современном этапе развития международного частного права, а также раскрываются основные причины, которыми объясняется ее столь широкое использование различными правопорядками....

  20. Cardioprotection by a novel recombinant serine protease inhibitor in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murohara, T; Guo, J P; Lefer, A M

    1995-09-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury; however, the role of neutrophilic proteases is less understood. The effects of a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), LEX032, were investigated in a murine model of MI (20 min) and R (24 hr) injury in vivo. LEX032 is a recombinant human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in which six amino acid residues were replaced around the active center with those of alpha-1 protease inhibitor. LEX032 has the ability to inhibit both neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, two major neutral serine proteases in neutrophils, as well as superoxide generation. LEX032 (25 or 50 mg/kg) administered i.v. 1 min before reperfusion significantly attenuated myocardial necrotic injury evaluated by cardiac creatine kinase loss compared to MI/R rats receiving only vehicle (P LEX032 as compared with rats receiving vehicle (P LEX032 also moderately attenuated leukotriene B4-stimulated PMN adherence to rat superior mesenteric artery endothelium and markedly diminished superoxide radical release from LTB4-stimulated PMN in vitro. In a glycogen-induced rat peritonitis model, LEX032 (50 mg/kg) significantly attenuated PMN transmigration into the peritoneal cavity in vivo. In conclusion, the recombinant serine protease inhibitor, LEX032, appears to be an effective agent for attenuating MI/R injury by inhibiting neutrophil-accumulation into the ischemic-reperfused myocardium and by inactivating cytotoxic metabolites (proteases and superoxide radical) released from neutrophils.

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_653252.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_653252.3 chr8 HIGH RESOLUTION CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININ IN COMP...LEX WITH N-ACETYL-D-GLUCOSAMINE p2uvoa_ chr8/NP_653252.3/NP_653252.3_holo_1300-1463.pdb swppa 1300A,1301D,13

  2. The efficacy of statins in preventing glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, H.; Li, D.; Xie, X.; Qin, T.; Ma, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine whether statin usage could reduce the risk of glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models. Methods A systematic literature search up to May 2015 was carried out using the PubMed, Ovid, EBM reviews, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, CBM, CNKI databases with the term and boolean operators: statins and osteonecrosis in all fields. Risk ratio (RR), as the risk estimate of specific outcome, was calculated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using a quantitative tool based on the updated Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations. Results A total of 11 eligible studies were included according to predetermined criteria. The pooled data demonstrated that animals with statin usage, either alone or combined with other treatments, were at a decreased risk of developing glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis (RR = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71 to 2.50). Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed that compared with statins alone, statins combined with other treatments significantly decreased the risk of osteonecrosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.47). However, we could find no significant risk difference for different gender, or for different time points. Conclusions The present study suggests that statins combined with other treatments are efficient in preventing the development of glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animals. These results might shed light on clinical practice when glucocorticoids are prescribed, and could be further investigated in high-quality clinical trials. Cite this article: Z. Yang, H. Liu, D. Li, X. Xie, T. Qin, J. Ma, P. Kang. The efficacy of statins in preventing glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models: A meta-analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:393–402. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.2000500. PMID:27660333

  3. Lex Farum: Sådan rydder vi ud i den kommunale finansjungle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Det virker absurd, at antallet af lærere og pædagogmedhjælpere afhænger af kommunens held på de finansielle markeder.......Det virker absurd, at antallet af lærere og pædagogmedhjælpere afhænger af kommunens held på de finansielle markeder....

  4. Climate Justice: A Constitutional Approach to Unify the Lex Specialis Principles of International Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorp, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Legal principles legitimise ubiquitous social values. They make certain social norms lawful and legitimate. Legal principles may act as governing vectors. They may give effect to a unified and legitimate constitutional framework insofar as a constitution unifies the fundamental principles on which a

  5. Lex mercatoria---una herramienta flexible para cubrir las necesidades legales del comercio internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Jaramillo Vargas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Después de un periodo de investigación de dos meses en la UNIDROIT, el autor nos presenta un reporte en el que se exploran algunas consideraciones teóricas acerca de las dicotomías que pueden afectar a un Estado en proceso de globalización como son nacional/a-nacional, público/privado, regulación/anti-regulación. La seriedad de sus observaciones así como la amplia bibliografía utilizada, garantizan la calidad del presente escrito.

  6. Talus Lex: Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Mercury Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saba, D. E.; Flegal, D. R.; Ganguli, P. M.; Whyte, D. C.; Mumley, D. E.; Mason, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    The history of mercury in California is recorded in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. The Bay is downstream of 40 percent of the land area of California. Its watershed receives 80 percent of the rainfall in the State, because it rains more in the north. Three billion kilograms of sediments are annually flushed from the Central Valley watershed and deposited in San Francisco Bay. Because mercury preferentially binds to sediments, we calculate mercury loads to the Bay by considering how various sources affect mercury concentrations in Bay sediments. During and after the Gold Rush, over seventy thousand tons of mercury was produced in Coast Range cinnabar mines. Much of this mercury was used as quicksilver to extract gold from placer formations in the Sierra foothills, and later in the production of munitions, electronics, health care and commercial products. Today, we can see the legacy of mining sources, from both remote and local watersheds, superimposed on air deposition, the climate and geography of California, heavily managed water supply and flood control projects, wetland restoration and rehabilitation, urbanization, wastewaster discharge and water reclamation. We already regulate wastewater and urban runoff through issuance of permits and waste discharge requirements. We can regulate mercury inputs from inoperative mines by demonstrating the link between mercury-polluted sediments and violation of existing numeric water quality objectives. We can use the same approach to regulate the disposal of mercury-containing electronic devices. But to reduce mercury levels in fish, we will also have to consider controllable water quality factors that promote mercury methylation in the aquatic ecosystem. Some of these water quality factors are already subject to regulation. For example, we can show that mercury methylation in the northern reach of the Bay increases when dissolved oxygen drops below 6 mg/L; current regulations require dissolved oxygen concentrations of 7 mg/L or more in that region. But many of the processes that influence mercury bioaccumulation, such as microbial assemblage, sulfate concentration, and organic carbon loading, are complex, interacting factors that cannot be expressed as simple numeric limits. The Water Quality Control Plan for San Francisco Bay has a narrative objective for bioaccumulation that states that "controllable water quality factors shall not cause a detrimental increase in the concentrations of toxic substances found in bottom sediments or aquatic life." To effectively implement that objective, we need basic science research to develop sound guidance for the creation, restoration, and management of wetlands and marshes surrounding the Bay.

  7. QuickLex: A Fast Algorithm for Consistent Global States Enumeration of Distributed Computations

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Vijay K Garg

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the correctness of executions of concurrent and distributed programs is difficult because they show nondeterministic behavior due to different process scheduling order. Predicate detection can alleviate this problem by predicting whether the user-specified condition (predicate) could have become true in any global state of the given concurrent or distributed computation. The method is predictive because it generates inferred global states from the observed execution path and then ch...

  8. Erakõrgkool Lex peab uksed kinni panema / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tänavu kevadel Lexi kontrollinud järelevalveametnikud tuvastasid koolis rea puudusi: õpperuumid, raamatukogu ja õppejõudude kvalifikatsioon ei vastanud nõuetele, suur osa tudengitega sõlmitud lepingutest olid puudulikud või puudusid üldse jpm

  9. Sources of bioethics: Lex Naturae versus Sola Scriptura and Sola Gratia? A response to Vorster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anné H. Verhoef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To argue that the concept of natural law can be regarded, with certain conditions, as a credible and useful tool in the Reformed paradigm, as Vorster did, may at first seems to be in conflict with the Reformation’s emphasis on sola scriptura and sola gratia. Vorster, however, argues very convincingly that the general revelation of God and creational gifts can be a source for bioethics within the reformed tradition. He does this by relying on Calvin and Bavinck’s appreciative theologies and in reaction to Barth and Welker’s critique to the notion of natural law. In this article I will further Vorster’s argument by identifying some critical points in his argument, analyse the critique on these points and broaden the discussion by incorporating an eschatological perspective and the anthropology of the Protestant philosopher, Paul Ricoeur. The aim is, as Vorster states in his conclusion, to provide Christian ethics with opportunities and means to formulate applicable and relevant moral codes that can be utilised in the bio- and eco-ethical debates of today.

  10. Lex mercatoria---una herramienta flexible para cubrir las necesidades legales del comercio internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Jaramillo Vargas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Después de un periodo de investigación de dos meses en la UNIDROIT, el autor nos presenta un reporte en el que se exploran algunas consideraciones teóricas acerca de las dicotomías que pueden afectar a un Estado en proceso de globalización como son nacional/a-nacional, público/privado, regulación/anti-regulación. La seriedad de sus observaciones así como la amplia bibliografía utilizada, garantizan la calidad del presente escrito.

  11. Generalized Fibonacci recurrences and the lex-least De Bruijn sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The skew of a binary string is the difference between the number of zeroes and the number of ones, while the length of the string is the sum of these two numbers. We consider certain suffixes of the lexicographically-least de Bruijn sequence at natural breakpoints of the binary string. We show that the skew and length of these suffixes are enumerated by sequences generalizing the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, respectively.

  12. L’Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG: Lex sum, nihil humani a me alienum puto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Testa Bappenheim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Il contesto europeo maieuta delle «4 direttive» - 3. Le «4 direttive» - 4. L’ubi consistam costituzionale tedesco - 5. Le discriminazioni vietate – 6. Fenotipi laburistici dell’AGG - 7. Fenotipi civilistici dell’AGG – 8. Le discriminazioni ammesse - 9. Il § 9, extra Ecclesiis nulla exceptio.

  13. Erakõrgkool Lex peab uksed kinni panema / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tänavu kevadel Lexi kontrollinud järelevalveametnikud tuvastasid koolis rea puudusi: õpperuumid, raamatukogu ja õppejõudude kvalifikatsioon ei vastanud nõuetele, suur osa tudengitega sõlmitud lepingutest olid puudulikud või puudusid üldse jpm

  14. Isogeometric Analysis for Topology Optimization with a Phase Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    been successfully considered. For example, this is the case for applications in fluid dynamics [1], heat conduction [45], vibration [58], multiphysics...Laboratories SAND2006–2649 (2006). [45] A. Gersborg–Hansen, M.P. Bendsøe and O. Sigmund, Topology optimization of heat conduction problems using the...novel stent platform with drug reservoirs, Med. Eng. Phys. 30 (2008), 1177–1185. [111] Y.M. Xie and G.P. Steven, Evolutionary Structural Optimization

  15. GIS-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Valigi, Daniela; Santangelo, Michele; Bucci, Francesco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    We use the model r.slope.stability to explore the chances and challenges of physically-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology over broad areas and not on individual slopes. The model is developed as a C and python-based raster module within the GRASS GIS software. It makes use of a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977) and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a digital elevation model and a set of thematic layers (lithological classes and related geotechnical parameters), the model evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. The bottoms of soil or bedrock layers can also be considered as potential slip surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each pixel, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. The r.slope.stability model can be executed both in a soil class-based mode, where the input data are mainly structured according to horizontally defined soil classes, and in a layer-based mode, where the data are structured according to a potentially large number of layers. Here, we test the model for the layer-based mode, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geologic structures. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. According to field observations in this area, morpho-structural settings (i.e., the orientation and dip of the geological layers) play a crucial role for the distribution of the deep-seated landslides. We have prepared a lithological model based on aerial photointerpretation, field survey and surface information on the

  16. Les chants des oiseaux. Musiques, pratiques sociales et représentations du XIe au XVIIIe siècle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Beck

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Le thème du chant des oiseaux a particulièrement été bien traité par les musicologues. L’objectif de ce projet consiste à reprendre cette thématique en l’élargissant à d’autres disciplines a priori éloignées, dont les problématiques centrales touchent essentiellement aux notions de nature, de langage et de mémoire. Jamais encore un projet autour d’un thème aussi étendu n’a été réalisé. L’ambition de ces rencontres interdisciplinaires et internationales vise alors à réunir les nombreux cherche...

  17. A GRASS GIS-based deterministic model for shallow and deep-seated landslide susceptibility analysis over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Fellin, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Various deterministic slope stability models, based on the assumption of an infinite slope with a plane, slope-parallel failure plane, have been proposed in the literature. These models are commonly implemented in a GIS environment and are mostly used to model shallow landslides. Other models consider the three-dimensional geometry of possible slope failures and assume an ellipsoidal sliding surface. Such models are best suited to investigate deep-seated landslides. The latter models rely on complex neighbourhood relationships and are difficult to implement in a GIS environment. Here, we present a GIS-based landslide modelling tool that considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surfaces and is capable of dealing with shallow and deep-seated failures. The model is developed in the GRASS GIS software as the C-based raster module r.rotstab, and adopts a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers. Given a Digital Elevation Model and a set of thematic layers, the model evaluates slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. Truncated ellipsoids can be used to model the presence of shallow weak layers in the soil or the bedrock. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each grid cell, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. In addition, a landslide susceptibility index in the range 0 - 1 is calculated. The index relates the number of unstable slip surfaces to the total number of slip surfaces simulated for each pixel. We tested the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. The presence of both shallow

  18. Human-Compatible Animal Models for Preclinical Research on Hormones in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    not translate well to humans. REFERENCES Sultan AS, Xie J, LeBaron MJ, Ealley EL, Nevalainen MT & Rui H 2005 Stat5 promotes homotypic adhesion...that is relevant to human physiology. 3 INTRODUCTION Prolactin (PRL) was discovered in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) as a lactogenic endocrine...from HyClone (Thermo Scientific, Logan , UT) and Atlas Biologicals, Inc. (Fort Collins, CO), respectively. RPMI 1640 medium, L- glutamine, and

  19. Effect of microstructure on the coercivity of HDDR Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the grain boundary microstructure on the anisotropy and coercivity was investigated in an HDDR Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic alloy. Considering the special microstructure of its magnetic powder grain, an anisotropic theoretical model influenced simultaneously by the structure defect at the grain boundary and the exchange coupling interaction was put forward. The variations of the structure defect factors based on the nucleation and pinning mechanism with 2r0/lex (where r0 and lex are the defect thickness and the length of exchange coupling, respec-tively) were calculated. The results show that the coercivity mechanism of an HDDR Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic alloy is greatly related to its microstructure defect at the grain boundary. For a fixed lex, when 2r0/lex < 1.67, the coercivity is controlled by the pinning mechanism; when 2r0/lex > 1.67, it is determined by the nucleation mechanism. The coercivity reaches the maximum when 2r0/lex = 1.67. The calcula-tion result is consistent well with the experimental result given by Morimoto et al.

  20. Expansion of the gateway multisite recombination cloning toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Harold K; Dvarishkis, Alisa R; Kozeluh, Craig D; Stowers, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    Precise manipulation of transgene expression in genetic model organisms has led to advances in understanding fundamental mechanisms of development, physiology, and genetic disease. Transgene construction is, however, a precondition of transgene expression, and often limits the rate of experimental progress. Here we report an expansion of the modular Gateway MultiSite recombination-cloning platform for high efficiency transgene assembly. The expansion includes two additional destination vectors and entry clones for the LexA binary transcription system, among others. These new tools enhance the expression levels possible with Gateway MultiSite generated transgenes and make possible the generation of LexA drivers and reporters with Gateway MultiSite cloning. In vivo data from transgenic Drosophila functionally validating each novel component are presented and include neuronal LexA drivers, LexAop2 red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle reporters, TDC2 and TRH LexA, GAL4, and QF drivers, and LexAop2, UAS, and QUAS channelrhodopsin2 T159C reporters.

  1. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  2. The ICTP Regional System Model (RESM) to simulate the monsoon in the South Asia CORDEX domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    . The impact of a simplified low-resolution hydrological model (HD model) and the physical based high-resolution hydrological model (CHyM model) is also assessed in the fully coupled RESM simulations. References: 1) Fu, X., Wang, B. and Li, T., 2002: Impacts of air-sea coupling on the simulation of mean Asian summer monsoon in the ECHAM4 model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2889-2904. 2) Fu, X., Wang, B., Waliser, D. E. and Tao, L., 2007: Impact of atmosphere-ocean coupling on the predictability of monsoon interseasonal oscillations, J. Atmos. Sci., 64,157-174. 3) Ratnam J. Venkata, Filippo Giorgi, Akshara Kaginalkar, Stefano Cozzini, 2008b: Simulation of Indian Monsoon using RegCM3 - ROMS regional coupled model, Climate Dynamics, 1432-0894. 4) Seo, H, Xie SP, Murtgudde R, Jochum M, Miller AJ. 2009. Seasonal effects of Indian Ocean freshwater forcing in a regional coupled model. Journal of Climate. 22:6577-6596. 5) Giorgi, F., et al. 2012: RegCM4: Model description and preliminary tests over multiple CORDEX domains, Clim. Res., 53(1), 7-29. 6) Marshall, J., C. Hill, L. Perelman, and A. Adcroft, 1997: Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling. J. Geophysical Res., 102(C3), 5733-5752. 7) Hagemann, S., Dumenil, L., 1998: Application of a grid-scale lateral discharge model in the BALTEX region. MPI-Report No. 278 8) Coppola, E., Tomasetti, B., Mariotti, L., Verdecchia, M., Visconti, G., 2007: Cellular automata algorithms for drainage network extraction and rainfall data assimilation. Hydrol Sci J 2007;52(3). 9) Giorgi F., Jones C. Asrar G., 2009: Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework. WMO Bull 58:175-183

  3. airGRteaching: an R-package designed for teaching hydrology with lumped hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Delaigue, Olivier; Coron, Laurent; Andréassian, Vazken; Brigode, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    discharges, which are updated immediately (a calibration only needs a couple of seconds or less, a simulation is almost immediate). In addition, time series of internal variables, live-visualisation of internal variables evolution and performance statistics are provided. This interface allows for hands-on exercises that can include for instance the analysis by students of: - The effects of each parameter and model components on simulated discharge - The effects of objective functions based on high flows- or low flows-focused criteria on simulated discharge - The seasonality of the model components. References Winston Chang, Joe Cheng, JJ Allaire, Yihui Xie and Jonathan McPherson (2016). shiny: Web Application Framework for R. R package version 0.13.2. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=shiny Coron L., Thirel G., Perrin C., Delaigue O., Andréassian V., airGR: a suite of lumped hydrological models in an R-package, Environmental Modelling and software, 2017, submitted. Coron, L., Perrin, C. and Michel, C. (2016). airGR: Suite of GR hydrological models for precipitation-runoff modelling. R package version 1.0.3. https://webgr.irstea.fr/airGR/?lang=en. Olivier Delaigue and Laurent Coron (2016). airGRteaching: Tools to simplify the use of the airGR hydrological package by students. R package version 0.0.1. https://webgr.irstea.fr/airGR/?lang=en R Core Team (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/.

  4. Frequency-Dependent Nature of Pn in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    travel times and procedures for depth determination. Bull. Seism . Sot: Am. 88: 722-743. 174 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear...Bull. Seism . Soc. Am. 93: 2146-2159. Lay, T., X. B. Xie and X. Yang (2008). Development of regional phase tomographic attenuation models for Eurasia...studies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: doi:10.1029/2007GL029338. Yang, X., T. Lay, X. B. Xie, and M. S. Thorne (2007). Geometric spreading of Pn and Sn in a spherical earth model, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am. 97: 2053-2065. 175

  5. Pb-LEX-HPLC分析秸秆糖化液中葡萄糖和木糖含量%Analysis of Glucose and Xylose in Corn Straw Saccharification Solution by Pb-LEX-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏禹; 孙蕊; 李朝阳; 李良玉; 郑宏达; 韩福生

    2014-01-01

    建立了秸秆糖化液中两种单糖的铅配位体交换高效液相色谱分析方法.分离柱采用Sepax Carbomix Pb-NP10(300×7.8 mmID,10μm,8%交联度)色谱柱,柱温80℃;流动相采用乙腈/水=5/95(v/v),流速0.60 mL· min-1;示差折光检测器温度35℃;样品采用自制活性炭固相萃取装置处理.葡萄糖和木糖25 min内完成分离,在0.2~10.0 mg·mL-1浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系,方法检测限分别为0.094 mg· mL-1和0.098 mg·mL-1.方法样品前处理简便,重现性好,结果准确.

  6. La intertextualidad en el cine de Álex de la Iglesia:El caso del cómic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neftalí Pérez Franco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo repasa la influencia del tebeo en las películas del director vasco, Alex de la Iglesia, cuyas primeras obras artísticas se deben a su condición de joven autor de historietas. El cine de este cineasta está marcado por claras reminiscencias provenientes de las viñetas: los superhéroes patéticos de Acción mutante se mueven por un contexto futurista muy del cómic de ciencia ficción; el humor estereotipado y los personajes grotescos del tebeo de la editorial Bruguera inundan todas sus comedias; o también son destacables los diversos homenajes narrativos o estéticos a la escuela franco-belga de Hergé y Goscinny. Esta fuerte influencia recorre toda su filmografía desde la mencionada ópera prima Acción mutante, hasta Crimen Ferpecto, pasando por títulos como El día de la bestia, Perdita Durango, Muertos de risa o La comunidad, hasta convertirse en un autor abanderado del fenómeno freak que marca tendencia en el cine español.

  7. A unified structural/terminological interoperability framework based on LexEVS: application to TRANSFoRm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ethier, J.F.; Dameron, O.; Curcin, V.; McGilchrist, M.M.; Verheij, R.A.; Arvanitis, T.N.; Taweel, A.; Delaney, B.C.; Burgun, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Biomedical research increasingly relies on the integration of information from multiple heterogeneous data sources. Despite the fact that structural and terminological aspects of interoperability are interdependent and rely on a common set of requirements, current efforts typically addres

  8. Refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx through a small incision (SMILE for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ağca A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alper Ağca,1 Ahmet Demirok,2 Yusuf Yıldırım,1 Ali Demircan,1 Dilek Yaşa,1 Ceren Yeşilkaya,1 İrfan Perente,1 Muhittin Taşkapılı1 1Beyoğlu Eye Research and Training Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE is an alternative to laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. SMILE can be performed for the treatment of myopia ≤-12 D and astigmatism ≤5 D. The technology is currently only available in the VisuMax femtosecond laser platform. It offers several advantages over LASIK and PRK; however, hyperopia treatment, topography-guided treatment, and cyclotorsion control are not available in the current platform. The working principles, potential advantages, and disadvantages are discussed in this review. Keywords: SMILE, small-incision lenticule extraction, femtosecond laser, laser in situ keratomileusis, corneal biomechanics

  9. Comment on the Theory of Determining Lex Causae%确定准据法的理论评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕岩峰

    2004-01-01

    确定准据法,是冲突规范的基本功能和根本目标.传统的国际私法理论主要就是确定准据法的理论,而确定准据法的理论则是传统国际私法存在的精神基础.从"法则区别说"到"法律关系本座说"再到"最密切联系说"等,既标志着国际私法的历史进程,也反映着人们探寻确定准据法的原则、规则和方法的思索轨迹.这些理论的宗旨是解释和调和适用外国法与内国国家主权(或属地优越权)之间的矛盾.

  10. MAX-DOAS observations and their application to the validation of satellite and model data in Wuxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wagner, T.; Xie, P.; Theys, N.; De Smedt, I.; Koukouli, M.; Stavrakou, T.; Beirle, S.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    Thomas Wagner1, Pinhua Xie2, Nicolas Theys3, Isabelle De Smedt3, MariLiza Koukouli4, Trissevgeni Stavrakou3, Steffen Beirle1, Ang Li2,1) Satellite group, Max Planck institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany2) Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China 3) BIRA-IASB, Brussels, Belgium 4) Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece From 2011 to 2014 a MAX-DOAS instrument developed by the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics institute is operated in Wuxi, China, which is locatd about 100 km west of Shanghai. We determine the tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs), near surface concentrations and vertical profiles of aerosols, NO2, SO2, HCHO from the MAX-DOAS observations using the optimal estimation profile retrieval algorithm (refered to as "PriAM"). We verified the results by comparing them with results from independent techniques, such as sun photometer (AERONET), a visibility meter and a long-path DOAS instrument. We acquire the cloud and aerosol conditions using a cloud classification scheme based on the MAX-DOAS observations (Wang et al., AMTD, 2015). Based on the obtained results, we characterize the effect of the clouds on the trace gas and aerosol profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS. Then we characterize the diurnal, annual and weekly variations of the trace gases and aerosols and validate the tropospheric trace gas VCDs derived from the Ozone Monitoring instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite platform as well as the model results from the IMAGES, CHIMERE and Lotos-Euros models and analyse the agreement depending on the cloud and aerosol conditions. Besides the direct comparison with the satellite data, we also use the trace gas and aerosol profiles derived from MAX-DOAS to recalculate the air mass factor (AMF) for the satellite observations and to evaluate the corresponding improvement of the satellite VCDs. In some periods with strong aerosol pollution, we evaluate the

  11. Preparation of liposomal amiodarone and investigation of its cardiomyocyte-targeting ability in cardiac radiofrequency ablation rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuge Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhuge,1,* Zhi-Feng Zheng,1,* Mu-Qing Xie,2 Lin Li,2 Fang Wang,1 Feng Gao2,3 1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The objective of this study was to develop an amiodarone hydrochloride (ADHC-loaded liposome (ADHC-L formulation and investigate its potential for cardiomyocyte targeting after cardiac radiofrequency ablation (CA in vivo. The ADHC-L was prepared by thin-film method combined with ultrasonication and extrusion. The preparation process was optimized by Box–Behnken design with encapsulation efficiency as the main evaluation index. The optimum formulation was quantitatively obtained with a diameter of 99.9±0.4 nm, a zeta potential of 35.1±10.9 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency of 99.5%±13.3%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes were spherical particles with integrated bilayers and well dispersed with high colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies were investigated in rats after intravenous administration, which revealed that compared with free ADHC treatment, ADHC-L treatment showed a 5.1-fold increase in the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over a period of 24 hours (AUC0–24 h and an 8.5-fold increase in mean residence time, suggesting that ADHC-L could facilitate drug release in a more stable and sustained manner while increasing the circulation time of ADHC, especially in the blood. Biodistribution studies of ADHC-L demonstrated that ADHC concentration in the heart was 4.1 times higher after ADHC-L treatment in CA rat model compared with ADHC-L sham-operated treatment at 20 minutes postinjection. Fluorescence imaging studies further proved that the heart

  12. Contrast between liuXie's"Origin of Tao" and Carl Jung's "Prorotype"%刘勰"原道"说与荣格"原型"说比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轻鸿

    2007-01-01

    荣格对中国的"道"极有兴趣,试图将之纳入到原型批评的理论框架,刘勰"原道"说就是立足于中国传统文化关于文学本原的探究,与荣格着眼于求索人类文化心理大体相似性的原型批评有相通之处.然而,荣格的原型说立足于宗教观念,从神的形象中归纳出原型;而原道说则是在人与自然的诗意关系的基础上,构建人类精神文化的基本形态.原道说对自然的亲和中所蕴含的生态论美学思想不失为拯救陷入困境的原型批评的良方.

  13. Tong-xie-ning, a Chinese herbal formula, in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective,randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; HUANG Xi; ZHANG Rui-ming; LI Ting-qian; WANG Lei; XIA Qing; CHANG Jing; ZHANG Ying; WAN Mei-hua; GUO Jia; CHENG Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Currently the main components of treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include patient education and reassurance, dietary modification,symptomatic treatment, and psychological treatment,but little evidence exists that the current pharmaceutical agents routinely used in treating IBS patients are efficacious.1 Partly from lack of effective conventional therapeutics and in search of better treatment options, many patients with IBS in both the east and west have turned to complementary and alternative approaches, including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).2,3

  14. Liu Xie's Theory of Literary Style Established in the Literary Heart and the Carving of Dragons%《文心雕龙》论风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛保平

    2001-01-01

    以为核心构建了精深完备的文学风格理论.刘勰认为作品的风格是由创作主体的性情决定的,并结合文学创作实际将文学风格归纳为八种基本类型,开后世风格类型学之先河.

  15. Calculs et rationalités dans la seigneurie médiévale : les conversions de redevances entre xie et xve siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Les 26 et 27 octobre 2006, la maison du Coche d’Eau accueillait une rencontre scientifique portant sur les conversions de redevance dans la seigneurie médiévale dont les actes sont contenus dans cet ouvrage.Dans le cadre d’une réflexion collective animée par le Lamop sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, cet ouvrage de référence définit certains des critères guidant la prise de décision des seigneurs en matière de politique économique. Il démontre que, loin d’être des surconsommateur...

  16. Concerning the Use of Western Medical Terms to Represent Traditional Chinese Medical Concepts ——Answer to Prof. XIE and His Colleagues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigel Wiseman

    2006-01-01

    This paper strongly rejects the notion that the use of biomedical terms to represent traditional Chinese medical concepts is helpful to the internationalization of Chinese medicine. It further argues that translation for this term is unsatisfactory, because (1) the clinical reference is not identical, (2) it introduces the concepts of "conjunctiva" and "inflammation", which are not Chinese medical concepts, and (3) destroys the Chinese medical concepts "wind" and "fire" expressed in the Chinese, which reflect the way the disease is traditionally diagnosed and treated. While for English readers not familiar with Chinese medicine, "acute conjunctivitis" may be immediately intelligible, for those seeking a deep understanding of the subject, the literal translation (loan translation) "wind-fire eye" is much more helpful. This paper supports these arguments with numerous other examples.

  17. 谢楠满怀爱心的古典与浪漫%Violinist Xie Nan's Classic and Romantic Music Shows Her Charity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小龙

    2009-01-01

    @@ 在中国当代小提琴家中,谢楠是一位佼佼者.这不仅因为她超群的演奏才华,更因为她为了音乐执着进取,对待生活充满爱心的品格魅力.记得多年以前,笔者曾在音乐会上亲耳聆听她演奏的,后来又听了维瓦尔第的小提琴协奏曲.

  18. Woman Personage XieDaoYun's Demeanour of "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove"%女中名士谢道韫的"林下风气"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏翔

    2007-01-01

    玄学思潮的兴起,带动了魏晋时期社会风气的转移.崇尚自然、追求个性、向往自由成为时代的风尚,魏晋时期的妇女也深受影响,她们努力冲破名教伦理纲常的束缚,充分发挥自己的才智与风情,呈现出前所未有的精神风貌.一代才女谢道韫更是以其旷达玄远的"林下风气"成为魏晋新女性的典型,深得时人的赏识和敬重.

  19. Literature Review Of Gentriifcation In China/Xie Dixiang, Chang Jiang%我国城市更新中的绅士化研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涤湘; 常江

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature of gentrification in the past 15 years, discusses the concept, connotation, difference between urban renewal and gentriifcation, and divides past literature into four types:concept introduction, literature review, positive study, and theoretical study. The paper indicates future study of gentriifcation shal turn to second and third frontier cities, incorporate qualitative and quantitative studies, cares about the needs and emotions of residents, and cal s for consideration of social equity, reorientation of urban planning, and non-proift organization involvement in future urban renewal.%文章通过详细论述绅士化的概念与内涵、城市更新与绅士化的异同及绅士化研究的意义,系统梳理了15年来我国绅士化的研究进展,并将我国的绅士化研究归纳为概念引介型、文献综述型、实证研究型与理论探索型4类。在此基础上,文章指出未来我国的绅士化研究需加强对二、三线城市的关注,采取量性与质性相结合的研究方法及关注居民深层次的情感变化等,并对我国的城市更新提出注重社会公平、重新定位城乡规划角色和倡导非营利组织参与等建议。

  20. Une collection authentiquée d'actes du couvent de Patmos et ses notices dorsales (XIe s.. Notes de diplomatique byzantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Era L. VRANOUSSI

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available   Chryssa Maltézou Les documents latins du Couvent de Patmos Les archives du couvent de Patmos conservent 68 documents latins, qu'on peut diviser en trois catégories: 1. documents qui se rapportent, à une dépendance du monastère, le métoque de St. Jean de Stylos, en Crète; 2. documents qui se rapportent aux privilèges accordés au monastère de Patmos par des papes, des empereurs, des doges et des Hospitaliers de Rhodes et 3. documents qui se rapportent à la question de la quête (ζητεία, exercée par les moines de Patmos, pendant la domination turque, pour obtenir la protection des Etats catholiques.L'étude est un exposé des recherches effectuées par l'auteur pendant deux missions, l'une aux archives du couvent de Patmos (août 1970 et l'autre aux Archives d'État de Venise (septembre-novembre 1970. À Patmos l'auteur s'est efforcé d'identifier les documents latins du monastère avec ceux connus par l'édition de Miklosich-Müller et elle a découvert en outre 30 documents inédits, dont elle a fait la description totale. Aux Archives d'État de Venise l'auteur a pu constater que les copies des documents vénitiens, que possède lé couvent de Patmos, sont précieuses, les originaux provenant de la Chancellerie de La Canèe ayant disparu; en effet, Morosini, après la chute de Crète, transporta à Venise les archives de Candie et une partie seulement des archives de La Canèe. En outre l'auteur signale 20 documents inédits relatifs aux privilèges accordés par la République de Venise tant au monastère de Patmos, qu'au métoque de Stylos, et s'est efforcé d'identifier un document patmien inédit (de l'an 1577 très endommagé (cf. table n° 30 avec la copie officielle conservée à Venise.Suit l'édition des documents ci-dessous: un registre de Stylos, composé en 1506, comprenant la description des limites du métoque et de sa propriété terrienne (σώχωρα, μοῖραι; la lettre du doge Michael Steno (1401, qui révoque la décision d'accorder le métoque de Stylos à l'évêque de Calamon (ἐπίσκοπος Καλαμῶνος Antonio de Bellançinis; la lettre de l'higoumène Jean du monastère de Patmos au doge de Venise Marino Grimani, le félicitant pour son élection (1595; le document de l'an 1577, conservant les privilèges de 1481 et 1486 accordés à Patmos par Venise.L'étude s'achève avec un index des noms propres et le lexique des mots figurant dans le registre de Stylos.     

  1. Excavation on the XieJiabu Site in Changle County, Shandong%山东昌乐县谢家埠遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹元启; 李学训; 赵启文; 刘增先; 李瑞敬

    2005-01-01

    In 1989, in concert with the construction of the highway from Jinan to Qingdao, a rescuing excavation was carried out on the Xiejiabu site in Changle County, Shandong. The site is about 10,000 sq m in remaining area and 1 - 3.5m high above the surrounding ground. The work resulted in the revelation of 68 tombs, 27 ash-pits, two house-foundations, a pottery-firing kiln and a well of the Longshan, Shang-Zhou and Han-Tang periods. The unearthed objects include mainly pottery and porcelain,and also bronze, iron, stone and jade artifacts. As a group of vestiges covering a long time, from the Longshan culture via Shang-Zhou times to the Han-Tang period, the site has provided valuable material for studying the history and culture of those ages.

  2. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures - Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests with the NASA F-18 high-alpha research vehicle (HARV) have yielded pressure distributions at angles of attack from 10 to 50 deg, at Mach 0.23 to 0.6, at five fuselage forebody stations and three on the leading-edge extensions (LEXs). Correlations are made between these data and both previously obtained HARV flow visualizations and wind tunnel model test results. The general trend is one in which the forebody's maximum suction pressure peaks increase in magnitude, after their first appearance at alpha of about 19 deg, with increasing alpha. LEX pressure-distribution trends involve the inward progression of the maximum suction peaks, an increase in the magnitude of the maximum pressure peaks up to pressure core breakdown, and the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond the LEX primary vortex breakdown.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between psoriasis symptom severity and quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis-Beck C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Colin Lewis-Beck,1 Safiya Abouzaid,2 Lin Xie,3 Onur Baser,3,4 Edward Kim51Freddie Mac, Washington, DC, 2Eisai, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 3STATinMED Research, 4The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USABackground: Plaque psoriasis is a chronic disease characterized by scaly plaques on the skin that can itch and bleed. Psoriasis covering over 10% of the body is classified as moderate to severe, and can impact patient quality of life.Objectives: To assess the relationship between plaque psoriasis self-reported severity symptoms and health-related quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.Methods: The study sample included 199 patients recruited from internet panels, of which 179 respondents had plaque psoriasis and 20 had plaque and inverse psoriasis. Itching, pain, and scaling symptoms were studied. A structural equation modeling framework was used to estimate the effect of these symptoms on patient outcomes. First, each severity variable was regressed on a set of covariates to generate a predicted severity score. These predicted values were placed in a second-stage model with patient mental and physical scores (Short-Form 12 questionnaire, work productivity, and activity impairment indicators as dependent variables.Results: Itching severity had a marginal negative effect (P < 0.06 on patients' Short-Form 12 physical and mental component scores. Pain severity also negatively affected physical and mental health scores (P < 0.02. Patients were more likely to miss work because of itching (odds ratio [OR]: 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 4.10, pain (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.52, and scaling (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.52 symptoms. These symptoms also lowered self-reported productivity. As itching (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.95, scaling (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.90, and pain symptoms (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.09 increased

  4. Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  5. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  6. Modelling business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Business model design does not always produce a “design” or “model” as the expected result. However, when designers are involved, a visual model or artifact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers’ challenge is to combine both strategy and design n

  7. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  8. Xie Tianzhen, A Founder and Advocator of Medio-Translatology and Translation Studies in China: An Interview with Prof.Xie%译介学与翻译学:创始人与倡导者——谢天振教授访谈录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建青

    2014-01-01

    本文是对著名学者谢天振教授的访谈,话题涉及译介学及翻译学学科建设多个方面.谢教授期待时代语境的新变化能够促使中国翻译研究取得新突破,他主张:学科建设不能搞“大跃进”,学术研究需要积极营造自由论争的学术氛围,要注意引导学生培养三大意识:即问题意识,理论意识,创新意识.谢教授还非常坦率地谈及其两大学术研究的遗憾:一是其“翻译文学史”类著作未能真正达到其提出的“翻译文学史”的理想设想;二在传播中国学术包括其自己的学术成果向外“走向世界”方面做得很不够.这也深含谢教授对年轻学者的殷殷期盼与嘱托,期望学界很好加以弥补.

  9. Actant Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Helle

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants.......This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants....

  10. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  11. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  12. Promoting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  13. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to...

  14. The Dispute Settlement Model of Regional Head Election Perspective Theory of Legal System in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Mulyadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of law enforcement depends on three law aspects; those are the structure of law, the substance of the law, and legal culture. Law structure is about the law enforcers, law substance is about the legislative means, and law culture is about a living law adopted by society. This study defines the background of simultaneous regional head elections in Indonesia, the problems of the simultaneous regional head elections in Indonesia, and the implementation of legal system theory to solve the simultaneous regional head election problems in Indonesia. The research method used is normative juridical with the specification of descriptive analysis research. The result of the research is needed permanent law structures that cover (Election Police, Election Prosecutor, Election lawyer, and Election Jury, the law substance through the issuing of general regulations (lex general which can integrate the Laws of Legislative, Presidential, and Regional Head Elections (lex specialist and the legal culture of society as human behavior (including the legal culture of law enforcement officers on the electoral law and law system that are in force at the moment.

  15. Model Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new conception:model warehouse,analyzes the reason why model warehouse appears and introduces the characteristics and architecture of model warehouse.Last,this paper points out that model warehouse is an important part of WebGIS.

  16. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also......This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  17. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  18. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  19. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures: Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure distributions measured on the forebody and the leading-edge extensions (LEX's) of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) were reported at 10 and 50 degree angles of attack and at Mach 0.20 to 0.60. The results were correlated with HARV flow visualization and 6-percent scale F-18 wind-tunnel-model test results. The general trend in the data from the forebody was for the maximum suction pressure peaks to first appear at an angle of attack (alpha) of approximately 19 degrees and increase in magnitude with angle of attack. The LEX pressure distribution general trend was the inward progression and increase in magnitude of the maximum suction peaks up to vortex core breakdown and then the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond that. No significant effect of Mach number was noted for the forebody results. However, a substantial compressibility effect on the LEX's resulted in a significant reduction in vortex-induced suction pressure as Mach number increased. The forebody primary and the LEX secondary vortex separation lines, from surface flow visualization, correlated well with the end of pressure recovery, leeward and windward, respectively, of maximum suction pressure peaks. The flight to wind-tunnel correlations were generally good with some exceptions.

  20. Análisis de las bases de datos: El Derecho, Westlaw España, vLex Premium y La Ley Digital

    OpenAIRE

    López Hurtado, Mariana; Valentín Ruiz, Francisco José

    2009-01-01

    Este análisis recoge un estudio de las cuatro principales bases de datos relacionadas con el Derecho: “El Derecho”, “Westlaw España”, “vLex”, y “La Ley Digital”. El objetivo de este trabajo es la identificación de los aspectos positivos y los que deben mejorarse dentro de cada una de las cuatro bases de datos, con el fin de presentar una visión objetiva que permita seleccionar la base de datos más adecuada para cada tipo de institución, atendiendo a sus necesidades específicas. Para el pre...

  1. Organic Electroluminescence Cells with Narrow Green Emission from Terbium Comp lexes%稀土铽配合物有机电致发光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振波; 白峰; 高新; 徐征; 侯延冰; 徐叙瑢

    2001-01-01

    利用三价稀土铽配合物作为发射层、二胺衍生物(TPD)以及聚乙烯咔唑(PVK)作为空穴传输层制备了有机电致发光器件. 器件的结构为: 玻璃衬底/ITO/PVK 或者TPD/Tb3+ 配合物/Al, 其中空穴传输层TPD 和发光层Tb3+-配合物采用热蒸发办法成膜. 而空穴传输层PVK采用旋甩涂敷的方法成膜. 对于以上的两种器件均获得了来自Tb3+ 的窄峰发射, 在直流电压15.4 V驱动下, 器件发光亮度达210 cd·m-2.

  2. LEX在ATLAS-C翻译器设计中的应用%Application of LEX on Designing ATLAS-C Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红玉; 张平

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS翻译器是ATLAS编译器开发中重要的组成部分.本文从翻译器最基本的部分-词法分析器着手,着重介绍了应用词法分析器生成工具LEX实现ATLAS语言到C语言的词法分析器设计过程,实践表明该方法可以使ATLAS语言词法分析工作高效省时.

  3. Ganglioside biosynthesis in developing brains and apoptotic cancer cells: X. regulation of glyco-genes involved in GD3 and Sialyl-Lex/a syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhash; Ma, Rui; Moskal, Joseph R; Basu, Manju

    2012-06-01

    Gangliosides, the acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) containing N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid are ubiquitous in the central nervous system. At least six DSL-glycosyltransferase activities (GLTs Gangliosides, the acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) containing N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid (or NAc-Neuraminic acid) are ubiquitous in the central nervous system. At least six GSL-glycosyltransferase activities (GLTs) of Basu-Roseman pathway catalyzing the biosynthesis of these gangliosides have been characterized in developing chicken brains. Most of these glyco-genes are expressed in the early stages (7-17 days) of brain development and lowered in the adult stage, but the cause of reduction of enzymatic activities of these GLTs in the adult stages is not known. In order to study glyco-gene regulation we used four clonal metastatic cancer cells of colon and breast cancer tissue origin (Colo-205, SKBR-3, MDA-468, and MCF-3). The glyco-genes for synthesis of SA-LeX and SA-LeA (which contain N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and fucose) in these cells were modulated differently at different phases (between 2 and 48 h) of apoptotic inductions. L-PPMP, D-PDMP (inhibitor of glucosylceramide biosynthesis), Betulinic Acid (a triterpinoid isolated from bark of certain trees and used for cancer treatment in China), Tamoxifen a drug in use in the west for treatment of early stages of the disease in breast cancer patients), and cis-platin (an inhibitor of DNA biosynthesis used for testicular cancer patients) were used for induction of apoptosis in the above-mentioned cell lines. Within 2-6 h, transcriptional modulation of a number of glyco-genes was observed by DNA-micro-array (containing over 300 glyco genes attached to the glass cover slips) studies. Under long incubation time (24-48 h) almost all of the glyco-genes were downregulated. The cause of these glyco-gene regulations during apoptotic induction in metastatic carcinoma cells is unknown and needs future investigations for further explanations. These apoptotic agents could be employed as a new generation of anti-cancer drugs after properly delivered to the patients.

  4. Análisis de las bases de datos: El Derecho, Westlaw España, vLex Premium y La Ley Digital

    OpenAIRE

    López Hurtado, Mariana; Valentín Ruiz, Francisco José

    2009-01-01

    Este análisis recoge un estudio de las cuatro principales bases de datos relacionadas con el Derecho: “El Derecho”, “Westlaw España”, “vLex”, y “La Ley Digital”. El objetivo de este trabajo es la identificación de los aspectos positivos y los que deben mejorarse dentro de cada una de las cuatro bases de datos, con el fin de presentar una visión objetiva que permita seleccionar la base de datos más adecuada para cada tipo de institución, atendiendo a sus necesidades específicas. Para el pre...

  5. Advancing Renewable Materials by Light and X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Yvonne A

    2014-03-26

    With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have completed systematic study of the influence of cooling rate [Xie et al, J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 2008] and nanofiller [Xie et al, Polymer 2009] characteristics on model bionanocomposites. Structure-property relationships for a model bionanocomposites system were investigated. These results yielded new fundamental knowledge that supports the discovery of cost-effective manufacturing technologies for a family of promising polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) polyesters, with the potential to replace polyethylene and polypropylene (see Noda letter). Our results show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the data. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Instead, improvement depends on the molecular weight of the polymer matrix and unknown filler-matrix interactions.

  6. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  7. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  8. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A; Manoj, N.T.

    Various numerical models used to study the dynamics and horizontal distribution of salinity in Mandovi-Zuari estuaries, Goa, India is discussed in this chapter. Earlier, a one-dimensional network model was developed for representing the complex...

  9. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  10. MODELING CONSCIOUSNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present tentative answers to three questions: firstly, what is to be assumed about the structure of the brain in attacking the problem of modeling consciousness; secondly, what is it about consciousness that is attempting to be modeled; and finally, what is taken on board the modeling enterprise, if anything, from the vast works by philosophers about the nature of mind.

  11. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sclütter, Flemming; Frigaard, Peter; Liu, Zhou

    This report presents the model test results on wave run-up on the Zeebrugge breakwater under the simulated prototype storms. The model test was performed in January 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The detailed description of the model is given...

  12. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  13. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...

  14. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  15. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-13

    and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation...parametrization, and workflow automation. (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agi- lent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed

  16. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.......Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares...

  17. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  18. Reversible femtosecond laser-assisted myopia correction: a non-human primate study of lenticule re-implantation after refractive lenticule extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri K Riau

    Full Text Available LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis is a common laser refractive procedure for myopia and astigmatism, involving permanent removal of anterior corneal stromal tissue by excimer ablation beneath a hinged flap. Correction of refractive error is achieved by the resulting change in the curvature of the cornea and is limited by central corneal thickness, as a thin residual stromal bed may result in biomechanical instability of the cornea. A recently developed alternative to LASIK called Refractive Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx utilizes solely a femtosecond laser (FSL to incise an intrastromal refractive lenticule (RL, which results in reshaping the corneal curvature and correcting the myopia and/or astigmatism. As the RL is extracted intact in the ReLEx, we hypothesized that it could be cryopreserved and re-implanted at a later date to restore corneal stromal volume, in the event of keratectasia, making ReLEx a potentially reversible procedure, unlike LASIK. In this study, we re-implanted cryopreserved RLs in a non-human primate model of ReLEx. Mild intrastromal haze, noted during the first 2 weeks after re-implantation, subsided after 8 weeks. Refractive parameters including corneal thickness, anterior curvature and refractive error indices were restored to near pre-operative values after the re-implantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed no myofibroblast formation or abnormal collagen type I expression after 8 weeks, and a significant attenuation of fibronectin and tenascin expression from week 8 to 16 after re-implantation. In addition, keratocyte re-population could be found along the implanted RL interfaces. Our findings suggest that RL cryopreservation and re-implantation after ReLEx appears feasible, suggesting the possibility of potential reversibility of the procedure, and possible future uses of RLs in treating other corneal disorders and refractive errors.

  19. Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  20. Sustainable bioenergy production

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Section I Fundamentals of Engineering Analysis and Design of Bioenergy Production SystemsGenetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops toward High Biofuel ProductionGuosheng Xie and Liangcai PengNovel Cropping Technologies and Management Applied to Energy CropsLorenzo BarbantiMathematical Modeling in Biomass and Bioenergy SystemsLijun Wang, Samuel Asomaning Agyemang and Abolghasem ShahbaziLife-Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy SystemsReinout Heijungs and Edi Iswanto WilosoSustainability of Bioenergy Systems

  1. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  2. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....

  3. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  4. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2012-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  5. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter

    This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University.......This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University....

  6. Stream Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    the engineers, but as the scale and the complexity of the hydraulic works increased, the mathematical models became so complex that a mathematical solution could not be obtained. This created a demand for new methods and again the experimental investigation became popular, but this time as measurements on small......-scale models. But still the scale and complexity of hydraulic works were increasing, and soon even small-scale models reached a natural limit for some applications. In the mean time the modern computer was developed, and it became possible to solve complex mathematical models by use of computer-based numerical...

  7. Ventilation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to

  8. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  9. Model Selection for Geostatistical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2006-02-01

    We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.

  10. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful to...

  11. Didactical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful to construct this approach in mathematics education research.

  12. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  13. Martingale Model

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model determines a stochastic continuous process as continuous limit of a stochastic discrete process so to show that the stochastic continuous process converges to the stochastic discrete process such that we can integrate it. Furthermore, the model determines the expected volatility and the expected mean so to show that the volatility and the mean are increasing function of the time.

  14. Dispersion Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  15. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  16. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  17. Linguistic models and linguistic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedryez, W; Vasilakos, A V

    1999-01-01

    The study is concerned with a linguistic approach to the design of a new category of fuzzy (granular) models. In contrast to numerically driven identification techniques, we concentrate on budding meaningful linguistic labels (granules) in the space of experimental data and forming the ensuing model as a web of associations between such granules. As such models are designed at the level of information granules and generate results in the same granular rather than pure numeric format, we refer to them as linguistic models. Furthermore, as there are no detailed numeric estimation procedures involved in the construction of the linguistic models carried out in this way, their design mode can be viewed as that of a rapid prototyping. The underlying algorithm used in the development of the models utilizes an augmented version of the clustering technique (context-based clustering) that is centered around a notion of linguistic contexts-a collection of fuzzy sets or fuzzy relations defined in the data space (more precisely a space of input variables). The detailed design algorithm is provided and contrasted with the standard modeling approaches commonly encountered in the literature. The usefulness of the linguistic mode of system modeling is discussed and illustrated with the aid of numeric studies including both synthetic data as well as some time series dealing with modeling traffic intensity over a broadband telecommunication network.

  18. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  19. Model hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W.D.

    1972-01-01

    Model hydrographs are composed of pairs of dimensionless ratios, arrayed in tabular form, which, when modified by the appropriate values of rainfall exceed and by the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basin, satisfactorily represent the flood hydrograph for the basin. Model bydrographs are developed from a dimensionless translation hydrograph, having a time base of T hours and appropriately modified for storm duration by routing through reservoir storage, S=kOx. Models fall into two distinct classes: (1) those for which the value of x is unity and which have all the characteristics of true unit hydrographs and (2) those for which the value of x is other than unity and to which the unit-hydrograph principles of proportionality and superposition do not apply. Twenty-six families of linear models and eight families of nonlinear models in tabular form from the principal subject of this report. Supplemental discussions describe the development of the models and illustrate their application. Other sections of the report, supplemental to the tables, describe methods of determining the hydrograph characteristics, T, k, and x, both from observed hydrograph and from the physical characteristics of the drainage basin. Five illustrative examples of use show that the models, when properly converted to incorporate actual rainfall excess and the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basins, do indeed satisfactorily represent the observed flood hydrographs for the basins.

  20. Stereometric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, P.

    2012-07-01

    These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : - the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program); - the shot visualization in two distinct windows - the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view

  1. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C(α) RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  3. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...... the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how...

  4. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these no...

  5. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  6. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  7. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  8. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  9. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  10. Lift-enhancing surfaces on several advanced V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smith, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of forward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate that larger LEX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  11. Lift-enhancing surfaces on several advanced V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smith, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of forward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate that larger LEX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  12. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  13. Do stroke models model stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mergenthaler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the biggest reason for long-term disability. Basic research has formed the modern understanding of stroke pathophysiology, and has revealed important molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms. However, despite decades of research, most translational stroke trials that aim to introduce basic research findings into clinical treatment strategies – most notably in the field of neuroprotection – have failed. Among other obstacles, poor methodological and statistical standards, negative publication bias, and incomplete preclinical testing have been proposed as ‘translational roadblocks’. In this article, we introduce the models commonly used in preclinical stroke research, discuss some of the causes of failed translational success and review potential remedies. We further introduce the concept of modeling ‘care’ of stroke patients, because current preclinical research models the disorder but does not model care or state-of-the-art clinical testing. Stringent statistical methods and controlled preclinical trials have been suggested to counteract weaknesses in preclinical research. We conclude that preclinical stroke research requires (1 appropriate modeling of the disorder, (2 appropriate modeling of the care of stroke patients and (3 an approach to preclinical testing that is similar to clinical testing, including Phase 3 randomized controlled preclinical trials as necessary additional steps before new therapies enter clinical testing.

  14. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....

  15. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  16. Inflatable Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Vasily Volkov

    2006-01-01

    A physically-based model is presented for the simulation of a new type of deformable objects-inflatable objects, such as shaped balloons, which consist of pressurized air enclosed by an elastic surface. These objects have properties inherent in both 3D and 2D elastic bodies, as they demonstrate the behaviour of 3D shapes using 2D formulations. As there is no internal structure in them, their behaviour is substantially different from the behaviour of deformable solid objects. We use one of the few available models for deformable surfaces, and enhance it to include the forces of internal and external pressure. These pressure forces may also incorporate buoyancy forces, to allow objects filled with a low density gas to float in denser media. The obtained models demonstrate rich dynamic behaviour, such as bouncing, floating, deflation and inflation.

  17. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...

  18. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  19. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  20. Smashnova Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaram, C

    2007-01-01

    An alternate model for gamma ray bursts is suggested. For a white dwarf (WD) and neutron star (NS) very close binary system, the WD (close to Mch) can detonate due to tidal heating, leading to a SN. Material falling on to the NS at relativistic velocities can cause its collapse to a magnetar or quark star or black hole leading to a GRB. As the material smashes on to the NS, it is dubbed the Smashnova model. Here the SN is followed by a GRB. NS impacting a RG (or RSG) (like in Thorne-Zytkow objects) can also cause a SN outburst followed by a GRB. Other variations are explored.

  1. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  2. Comment on “Correlation and relativistic effects in U metal and U-Zr alloy: Validation of ab initio approaches”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderlind, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landa, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turchi, P. E. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In a recent paper, Xie et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 235128 (2013)], report that the density-functional theory (DFT) with the so-called DFT plus Hubbard U (DFT+U) modification improves energetics, volumes, and formation enthalpies over the standard form of DFT for uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. Also, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) was argued to advance the aforementioned properties in these systems. We demonstrate, contrarily, that neither the Hubbard U approach nor SOC is necessary for a correct description of uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. We further illustrate that the combination of DFT+U and SOC in the projector augmented-wave calculations by Xie et al. results in unrealistically large volume expansions, particularly for γ-U, in stark contrast to all previous calculations for elemental uranium. This in turn may also explain why the DFT+U with SOC model predicts negative enthalpy of mixing in the U-Zr alloy system contradicting conventional DFT as well as one of the main features of the experimental U-Zr phase diagram. The assertion by Xie et al. that DFT+U is an improvement over DFT for these systems is illustrated to be incorrect.

  3. Measuring the performance of FCM versus PSO for fuzzy clustering problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering cellular manufacturing plays an important role in many industrial engineering problems. This paper investigates the performance of two methods of heuristic and metaheuristics fuzzy clustering. The proposed method investigates heuristic well-known FCM and particle swarm optimization (PSO on some well-known benchmarks. We use two criteria of J(P as well as Xie-Beni to compare the results. Three parameters of PSO method is tuned using design of experiment and then the results of PSO are compared versus FCM method in terms of two mentioned criteria. The proposed models are run for each instance 10 different times and, using ANOVA test, the means of two methods are compared. While the results of ANOVA do not indicate any meaningful difference between PSO and FCM in terms of J(P, we have found some meaningful differences between PSO and FCM in terms of Xie-Beni criterion. In other words, PSO performs better than FCM in terms of Xie-Beni.

  4. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Skauge, Jørn

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om......­lering og bygningsmodeller. Det bliver understreget at modellering bør udføres på flere abstraktions­niveauer og i to dimensioner i den såkaldte modelleringsmatrix. Ud fra dette identificeres de primære faser af bygningsmodel­lering. Dernæst beskrives de basale karakteristika for bygningsmodeller. Heri...... inkluderes en præcisering af begreberne objektorienteret software og objektorienteret modeller. Det bliver fremhævet at begrebet objektbaseret modellering giver en tilstrækkelig og bedre forståelse. Endelig beskrives forestillingen om den ideale bygningsmodel som værende én samlet model, der anvendes gennem...

  5. Zeebrugge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.; Frigaard, Peter

    In the following, results from model tests with Zeebrugge breakwater are presented. The objective with these tests is partly to investigate the influence on wave run-up due to a changing waterlevel during a storm. Finally, the influence on wave run-up due to an introduced longshore current...

  6. Why Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eWolkenhauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question Why model?

  7. Why model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"

  8. Model CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Burianová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Cílem první části této bakalářské práce je - pomocí analýzy výchozích textů - teoretické shrnutí ekonomických modelů a teorií, na kterých model CAPM stojí: Markowitzův model teorie portfolia (analýza maximalizace očekávaného užitku a na něm založený model výběru optimálního portfolia), Tobina (rozšíření Markowitzova modelu ? rozdělení výběru optimálního portfolia do dvou fází; nejprve určení optimální kombinace rizikových instrumentů a následná alokace dostupného kapitálu mezi tuto optimální ...

  9. Transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.

  10. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  11. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  12. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  13. Quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    For modelling product behaviour, with respect to quality for users and consumers, its essential to have at least a fundamental notion what quality really is, and which product properties determine the quality assigned by the consumer to a product. In other words: what is allowed and what is to be

  14. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  15. The clinical study of the treatment effect of BuJingHuoXie Granule on melasma%补精活血颗粒治疗肝肾阴虚型黄褐斑的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振洁; 林春生; 李燕红; 邓景航; 朱慧兰

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察补精活血颗粒治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效.方法:将122例患者随机分为两组,治疗组61例,采用补精活血颗粒治疗;对照组61例,采用维生素C、维生素E治疗.结果:总有效率治疗组为93.22%,对照组为78.33%,两组比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论:表明补精活血颗粒能有效治疗黄褐斑,且临床疗效明显优于维生素C和B的联合疗法.

  16. Clinical study of the treatment effect of BuJingHuoXie Granule on melasma%补精活血颗粒治疗肝肾阴虚型黄褐斑的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振洁; 林春生; 李燕红; 邓景航; 朱慧兰

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察补精活血颗粒治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效.方法:将122例患者随机分为两组,治疗组61例,采用补精活血颗粒治疗;对照组61例,采用维生素C、维生素E治疗.结果:治疗组总有效率为93.22%,对照组为78.33%,两组比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论:补精活血颗粒能有效治疗黄褐斑,且临床疗效明显优于维生素C和E的联合疗法.

  17. Addendum: Han, Y.; Grogan-Kaylor, A.; Delva, J.; Xie, Y. Estimating the Heterogeneous Relationship Between Peer Drinking and Youth Alcohol Consumption in Chile Using Propensity Score Stratification. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11879–11897

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsun Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to update the Acknowledgments in their paper published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [1], doi:10.3390/ijerph111111879, website: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/11/11879.[...

  18. 谢冰莹对西方浪漫主义文学的接受和超越%On the Acceptance and Transcendence of Xie Bingying' s Writing to the Western Romantic Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婷; 蒋永国

    2010-01-01

    谢冰莹受西方浪漫主义文学的影响,在思想上接受了西方浪漫主义的平等与自由、叛逆精神和个性主义.同时,革命现实、社会责任感和爱国主义又使她实现了对西方浪主义文学的超越.

  19. 槟城领事谢湘与该地华人社会及其免职风波%The Chinese Consul Xie Xiang's Dismissal and the Local Chinese Community of Penang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘轶; 黄贤强

    2009-01-01

    藉1931年至1933年及的报道,讨论了粤籍人士谢湘任中华民国驻槟榔屿领事期内,在履行保护和管理华侨、组织劝导华侨捐款救灾、促进商务交流提倡国货、发展海外华文教育及履行国府任务等职责中的表现,探讨了其上任一年半被免职的原因及该事件所折射出的槟城华人社会的种种侧面.从槟城华文报纸对谢湘免职的不同立场,可以看出这是一个有争议的历史问题,谢湘之被免职不仅与其任内的表现有关,还与槟城华侨社会不同方言群间的复杂权力关系有关,在深层次上凸显了福建方言群与广东方言群在主导当时槟城华人社会中的重要作用.被免职的谢湘极有可能是槟城华人社会帮权争斗下的一个牺牲品.

  20. Solène Daoudal, Sirènes romanes en Poitou, XIe-XIIe siècles. Avatars sculptés d’une figure mythique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Lett

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Vers 1140, dans la toute dernière lettre qu’il adresse à Héloïse, comme pour se rassurer face à « l’histoire de ses malheurs », Abélard termine par ces mots : « A l'abri de cette foi salutaire, je ne crains pas les aboiements de Scylla, je me ris des gouffres de Charybde, et j’entends sans frémir les chants des sirènes. Si la tempête éclate, je ne suis pas renversé. Si les vents grondent, je ne suis pas ému. Je suis fondé sur une pierre inébranlable ». Dans cet autoportrait du penseur scolast...

  1. 以风格论为主导的作家批评——《文心雕龙·才略》论%Appraisal of writers in Liu Xie's Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大雷

    2002-01-01

    论述作家风格处颇多,而篇是其论作家风格的典范;其论作家风格涉及"才略"、"文"、"辞令华采"三大对象;其论作家风格重在论"各其善也",即论诸作家风格的突出点;其论作家论,或用比较法,或用"迭用短长"法;其论作家风格,多用隐喻性语辞.

  2. Theory of the Zi studies style in Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature by Liu Xie%《文心雕龙·诸子》的子学文体思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐辉

    2005-01-01

    魏晋以降文学自觉历史背景中,刘勰以子文论子学、以文体论子体,建立起一套包括子志、子辨、子辩、子理、子文等在内的子学文体理论,同时经子、史子、子论分化背景中,刘勰也是子学自觉的先行者.

  3. TO FIND OUT THE DISTINCTION --Liu Xie's Second Critical Method in His Book Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature%"见异"--《文心雕龙》批评方法之二

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大雷

    2002-01-01

    "见异",即显示作家或作品的特别之处,刘勰以此为批评方法来实施其批评标准.之所以如此,一来刘勰认为作家之"异"在于其"偏美"、"各其善",二来刘勰认为作品之"异"在于"变文之数无方".

  4. Du don aux églises au don pour le salut de l’âme en Occident (ive-xie siècle : le paradigme eucharistique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Magnani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce sont les historiens du droit les premiers qui se sont intéressés à ce qu’il a été convenu d’appeler les « donations pro anima » : ces actes de donation indépendants des actes de dernière volonté, apparus au début du viie siècle à Ravenne et dès la deuxième moitié du siècle en Gaule  ou dans l’Espagne wisigothique , qui se sont multipliés et devenus le « prototype » de l’acte juridique à l’âge féodal . Les médiévistes, ensuite, incorporant sans les discuter les catégories de l’anthropologie...

  5. FTA for the HiXie Ⅰ locomotive traction blockade fault%和谐1型机车牵引封锁故障的故障树分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    利用故障树方法分析和谐I型机车牵引封锁故障,找出主要故障原因,分析对机车牵引封锁故障影响度较高的原因,最后找出产品薄弱环节,并说明故障树在机车可靠性分析、故障诊断与维修中的应用.

  6. 多种针法联合治疗卒中恢复期吞咽困难疗效观察%Effect of Acupuncture on Dysphagia of Convalescent Stroke Patients XIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解越; 刘泓; 周炜; 王丽平; 郑燕鸿; 张树源; 李志亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨体针、头皮针加电针联合应用对卒中恢复期吞咽困难患者的吞咽功能改善是否优于常规康复训练.方法 将148例卒中恢复期吞咽困难的患者随机分配至针刺组和康复训练组,每组74例.针刺组取患侧风池、完骨、翳风、廉泉、金津、玉液穴;头皮针围刺;体针、头皮针加电针联合应用,每天针刺1次,每周5次为1个疗程,共2~4个疗程.对照组由语言治疗师进行康复训练.治疗后3~6个月对主要结局同时使用意向性分析和符合方案数据分析两种方法评价,并报告"为了避免 1 例不良事件发生必须治疗的患者数(number needed to treat,NNT)"、"处理多少病例可以引起1次副作用(number needed to harm,NNH)"及其95%的可信区间.治疗结束时评价次要结局.结果 治疗结束时和治疗后3个月针刺组洼田吞咽功能痊愈率、洼田饮水试验痊愈率优于康复训练组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗结束时肺部感染率和病死率、治疗后6个月病死率两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组依从性均为100%,针刺组未出现不良反应.结论 针刺对卒中恢复期吞咽困难患者的吞咽功能改善优于常规康复训练,且安全、耐受性好.%Objective To discuss the therapeutic effect on dysphagia of the convalescent stroke by combination of the body acupuncture, the scalp acupuncture and the electric acupuncture could be better than that by routine rehabilitation training.Methods 148 patients with dysphagia of convalescent stroke were randomly assigned to the acupuncture group and rehabilitation group, 74 in each group.Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12), Yifeng (SJ17), Lianquan (RN23), Jinjin (EX-HN12), Yuye (EX-HN12) on the affected side were needled, and the scalp acupuncture was needled.The body acupuncture, the electric acupuncture, and the scalp acupuncture were applied in combination in the acupuncture group.The acupuncture was performed once a day, five times as one therapeutic course, 2 -4 courses totally.Rehabilitation training was performed by language therapists in the control group.The main outcomes were assessed with both intention-to-treat analysis and on-treatment/per-protocol analysis at the same time.The value of number needed to treat (NNT)/number needed to harm (NNH) and their 95% confidence intervals were also reported.The secondary outcomes were assessed by the end of the treatment.Results The recovery rate assessed by Watian swallowing ability, water deinking test in the acupuncture group were better than those of the control group by the end of the treatment and three months after treatment ( P <0.05).There was no statistical significance in the pulmonary infection rate and the mortality or in the 6-month mortality after treatment by the end of the treatment between the two groups (P>0.05).The compliance was 100% in the two groups.No adverse reaction occurred in the acupuncture group.Conclusion Acupuncture for dysphagia of convalescent stroke was better than routine rehabilitation training with safetyand high tolerance.

  7. 广州市青少年运动员焦虑抑郁情绪相关因素分析%Factors associated with anxiety and depression among adolescent elite athletes in Guangzhou city XIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永标; 于兰; 高文明; 周平; 徐莉萍; 彭子文

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between a number of potential risk or protective factors and the risk of depression and anxiety among a population of adolescent elite athletes in Guangzhou city. Methods A whole sample was consisted of 520 students,and the information of their age,gender,characteristics and others was investigated. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales(HADS). Data were analyzed using multiple stepwise regression analysis. Results After adjusting for other variables,students who had a high risk of anxiety were underweight (sβ =2.482) when compared to those who were of normal weight. Reduced risk of anxiety was associated with older students ( sβ = 4. 365), students with moderate educated mothersβ=3. 153) , and students who perceived very high pressure from teachers/coaches (sβ=5.372). A significant increase in the risk of depression was associated with variables including: students aged between 15 and 16 years(sβ =3.367) ,students who had a family history of chronic diseases (sβ =2.765) , and poor overall support(sβ = 4.365). Reduced risk of depression was associated with students with moderate educated mothers( sβ = 6.764) and students who perceived very high pressure from teachers/coaches(sβ = 4. 167). Conclusion Various risk and protective factors have been identified for anxiety and depression. These results have direct implications on the development of appropriate preventive strategies for mental problems among young elite athletes.%目的 探讨青少年运动员焦虑抑郁的危险因素和保护性因素.方法 随机整群抽取广州市两所中等体育运动学校的520名青少年运动员学生,利用综合性医院焦虑抑郁量表(HADS)对焦虑和抑郁情绪程度进行评估,用多元逐步回归分析焦虑抑郁相关影响因素.结果 438名青少年运动员中处于高危焦虑的有30名(6.9%),处于高危抑郁的有76名(17.4%);其中来自老师和教练压力较大(sβ=5.372)、年龄大于17岁(sβ=4.365)、母亲受教育水平中等(sβ=3.153)是焦虑的保护性因素,而低质量(sβ=2.482)则是焦虑的危险性因素;母亲的受教育水平中等(sβ=6.764)、来自老师和教练压力较大(sβ=4.167)是抑郁的保护性因素,而年龄在15~16岁之间(sβ=3.367)、有家族性慢性病史(sβ=2.765)、所受总的支持较差(sβ=4.365)是抑郁的危险性因素.结论 青少年运动员的焦虑抑郁情绪高发,影响因素众多,正确识别这些因素可以预防青少年运动员相关精神疾病的发生.

  8. 龙胆泻肝汤辅助治疗急性附睾睾丸炎疗效观察%Efficiency observation of auxiliary therapeutics of acute epididymo-orchitis in Chinese herb medicines long dan xie gan decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻明号

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨中药龙胆泻肝汤辅助治疗急性附睾睾丸炎的效果及其加减的效果.方法 对我院1998~2004年门诊急性附睾睾丸炎患者的治疗效果分析.大部分给予西药治疗,其中56例给予西药治疗加中药龙胆泻肝汤治疗,随机取2004年度该病50例纯西药治疗作对比.结果 治疗组1周治愈率37%,2周治愈率93%.对照组1周治愈率14%,2周治愈率72%.结论 中西医结合治疗效果明显优于单纯西药治疗.P<0.05差异显著.中西医结合治愈率的特点为附睾复原率高.

  9. Almost All Chinese Independent Brands Have Entered into Syrian Market Interview with Xie Zhongmei, Counsellor of the Ecomomic and Commercial Counsellor's Office of the Embassy of P.R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Q1. This year is the 50th Anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and Syria, and the friendship between the two countries can trace back to 2000 years ago. Would you introduce the development situation of economy and trade relationship between China and Syria?

  10. 获得性再生障碍性贫血发病机制研究最新进展%Recent progeress of pathogenesis in acquired aplastic anemia He Wei,Xie Xiaotian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何薇; 谢晓恬

    2016-01-01

    再生障碍性贫血(再障)是儿童期严重的血液病,尤其是重型再障治疗难度大,病死率高。因为95%左右的再障病例属于获得性再障,所以深入研究获得性再障的发病机制,对于临床诊断和提高疗效均具有重大意义。现对近5年关于儿童获得性再障发病机制的国际最新进展进行综述。%Aplastic anemia (AA)is a serious disease of hematological malignant disease in children.Severe AA is difficult to treat and may lead to high motality.Acquired AA accounts for 95% of all cases,so it′s significant to lucubrate the pathogenesis of acquired AA for clinic diagnosis and therapy.The documents in recent 5 years are collected,and a reviews about the progress of pathogenesis in acquired AA children is provided.

  11. 圖書館事業與交流/UCDRS and Trend of CollaboratedReal Time Digital Reference Servicesin China/Hanrong Wang; Zhaohui Xie; Carley Knight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanrong Wang; Zhaohui Xie; Carley Knight Hanrong Wang; Zhaohui Xie; Carley Knight

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer and Internet technologies provides an alternative way for libraries to better serve their patrons. In addition to traditional reference service, online digital reference is becoming more predominant. Real-time digital reference, another form of online digital reference, allows synchronous communication between patrons and librarians. This reference service was developed in China at the beginning of the 21st century. United Combined Digital Reference Service (UCDRS is currently one of the most visited real-time digital reference services in China. Detailed information on the system work flow, the user and the reference librarian experience, as well as document delivery is discussed in this paper. The authors conclude that UCDRS system of China is a firm and solid example of the trend that is becoming the norm for library reference services in China. 電腦和網路技術的發展,提供圖書館在滿足顧客需求時的另一種服務之道。除了傳統的參考服務,線上數位參考服務也越來越受到重視。作為線上數位參考服務形式之一的“即時數位參考服務”,實現讀者與圖書管理員之間的同步溝通。中國從21 世紀初開始使用即時數位參考服務,「聯合數位參考服務與文獻傳遞服務(UCDRS)」是中國目前使用率最高的即時數位參考服務。本文針對「聯合數位參考服務與文獻傳遞服務(UCDRS)」的系統工作流程、使用者和參考館員的經驗與文件傳遞進行了詳細介紹和探討。作者認為「聯合數位參考服務與文獻傳遞服務(UCDRS)」為目前中國圖書館在參考服務的模範,同時它也代表了中國圖書館參考服務未來的發展趨勢。 頁次:107-115

  12. Information Model for Product Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦国方; 刘慎权

    1992-01-01

    The Key problems in product modeling for integrated CAD ∥CAM systems are the information structures and representations of products.They are taking more and more important roles in engineering applications.With the investigation on engineering product information and from the viewpoint of industrial process,in this paper,the information models are proposed and the definitions of the framework of product information are given.And then,the integration and the consistence of product information are discussed by introucing the entity and its instance.As a summary,the information structures described in this paper have many advantage and natures helpful in engineering design.

  13. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...

  14. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  15. Cheating models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing...... on two cases, this article shows that manipulation more likely happens in the reverse way, meaning that human traders attempt to make algorithms ‘make mistakes’ or ‘mislead’ algos. Thus, it is algorithmic models, not humans, that are manipulated. Such manipulation poses challenges for security exchanges....... The article analyses these challenges and argues that we witness a new post-social form of human-technology interaction that will lead to a reconfiguration of professional codes for financial trading....

  16. Acyclic models

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.

  17. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  18. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  19. Modeling Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John

    others' minds. Then (2), in order to bring to light some possible justifications, as well as hazards and criticisms of the methodology of looking time tests, I will take a closer look at the concept of folk psychology and will focus on the idea that folk psychology involves using oneself as a model...... of other people in order to predict and understand their behavior. Finally (3), I will discuss the historical location and significance of the emergence of looking time tests...

  20. The Dictionary Writing System Lexit and Its Application in Bilingual Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dictionary Writing System Lexit and Its Application in Bilingual Lexicography The paper presents LexIt  – a web-based Dictionary Writing System designed for the creation and enlargement of dictionaries. A wide range of dictionaries – monolingual, specialised, multilingual, thesauri, can be configured with the system, as it enables users to model, copy, and save templates describing the structure of any dictionary. The paper describes a model for a bilingual dictionary containing phonetic, grammatical, stylistic, semantic, and collocational information and its configuration within LexIt. A bilingual dictionary is chosen for a demonstration, as its entries have a complex structure that includes various elements reflecting the correspondences between source and target languages.

  1. Modeling biomembranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.

  2. Model Construct Based Enterprise Model Architecture and Its Modeling Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to support enterprise integration, a kind of model construct based enterprise model architecture and its modeling approach are studied in this paper. First, the structural makeup and internal relationships of enterprise model architecture are discussed. Then, the concept of reusable model construct (MC) which belongs to the control view and can help to derive other views is proposed. The modeling approach based on model construct consists of three steps, reference model architecture synthesis, enterprise model customization, system design and implementation. According to MC based modeling approach a case study with the background of one-kind-product machinery manufacturing enterprises is illustrated. It is shown that proposal model construct based enterprise model architecture and modeling approach are practical and efficient.

  3. DTN Modeling in OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Jan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wireless networks use the concept of the point-to-point forwarding inherited from reliable wired networks which seems to be not ideal for wireless environment. New emerging applications and networks operate mostly disconnected. So-called Delay-Tolerant networks (DTNs are receiving increasing attentions from both academia and industry. DTNs introduced a store-carry-and-forward concept solving the problem of intermittent connectivity. Behavior of such networks is verified by real models, computer simulation or combination of the both approaches. Computer simulation has become the primary and cost effective tool for evaluating the performance of the DTNs. OPNET modeler is our target simulation tool and we wanted to spread OPNET’s simulation opportunity towards DTN. We implemented bundle protocol to OPNET modeler allowing simulate cases based on bundle concept as epidemic forwarding which relies on flooding the network with messages and the forwarding algorithm based on the history of past encounters (PRoPHET. The implementation details will be provided in article.

  4. A Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    Similar to ISO Technical Committees,SAC Technical Committees undertake the management and coordination of standard's development and amendments in various sectors in industry,playing the role as a bridge among enterprises,research institutions and the governmental standardization administration.How to fully play the essential role is the vital issue SAC has been committing to resolve.Among hundreds of SAC TCs,one stands out in knitting together those isolated,scattered,but highly competitive enterprises in the same industry with the "Standards" thread,and achieving remarkable results in promoting industry development with standardization.It sets a role model for other TCs.

  5. Zukunft der E-Books: Innovationen und Geschäftsmodelle von Verlagen für Medizinbibliotheken an Hochschulen

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmann, K; Gemmel, P; Lex, A.; Bauer, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the past years electronic books were booming at scientific libraries. E-books have established especially at medical libraries as an important part of the document supply in particular for students. The current interview with Klaus Bahmann (Springer), Peter Gemmel (Thieme) and Angelika Lex (Elsevier) informs about development, situation and outlook of e-books of three big scientific publishers. They spoke about the focal points in the supply and the diverse business models and the differen...

  6. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  7. Econometric modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alguacil Marí

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment, together with the low scores obtained by our students in recent years, makes it necessary to incorporate new teaching methods. In this sense, econometric modelling provides a unique opportunity offering to the student with the basic tools to address the study of Econometrics in a deeper and novel way. In this article, this teaching method is described, presenting also an example based on a recent study carried out by two students of the Degree of Economics. Likewise, the success of this method is evaluated quantitatively in terms of academic performance. The results confirm our initial idea that the greater involvement of the student, as well as the need for a more complete knowledge of the subject, suppose a stimulus for the study of this subject. As evidence of this, we show how those students who opted for the method we propose here obtained higher qualifications than those that chose the traditional method.

  8. Modelling Defiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    For the presentation of his autumn/winter 2012 collection in Paris and subsequently in Copenhagen, Danish designer Henrik Vibskov installed a mobile catwalk. The article investigates the choreographic impact of this scenography on those who move through it. Drawing on Dance Studies, the analytical...... advantageous manner. Stepping on the catwalk’s sloping, moving surfaces decelerates the models’ walk and makes it cautious, hesitant and shaky: suddenly the models lack exactly the affirmative, staccato, striving quality of motion, and the condescending expression that they perform on most contemporary...... catwalks. Vibskov’s catwalk induces what the dance scholar Gabriele Brandstetter has labelled a ‘defigurative choregoraphy’: a straying from definitions, which exist in ballet as in other movement-based genres, of how a figure should move and appear (1998). The catwalk scenography in this instance...

  9. Inlet and airframe compatibility for a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft with top-mounted inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smeltzer, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and inlet pressure data are obtained for 9.5% force and pressure models of a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configuration with top mounted twin inlets. Data are presented from tests conducted in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnels at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 at angles of attack up to 27 deg. and angles of sideslip up to 12 deg. Trimmed aerodynamic characteristics and inlet performance are compared for three different leading edge extension (LEX) configurations. The effects of wing leading and trailing-edge flaps on the inlet are also determined. Maneuver perfromance is calculated form combined force and inlet pressure data. The largest of the three LEX sizes tested gives the best airplane maneuver performance. Wing flap deflections improved inlet recovery at all Mach numbers.

  10. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Passive Porosity Applied to the Leading-Edge Extension and Leading-Edge Flaps on a Slender Wing at Subsonic Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2017-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 7- by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel to determine the effects of passive surface porosity on the subsonic vortex flow interactions about a general research fighter configuration. Flow-through porosity was applied to the leading-edge extension, or LEX, and leading-edge flaps mounted to a 65deg cropped delta wing model as a potential vortex flow control technique at high angles of attack. All combinations of porous and nonporous LEX and flaps were investigated. Wing upper surface static pressure distributions and six-component forces and moments were obtained at a free-stream Mach number of 0.20 corresponding to a Reynolds number of 1.35(106) per foot, angles of attack up to 45deg, angles of sideslip of 0deg and +/-5deg, and leading-edge flap deflections of 0deg and 30deg.

  11. On Activity modelling in process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Aiordachioaie

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is looking to the dynamic feature of the meta-models of the process modelling process, the time. Some principles are considered and discussed as main dimensions of any modelling activity: the compatibility of the substances, the equipresence of phenomena and the solvability of the model. The activity models are considered and represented at meta-level.

  12. Suppression of the E. coli SOS response by dNTP pool changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowska, Katarzyna H; Makiela-Dzbenska, Karolina; Fijalkowska, Iwona J; Schaaper, Roel M

    2015-04-30

    The Escherichia coli SOS system is a well-established model for the cellular response to DNA damage. Control of SOS depends largely on the RecA protein. When RecA is activated by single-stranded DNA in the presence of a nucleotide triphosphate cofactor, it mediates cleavage of the LexA repressor, leading to expression of the 30(+)-member SOS regulon. RecA activation generally requires the introduction of DNA damage. However, certain recA mutants, like recA730, bypass this requirement and display constitutive SOS expression as well as a spontaneous (SOS) mutator effect. Presently, we investigated the possible interaction between SOS and the cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. We found that dNTP pool changes caused by deficiencies in the ndk or dcd genes, encoding nucleoside diphosphate kinase and dCTP deaminase, respectively, had a strongly suppressive effect on constitutive SOS expression in recA730 strains. The suppression of the recA730 mutator effect was alleviated in a lexA-deficient background. Overall, the findings suggest a model in which the dNTP alterations in the ndk and dcd strains interfere with the activation of RecA, thereby preventing LexA cleavage and SOS induction.

  13. Towards a Multi Business Model Innovation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of business model (BM) innovations related to a multi business model framework. The paper tries to answer the research questions: • What are the requirements for a multi business model innovation model (BMIM)? • How should a multi business model innovation model...... look like? Different generations of BMIMs are initially studied in the context of laying the baseline for how next generation multi BM Innovation model (BMIM) should look like. All generations of models are analyzed with the purpose of comparing the characteristics and challenges of previous...

  14. Better Language Models with Model Merging

    CERN Document Server

    Brants, T

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates model merging, a technique for deriving Markov models from text or speech corpora. Models are derived by starting with a large and specific model and by successively combining states to build smaller and more general models. We present methods to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm and report on experiments on deriving language models for a speech recognition task. The experiments show the advantage of model merging over the standard bigram approach. The merged model assigns a lower perplexity to the test set and uses considerably fewer states.

  15. Model Selection Principles in Misspecified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Jinchi

    2010-01-01

    Model selection is of fundamental importance to high dimensional modeling featured in many contemporary applications. Classical principles of model selection include the Kullback-Leibler divergence principle and the Bayesian principle, which lead to the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion when models are correctly specified. Yet model misspecification is unavoidable when we have no knowledge of the true model or when we have the correct family of distributions but miss some true predictor. In this paper, we propose a family of semi-Bayesian principles for model selection in misspecified models, which combine the strengths of the two well-known principles. We derive asymptotic expansions of the semi-Bayesian principles in misspecified generalized linear models, which give the new semi-Bayesian information criteria (SIC). A specific form of SIC admits a natural decomposition into the negative maximum quasi-log-likelihood, a penalty on model dimensionality, and a penalty on model miss...

  16. The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Building Mental Models by Dissecting Physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anveshna

    2016-01-01

    When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to…

  18. The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  20. SOS regulatory elements are essential for UPEC pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Birong; Smith, Peter; Horvath, Dennis J; Romesberg, Floyd E; Justice, Sheryl S

    2010-08-01

    Epithelial cells are highly regarded as the first line of defense against microorganisms, but the mechanisms used to control bacterial diseases are poorly understood. A component of the DNA damage repair regulon, SulA, is essential for UPEC virulence in a mouse model for human urinary tract infection, suggesting that DNA damage is a key mediator in the primary control of pathogens within the epithelium. In this study, we examine the role of DNA damage repair regulators in the intracellular lifestyle of UPEC within superficial bladder epithelial cells. LexA and RecA coordinate various operons for repair of DNA damage due to exogenous and endogenous agents and are known regulators of sulA. UPEC strains defective in regulation of the SOS response mediated by RecA and LexA display attenuated virulence in immunocompetent mice within the first 6 h post infection. RecA and LexA regulation of the SOS regulon is dispensable in immunocompromised mice. These data suggest that epithelial cells produce sufficient levels of DNA damaging agents, such that the bacterial DNA damage repair response is essential, as a means to control invading bacteria. Since many pathogens interact with the epithelium before exposure to professional phagocytes, it is likely that adaptation to oxidative radicals during intracellular growth provides additional protection from killing by innate immune phagocytes.

  1. Continuous Time Model Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an easy to follow method for continuous time model estimation. It serves as an introduction on how to convert a state space model from continuous time to discrete time, how to decompose a hybrid stochastic model into a trend model plus a noise model, how to estimate the trend model by simulation, and how to calculate standard errors from estimation of the noise model. It also discusses the numerical difficulties involved in discrete time models that bring about the unit ...

  2. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    submitted in September 2012. The major highlights are as follows: a. The results indicate that NU-WRF model could capture observed diurnal variation of rainfall (composite not individual); b. NU-WRF model could simulate two different types (propagating and local type) of the diurnal variation of rainfall; c. NU-WRF model simulation show very good agreement with observation in terms of precipitation pattern (linear MCS), radar reflectivity (a second low peak shallow convection); d. NU-WRF model simulation indicates that the cool-pool dynamic is the main physical process for MCS propagation speed; e. Surface heat fluxes (including land surface model and initial surface condition) do not play a major role in phase of diurnal variation (change rainfall amount slightly); f. Terrain effect is important for initial stage of MCS (rainfall is increased and close to observation by increasing the terrain height that is also close to observed); g. Diurnal variation of radiation is not important for the simulated variation of rainfall. Publications: Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, S. Powell, R. Houze, Jr., P. Ciesielski, N. Guy, H. Pierce and T. Matsui, 2012: A comparison of the water budgets between clouds from AMMA and TWP-ICE. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 487-503. Powell, S. W., R. A. Houze, Jr., A. Kumar, and S. A. McFarlane, 2012: Comparison of simulated and observed continental tropical anvil clouds and their radiative heating profiles. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 2662-2681. Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, S. Xie, S. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2011: Estimating the Ice Crystal Enhancement Factor in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1424-1434. Conferences: Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, S. Powell, R. Houze, Jr., P. Ciesielski, N. Guy, H. Pierce and T. Matsui, 2012: Comparison of water budget between AMMA and TWP-ICE clouds. The 3rd Annual ASR Science Team Meeting. Arlington, Virginia, Mar. 12-16, 2012. Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, S. Powell, R. A. Houze Jr., and P. Ciesielski, 2011: Comparing the water budgets between

  3. Comparative Protein Structure Modeling Using MODELLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin; Sali, Andrej

    2016-06-20

    Comparative protein structure modeling predicts the three-dimensional structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and how to use the ModBase database of such models, and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications. Modeling lactate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvLDH) is described as an example. The download and installation of the MODELLER software is also described. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Concept Modeling vs. Data modeling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    account of the inheritance of characteristics and allows us to introduce a number of principles and constraints which render concept modeling more coherent than earlier approaches. Second, we explain how terminological ontologies can be used as the basis for developing conceptual and logical data models......This chapter shows the usefulness of terminological concept modeling as a first step in data modeling. First, we introduce terminological concept modeling with terminological ontologies, i.e. concept systems enriched with characteristics modeled as feature specifications. This enables a formal...

  5. Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...

  6. Modeling cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L; Longini, Ira M; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.

  7. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  8. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    of these proposals. To achieve its first goal, the thesis presents the findings of a Systematic Mapping Study showing that human factors topics are scarcely and relatively poorly addressed in model transformation research. Motivated by these findings, the thesis explores the requirements of end-user modelers......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... requires such experience. These languages are therefore only used by a small subset of the modelers that could, in theory, benefit from them. The goals of this thesis are to substantiate this observation, introduce the concepts and tools required to overcome it, and provide empirical evidence in support...

  9. Air Quality Dispersion Modeling - Alternative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models, not listed in Appendix W, that can be used in regulatory applications with case-by-case justification to the Reviewing Authority as noted in Section 3.2, Use of Alternative Models, in Appendix W.

  10. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...... Object for this project. In the presentation, benefits and challenges of the PSM will be presented as a basis for the discussion....

  11. Measurement and Modeling: Infectious Disease Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE

    2016-01-01

    After some historical remarks about the development of mathematical theory for infectious disease dynamics we introduce a basic mathematical model for the spread of an infection with immunity. The concepts of the model are explained and the model equations are derived from first principles. Using th

  12. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  13. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models. These ...

  14. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  15. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  16. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  17. Solicited abstract: Global hydrological modeling and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-Yu

    2010-05-01

    The origins of rainfall-runoff modeling in the broad sense can be found in the middle of the 19th century arising in response to three types of engineering problems: (1) urban sewer design, (2) land reclamation drainage systems design, and (3) reservoir spillway design. Since then numerous empirical, conceptual and physically-based models are developed including event based models using unit hydrograph concept, Nash's linear reservoir models, HBV model, TOPMODEL, SHE model, etc. From the late 1980s, the evolution of global and continental-scale hydrology has placed new demands on hydrologic modellers. The macro-scale hydrological (global and regional scale) models were developed on the basis of the following motivations (Arenll, 1999). First, for a variety of operational and planning purposes, water resource managers responsible for large regions need to estimate the spatial variability of resources over large areas, at a spatial resolution finer than can be provided by observed data alone. Second, hydrologists and water managers are interested in the effects of land-use and climate variability and change over a large geographic domain. Third, there is an increasing need of using hydrologic models as a base to estimate point and non-point sources of pollution loading to streams. Fourth, hydrologists and atmospheric modellers have perceived weaknesses in the representation of hydrological processes in regional and global climate models, and developed global hydrological models to overcome the weaknesses of global climate models. Considerable progress in the development and application of global hydrological models has been achieved to date, however, large uncertainties still exist considering the model structure including large scale flow routing, parameterization, input data, etc. This presentation will focus on the global hydrological models, and the discussion includes (1) types of global hydrological models, (2) procedure of global hydrological model development

  18. Bayesian Model Selection and Statistical Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian model selection is a fundamental part of the Bayesian statistical modeling process. The quality of these solutions usually depends on the goodness of the constructed Bayesian model. Realizing how crucial this issue is, many researchers and practitioners have been extensively investigating the Bayesian model selection problem. This book provides comprehensive explanations of the concepts and derivations of the Bayesian approach for model selection and related criteria, including the Bayes factor, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the generalized BIC, and the pseudo marginal lik

  19. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  20. adjudication and arbitrability of government construction disputes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    the government construction contracts law, as part of the administrative con- tracts law ... the principle of confidentiality in international commercial arbitration cou- pled with ...... to as governing their arbitration (lex electionis) other than the lex.

  1. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  2. Model Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mangani, P

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - G.E. Sacks - Model theory and applications, and H.J. Keisler - Constructions in model theory; and, Seminars - M. Servi - SH formulas and generalized exponential, and J.A. Makowski - Topological model theory.

  3. Wildfire Risk Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The model combines three modeled fire behavior parameters (rate of spread, flame length, crown fire potential) and one modeled ecological health measure (fire regime...

  4. Energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has turned to energy modelling in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under...

  5. Computational neurogenetic modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Benuskova, Lubica

    2010-01-01

    Computational Neurogenetic Modeling is a student text, introducing the scope and problems of a new scientific discipline - Computational Neurogenetic Modeling (CNGM). CNGM is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes. These include neural network models and their integration with gene network models. This new area brings together knowledge from various scientific disciplines, such as computer and information science, neuroscience and cognitive science, genetics and molecular biol

  6. Predictive Models for Music

    OpenAIRE

    Paiement, Jean-François; Grandvalet, Yves; Bengio, Samy

    2008-01-01

    Modeling long-term dependencies in time series has proved very difficult to achieve with traditional machine learning methods. This problem occurs when considering music data. In this paper, we introduce generative models for melodies. We decompose melodic modeling into two subtasks. We first propose a rhythm model based on the distributions of distances between subsequences. Then, we define a generative model for melodies given chords and rhythms based on modeling sequences of Narmour featur...

  7. TRACKING CLIMATE MODELS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CLAIRE MONTELEONI*, GAVIN SCHMIDT, AND SHAILESH SAROHA* Climate models are complex mathematical models designed by meteorologists, geophysicists, and climate...

  8. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  9. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  10. Global Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    insight from the literature about business models, international product policy, international entry modes and globalization into a conceptual model of relevant design elements of global business models, enabling global business model innovation to deal with differences in a downstream perspective...... regarding the customer interface and in an upstream perspective regarding the supply infrastructure. The paper offers a coherent conceptual dynamic meta-model of global business model innovation. Students, scholars and managers within the field of international business can use this conceptualization...... to understand, to study, and to create global business model innovation. Managerial and research implications draw on the developed ideal type of global business model innovation....

  11. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  12. Understandings of 'Modelling'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette

    2007-01-01

    This paper meets the common critique of the teaching of non-authentic modelling in school mathematics. In the paper, non-authentic modelling is related to a change of view on the intentions of modelling from knowledge about applications of mathematical models to modelling for concept formation. Non......-authentic modelling is also linked with the potentials of exploration of ready-made models as a forerunner for more authentic modelling processes. The discussion includes analysis of an episode of students? work in the classroom, which serves to illustrate how concept formation may be linked to explorations of a non...

  13. Interfacing materials models with fire field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    For flame spread over solid materials, there has traditionally been a large technology gap between fundamental combustion research and the somewhat simplistic approaches used for practical, real-world applications. Recent advances in computational hardware and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based software have led to the development of fire field models. These models, when used in conjunction with material burning models, have the potential to bridge the gap between research and application by implementing physics-based engineering models in a transient, multi-dimensional tool. This paper discusses the coupling that is necessary between fire field models and burning material models for the simulation of solid material fires. Fire field models are capable of providing detailed information about the local fire environment. This information serves as an input to the solid material combustion submodel, which subsequently calculates the impact of the fire environment on the material. The response of the solid material (in terms of thermal response, decomposition, charring, and off-gassing) is then fed back into the field model as a source of mass, momentum and energy. The critical parameters which must be passed between the field model and the material burning model have been identified. Many computational issues must be addressed when developing such an interface. Some examples include the ability to track multiple fuels and species, local ignition criteria, and the need to use local grid refinement over the burning material of interest.

  14. Combustion modeling in a model combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Y.Jiang; I.Campbell; K.Su

    2007-01-01

    The flow-field of a propane-air diffusion flame combustor with interior and exterior conjugate heat transfers was numerically studied.Results obtained from four combustion models,combined with the re-normalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model,discrete ordinates radiation model and enhanced wall treatment are presented and discussed.The results are compared with a comprehensive database obtained from a series of experimental measurements.The flow patterns and the recirculation zone length in the combustion chamber are accurately predicted,and the mean axial velocities are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data,particularly at downstream sections for all four combustion models.The mean temperature profiles are captured fairly well by the eddy dissipation (EDS),probability density function (PDF),and laminar flamelet combustion models.However,the EDS-finite-rate combustion model fails to provide an acceptable temperature field.In general,the flamelet model illustrates little superiority over the PDF model,and to some extent the PDF model shows better performance than the EDS model.

  15. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  16. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  18. ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton Lum

    2002-02-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3

  19. Model Reduction of Nonlinear Fire Dynamics Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimer, Alan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the complexity, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the mathematical models for fires, current numerical models require too much computational effort to be useful in design and real-time decision making, especially when dealing with fires over large domains. To reduce the computational time while retaining the complexity of the domain and physics, our research has focused on several reduced-order modeling techniques. Our contributions are improving wildland fire reduced-order mod...

  20. Better models are more effectively connected models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  1. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating...... of introduction of existing knowledge, as well as the ease of model interpretation. This book attempts to outlinemuch of the common ground between the various approaches, encouraging the transfer of ideas.Recent progress in algorithms and analysis is presented, with constructive algorithms for automated model...

  2. Integrity modelling of tropospheric delay models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Szabolcs; Bastiaan Ober, Pieter; Mile, Máté; Ambrus, Bence; Juni, Ildikó

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the neutral atmosphere on signal propagation is routinely estimated by various tropospheric delay models in satellite navigation. Although numerous studies can be found in the literature investigating the accuracy of these models, for safety-of-life applications it is crucial to study and model the worst case performance of these models using very low recurrence frequencies. The main objective of the INTegrity of TROpospheric models (INTRO) project funded by the ESA PECS programme is to establish a model (or models) of the residual error of existing tropospheric delay models for safety-of-life applications. Such models are required to overbound rare tropospheric delays and should thus include the tails of the error distributions. Their use should lead to safe error bounds on the user position and should allow computation of protection levels for the horizontal and vertical position errors. The current tropospheric model from the RTCA SBAS Minimal Operational Standards has an associated residual error that equals 0.12 meters in the vertical direction. This value is derived by simply extrapolating the observed distribution of the residuals into the tail (where no data is present) and then taking the point where the cumulative distribution has an exceedance level would be 10-7.While the resulting standard deviation is much higher than the estimated standard variance that best fits the data (0.05 meters), it surely is conservative for most applications. In the context of the INTRO project some widely used and newly developed tropospheric delay models (e.g. RTCA MOPS, ESA GALTROPO and GPT2W) were tested using 16 years of daily ERA-INTERIM Reanalysis numerical weather model data and the raytracing technique. The results showed that the performance of some of the widely applied models have a clear seasonal dependency and it is also affected by a geographical position. In order to provide a more realistic, but still conservative estimation of the residual

  3. Comparative genomics of DNA recombination and repair in cyanobacteria: biotechnological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Cassier-Chauvat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are fascinating photosynthetic prokaryotes that are regarded as the ancestors of the plant chloroplast; the purveyors of oxygen and biomass for the food chain; and promising cell factories for an environmentally friendly production of chemicals. In colonizing most waters and soils of our planet, cyanobacteria are inevitably challenged by environmental stresses that generate DNA damages. Furthermore, many strains engineered for biotechnological purposes can use DNA recombination to stop synthesizing the biotechnological product. Hence, it is important to study DNA recombination and repair in cyanobacteria for both basic and applied research. This review reports what is known in a few widely studied model cyanobacteria and what can be inferred by mining the sequenced genomes of morphologically and physiologically diverse strains. We show that cyanobacteria possess many E. coli-like DNA recombination and repair genes, and possibly other genes not yet identified. E. coli-homolog genes are unevenly distributed in cyanobacteria, in agreement with their wide genome diversity. Many genes are extremely well conserved in cyanobacteria (mutMS, radA, recA, recFO, recG, recN, ruvABC, ssb and uvrABCD, even in small genomes, suggesting that they encode the core DNA repair process. In addition to these core genes, the marine Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus strains harbor recBCD (DNA recombination, umuCD (mutational DNA replication, as well as the key SOS genes lexA (regulation of the SOS system and sulA (postponing of cell division until completion of DNA reparation. Hence, these strains could possess an E. coli-type SOS system. In contrast, several cyanobacteria endowed with larger genomes lack typical SOS genes. For examples, the two studied Gloeobacter strains lack alkB, lexA and sulA; and Synechococcus PCC7942 has neither lexA nor recCD. Furthermore, the Synechocystis PCC6803 lexA product does not regulate DNA repair genes. Collectively

  4. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  5. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Edwards, David; Lauritzen, Steffen

    , the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data...

  6. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  7. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  8. Multilevel IRT Model Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling complex cognitive and psychological outcomes in, for example, educational assessment led to the development of generalized item response theory (IRT) models. A class of models was developed to solve practical and challenging educational problems by generalizing the basic IRT models. An IRT

  9. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment....

  10. Multivariate GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...... in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared....

  11. The Model Confidence Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Nason, James M.

    The paper introduces the model confidence set (MCS) and applies it to the selection of models. A MCS is a set of models that is constructed such that it will contain the best model with a given level of confidence. The MCS is in this sense analogous to a confidence interval for a parameter. The M...

  12. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  13. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  14. Multivariate GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...... in which several multivariate GARCH models are fitted to the same data set and the results compared....

  15. Multilevel IRT Model Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling complex cognitive and psychological outcomes in, for example, educational assessment led to the development of generalized item response theory (IRT) models. A class of models was developed to solve practical and challenging educational problems by generalizing the basic IRT models. An IRT

  16. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  17. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  18. Plant development models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuine, I.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Kramer, K.; Hänninen, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a brief overview of plant phenology modeling, focusing on mechanistic phenological models. After a brief history of plant phenology modeling, we present the different models which have been described in the literature so far and highlight the main differences between them,

  19. Generic Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); M. van Regenmortel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span perio

  20. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  1. Talk about toy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Scientific models are frequently discussed in philosophy of science. A great deal of the discussion is centred on approximation, idealisation, and on how these models achieve their representational function. Despite the importance, distinct nature, and high presence of toy models, they have received little attention from philosophers. This paper hopes to remedy this situation. It aims to elevate the status of toy models: by distinguishing them from approximations and idealisations, by highlighting and elaborating on several ways the Kac ring, a simple statistical mechanical model, is used as a toy model, and by explaining why toy models can be used to successfully carry out important work without performing a representational function.

  2. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific...... parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  3. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  4. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  5. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  6. Protein Models Comparator

    CERN Document Server

    Widera, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    The process of comparison of computer generated protein structural models is an important element of protein structure prediction. It has many uses including model quality evaluation, selection of the final models from a large set of candidates or optimisation of parameters of energy functions used in template free modelling and refinement. Although many protein comparison methods are available online on numerous web servers, their ability to handle a large scale model comparison is often very limited. Most of the servers offer only a single pairwise structural comparison, and they usually do not provide a model-specific comparison with a fixed alignment between the models. To bridge the gap between the protein and model structure comparison we have developed the Protein Models Comparator (pm-cmp). To be able to deliver the scalability on demand and handle large comparison experiments the pm-cmp was implemented "in the cloud". Protein Models Comparator is a scalable web application for a fast distributed comp...

  7. Nonuniform Markov models

    CERN Document Server

    Ristad, E S; Ristad, Eric Sven; Thomas, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical language model assigns probability to strings of arbitrary length. Unfortunately, it is not possible to gather reliable statistics on strings of arbitrary length from a finite corpus. Therefore, a statistical language model must decide that each symbol in a string depends on at most a small, finite number of other symbols in the string. In this report we propose a new way to model conditional independence in Markov models. The central feature of our nonuniform Markov model is that it makes predictions of varying lengths using contexts of varying lengths. Experiments on the Wall Street Journal reveal that the nonuniform model performs slightly better than the classic interpolated Markov model. This result is somewhat remarkable because both models contain identical numbers of parameters whose values are estimated in a similar manner. The only difference between the two models is how they combine the statistics of longer and shorter strings. Keywords: nonuniform Markov model, interpolated Markov m...

  8. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization......In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...

  9. Calibrated Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  10. Differential Phosphoprotein Profiling of Tamoxifen Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    C.S.; Thompson , R.A.; Xiong, L. and Regnier, F.E. Controlling deuterium isotope effects in comparative proteomics. Anal. Chem., 2002, 74(15), 3662...Proteomics, 2004, 3(12), 1154-1169. [44] Meany, D.L.; Xie, H.; Thompson , L.V.; Arriaga, E.A. and Griffin, T.J. Identification of carbonylated proteins from...Smith, S.J.; Hannon , W.H.; Needham, L.L. and S ampson, E.J. Isotope dilution--mass spectrometric quantification of specific proteins: model application

  11. Topological invariants in forced piecewise-linear FitzHugh-Nagumo-like systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Jorge E-mail: jduarte@deq.isel.pt; Ramos, J. Sousa. E-mail: sramos@math.ist.utl.pt

    2005-03-01

    Mathematical models for periodically-forced excitable systems arise in many biological and physiological contexts. Chaotic dynamics of a forced piecewise-linear Fitzhugh-Nagumo-like system under large-amplitude forcing was identified by Othmer and Xie in their work [J. Math. Biol. 39 (1999) 139]. Using kneading theory we study the topological entropy of some chaotic return maps associated with a singular system. Finally we introduce a new topological invariant to distinguish isentropic dynamics and we exhibit numerical results about maps with the same topological entropy, that suggest the existence of a relation between the parameters A and {theta}, when T is fixed.

  12. Non-Thermal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ges. een determin ermal effec he 1.5 T MR r MR syste between th using diffe ment (acou icates a 5 ° ing a norma nergy delive ed based on ts at normal... software function. The relation of the temperature elevation to acous- tic power and exposure duration was plotted by bilinearly interpolating the... Greene , J. Quijano, J. W. Xie, F. Hunter, S. Dromi, and K. C. P. Li, “Delivery of liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) in a breast cancer tumor model

  13. Plan Recognition and Discourse Analysis: An Integrated Approach for Understanding Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Intelligence 5. 2 (1974). 115-135. 80. E. D. Sacerdoi. A Structure for Plans and Behavior. Elsevier. New York. 1977. xIe Sq. 183 81. H. Sacks . E. A. Schegloff ...achieve social regularity. For example, Sacks et aT [81] show how a systemics for the organiza- tion of turn-taking can account for linguistic...Modelling Simple Dialogs, Master’s Thesis, Technical Report Number 108, University of Toronto, May 1977. 48. G. Jefferson and J. Schenkein, Some S

  14. Quantitative Inspection Technologies for Aging Military Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Bowler, J. R., Theodoulidis, T. and Polakis, N. 2012, IEEE Trans. Mag.- IEEE Xplore . 45. Xie, H., Ji, Y. and Bowler, J. R. Eddy Current Pancake Coil...March 2012, IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 48, pp. 1159-1170. 38. Impedance of a Horizontal Coil in a Borehole: A Model for Eddy-Current Borehole Probes...40. Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media. Chew, W. C. New York: s.n., 1995, IEEE Press. 41. Thin-Skin Eddy-Current Interaction with Semi

  15. Introduction to Adjoint Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    In this lecture, some fundamentals of adjoint models will be described. This includes a basic derivation of tangent linear and corresponding adjoint models from a parent nonlinear model, the interpretation of adjoint-derived sensitivity fields, a description of methods of automatic differentiation, and the use of adjoint models to solve various optimization problems, including singular vectors. Concluding remarks will attempt to correct common misconceptions about adjoint models and their utilization.

  16. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Dennis L.; Ira M Longini; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  17. Business Model Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorsek, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Business model describes the company’s most important activities, proposed value, and the compensation for the value. Business model visualization enables to simply and systematically capture and describe the most important components of the business model while the standardization of the concept allows the comparison between companies. There are several possibilities how to visualize the model. The aim of this paper is to describe the options for business model visualization and business mod...

  18. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al. Th...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  19. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  20. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis L Chao; Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  1. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Why Multiple Models?This book presents a variety of approaches which produce complex models or controllers by piecing together a number of simpler subsystems. Thisdivide-and-conquer strategy is a long-standing and general way of copingwith complexity in engineering systems, nature and human probl...

  2. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to model explicitly states with a subsequent skipping of activations and arbitrary logical rules of type AND, XOR, OR etc. to model the split and join of the control flow. We apply model checking as a verification method for the safeness and liveness of Boolean systems. Model checking of Boolean systems uses the elementary theory of propositional logic, no modal operators are needed. Our verification builds on a finite complete prefix of a certain T-system attached to the Boolean system. It splits the processes of the Boolean sy...

  3. Génération automatique de lexèmes slaves à partir de leurs racines historiques: une des bases de l'enseignement multilingue des langues slaves de l'ouest (nord et sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Pognan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Les travaux que nous présentons sont motivés par une série de recherches qui, cumulées les unes aux autres, nous ont menés petit à petit vers une meilleure compréhension du système linguistique slave dans ses dimensions cumulées diachronique et synchronique. Cʼest dans un premier temps lʼexpérience de lʼanalyse automatique de la langue tchèque (textes médicaux, scientifiques et techniques actuels par des techniques heuristiques déterministes basées sur une reconnaissance de formes linguistiques (analyse sans dictionnaire qui fait apparaître la calculabilité du tchèque. Ensuite, lʼenseignement de la grammaire historique du tchèque, essentiellement de son évolution phonologique, a conduit à considérer lʼévolution des langues slaves du Nord- Ouest et les traits qui les distinguent au fur et à mesure les unes des autres.

  4. El principio "Humanitas" en la derogación de la "Lex Fufia Caninia": antecedentes en la filosofía clásica y en el pensamiento cristiano

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    EL DERECHO ROMANO es un sistema que, en punto a la disciplina de las personas, sufrió un cambio realmente significativo. Partiendo de una determinada cultura antropológica que justificaba filosóficamente la esclavitud (pensamiento platónico-aristotélico), no encontró ese sistema reparo alguno en legitimarla positivamente. La nueva filosofía antropológica que se empieza a vislumbrar, la percepción del principio de igualdad de toda persona humana (especialmente con Séneca y el cristianismo) y e...

  5. 试论我国电子消费合同准据法的确定%Thoughts on defining the lex causae of electronic consumer contract in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘益灯

    2005-01-01

    随着国际互联网的广泛普及和电子商务的发展,越来越多的消费合同通过网络订立.电子消费合同所产生的法律问题冲击了传统的国际消费合同法律制度.为了适应电子商务迅猛发展的形势,并确保消费者对电子商务的信心,我国立法必须从保护消费者权益的角度确定电子消费合同的准据法.

  6. Multikulturalita Ruské federace a její reϐlexe ve školním vzdělávání. / Multiculturalism of the Russian Federation and its reflection in school education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Ježková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation is a considerably multicultural country, which also influences the school. The subjects of the study are two main areas: dealing with the nationalities issue and the language policy of the Russian Federation, namely at the level of the whole society and at the level of school education. In the summary the situation in the Russian Federation is compared to the situation in the Czech Republic and and other countries: Germany, Great Britain and Sweden.

  7. El yacimiento prehistórico de Kanpanoste Goikoa (Alava : Análisis industrial de los útiles sobre sílex y caracterización cronológico-cultural.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Alday Ruiz

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Damos a conocer en el presente artículo los elementos industriales líticos más reseñables así como las referencias de cronología absoluta de cada uno de los niveles estratigráficos descritos para el lugar de Kanpanoste Goikoa (Vírgala, Alava. Se trata de un abrigo bajo roca de dimensiones medias que alberga varias fases culturales Epipaleolíticas, Neolíticas y Calcolíticas. Sus caracteres de habitabilidad lleva a pensar en su utilidad como hábitat de permanencia cíclica para un grupo humano de tamaño discreto como un eslabón más dentro de una red de yacimientos estableciendo como estrategia de disfrute un uso integral de los recursos. Su ocupación debió iniciarse en el último tercio del séptimo milenio contando con un bagaje industrial caracterizado por el dominio de aquellas piezas sobre lascas espesas y de retoques masivos que adoptan formas de   muescas, denticulados o raederas (III-inferior. Sin solución de   continuidad se define un segundo momento donde además de heredar   buena parte de los tipos industriales anteriores, incorpora un   utillaje laminar de dorsos y armaduras geométricas trapeciales y   triangulares (III. Sobre este Epipaleolítico geométrico el muro   del horizonte II mantiene el caracter geométrico del cuerpo   lítico pero quizá ya sobre una base económica productiva. En el tramo medio del horizonte encontramos exclusivamente segmentos de doble bisel para en el tramo superior ser totalmente sustuídos por las puntas de retoque plano combinandose éstas con una pobre industria cerámica.

  8. Pavement Aging Model by Response Surface Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzano-Ramírez A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surface course aging was modeled by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The Marshall specimens were placed in a conventional oven for time and temperature conditions established on the basis of the environment factors of the region where the surface course is constructed by AC-20 from the Ing. Antonio M. Amor refinery. Volatilized material (VM, load resistance increment (ΔL and flow resistance increment (ΔF models were developed by the RSM. Cylindrical specimens with real aging were extracted from the surface course pilot to evaluate the error of the models. The VM model was adequate, in contrast (ΔL and (ΔF models were almost adequate with an error of 20 %, that was associated with the other environmental factors, which were not considered at the beginning of the research.

  9. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  10. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  11. Practical Marginalized Multilevel Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Michael E; Swihart, Bruce J; Caffo, Brian S; Zeger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    Clustered data analysis is characterized by the need to describe both systematic variation in a mean model and cluster-dependent random variation in an association model. Marginalized multilevel models embrace the robustness and interpretations of a marginal mean model, while retaining the likelihood inference capabilities and flexible dependence structures of a conditional association model. Although there has been increasing recognition of the attractiveness of marginalized multilevel models, there has been a gap in their practical application arising from a lack of readily available estimation procedures. We extend the marginalized multilevel model to allow for nonlinear functions in both the mean and association aspects. We then formulate marginal models through conditional specifications to facilitate estimation with mixed model computational solutions already in place. We illustrate the MMM and approximate MMM approaches on a cerebrovascular deficiency crossover trial using SAS and an epidemiological study on race and visual impairment using R. Datasets, SAS and R code are included as supplemental materials.

  12. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed...... and selected from 81 submissions. Papers on all aspects of MDE were received, including topics such as architectural modelling and product lines, code generation, domain-specic modeling, metamodeling, model analysis and verication, model management, model transformation and simulation. The breadth of topics...

  13. On Communication Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋娜; 谢有琪

    2012-01-01

    With the development of human society, the social hub enlarges beyond one community to the extent that the world is deemed as a community as a whole. Communication, therefore, plays an increasingly important role in our daily life. As a consequence, communication model or the definition of which is not so much a definition as a guide in communication. However, some existed communication models are not as practical as it was. This paper tries to make an overall contrast among three communication models Coded Model, Gable Communication Model and Ostensive Inferential Model, to see how they assist people to comprehend verbal and non -verbal communication.

  14. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; da F. Costa, Luciano

    2009-12-01

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  15. THE IMPROVED XINANJIANG MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-jia; YAO Cheng; KONG Xiang-guang

    2005-01-01

    To improve the Xinanjiang model, the runoff generating from infiltration-excess is added to the model.The another 6 parameters are added to Xinanjiang model.In principle, the improved Xinanjiang model can be used to simulate runoff in the humid, semi-humid and also semi-arid regions.The application in Yi River shows the improved Xinanjiang model could forecast discharge with higher accuracy and can satisfy the practical requirements.It also shows that the improved model is reasonable.

  16. Microsoft tabular modeling cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Braak, Paul te

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for developing analytic data using Business Intelligence Semantic Models.This book is designed for developers who wish to develop powerful and dynamic models for users as well as those who are responsible for the administration of models in corporate environments. It is also targeted at analysts and users of Excel who wish to advance their knowledge of Excel through the development of tabular models or who wish to analyze data through tabular modeling techniques. We assume no prior knowledge of tabular modeling

  17. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  18. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  19. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  20. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  1. Develop a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  2. Biosphere Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  3. Major Differences between the Jerome Model and the Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳

    2014-01-01

    There are three famous translation models in the field of translation: the Jerome model, the Horace model and the Schleiermacher model. The production and development of the three models have significant influence on the translation. To find the major differences between the two western classical translation theoretical models, we discuss the Jerome model and the Hor-ace model deeply in this paper.

  4. Modelling cointegration in the vector autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of some results obtained for the cointegrated VAR. The Granger representation theorem is discussed and the notions of cointegration and common trends are defined. The statistical model for cointegrated I(1) variables is defined, and it is shown how hypotheses on the cointegrating...... relations can be estimated under suitable identification conditions. The asymptotic theory is briefly mentioned and a few economic applications of the cointegration model are indicated....

  5. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  6. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  7. World Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  8. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  9. Model comparison in ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Engelhardt, Christopher R; McCabe, Simon; Morey, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA), the workhorse analysis of experimental designs, consists of F-tests of main effects and interactions. Yet, testing, including traditional ANOVA, has been recently critiqued on a number of theoretical and practical grounds. In light of these critiques, model comparison and model selection serve as an attractive alternative. Model comparison differs from testing in that one can support a null or nested model vis-a-vis a more general alternative by penalizing more flexible models. We argue this ability to support more simple models allows for more nuanced theoretical conclusions than provided by traditional ANOVA F-tests. We provide a model comparison strategy and show how ANOVA models may be reparameterized to better address substantive questions in data analysis.

  10. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Edwards, David; Lauritzen, Steffen

    Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many...... of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R ingerface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In addition......, the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data...

  11. Controlling Modelling Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    the possible configurations of the system (for example, by counting the number of components in a certain state). We motivate our methodology with a case study of the LMAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In particular, we investigate the accuracy of a recently proposed high-level model of LMAC......When analysing the performance of a complex system, we typically build abstract models that are small enough to analyse, but still capture the relevant details of the system. But it is difficult to know whether the model accurately describes the real system, or if its behaviour is due to modelling...... artifacts that were inadvertently introduced. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to reason about modelling artifacts, given a detailed model and a highlevel (more abstract) model of the same system. By a series of automated abstraction steps, we lift the detailed model to the same state space...

  12. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  13. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  14. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  15. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  16. CCF model comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    The report describes a simple comparison of two CCF-models, the ECLM, and the Beta-model. The objective of the comparison is to identify differences in the results of the models by applying the models in some simple test data cases. The comparison focuses mainly on theoretical aspects of the above mentioned CCF-models. The properties of the model parameter estimates in the data cases is also discussed. The practical aspects in using and estimating CCFmodels in real PSA context (e.g. the data interpretation, properties of computer tools, the model documentation) are not discussed in the report. Similarly, the qualitative CCF-analyses needed in using the models are not discussed in the report. (au)

  17. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  18. Models (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Defines models and describes information search models that can be helpful to instructional media specialists in meeting users' abilities and information needs. Explains pathfinders and Kuhlthau's information search process, including the pre-writing information search process. (LRW)

  19. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  20. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.